WorldWideScience

Sample records for flexible quasioptical input

  1. Flexible input, dazzling output with IBM i

    CERN Document Server

    Victória-Pereira, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Link your IBM i system to the modern business server world! This book presents easier and more flexible ways to get data into your IBM i system, along with rather surprising methods to export and present the vital business data it contains. You'll learn how to automate file transfers, seamlessly connect PC applications with your RPG programs, and much more. Input operations will become more flexible and user-proof, with self-correcting import processes and direct file transfers that require a minimum of user intervention. Also learn novel ways to present information: your DB2 data will look gr

  2. A Quasioptical Vector Interferometer for Polarization Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, Harvey S.; Novak, Giles

    2005-01-01

    We present a mathematical description of a Quasioptical Vector Interferometer (QVI), a device that maps an input polarization state to an output polarization state by introducing a phase delay between two linear orthogonal components of the input polarization. The advantages of such a device over a spinning wave-plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far-infrared through millimeter are: 1. The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings, 2. The phase flexibility allows measurement of Stokes V as well as Q and U, and 3. The QVI allows for both multi-wavelength and broadband modulation. We suggest two implementations of this device as an astronomical polarization modulator. The first involves two such modulators placed in series. By adjusting the two phase delays, it is possible to use such a modulator to measure Stokes Q, U, and V for passbands that are not too large. Conversely, a single QVI may be used to measure Q and V independent of frequency. In this implementation, Stokes U must be measured by rotating the instrument. We conclude this paper by presenting initial laboratory results.

  3. Quasi-optical active antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussessian, Alina

    Quasi-optical power combiners such as quasi-optical grids provide an efficient means of combining the output power of many solid-state devices in free space. Unlike traditional power combiners no transmission lines are used, therefore, high output powers with less loss can be achieved at higher frequencies. This thesis investigates four different active antenna grids. The first investigation is into X-band High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) grid amplifiers. Modelling and stability issues of these grids are discussed, and gain and power measurements are presented. A grid amplifier with a maximum efficiency of 22.5% at 10 GHz and a peak gain of 11dB is presented. The second grid is a varactor grid used as a positive feedback network for a grid amplifier to construct a tunable grid oscillator. Reflection measurements for the varactor grid show a tuning range of 1.2 GHz. The third grid is a self- complementary grid amplifier. The goal is to design a new amplifier with a unit cell structure that can be directly modelled using CAD tools. The properties of self- complementary structures are studied and used in the design of this new amplifier grid. The fourth grid is a 12 x 12 terahertz Schottky grid frequency doubler with a measured output power of 24 mW at 1 THz for 3.1-μs 500-GHz input pulses with a peak power of 47 W. A passive millimeter-wave travelling-wave antenna built on a dielectric substrate is also presented. Calculations indicate that the antenna has a gain of 15 dB with 3-dB beamwidths of 10o in the H-plane and 64o in the E-plane. Pattern measurements at 90 GHz support the theory. The antenna is expected to have an impedance in the range of 50/Omega to 80/Omega.

  4. Quasi-optical attenuators for ALMA band 10 receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Fujii, Y.; Kaneko, K.; Uzawa, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Simple quasi-optical attenuators based on beam truncation have been designed, fabricated and tried on ALMA band 10 receivers (787-950 GHz) with optimal results. The design is based on physical-optics simulations considering effects of diffraction. The use of these attenuators allows flexibility in the design of the local oscillator (LO) quasi-optical injection scheme depending on the specific performance of components for each of the 73 ALMA band 10 receivers. In particular, they have proven very effective to keep system noise within the stringent ALMA requirements (230 K at 80% of 787-950 GHz band).

  5. Flexible Peripheral Component Interconnect Input/Output Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Kirk K.; Jerry, Albert L.; Baricio, Alisha G.; Cummings, Jon K.

    2010-01-01

    The Flexible Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Input/Output (I/O) Card is an innovative circuit board that provides functionality to interface between a variety of devices. It supports user-defined interrupts for interface synchronization, tracks system faults and failures, and includes checksum and parity evaluation of interface data. The card supports up to 16 channels of high-speed, half-duplex, low-voltage digital signaling (LVDS) serial data, and can interface combinations of serial and parallel devices. Placement of a processor within the field programmable gate array (FPGA) controls an embedded application with links to host memory over its PCI bus. The FPGA also provides protocol stacking and quick digital signal processor (DSP) functions to improve host performance. Hardware timers, counters, state machines, and other glue logic support interface communications. The Flexible PCI I/O Card provides an interface for a variety of dissimilar computer systems, featuring direct memory access functionality. The card has the following attributes: 8/16/32-bit, 33-MHz PCI r2.2 compliance, Configurable for universal 3.3V/5V interface slots, PCI interface based on PLX Technology's PCI9056 ASIC, General-use 512K 16 SDRAM memory, General-use 1M 16 Flash memory, FPGA with 3K to 56K logical cells with embedded 27K to 198K bits RAM, I/O interface: 32-channel LVDS differential transceivers configured in eight, 4-bit banks; signaling rates to 200 MHz per channel, Common SCSI-3, 68-pin interface connector.

  6. A linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems for control synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jan B.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; van Dijk, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a linearized input–output representation of flexible multibody systems is proposed in which an arbitrary combination of positions, velocities, accelerations, and forces can be taken as input variables and as output variables. The formulation is based on a nonlinear finite element

  7. A linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems for control synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonker, J. B., E-mail: J.B.Jonker@utwente.nl; Aarts, R. G. K. M., E-mail: R.G.K.M.Aarts@utwente.nl; Dijk, J. van [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology (Netherlands)], E-mail: J.vanDijk@utwente.nl

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, a linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems is proposed in which an arbitrary combination of positions, velocities, accelerations, and forces can be taken as input variables and as output variables. The formulation is based on a nonlinear finite element approach in which a multibody system is modeled as an assembly of rigid body elements interconnected by joint elements such as flexible hinges and beams. The proposed formulation is general in nature and can be applied for prototype modeling and control system analysis of mechatronic systems. Application of the theory is illustrated through a detailed model development of an active vibration isolation system for a metrology frame of a lithography machine.

  8. Integrated Flight Mechanic and Aeroelastic Modelling and Control of a Flexible Aircraft Considering Multidimensional Gust Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    INTEGRATED FLIGHT MECHANIC AND AEROELASTIC MODELLING AND CONTROL OF A FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT CONSIDERING MULTIDIMENSIONAL GUST INPUT Patrick Teufel, Martin Hanel...the lateral separation distance have been developed by ’ = matrix of two dimensional spectrum function Eichenbaum 4 and are described by Bessel...Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 30, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1993 Relations to Risk Sensitivity, System & Control Letters 11, [4] Eichenbaum F.D., Evaluation of 3D

  9. Vibration suppression during input tracking of a flexible manipulator using a hybrid controller

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Singla; Ashish Tewari; Bhaskar Dasgupta

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the hybrid controller for end-point vibration suppression of a flexible manipulator, while it is tracking a desired input profile. Due to large structural vibrations, precise control of flexible manipulators is a challenging task. A hybrid controller is used to track large movements of flexible robotic manipulators, which is a combination of inverse dynamics feedforward control, command shaping and linear state feedback control. The case study of a single-link flexible manipulator is considered, where the manipulator is controlled under open-loop as well as closed-loop control scheme. In the open-loop control scheme, the aim is to test the effectiveness of the command shaper in reducing the vibration levels. Moreover, the effect of payload variations on the performance of command shapers and the importance of more robust shapers is demonstrated in this work. Under the closed-loop control scheme, the control objective is to track the large-hub angle trajectory, while maintaining low vibration levels. In comparison to collocated PD control, being reported in the literature, large reductions in tip acceleration levels as well as input torque magnitudes are observed with the proposed hybrid controller.

  10. Adaptive robust vibration control with input shaping as a flexible maneuver strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yoon Gyeoung [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    An adaptive robust control is presented for the vibration reduction of a flexible spacecraft by combining the input shaping technique with the sliding-mode control. The combined approach appears to be robust in the presence of a severe disturbance and an unknown parameter which will be estimated by on-line least-square method. As a maneuver strategy, it is found that a synthesized trajectory with a combination of low-frequency mode and rigid-body mode results in better performance and is more efficient than the traditional rigid-body trajectory alone which many researchers have employed. The feasibility of the vibration control approach is demonstrated by applying it to a benchmark problem in aerospace. For the applications of the proposed technique to realistic flexible spacecraft systems, several requirements are discussed such as mode stabilization and enormously large system order.

  11. Comparison study of input shaping techniques to control an underactuated flexible link system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hamidi, Yasser; Rakotondrabe, Micky

    2016-05-01

    This paper compares between three different input shaping feedforward techniques, traditional (TIS), extra insensitive (EI), and modified input shaping (MIS), to reduce the vibration of a flexible link QUANSER system. The main challenge is that the system under test is an underactuated system: it has one input and two outputs. This makes the application of the input shaping techniques not utilizable directly. We therefore first propose to use a variable change at the output in order to make the process equivalent to a monovariable system without modification of the behavior and of the objective of the control. The experimental tests demonstrate the efficiency of the technique and the different results from the three control techniques are compared and discussed. It comes out that EI shapers are the most efficient in term of robustness. MIS shaper has a shorter length than that of a corresponding TIS shaper; however both shapers have the same ability of vibration suppression. Also MIS scheme is easier than the traditional scheme because the numerical optimization is unnecessary in the design of the MIS shaper. MIS shaper has an advantage over a TIS corresponding shaper in being capable of suppressing multimode of vibration.

  12. Quasi-optical slot antenna SIS mixers

    OpenAIRE

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas; LeDuc, H. G.

    1992-01-01

    A quasi-optical SIS mixer designed for efficient radiation coupling is described. The mixer uses a twin-slot antenna which has the advantages of a good beam pattern and a low impedance. The radiation and impedance characteristics of the antenna were obtained from a moment-matched calculation. Tapered superconducting microstrip transmission lines are used to carry the radiation from the slot antennas to the tunnel junction. The effective impedance seen by the tunnel junction is quite low, abou...

  13. Input-output oriented computation algorithms for the control of large flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of work in progress aimed at developing computational algorithms addressing two important aspects in the control of large flexible space structures; namely, the selection and placement of sensors and actuators, and the resulting multivariable control law design problem. The issue of sensor/actuator set selection is particularly crucial to obtaining a satisfactory control design, as clearly a poor choice will inherently limit the degree to which good control can be achieved. With regard to control law design, the researchers are driven by concerns stemming from the practical issues associated with eventual implementation of multivariable control laws, such as reliability, limit protection, multimode operation, sampling rate selection, processor throughput, etc. Naturally, the burden imposed by dealing with these aspects of the problem can be reduced by ensuring that the complexity of the compensator is minimized. Our approach to these problems is based on extensions to input/output oriented techniques that have proven useful in the design of multivariable control systems for aircraft engines. In particular, researchers are exploring the use of relative gain analysis and the condition number as a means of quantifying the process of sensor/actuator selection and placement for shape control of a large space platform.

  14. Active vibration control of Flexible Joint Manipulator using Input Shaping and Adaptive Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. P.; Luo, B.; Huang, H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a vibration control strategy for a two-link Flexible Joint Manipulator (FJM) with a Hexapod Active Manipulator (HAM). A dynamic model of the multi-body, rigid-flexible system composed of an FJM, a HAM and a spacecraft was built. A hybrid controller was proposed by combining the Input Shaping (IS) technique with an Adaptive-Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller (APADRC). The controller was used to suppress the vibration caused by external disturbances and input motions. Parameters of the APADRC were adaptively adjusted to ensure the characteristic of the closed loop system to be a given reference system, even if the configuration of the manipulator significantly changes during motion. Because precise parameters of the flexible manipulator are not required in the IS system, the operation of the controller was sufficiently robust to accommodate uncertainties in system parameters. Simulations results verified the effectiveness of the HAM scheme and controller in the vibration suppression of FJM during operation.

  15. Dynamic Modeling of a Roller Chain Drive System Considering the Flexibility of Input Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lixin; YANG Yuhu; CHANG Zongyu; LIU Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Roller chain drives are widely used in various high-speed, high-load and power transmission applications, but their complex dynamic behavior is not well researched. Most studies were only focused on the analysis of the vibration of chain tight span, and in these models, many factors are neglected. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to calculate the dynamic response of a roller chain drive working at constant or variable speed condition. In the model, the complete chain transmission with two sprockets and the necessary tight and slack spans is used. The effect of the flexibility of input shaft on dynamic response of the chain system is taken into account, as well as the elastic deformation in the chain, the inertial forces, the gravity and the torque on driven shaft. The nonlinear equations of movement are derived from using Lagrange equations and solved numerically. Given the center distance and the two initial position angles of teeth on driving and driven sprockets corresponding to the first seating roller on each side of the tight span, dynamics of any roller chain drive with two sprockets and two spans can be analyzed by the procedure. Finally, a numerical example is given and the validity of the procedure developed is demonstrated by analyzing the dynamic behavior of a typical roller chain drive. The model can well simulate the transverse and longitudinal vibration of the chain spans and the torsional vibration of the sprockets. This study can provide an effective method for the analysis of the dynamic characteristics of all the chain drive systems.

  16. Experiment on vibration control of a two-link flexible manipulator using an input shaper and adaptive positive position feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhongYi Chu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel approach for actively suppressing the vibration within a two-link flexible manipulator to adapt the variation in the model parameters, which is composed of an input shaper and multimode adaptive positive position feedback. Input shaper is applied to shape the command to avoid the flexible vibration in the manoeuvre motion, and the residual vibration can be suppressed by a piezo actuator with the adaptive positive position feedback approach. To demonstrate the approach, two sets of piezoelectric actuator/stain gauge sensor pairs are bonded to the surface of the two-link flexible manipulator; slewing of the flexible link induces vibrations in the link that persist long after the motors stop moving. Vibration suppression is achieved through a combined scheme of input shaper–based motor motion control and an adaptive positive position feedback–based piezo actuator controller. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its suitability for implementation in an existing robot.

  17. Frequency-tuning input-shaped manifold-based switching control for underactuated space robot equipped with flexible appendages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hirohisa; Ieda, Shoko; Kasai, Shinya

    2014-08-01

    Underactuated control problems, such as the control of a space robot without actuators on the main body, have been widely investigated. However, few studies have examined attitude control problems of underactuated space robots equipped with a flexible appendage, such as solar panels. In order to suppress vibration in flexible appendages, a zero-vibration input-shaping technique was applied to the link motion of an underactuated planar space robot. However, because the vibrational frequency depends on the link angles, simple input-shaping control methods cannot sufficiently suppress the vibration. In this paper, the dependency of the vibrational frequency on the link angles is measured experimentally, and the time-delay interval of the input shaper is then tuned based on the frequency estimated from the link angles. The proposed control method is referred to as frequency-tuning input-shaped manifold-based switching control (frequency-tuning IS-MBSC). The experimental results reveal that frequency-tuning IS-MBSC is capable of controlling the link angles and the main body attitude to maintain the target angles and that the vibration suppression performance of the proposed frequency-tuning IS-MBSC is better than that of a non-tuning IS-MBSC, which does not take the frequency variation into consideration.

  18. Final Report Advanced Quasioptical Launcher System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Neilson

    2010-04-30

    This program developed an analytical design tool for designing antenna and mirror systems to convert whispering gallery RF modes to Gaussian or HE11 modes. Whispering gallery modes are generated by gyrotrons used for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. These modes cannot be easily transmitted and must be converted to free space or waveguide modes compatible with transmission line systems.This program improved the capability of SURF3D/LOT, which was initially developed in a previous SBIR program. This suite of codes revolutionized quasi-optical launcher design, and this code, or equivalent codes, are now used worldwide. This program added functionality to SURF3D/LOT to allow creating of more compact launcher and mirror systems and provide direct coupling to corrugated waveguide within the vacuum envelope of the gyrotron. Analysis was also extended to include full-wave analysis of mirror transmission line systems. The code includes a graphical user interface and is available for advanced design of launcher systems.

  19. Quasi-Optical 34-GHz Rf Pulse Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2007-06-19

    Designs have been carried out on non-high-vacuum, low-power versions of three- and four-mirror quasi-optical passive and active Ka-band pulse compressors, and prototypes built and tested based on these designs. The active element is a quasi-optical grating employing gas discharge tubes in the gratings. Power gains of about 3:1 were observed experimentally for the passive designs, and about 7:1 with the active designs. High-power, high-vacuum versions of the three-and four-mirror quasi-optical pulse compressors were built and tested at low power. These now await installation and testing using multi-MW power from the 34-GHz magnicon.

  20. Parallel computing structures capable of flexible associations and recognition of fuzzy inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, T.; Huberman, B. A.

    1985-10-01

    We experimentally show that computing with attractors leads to fast adaptive behavior in which dynamical associations can be made between different inputs which initially produce sharply distinct outputs. We do so by first defining a set of simple local procedures which allow a computing array to change its state in time so as to produce classical Pavlovian conditioning. We then examine the dynamics of coalescence and dissociation of attractors with a number of quantitative experiments. We also show how such arrays exhibit generalization and differentiation of inputs in their behavior.

  1. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  2. Single-input/single-output transfer functions for a flexible slewing link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Enrique

    1993-01-01

    Truncated linear models based on constrained and unconstrained mode expansions for a flexible link with torque actuation at its hub led us to examine the behavior of the open-loop-zeros of five commonly used SISO transfer functions. We arrive at new conclusions with regard to minimum- and non-minimum-phase zeros, and passivity of the transfer functions. The flexible-to-rigid inertia (FRI) ratio plays an important role in the determination of these characteristics. This paper illustrates how the zero locations of some of the transfer functions are dramatically affected by the FRI ratio. We also investigate the performance of a hub angle, hub rate, and relative tip position static feedback controller based on a reduced-order constrained mode model when applied to both unconstrained and constrained mode models of the same dimension. Simulations indicate that the constrained model can be stable while the unconstrained model is not for high FRI ratios. Our findings can provide useful information to designers in cases where the controller is sensitive to the 1ocation of the plant's zeros.

  3. Quasi-optical ECRH beam system for MFTF-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yugo, J.J.; Shearer, J.W.; Ziolkowski, R.W.; Krause, K.H.; Berkey, J.H.; Fong, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    Multiple frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) is required in the anchor regions of MFTF-B. The requirement for a high transmission efficiency as well as some aspects of the operating environment make a quasi-optical transmission system attractive (neutron activation and damage of materials, x-rays, rf window coolant leaks, cryogenic temperatures, etc.). A quasi-optical transmission system increases the transmission efficiency and reduces the complexity of the hardware in the vacuum vessel. A beam transmission efficiency of 94 percent through the off-axis, fundamental electron cyclotron resonance position is achieved if the plasma density is limited to n/sub p/ less than 4 x 10/sup 8/ cm/sup -3/. For MFTF-B parameters and ECRH at 28 GHz the electron mean free path for an ionizing collision is 5 x 10/sup 6/ cm so that most electrons will reach the wall prior to producing additional ionization of the background gas.

  4. Quasi-Optical Control of Intense Microwave Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2005-01-01

    This volume assembles the texts of presentations given at the NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop on Quasi-Optical Transmission of High-Power Microwaves, held in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia in February 2004. The presentations bridge a wide range of technical areas, but share common tools of analysis and design. Applications of quasi-optics extend to the use of high-power microwaves—including millimeter-waves— for radar and communications (especially deep space millimeter-wave systems, space debris detection radar, and radar for the detection of small targets moving over heavy clutter); particle accelerators (especially for a future high-acceleration-gradient electron-positron collider); plasma research (especially for controlled nuclear fusion and waste decontamination); and material processing (in particular, ceramic sintering with millimeter-waves, and the coating of metal surfaces with protective dielectric films.). Scientists and engineers working in any of these areas should benefit significantly f...

  5. Rest-to-Rest Attitude Naneuvers and Residual Vibration Reduction of a Finite Element Model of Flexible Satellite by Using Input Shaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyamartana Parman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional rest-to-rest attitude maneuver of flexible spacecraft equipped by on-off reaction jets is studied. Equations of motion of the spacecraft is developed by employing a hybrid system of coordinates and Lagrangian formulation. The finite element method is used to examine discrete elastic deformations of a particular model of satellite carrying flexible solar panels by modelling the panels as flat plate structures in bending. Results indicate that, under an unshaped input, the maneuvers induce undesirable attitude angle motions of the satellite as well as vibration of the solar panels. An input shaper is then applied to reduce the residual oscillation of its motion at several natural frequencies in order to get an expected pointing precision of the satellite. Once the shaped input is given to the satellite, the performance improves significantly.

  6. Quasi-Optical Cavity Virtual Cathode Oscillator for Microwave Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌根深; 陈波; 周津娟

    2003-01-01

    A new configuration of a virtual cathode oscillator(VCO),i.e.,a quasi-optical cavity VCO,is proposed for highpower microwave generation.The analysis and simulation are carried out to investigate the characteristics of this configuration.In the numerical simulation,the microwave output power of 2.93 GW is obtained with an electron beam of 610 keV in electron energy and 26.7kA in the beam current.The beam-to-microwave power efficiency is 18%.The frequency is 17.5 GHz,and the output microwave mode is TEM10.

  7. A reflective-type, quasi-optical metasurface filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Boyu; Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing quasi-optical, reflective-type spatial filters. The proposed filter is a reflective metasurface with a one dimensional, frequency-dependent phase gradient along the aperture. By careful design of each unit cell of the metasurface, the phase shift gradient provided by the adjacent unit cells can be engineered to steer the beam towards a desired, anomalous reflection direction over the passband region of the filter. Outside of that range, the phase shift gradient required to produce the anomalous reflection is not present and hence, the wave is reflected towards the specular reflection direction. This way, the metasurface acts as a reflective filter in a quasi-optical system where the detector is placed along the direction of anomalous reflection. The spectral selectivity of this filter is determined by the frequency dispersion of the metasurface's phase response. Based on this principle, a prototype of the proposed metasurface filter, which operates at 10 GHz and has a bandwidth of 3%, is designed. The device is modeled using a combination of theoretical analysis using the phased-array theory and full-wave electromagnetic simulations. A prototype of this device is also fabricated and characterized using a free-space measurement system. Experimental results agree well with the simulations.

  8. Using Python for scientific computing: Efficient and flexible evaluation of the statistical characteristics of functions with multivariate random inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, R.; Sadílek, V.; Rypl, R.; Vořechovský, M.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of high-level Python based utilities for numerically intensive applications via an example of a multidimensional integration for the evaluation of the statistical characteristics of a random variable. We discuss the approaches to the implementation of mathematically formulated incremental expressions using high-level scripting code and low-level compiled code. Due to the dynamic typing of the Python language, components of the algorithm can be easily coded in a generic way as algorithmic templates. Using the Enthought Development Suite they can be effectively assembled into a flexible computational framework that can be configured to execute the code for arbitrary combinations of integration schemes and versions of instantiated code. The paper describes the development cycle using a simple running example involving averaging of a random two-parametric function that includes discontinuity. This example is also used to compare the performance of the available algorithmic and executional features. The implemented package including further examples and the results of performance studies have been made available via the free repository [1] and CPCP library. Program summaryProgram title: spirrid Catalogue identifier: AENL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Special licence provided by the author No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10722 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 157099 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python and C. Computer: PC. Operating system: LINUX, UNIX, Windows. Classification: 4.13, 6.2. External routines: NumPy (http://numpy.scipy.org/), SciPy (http://www.scipy.com) Nature of problem: Evaluation of the statistical moments of a function of random variables. Solution method: Direct multidimensional

  9. Folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexer Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, H. M.; Chiou, A. E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexers with different geometries of reflecting surfaces is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Design of optimum surface geometry for minimum diffraction, together with the figure of merit indicating improvement in performance, are given.

  10. The Experimental Plant and Modeling Method for Spatial Waves in Multicoupled Quasi-Optical Systems with Periodic Inhomogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Vorobjov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental plant and the general method of modeling of electromagnetic wave processes in multicoupled quasi-optical systems are described. Examples of choosing the optimum regimes of modeling and basic parameters of the investigated electrodynamic systems are shown. The functional scheme of the experimental plant is also described. The general method of modeling of electromagnetic phenomena in resonant and waveguide multicoupled quasi-optical systems is presented for the first time.

  11. Quasi-optical theory of microwave plasma heating in open magnetic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalashov, A. G.; Balakin, A. A.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Khusainov, T. A.

    2016-11-01

    Microwave heating of a high-temperature plasma confined in a large-scale open magnetic trap, including all important wave effects like diffraction, absorption, dispersion, and wave beam aberrations, is described for the first time within the first-principle technique based on consistent Maxwell's equations. With this purpose, the quasi-optical approach is generalized over weakly inhomogeneous gyrotrotropic media with resonant absorption and spatial dispersion, and a new form of the integral quasi-optical equation is proposed. An effective numerical technique for this equation's solution is developed and realized in a new code QOOT, which is verified with the simulations of realistic electron cyclotron heating scenarios at the Gas Dynamic Trap at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk, Russia).

  12. Characteristic analysis of aspheric quasi-optical lens antenna in millimeter-wave radiometer imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Gyum; Moon, Nam-Won; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Kim, Hwang-Kyeom; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2013-02-20

    Quasi-optical imaging systems require low blurring effect and large depth of focus (DOF) to get an acceptable sharpness of the image. To reduce aberration-limited blurring, the aspheric convex plano lenses with an aperture diameter of 350 mm are designed in W-band. We analyzed theoretically and experimentally the millimeter-wave band lens characteristics, such as beam spot size, spatial resolution (SR), and DOF, via f-number. It is first used to verify the DOF through f-number in the system-level test with the developed W-band radiometer imaging system. We have confirmed that the larger f-number of quasi-optical lens leads to a larger DOF but a lower SR.

  13. Quasi-optical theory of microwave plasma heating in open magnetic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Shalashov, A G; Gospodchikov, E D; Khusainov, T A

    2016-01-01

    Microwave heating of a high-temperature plasma confined in a large-scale open magnetic trap, including all important wave effects like diffraction, absorption, dispersion and wave beam aberrations, is described for the first time within the first-principle technique based on consistent Maxwell's equations. With this purpose, the quasi-optical approach is generalized over weakly inhomogeneous gyrotrotropic media with resonant absorption and spatial dispersion, and a new form of the integral quasi-optical equation is proposed. An effective numerical technique for this equation's solution is developed and realized in a new code QOOT, which is verified with the simulations of realistic electron cyclotron heating scenarios at the Gas Dynamic Trap at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk, Russia).

  14. Investigation of the power characteristics of a Gunn-diode quasi-optical generator

    OpenAIRE

    Borodkin, A. I.; Bulgakov, B. M.; Chernyshov, I. Yu.

    1988-01-01

    The results of investigations of the power characteristics of a quasi-optical millimeter-wave Gunn diode generator are given. The efficiency of power output from an open resonator is investigated. It is shown that the impedances of a Gunn diode and an open resonator can be matched using a radial resonator. The conditions under which the Gunn diode provides maximum power into the load are studied.

  15. A Quasi-Optical Method for Measuring the Complex Permittivity of Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    millimeter wavelengths, waveguide, cavity, and various forms of quasi-optical methods are utilized to measure the complex permittivity of materials...conjunction with an interferometer, Fourier transform spectrometry can be utilized to derive the * permittivity of materials (Ref. 17). Breeden and...pp. 75-84, 1971. [17] J. E. Chamberlain, J. E. Gibbs, and H. A. Gebbie, " Refractometry in the far infra-red using a two-beam interferometer," Nature

  16. A Novel Monopulse Antenna Based on Quasi-Optical Technology at Sub-millimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Dou, Wenbin; Su, Hongyan; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel monopulse antenna operating at sub-millimeter wavelengths is firstly proposed and developed based on quasi-optical (QO) technology. The developed monopulse antenna is composed of spherical thin lens, ellipsoid mirrors, plane mirrors, quasi-optical sum-difference comparator, and dielectric prisms. The parameters of quasi-optical elements are determined by using Gaussian-Beam theory. Then, the antenna configuration is simulated and further optimized by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulated results show good sum-difference performance, with the sidelobe levels below -10.0 dB and the null-depth approximately -35.0 dB at the center frequency of 375 GHz. A prototype of the proposed monopulse antenna is fabricated and measured. The measured results have a good agreement with the simulated results in the near-field test process. This type of QO monopulse antenna may be used as an excellent candidate for tracking system over 300 GHz.

  17. Light-controlled microwave whispering-gallery-mode quasi-optical resonators at 50W LED array illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yurchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present experimental observations of light-controlled resonance effects in microwave whispering-gallery-mode quasi-optical dielectric-semiconductor disk resonators in the frequency band of 5 GHz to 20 GHz arising due to illumination from a light emitting diode (LED of 50W power range. We obtain huge enhancement of photo-sensitivity (growing with the resonator Q-factor that makes light-microwave interaction observable with an ordinary light (no laser at conventional brightness (like an office lighting in quasi-optical microwave structures at rather long (centimeter-scale wavelength. We also demonstrate non-conventional photo-response of Fano resonances when the light suppresses one group of resonances and enhances another group. The effects could be used for the optical control and quasi-optical switching of microwave propagation through either one or another frequency channel.

  18. Quasi-Optical Network Analyzers and High-Reliability RF MEMS Switched Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grichener, Alexander

    The thesis first presents a 2-port quasi-optical scalar network analyzer consisting of a transmitter and receiver both built in planar technology. The network analyzer is based on a Schottky-diode mixer integrated inside a planar antenna and fed differentially by a CPW transmission line. The antenna is placed on an extended hemispherical high-resistivity silicon substrate lens. The LO signal is swept from 3-5 GHz and high-order harmonic mixing in both up- and down- conversion mode is used to realize the 15-50 GHz RF bandwidth. The network analyzer resulted in a dynamic range of greater than 40 dB and was successfully used to measure a frequency selective surface with a second-order bandpass response. Furthermore, the system was built with circuits and components for easy scaling to millimeter-wave frequencies which is the primary motivation for this work. The application areas for a millimeter and submillimeter-wave network analyzer include material characterization and art diagnostics. The second project presents several RF MEMS switched capacitors designed for high-reliability operation and suitable for tunable filters and reconfigurable networks. The first switched-capacitor resulted in a digital capacitance ratio of 5 and an analog capacitance ratio of 5-9. The analog tuning of the down-state capacitance is enhanced by a positive vertical stress gradient in the the beam, making it ideal for applications that require precision tuning. A thick electroplated beam resulted in Q greater than 100 at C to X-band frequencies, and power handling of 0.6-1.1 W. The design also minimized charging in the dielectric, resulting in excellent reliability performance even under hot-switched and high power (1 W) conditions. The second switched-capacitor was designed without any dielectric to minimize charging. The device was hot-switched at 1 W of RF power for greater than 11 billion cycles with virtually no change in the C-V curve. The final project presents a 7-channel

  19. Test of a two-dimensionally focusing quasi-optical antenna using a gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idehara, T.; Tatsukawa, T.; Brand, G.F.; Fekete, P.W.; Moore, K.J.

    1989-05-01

    A quasi-optical antenna having one elliptical reflector and one parabolic reflector has been built for millimeter wave scattering measurements on the TORTUS tokamak plasma at the University of Sydney. This letter reports the first demonstration of the properties of such an antenna using a gyrotron millimeter wave source. Its advantages are (1) good two-dimensional focusing (along the major radius and the toroidal directions) and (2) easy movement of the focus across the diameter of the plasma by changing the orientation of the parabolic reflector.

  20. Quasi-optical design for systems to diagnose the electron temperature and density fluctuations on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qifo; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Hailin; Zhou, Tianfu; Ti, Ang; Hu, Liqun

    2016-11-01

    A system to simultaneously diagnose the electron temperature and density fluctuations is proposed for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak device. This system includes a common quasi-optical antenna, a correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) system that is used to measure the electron temperature fluctuations and a Doppler backscattering (DBS) system that is used to measure the electron density fluctuations. The frequency range of the proposed CECE system is 108-120 GHz, and this corresponds to a radial coverage of normalized radius ((R - R0)/a, R0 = 1850 mm, a = 450 mm) from 0.2 to 0.67 for the plasma operation with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.26 T. This paper focuses on the design of the quasi-optical antenna and aims at optimizing the poloidal resolution for different frequency bands. An optimum result gives the beam radius for the CECE system of 13-15 mm and this corresponds to a wave number range of kθ < 2.4 cm-1. The beam radius is 20-30 mm for V band (50-75 GHz) and 15-20 mm for W band (75-110 GHz).

  1. Effects of aberration on paraxial wave beams: beam tracing versus quasi-optical solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, O [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Balakin, A A [Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Poli, E, E-mail: omaj@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    This paper aims to clarify the role of aberration effects on the propagation and absorption of wave beams in inhomogeneous dispersive and dissipative media. We consider models in which aberration effects can be caused by the presence of either caustics or spatially dispersive absorption, with reference to the propagation near a cut-off or to the electron-cyclotron (EC) resonance, respectively. For such models, the standard beam tracing description of paraxial wave beams and the recently proposed quasi-optical method, which accounts for aberration, are compared and verified on the basis of the analytical exact solutions. We find that the presence of a cut-off implies no significant aberration of the beam, while significant aberration is found when dispersive absorption is so strong that different wavenumbers in the beam spectrum are damped at different locations. This phenomenon is well described by the quasi-optical method. Finally, an extrapolation of this simple two-dimensional model to the case of the ITER upper EC port is addressed with the result that the broadening of the power deposition profiles never exceeds 10%.

  2. Mechanical and quasi-optical design of ECH/ECCD launcher for JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Takayuki, E-mail: kobayashi.takayuki@jaea.go.jp; Moriyama, Shinichi; Isayama, Akihiko; Hiranai, Shinichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Sawahata, Masayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Wada, Kenji; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Hinata, Jun; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Takahashi, Koji; Kajiwara, Ken; Oda, Yasuhisa; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Sakamoto, Keishi

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We designed high-power, long-pulse, two-frequency launcher for JT-60SA. • The mirror steering structure was improved for easy maintenance. • A full scale mockup of the steering structure moved smoothly. • It was found that the antenna is suitable for two frequency operations. • The total spillover loss of ∼1% was obtained with LP11even mode of 10%. - Abstract: Mechanical and quasi-optical design of an electron cyclotron heating/current drive launcher for JT-60SA is in progress. A full-scale mock-up of the steering structure, which enables linear and rotation motions of the first mirror of the launcher, has been fabricated for cyclic test of the bellows part. Moreover, an improved design enables easy replacement of the bellows for rotation for maintenance. Quasi-optical characteristics of the antenna mirrors have been studied to evaluate its transmission efficiency and beam focusing property. In calculation, it was found that the antenna is applicable to two frequency operation at 110 GHz and 138 GHz. It was quantitatively shown that the transmission efficiency of ∼99% (not including Ohmic loss) is obtained even with the higher order mode (LP{sub 11}{sup even}) fraction of 10% by optimizations of the shape of the first mirror. These results contribute to optimization/finalization of the launcher design toward fabrication of the launcher for JT-60SA.

  3. Higher flexibility in input N:P ratios results in more balanced phosphorus budgets in two long-term experimental agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inefficient phosphorus (P) use in intensive agriculture is common in both organic and conventional systems, resulting in P overapplication and soil P build-up. Increasing crop P removal and P recycling within farming systems (e.g., via cover crops) and reducing P inputs can improve farm P balances. ...

  4. Quasi-optical antenna-mixer-array design for terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Potter, Kent A.; Rutledge, David B.

    1992-01-01

    A new quasi-optical antenna-mixer-array design for terahertz frequencies is presented. In the design, antenna and mixer are combined into an entity, based on the technology in which millimeter-wave horn antenna arrays have been fabricated in silicon wafers. It consists of a set of forward- and backward-looking horns made with a set of silicon wafers. The front side is used to receive incoming signal, and the back side is used to feed local oscillator signal. Intermediate frequency is led out from the side of the array. Signal received by the horn array is picked up by antenna probes suspended on thin silicon-oxynitride membranes inside the horns. Mixer diodes will be located on the membranes inside the horns. Modeling of such an antenna-mixer-array design is done on a scaled model at microwave frequencies. The impedance matching, RF and LO isolation, and patterns of the array have been tested and analyzed.

  5. A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna for millimeter-wave scattering in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idehara, T.; Tatsukawa, T. (Faculty of Engineering, Fukui University, Fukui 910, Japan (JP)); Brand, G.F.; Fekete, P.W.; Moore, K.J. (School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia))

    1990-06-01

    A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna having one elliptical reflector and one parabolic reflector has been built for use with a tunable gyrotron in order to carry out millimeter-wave scattering measurements on the TORTUS tokamak plasma at the University of Sydney. The advantages of this antenna are the following: (1) The elliptical reflector focuses the radiation beam in the toroidal direction, while the parabolic reflector focuses in the direction of major radius. This gives excellent two-dimensional focusing in the plasma region, and consequently excellent spatial resolution. (2) The focal point can be easily swept along the direction of major radius in the whole plasma region, simply by changing the angle of the parabolic reflector by a small amount. These features have been demonstrated experimentally using the tunable gyrotron source, GYROTRON III, and in computations of the radiated fields.

  6. Bunch Length Monitoring at the A0 Photoinjector Using a Quasi-Optical Schottky Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G.; Davidsaver, M.; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.; Koeth, T.; Lumpkin, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab; Jeong, Y.U.; /KAERI, Taejon; Kubarev, V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-05-01

    Noninvasive bunch duration monitoring has a crucial importance for modern accelerators intended for short wavelength FEL's, colliders and in some beam dynamics experiments. Monitoring of the bunch compression in the Emittance Exchange Experiment at the A0 Photoinjector was done using a parametric presentation of the bunch duration via Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) emitted in a dipole magnet and measured with a wideband quasi-optical Schottky Barrier Detector (SBD). The monitoring resulted in a mapping of the quadrupole parameters allowing a determination of the region of highest compression of the bunch in the sub-picosecond range. The obtained data were compared with those measured using the streak camera. A description of the technique and the results of simulations and measurements are presented and discussed in this report.

  7. Investigations on Shaped Mirror Systems in Quasi-Optical Mode Converters Based on Irradiance Moments Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of transforming high-order Gaussian beams (GBs mode into circular symmetry fundamental Gaussian beam (FGB mode with arbitrary waist size is presented using irradiance moments method in quasi-optical (QO mode converters. The double shaped mirrors correcting amplitude and phase simultaneously are generated by a single incidence irradiance sampling data and known ideal output FGB taking advantage of linear moment matching technique and Fresnel diffraction theory, which can be applied to a wide frequency range especially significant for terahertz band. The numerical coding procedure of creating double correcting mirrors and its fast convergence speed are discussed at 325 GHz. Numerical and experimental comparisons reveal the conclusion that enhancing surface precision and increasing moments order can improve main lobe levels.

  8. An accurate automated technique for quasi-optics measurement of the microwave diagnostics for fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Liu, Ahdi; Zhou, Chu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Xi; Li, Hong; Xie, Jinlin; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan

    2017-08-01

    A new integrated technique for fast and accurate measurement of the quasi-optics, especially for the microwave/millimeter wave diagnostic systems of fusion plasma, has been developed. Using the LabVIEW-based comprehensive scanning system, we can realize not only automatic but also fast and accurate measurement, which will help to eliminate the effects of temperature drift and standing wave/multi-reflection. With the Matlab-based asymmetric two-dimensional Gaussian fitting method, all the desired parameters of the microwave beam can be obtained. This technique can be used in the design and testing of microwave diagnostic systems such as reflectometers and the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic systems of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

  9. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY METHOD OF GASEOUS FUEL COMBUSTION WITH THE USE OF QUASI-OPTICAL MICROWAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with the problem of developing low emission combustors operating on natural gas or LPG, to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides NOx. The possibility of burning very lean fuel mixtures is studied. To initiate the ignition and combustion stabilization the discharge generated by the quasi-optical microwave is used. Main Results. Initiating ignition by streamer microwave discharge increases the rate of combustion and combustion efficiency about four times as compared with the conventional spark ignition. Streamer discharge ignition by very lean fuel-air mixture is demonstrated with the factor of oxiding agent excess greater than the limit of explosive range under normal conditions. According to indirect indicators, ignition by microwave discharge created by quasi-optical radiation is of non-thermal nature. Microwave discharge excites oxygen atoms, and intense ultra-violet radiation is generated as a result that causes formation of cold nonequilibrium plasma with avalanche growth of free electrons. Streamer discharge propagates at a speed of 5 km /s, so the initiation of the ignition occurs immediately throughout. The temperature of the fuel mixture at the point of ignition initiation does not exceed 400 К.There is no area with a temperature sufficient to initiate thermal Zeldovich mechanism of emission of nitrogen oxides. Combustion rate is high. As a result the Fenimore mechanism of "fast nitrogen oxides" has no chance to be progressing, and NOx emissions in appreciable quantities are excluded. Energy costs are comparable with spark ignition.Practical Relevance. The studied technology is designed for low emission internal combustion engines, power gas turbines, gas compressor units, fueled by natural gas.

  10. Flexible Coupling Corrects Shaft Misalinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed flexible coupling provides nearly error free measurements of shaft rotation in presence of misalinements between shaft and position sensing transducer. Intended to be used in situations in which input or output shaft is mounted on flexible joint. Its function is to insure equal input and output angular velocities by forcing input and output shafts to remain parallel.

  11. Numerical and Experimental Verification of a 3D Quasi-Optical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modular and efficient Gaussian beam (GB analysis method, incorporating frame-based Gabor transformation, GB reflection, and a 3D GB diffraction technique, was developed to analyze both the reflectors and frequency selective surface (FSS in quasi-optical (QO system. To validate this analysis method, a 3D dual-channel QO system operating at 183 and 325 GHz was designed and tested. The proposed QO system employs two-layer structure with a FSS of perforated hexagonal array transmitting the 325 GHz signal on the top layer while diverting the 183 GHz signal to the bottom layer. Measured results of the system demonstrate that the agreement can be achieved down to −30 dB signal level for both channels in the far field pattern. The discrepancy between the calculation and measurement is within 2 dB in the main beam region (2.5 times −3 dB beamwidth, verifying the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method.

  12. A Dual Polarized Quasi-Optical SIS Mixer at 550-GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Miller, David; LeDuc, Henry G.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and the performance of a low-noise dual-polarized quasi-optical superconductor insulator superconductor (SIS) mixer at 550 GHz. The mixer utilizes a novel cross-slot antenna on a hyperhemispherical substrate lens, two junction tuning circuits, niobium trilayer junctions, and an IF circuit containing a lumped element 180 deg hybrid. The antenna consists of an orthogonal pair of twin-slot antennas, and has four feed points, two for each polarization. Each feed point is coupled to a two-junction SIS mixer. The 180 deg IF hybrid is implemented using a lumped element/microstrip circuit located inside the mixer block. Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the mixer frequency response show good agreement with computer simulations. The measured co-polarized and cross-polarized patterns for both polarizations also agree with the theoretical predictions. The noise performance of the dual-polarized mixer is excellent, giving uncorrected receiver noise temperature of better than 115 K (DSB) at 528 GHz for both the polarizations.

  13. Measuring the carrier lifetime by using a quasi-optical millimeter- and THz-wave system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Mun Seok; Sawant, Ashwini; Lee, Kyu-Sup; Yu, Nan Ei; Choi, EunMi

    2017-02-01

    The existing method for contactless measurement of the photoconductivity decay time is limited in terms of sample selection according to the injection level or doping density. To solve this problem and improve the measurement sensitivity, we developed a quasi-optical photoconductivity decay (QO-PCD) technique based on millimeter- and terahertz-wave technology. A semi-insulating silicon (Si) wafer was used in a proof-of-concept experiment with the proposed QO-PCD system to find the initial excess carrier density and carrier lifetime based on the Drude-Zener model with a single decay function. The initial excess carrier density and carrier lifetime were measured to be 1.5 × 1015 cm-3 and 30.6 μs, respectively, in semi-insulating Si wafer (460 μm thickness). A 2D areal measurement of the decay time of the Si wafer was experimentally obtained. The proposed QO-PCD technique can provide more reliable and sensitive carrier lifetime measurement data for semiconductor wafers, which may impact the fields of photovoltaic solar cells and power electronics.

  14. Quasi-optical Gaussian beam tracing to evaluate Doppler backscattering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, C.; Hennequin, P.; Truc, A.; Quéméneur, A.

    2006-09-01

    Microwave beam backscattering near the cut-off layer appears to be the most interesting diagnostic to observe density fluctuation time evolution for a given localization in the plasma and at a defined wave vector. It also provides perpendicular plasma velocity. Scattering only occurs when the Bragg selection rule is fulfilled, i.e. when the scattering wave vector is almost perpendicular to the magnetic field. In order to evaluate these scattering conditions, ray tracing is required. 3D geometry is necessary to evaluate the angle between the magnetic field and the wave vector at the reflection. The ripple effect on the iso-index layer curve cannot be neglected. Scattering localization and wave vector resolution can be approached if single ray tracing is replaced with quasi-optical beam tracing. Optical propagation is still considered in the WKB approximation but the beam is described as multiple connected rays. The beam radial expansion due to diffraction is well described. This approach allows one to compute beam parameters for all data acquisitions (50 triggers per shot) and all shots (40 shots per day) during the following night on a recent personal computer with MatLab©.

  15. Diffractive optical elements and quasioptical schemes for experiments on a high-power terahertz free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, N. A.; Zhigach, S. A.; Knyazev, B. A.; Konysheva, A. V.; Kulipanov, G. N.; Merzhievsky, L. A.; Polskikh, I. A.; Cherkassky, V. S.

    2007-10-01

    We have developed reflective diffraction optical elements (DOE) for focusing monochromatic coherent radiation of 400 W terahertz Novosibirsk free-electron laser (FEL). Operational characteristics of two modifications of the refractive kinoform lenses were studied. Quasioptical Toepler system with terahertz radiation recording by a thermosensitive luminescent screen was fabricated for the examination of film and solid deformation. A system for real-time terahertz radioscopy of objects with image recording with a microbolometer matrix (MBM) was fabricated. Images of objects illuminated with a plane wave or diffuse radiation were studied with the MBM. It was shown that the speckle pattern, which appears in the second case, can be averaged by means of the scatterer rotation.

  16. Flexible Flatfoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Flexible Flatfoot What Is Flatfoot? Flatfoot is often a ... may develop as a result of a flatfoot. Flexible Flatfoot Flexible flatfoot is one of the most ...

  17. Flexible supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Shi; Chengjun Xu; Cheng Yang; Jia Li; Hongda Du; Baohua Li; Feiyu Kang

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors show a great potential for applications in wearable,miniaturized,portable,largescale transparent and flexible consumer electronics due to their significant,inherent advantages,such as being flexible,lightweight,low cost and environmentally friendly in comparison with the current energy storage devices.In this report,recent progress on flexible supercapacitors,flexible electrodes and electrolytes is reviewed.In addition,the future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  18. 基于输入整形技术的柔性关节机械手控制研究%Research on control scheme for flexible joint robot based on input shaper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔大文

    2011-01-01

    柔性机械手具有双时标特性,现有控制策略中需要对电机转角及机械臂转角的状态反馈,增加了控制策略的复杂性.建立了柔性关节机械手动力学模型,针对目前控制策略存在的算法复杂问题,提出了基于输入整形技术的柔性关节机械手运动控制策略.以电机转角作为反馈,根据机械手末端输出与目标输入之间的传递函数,设计了脉冲序列,通过与目标轨迹的卷积进行整形,可以实现轨迹跟踪.通过仿真实例表明,通过对目标轨迹的整形,能够有效减小超调和残余振动,具有一定的可行性.%The self-adaptive control scheme has been researched for flexible-joint robots.When the system parameters are known,the other hand,when the system parameters are unknown,the original adaptive design method requires knowledge of joint accelerations that are prone to noise in order to control flexible joint robot manipulators. In order to overcome the problem,we present an additional robust control law in conjunction with the adaptive design procedure ,with the known boundary of model error,it realizes selfadaptive control for flexible-joint robots with unknown model parameter. Compared with most of the available control schemes for flexible joint robot system that assume weak joint flexibility or knowledge of joint accelerations ,the proposed control law guarantees global stability of the robot manipulators with uncertain joint flexibility without recourse to any joint acceleration or jerk measurements

  19. Strategic flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, KiHyung

    2014-01-01

    A flexible system is defined as one that can change the entity's stance, capability or status reacting to a change of the entity's environment. Flexibility has gathered the attention of academic researchers and industry practitioners as an efficient approach to cope with today's volatile environment. As the environments become more unpredictable and volatile, it is imperative for a flexible system to respond quickly to a change in its circumstance. How much flexibility is embedded into the sy...

  20. Flexible Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.

  1. Quasi-optical THz spectroscopy on ultra-thin superconducting films of NbN and TaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pracht, Uwe Santiago; Heintze, Eric; Scheffler, Marc; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Il' in, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Guo, Qiao; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Ultra-thin films of the conventional superconductors niobium nitride (NbN) and tantalum nitride (TaN) have recently attracted attention for devices such as single-photon detectors. Quasi-optical THz spectroscopy is a particularly suited tool with direct access to superconducting properties, such as the superconducting energy gap, which are necessary for a proper understanding of device performance and for future improvements. With our THz-spectroscopy approach we measure amplitude and phaseshift of coherent radiation (0.09-1.2 THz) passing through thin-film systems. We present the performance and possibilities of our experimental set-up, and we apply it to ultra-thin superconducting films of NbN and TaN. We fit the experimental data to weak-coupling BCS theory, and we obtain frequency- and temperature-dependent superconducting properties such as the complex optical conductivity, the complex dielectric function, the energy gap, the penetration depth, and the superfluid density.

  2. Broadband measurement of electron cyclotron emission in TFTR using a quasioptical light collection system and a polarizing Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, F.J.; Boyd, D.A.; Cutler, R.C.; Diesso, M.; McCarthy, M.P.; Montague, J.; Rocco, R.

    1988-10-01

    For the past four years, a Fourier transform spectrometer diagnostic system, employing a fast-scanning polarizing Michelson interferometer (FMI), has been operating on the TFTR tokamak at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It is used to measure the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum over the range 2.5--18 cm/sup -1/ (75--540 GHz), with a resolution of 0.123 cm/sup -1/ (3.7 GHz), at a rate of 72 spectra per second. The quasioptical system for collecting the light and transporting it through the interferometer to the detector has been designed using the concepts of both Gaussian and geometrical optics. The commercial FMI was custom made for this project and is the state of the art for this type of specialized instrument. The diagnostic system is described and an error propagation analysis of the absolute calibration process is given. Examples of ECE spectra measured in two polarization directions are given and electron temperature profiles derived from each of them are compared.

  3. Flexible Software for Flexible Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Frossie; Jenness, Tim; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Hirst, Paul; Adamson, Andy J.; Rippa, Mathew; Delorey, Kynan K.; Isaak, Kate G.

    The JAC Observation Management Project (OMP) provides software for the James Clerk Maxwell (JCMT) and the United Kingdom Infrared (UKIRT) telescopes that manages the life-cycle of flexibly scheduled observations. Its aim is to increase observatory efficiency under flexible (queue) scheduled observing, without depriving the principal investigator (PI) of the flexibility associated with classical scheduling.

  4. Toward a real time stand-off submillimeter-wave imaging system with large field of view: quasi-optical system design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Erio; Llombart, Nuria

    2015-05-01

    In the frame-work of the European project CONSORTIS, a stand-off system for concealed object detections working at submillimeter-wave frequencies is being developed. The system is required to perform real-time image acquisition over a large field of view at a short range using both an active and a passive sensor operating in the frequency range from 250 to 600 GHz. In this contribution, the main trade-offs associated with the quasi-optical system design are presented. The imaging distance is from 2 m to 5 m range with a spatial resolution lower than 2 cm. Focal plane arrays will be used to achieve high imaging frame rates. Two configurations are considered in CONSORTIS: a sparse array of active transceivers and incoherent passive staring array with a large number of elements. Both cases use mechanical scanning to achieve the required field of view. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the different trade-offs driving the quasi-optical design: from the mechanical scanner considerations to the optical beam quality required over the whole field of view. This analysis starts from the fundamental limitations of the quasi-optical mechanical systems. The limitations of the optics are discussed considering a canonical elliptical reflector as a reference. After this fundamental analysis, we compare the performances of several practical standard implementations, based on dual-reflectors and lenses, with canonical geometries. It is shown that, at short ranges, the main limitation of the optical system is the poor beam quality associated with the wide angular field of view and none of the standard implementation fulfills the requirements. In the last section, a technique to overcome this limitation is investigated. In particular, the use of optics with oversized reflectors can significantly improve the performance over a larger field of view if the coma aberrations are limited by a good angular filter.

  5. Forgiveness Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Seda Çolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness flexibility is the skill to minimize the negative effect of an event by using cognitive, affective and behavioral skills while taking a stand at the end of an injurious process. A number of studies were conducted to test the flexibility of the structure of forgiveness. The theoretical structure, structural validity and the confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretical structure of forgiveness flexibility. The criterion validity evaluated in similar manners was found high. Forgiveness flexibility designed as a three dimensional structure and its sub-dimensions was confirmed theoretically as the recognition of forgivenessand the internalization of forgiveness through insight and its practice.

  6. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  7. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Task Force (USPSTF). Most doctors recommend colonoscopy to screen for colon cancer because colonoscopy shows the entire colon and can remove colon polyps. However, preparing for and performing a flexible sigmoidoscopy may take less time and you may ...

  8. Multisensory integration : flexible use of general operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Atteveldt, N.; Murray, Micah M; Thut, Gregor; Schroeder, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Research into the anatomical substrates and "principles" for integrating inputs from separate sensory surfaces has yielded divergent findings. This suggests that multisensory integration is flexible and context dependent and underlines the need for dynamically adaptive neuronal integration mechanism

  9. Electrorheological fluid-actuated flexible platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Niu, Xize; Wen, Weijia; Sheng, Ping

    2006-04-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of an electrorheological (ER) fluid-actuated flexible platform integrated on a microfluidic chip are reported in this letter. The digitally regulated ER microvalves control the four diaphragms on which a platform is sustained. With electrical input signals, the platform can perform vibrations at tunable frequencies as well as generate complex leveling modes. The flexible platform can potentially act as a microdamper when its inputs are generated from a sensor, in combination with a feedback control system.

  10. Piping Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  11. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  12. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...

  13. Flexible isotopy classification of flexible links

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we define and study flexible links and flexible isotopy in projective space. Flexible links are meant to capture the topological properties of real algebraic links. We classify all flexible links up to flexible isotopy using Ekholms interpretation of Viros encomplexed writhe.

  14. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...... flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological...

  15. Global Analysis of Flexible Risers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    and thus resists the loading from the environment in a more suitable way.A flexible pipe is a composite structure, built up of several layers each having a specific function. Due to the flexibility, the response of the pipe in wave induced motions are governed by a complex hydroelastic set of differential...... parameters.The idea is to divide the riser system of riser and end fitting system into a global system including the riser and a local system of the bending stiffener and the end fitting. The forces at top of the riser shall be used as input for the design of the local system.This report introduces a non...

  16. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  17. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...... it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists....

  18. Broadband measurements of electron cyclotron emission in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) using a quasi-optical light collection system and a polarizing Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, F.J.; Boyd, D.A.; Cutler, R.C.; Diesso, M.; McCarthy, M.P.; Montague, J.; Rocco, R.

    1988-04-01

    For the past three years, a Fourier transform spectrometer diagnostic system, employing a fast-scanning polarizing Michelson interferometer, has been operating on the TFTR tokamak at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It is used to measure the electron cyclotron emission spectrum over the range 2.5 to 18 cm/sup /minus/1/ (75-540 GHz) with a resolution of 0.123 cm/sup /minus/1/(3.7 GHz), at a rate of 72 spectra per second. The quasi-optical system for collecting the light and transporting it through the interferometer to the detector has been designed using the concepts of both Gaussian and geometrical optics in order to produce a system that is efficient over the entire spectral range. The commerical Michelson interferometer was custom-made for this project and is at the state of the art for this type of specialized instrument. Various pre-installation and post-installation tests of the optical system and the interferometer were performed and are reported here. An error propagation analysis of the absolute calibration process is given. Examples of electron cyclotron emission spectra measured in two polarization directions are given, and electron temperature profiles derived from each of them are compared. 34 refs., 17 figs.

  19. New method of measurement of complex permittivity and permeability with a W-band unbalanced quasi-optical waveguide bridge spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Mohammed N.; Tkachov, Igor I.; Kocharyan, Karen N.

    1998-11-01

    A new method of precision measurements of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent of medium and highly absorbing materials over an extended W-band frequency range is developed. A quasi-optical-waveguide spectrometer is designed and constructed. An electronically sweeping backward wave oscillator (BWO) is used as the source of tunable coherent radiation in the frequency range 70 to 118 GHz for the spectrometer. The high output power of BWO, precision waveguide and quasi-optical components and an extra high sensitivity specially constructed liquid helium cooled InSb detector enable adequate energy throughput in transmission for the first time for highly absorbing materials. A simple quasi- optical-waveguide transmission measurement set up of the spectrometer provides the transmittance measurement from which the loss tangent and imaginary part of dielectric permittivity spectra of materials are evaluated very accurately. A quasi- optical-waveguide bridge configuration of the spectrometer provides the measurement of the phase retardation through a specimen from which the real part of dielectric permittivity spectrum are determined with high accuracy. Data for acrylic (medium absorbing), CVD grown low resistivity germanium, General Diode Corp. low resistivity silicon (very absorbing) and thick layer of water are presented and compared.

  20. Designing and fabrication of quasi-optical attenuator in short millimeter wave%短毫米波准光可调衰减器的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佳强; 苗俊刚

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a quasi-optical adjustable attenuator which works on W-band(75 ~ 110 GHz). Using the characteristic in millimeter wave of the wire grids whose fabrication has been advanced,this attenuator has achieved its dynamic range>30 dB and insert loss<0.2 dB. The attenuator has advantages of simplicity in structure,low cost and High repeatability. It has broad applications in the millimeter test.%研制了一种工作在W波段(75~110 GHz)的准光形式衰减器,该衰减器利用栅网的毫米波特性,并通过改善栅网的工艺,使得其在全W波段实现了可调衰减范围>30 dB,插入损耗<0.2 dB.该衰减器结构简单,成本较低,可重复性高,在毫米波测试中具有广泛的应用价值.

  1. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  2. Controlling Synfire Chain by Inhibitory Synaptic Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Takashi; Câteau, Hideyuki; Urakubo, Hidetoshi; Okada, Masato

    2007-04-01

    The propagation of highly synchronous firings across neuronal networks, called the synfire chain, has been actively studied both theoretically and experimentally. The temporal accuracy and remarkable stability of the propagation have been repeatedly examined in previous studies. However, for such a mode of signal transduction to play a major role in processing information in the brain, the propagation should also be controlled dynamically and flexibly. Here, we show that inhibitory but not excitatory input can bidirectionally modulate the propagation, i.e., enhance or suppress the synchronous firings depending on the timing of the input. Our simulations based on the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model demonstrate this bidirectional modulation and suggest that it should be achieved with any biologically inspired modeling. Our finding may help describe a concrete scenario of how multiple synfire chains lying in a neuronal network are appropriately controlled to perform significant information processing.

  3. Input or intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Navracsics

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the critical period hypothesis, the earlier the acquisition of a second language starts, the better. Owing to the plasticity of the brain, up until a certain age a second language can be acquired successfully according to this view. Early second language learners are commonly said to have an advantage over later ones especially in phonetic/phonological acquisition. Native-like pronunciation is said to be most likely to be achieved by young learners. However, there is evidence of accentfree speech in second languages learnt after puberty as well. Occasionally, on the other hand, a nonnative accent may appear even in early second (or third language acquisition. Cross-linguistic influences are natural in multilingual development, and we would expect the dominant language to have an impact on the weaker one(s. The dominant language is usually the one that provides the largest amount of input for the child. But is it always the amount that counts? Perhaps sometimes other factors, such as emotions, ome into play? In this paper, data obtained from an EnglishPersian-Hungarian trilingual pair of siblings (under age 4 and 3 respectively is analyzed, with a special focus on cross-linguistic influences at the phonetic/phonological levels. It will be shown that beyond the amount of input there are more important factors that trigger interference in multilingual development.

  4. Balance and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  5. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry....

  6. Access to Research Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depends on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life...... sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding...... of any kind are, however, 50 % more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry...

  7. A spectrometer designed for 6.7 and 14.1 T DNP-enhanced solid-state MAS NMR using quasi-optical microwave transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kevin J; Kemp, Thomas F; Takahashi, Hiroki; Day, Robert; Howes, Andrew P; Kryukov, Eugeny V; MacDonald, James F; Collis, Alana E C; Bolton, David R; Wylde, Richard J; Orwick, Marcella; Kosuga, Kosuke; Clark, Andrew J; Idehara, Toshitaka; Watts, Anthony; Smith, Graham M; Newton, Mark E; Dupree, Ray; Smith, Mark E

    2012-02-01

    A Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectrometer operating at 6.7 T is described and demonstrated. The 187 GHz TE(13) fundamental mode of the FU CW VII gyrotron is used as the microwave source for this magnetic field strength and 284 MHz (1)H DNP-NMR. The spectrometer is designed for use with microwave frequencies up to 395 GHz (the TE(16) second-harmonic mode of the gyrotron) for DNP at 14.1T (600 MHz (1)H NMR). The pulsed microwave output from the gyrotron is converted to a quasi-optical Gaussian beam using a Vlasov antenna and transmitted to the NMR probe via an optical bench, with beam splitters for monitoring and adjusting the microwave power, a ferrite rotator to isolate the gyrotron from the reflected power and a Martin-Puplett interferometer for adjusting the polarisation. The Gaussian beam is reflected by curved mirrors inside the DNP-MAS-NMR probe to be incident at the sample along the MAS rotation axis. The beam is focussed to a ~1 mm waist at the top of the rotor and then gradually diverges to give much more efficient coupling throughout the sample than designs using direct waveguide irradiation. The probe can be used in triple channel HXY mode for 600 MHz (1)H and double channel HX mode for 284 MHz (1)H, with MAS sample temperatures ≥85 K. Initial data at 6.7 T and ~1 W pulsed microwave power are presented with (13)C enhancements of 60 for a frozen urea solution ((1)H-(13)C CP), 16 for bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane ((1)H-(13)C CP) and 22 for (15)N in a frozen glycine solution ((1)H-(15)N CP) being obtained. In comparison with designs which irradiate perpendicular to the rotation axis the approach used here provides a highly efficient use of the incident microwave beam and an NMR-optimised coil design.

  8. The Kepler Input Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, D. W.; Brown, T. M.; Monet, D. G.; Everett, M.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Hergenrother, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    The Kepler mission will monitor 170,000 planet-search targets during the first year, and 100,000 after that. The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) will be used to select optimum targets for the search for habitable earth-like transiting planets. The KIC will include all known catalogued stars in an area of about 177 square degrees centered at RA 19:22:40 and Dec +44:30 (l=76.3 and b=+13.5). 2MASS photometry will be supplemented with new ground-based photometry obtained in the SDSS g, r, i, and z bands plus a custom filter centered on the Mg b lines, using KeplerCam on the 48-inch telescope at the Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. The photometry will be used to estimate stellar characteristics for all stars brighter than K 14.5 mag. The KIC will include effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, reddening, distance, and radius estimates for these stars. The CCD images are pipeline processed to produce instrumental magnitudes at PSI. The photometry is then archived and transformed to the SDSS system at HAO, where the astrophysical analysis of the stellar characteristics is carried out. The results are then merged with catalogued data at the USNOFS to produce the KIC. High dispersion spectroscopy with Hectochelle on the MMT will be used to supplement the information for many of the most interesting targets. The KIC will be released before launch for use by the astronomical community and will be available for queries over the internet. Support from the Kepler mission is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Design of satellite flexibility experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. H.; Hillard, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to begin development of a flight experiment to measure spacecraft control/flexible structure interaction. The work reported consists of two phases: identification of appropriate structural parameters which can be associated with flexibility phenomena, and suggestions for the development of an experiment for a satellite configuration typical of near-future vehicles which are sensitive to such effects. Recommendations are made with respect to the type of data to be collected and instrumentation associated with these data. The approach consists of developing the equations of motion for a vehicle possessing a flexible solar array, then linearizing about some nominal motion of the craft. A set of solutions are assumed for array deflection using a continuous normal mode method and important parameters are exposed. Inflight and ground based measurements are distinguished. Interrelationships between these parameters, measurement techniques, and input requirements are discussed which assure minimization of special vehicle maneuvers and optimization of data to be obtained during the normal flight sequence.

  10. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  11. Singular perturbation approach for control of hydraulically driven flexible manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang; WU Min

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic flexible manipulator system is divided into two parts: flexible arm dynamics and hydraulic servomechanism, a driving Jacobian is derived to connect these two parts. Taking hydraulic actuator force as virtual input, a singular perturbed composite model is formulated and used to design composite controllers for the flexible link, in which the slow subsystem controller dominates the trajectory tracking, and then a fast controller is designed to damp out the vibration of the flexible structure. Moreover, the backstepping technique is applied to regulate the spool position of a hydraulic valve to provide the required force. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  12. Input shaping control with reentry commands of prescribed duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of flexible mechanical structures often deals with the problem of unwanted vibration. The input shaping is a feedforward method based on modification of the input signal so that the output performs the demanded behaviour. The presented approach is based on a finite-time Laplace transform. It leads to no-vibration control signal without any limitations on its time duration because it is not strictly connected to the system resonant frequency. This idea used for synthesis of control input is extended to design of dynamical shaper with reentry property that transform an arbitrary input signal to the signal that cause no vibration. All these theoretical tasks are supported by the results of simulation experiments.

  13. Input in Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Madden, Carolyn G., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "When Does Teacher Talk Work as Input?"; "Cultural Input in Second Language Learning"; "Skilled Variation in a Kindergarten Teacher's Use of Foreigner Talk"; "Teacher-Pupil Interaction in Second Language Development"; "Foreigner Talk in the University…

  14. Inputs for L2 Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleemi, Anjum P.

    1989-01-01

    Major approaches of describing or examining linguistic data from a potential target language (input) are analyzed for adequacy in addressing the concerns of second language learning theory. Suggestions are made for making the best of these varied concepts of input and for reformulation of a unified concept. (MSE)

  15. Input and Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周笑盈

    2011-01-01

    The behaviorist, the mentalist and the interactionist have different emphases on the role input in Second Language Acquisition. In order to protrude the importance of second language teaching, it is indispensible to discuss the characteristics of input and to explore its effects.

  16. Invertible flexible matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Júlia

    2017-06-01

    Matrices with coefficients having uncertainties of type o (.) or O (.), called flexible matrices, are studied from the point of view of nonstandard analysis. The uncertainties of the afore-mentioned kind will be given in the form of the so-called neutrices, for instance the set of all infinitesimals. Since flexible matrices have uncertainties in their coefficients, it is not possible to define the identity matrix in an unique way and so the notion of spectral identity matrix arises. Not all nonsingular flexible matrices can be turned into a spectral identity matrix using Gauss-Jordan elimination method, implying that that not all nonsingular flexible matrices have the inverse matrix. Under certain conditions upon the size of the uncertainties appearing in a nonsingular flexible matrix, a general theorem concerning the boundaries of its minors is presented which guarantees the existence of the inverse matrix of a nonsingular flexible matrix.

  17. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy......Recent studies show that flexibility is a key concern for firms that engage in the global sourcing of services. In this conceptual paper, we seek to explore two central aspects of global sourcing flexibility: In the first part of the paper, we provide a definition of the construct of global...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  18. Reconstruction of Input Excitation Acting on Vibration Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration isolation systems are widely employed in automotive, marine, aerospace, and other engineering fields. Accurate input forces are of great significance for mechanical design, vibration prediction, and structure modification and optimization. One-stage vibration isolation system including engine, vibration isolators, and flexible supporting structure is modeled theoretically in this paper. Input excitation acting on the vibration isolation system is reconstructed using dynamic responses measured on engine and supporting structure under in-suit condition. The reconstructed forces reveal that dynamic responses on rigid body are likely to provide more accurate estimation results. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of excitation reconstructed by dynamic responses on flexible supporting structure, auto/cross-power spectral density function is utilized to reduce measurement noise.

  19. Call centres: constructing flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Arzbächer, Sandra; Holtgrewe, Ursula; Kerst, Christian

    2002-01-01

    "The development of call centres as a flexible interface between firms and their environments has been seen as exemplary or even symptomatic of flexible capitalism (Sennett 1998). We are going to point out that they do not just stand for organisational change but also for changes of institutions towards deregulation. Employers and managers hoped for gains of flexibility, decreasing labour costs, and market gains by an expanded 24-hour-service. Surveillance and control by flexib...

  20. Pneumatic flexible shaft couplings

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Main effort of every design engineer is reduction of torsional oscillation in any mechanical system. At present this problem can be solved by means of a suitable modification of dynamic properties of flexible shaft couplings according to dynamics in the given systems. But the dynamic properties of nowadays-applied flexible couplings arenot unchangeable because of aging and fatigue processes occurring in flexible coupling elements. Result of this fact causes detuning of mechanical system. Taki...

  1. Control of nonlinear flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjun

    With the advances made in computer technology and efficiency of numerical algorithms over last decade, the MPC strategies have become quite popular among control community. However, application of MPC or GPC to flexible space structure control has not been explored adequately in the literature. The work presented in this thesis primarily focuses on application of GPC to control of nonlinear flexible space structures. This thesis is particularly devoted to the development of various approximate dynamic models, design and assessment of candidate controllers, and extensive numerical simulations for a realistic multibody flexible spacecraft, namely, Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)---a Prometheus class of spacecraft proposed by NASA for deep space exploratory missions. A stable GPC algorithm is developed for Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. An end-point weighting (penalty) is used in the GPC cost function to guarantee the nominal stability of the closed-loop system. A method is given to compute the desired end-point state from the desired output trajectory. The methodologies based on Fake Algebraic Riccati Equation (FARE) and constrained nonlinear optimization, are developed for synthesis of state weighting matrix. This makes this formulation more practical. A stable reconfigurable GPC architecture is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated on both aircraft as well as spacecraft model. A representative in-orbit maneuver is used for assessing the performance of various control strategies using various design models. Different approximate dynamic models used for analysis include linear single body flexible structure, nonlinear single body flexible structure, and nonlinear multibody flexible structure. The control laws evaluated include traditional GPC, feedback linearization-based GPC (FLGPC), reconfigurable GPC, and nonlinear dissipative control. These various control schemes are evaluated for robust stability and robust performance in the presence of

  2. Alignment of flexible protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatsky, M; Fligelman, Z Y; Nussinov, R; Wolfson, H J

    2000-01-01

    We present two algorithms which align flexible protein structures. Both apply efficient structural pattern detection and graph theoretic techniques. The FlexProt algorithm simultaneously detects the hinge regions and aligns the rigid subparts of the molecules. It does it by efficiently detecting maximal congruent rigid fragments in both molecules and calculating their optimal arrangement which does not violate the protein sequence order. The FlexMol algorithm is sequence order independent, yet requires as input the hypothesized hinge positions. Due its sequence order independence it can also be applied to protein-protein interface matching and drug molecule alignment. It aligns the rigid parts of the molecule using the Geometric Hashing method and calculates optimal connectivity among these parts by graph-theoretic techniques. Both algorithms are highly efficient even compared with rigid structure alignment algorithms. Typical running times on a standard desktop PC (400 MHz) are about 7 seconds for FlexProt and about 1 minute for FlexMol.

  3. Genetic flexibility of regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Alexander; Tuboly, Csaba; Horváth, Péter; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2010-07-20

    Gene regulatory networks are based on simple building blocks such as promoters, transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites on DNA. But how diverse are the functions that can be obtained by different arrangements of promoters and TF binding sites? In this work we constructed synthetic regulatory regions using promoter elements and binding sites of two noninteracting TFs, each sensing a single environmental input signal. We show that simply by combining these three kinds of elements, we can obtain 11 of the 16 Boolean logic gates that integrate two environmental signals in vivo. Further, we demonstrate how combination of logic gates can result in new logic functions. Our results suggest that simple elements of transcription regulation form a highly flexible toolbox that can generate diverse functions under natural selection.

  4. Input management of production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, E P

    1989-01-13

    Nonpoint sources of pollution, which are largely responsible for stressing regional and global life-supporting atmosphere, soil, and water, can only be reduced (and ultimately controlled) by input management that involves increasing the efficiency of production systems and reducing the inputs of environmentally damaging materials. Input management requires a major change, an about-face, in the approach to management of agriculture, power plants, and industries because the focus is on waste reduction and recycling rather than on waste disposal. For large-scale ecosystem-level situations a top-down hierarchical approach is suggested and illustrated by recent research in agroecology and landscape ecology.

  5. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  6. Organizational flexibility estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Komarynets, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    By the help of parametric estimation the evaluation scale of organizational flexibility and its parameters was formed. Definite degrees of organizational flexibility and its parameters for the Lviv region enterprises were determined. Grouping of the enterprises under the existing scale was carried out. Special recommendations to correct the enterprises behaviour were given.

  7. Flexible magnetoimpidence sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use[1]. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.

  8. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  9. The Advanced LIGO Input Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Chris; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; King, Eleanor; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William; Martin, Rodica; Mullavey, Adam; Poeld, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David; Tanner, David; Williams, Luke; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they h...

  10. Nonlinear input-output systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.

  11. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  12. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  13. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  14. Painful Flexible Flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Taha, Abdel Majid; Feldman, David S

    2015-12-01

    Flatfoot is commonly encountered by pediatric orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians. A paucity of literature exists on how to define a flatfoot. The absence of the medial arch with a valgus hindfoot is the hallmark of this pathology. Flatfoot can be flexible or rigid. This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of the flexible flatfoot. Most flatfeet are flexible and clinically asymptomatic, and warrant little intervention. If feet are symptomatic, treatment is needed. Most patients who require treatment improve with foot orthotics and exercises. Only feet resistant to conservative modalities are deemed surgical candidates. The presence of a tight heel cord is often found in patients who fail conservative management.

  15. Flexible Support Stanchion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-05-11

    Figure 1 shows the assembly drawing of the Central Calorimeter Cryostat Flexible Support Stanchion. Figures 2 and 3 show the Flexible Support STanchion in detail. These Stanchions support the cryostat safely, reduce the heat load to the cryostat from the ambient by a factor of more than ten, provide a spring like action that reduce the loads created by thermal contraction of the cryostat and position the cryostate accurately. Table 1 shows all of the details of the Flexible Support system for the C.C. Cryostat.

  16. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  17. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  18. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.

  19. Comfort constraints. Input for simulation of residents' behavior; Comforthinder. Input bij simulatie van bewonersgedrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaff, H. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Buildings in reality, use more energy than predicted. Among many causes, occupant behaviour plays an important role. Better simulation of occupant behaviour, with respect to thermal comfort and energy use of buildings, opens the possibility to design better, comfortable buildings that have lower energy consumption in reality. Thermal discomfort, a dynamical version of Fanger's PPD, is proposed to be used as input to simulate occupant behaviour via a 'flexible task list' and two Markov processes. [Dutch] Simulatie van bewonersgedrag m.b.t. energiegebruik in gebouwen biedt de mogelijkheid om gebouwen en bijbehorende energie installaties zo te ontwerpen dat ze prettiger zijn om in te wonen en te werken. Thermisch discomfort, een dynamische versie van PPD (percentage of dissatisfied persons) wordt hier voorgesteld om via een Markov-proces en een takenlijst bewonersgedrag mee te simuleren.

  20. COGNITIVE INTERPRETATION OF INPUT HYPOTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHongyue; RenLiankui

    2004-01-01

    Krashen's Input Hypothesis, together with its earlier version, the Monitor Model is an influential theory in Second Language Acquisition research. In his studies, Krashen, on the one hand, emphasizes the part '“ comprehensible input” plays in learning a second language, on the other hand, he simply defines“comprehensible input” as “a little beyond the learner's current level”. What input can be considered as“a little beyond the learner's current level ”? Krashen gives no furtherexplanation. This paper tries to offer a more concrete and more detailed interpretation with Ausubel's Cognitive Assimilation theory.

  1. Input Hypothesis and its Controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金灵

    2016-01-01

    With Krashen's proposal of input hypothesis in 1980s, lots of contributions and further researches have been done in second language acquisition and teaching. Since it is impossible to undertake the exact empirical research to investigate its credibility, lots of criticisms are also aroused to disprove or adjust this hypothesis. However, due to its significant development in SLA, it is still valuable to explore the hypothesis and implications in language teaching to non-native speakers. This paper firstly focuses on the development of the input hypothesis, and then discusses some criticisms of this hypothesis.

  2. Flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lodwick, Weldon A

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the theory and methods of flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization. Particularly, it describes the theory of generalized uncertainty in the context of optimization modeling. The book starts with an overview of flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization. It covers uncertainties that are both associated with lack of information and that more general than stochastic theory, where well-defined distributions are assumed. Starting from families of distributions that are enclosed by upper and lower functions, the book presents construction methods for obtaining flexible and generalized uncertainty input data that can be used in a flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization model. It then describes the development of such a model in detail. All in all, the book provides the readers with the necessary background to understand flexible and generalized uncertainty optimization and develop their own optimization model. .

  3. COUPLING EFFECT OF FLEXIBLE JOINT AND FLEXIBLE LINK ON DYNAMIC SINGULARITY OF FLEXIBLE MANIPULATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhihui; YUN Chao; BIAN Yushu

    2008-01-01

    The coupling effect of the flexible joint and the flexible link on the dynamic singularity of the flexible manipulator is addressed. Firstly, the dynamic equations of a flexible manipulator with a flexible joint and a flexible link are derived. Secondly, the relationship and property between the flexible joint and the flexible link are analyzed. It shows that the flexible joint's amplitude will increase abruptly, thereby the dynamic singularity occurs if the frequency of a flexible joint is near or equal to some natural frequency of a flexible link. Finally, some numerical simulations which will verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, are carried out. The results are fundamental for the design of a flexible manipulator and for the avoidance of the dynamic singularity.

  4. Flexible kernel memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

    2010-06-11

    This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces.

  5. Flexible kernel memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Nowicki

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces.

  6. Balanced input-output assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, W.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Actuator/sensor locations and balanced representations of linear systems are considered for a given set of controllability and observability grammians. The case of equally controlled and observed states is given special attention. The assignability of grammians is examined, and the conditions for their existence are presented, along with several algorithms for their determination. Although an arbitrary positive semidefinite matrix is not always assignable, the identity grammian is shown to be always assignable. The results are extended to the case of flexible structures.

  7. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  8. On Adaptive Optimal Input Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.D.; Vries, D.; Keesman, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of optimal input design (OID) for a fed-batch bioreactor case study is solved recursively. Here an adaptive receding horizon optimal control problem, involving the so-called E-criterion, is solved on-line, using the current estimate of the parameter vector at each sample instant {tk, k =

  9. World Input-Output Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  10. Input in an Institutional Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Hartford, Beverly S.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the nature of input available to learners in the institutional setting of the academic advising session. Results indicate that evidence for the realization of speech acts, positive evidence from peers and status unequals, the effect of stereotypes, and limitations of a learner's pragmatic and grammatical competence are influential…

  11. Optimal Inputs for System Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The derivation of the power spectral density of the optimal input for system identification is addressed in this research. Optimality is defined in...identification potential of general System Identification algorithms, a new and efficient System Identification algorithm that employs Iterated Weighted Least

  12. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  13. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  14. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  15. Input/output interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  16. The advanced LIGO input optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Chris L., E-mail: cmueller@phys.ufl.edu; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; Feldbaum, David; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Martin, Rodica M.; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); DeRosa, Ryan T.; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Frolov, Valery V.; Mullavey, Adam [LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, Louisiana 70754 (United States); Kawabe, Keita; Vorvick, Cheryl [LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); King, Eleanor J. [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); and others

    2016-01-15

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  17. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho N.; Kosel, Jürgen, E-mail: jurgen.kosel@kaust.edu.sa

    2015-03-15

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors's deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor's large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications. - Highlights: • A flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor is developed. • Studies are carried out using a flexible microstrip transmission line. • An MI ratio of up to 90% is obtained. • The effect of magnetostriction is studied.

  18. Study of Chunks Input Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静

    2003-01-01

    This paper is to describe and investigate Chunks (Lexical Phrases ) Input Approach in vocabulary learning strategies by means of achievement tests,questionnaire surveys and interviews. The study is to reveal how different learners combine different vocabulary learning strategies in their learning process. With the data collected, the author of this paper discusses and summarizes learners' individual differences in selecting vocabulary learning strategies with the hope of giving new insights into English teaching and learning.

  19. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  20. Pneumatic flexible shaft couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav HOMIŠIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Main effort of every design engineer is reduction of torsional oscillation in any mechanical system. At present this problem can be solved by means of a suitable modification of dynamic properties of flexible shaft couplings according to dynamics in the given systems. But the dynamic properties of nowadays-applied flexible couplings arenot unchangeable because of aging and fatigue processes occurring in flexible coupling elements. Result of this fact causes detuning of mechanical system. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned situation, we suggest for mechanical systems application of a newly developed pneumatic couplings that have constant characteristicfeatures during the whole current operation and thus they have a positive influence on the system running.

  1. Identification for Active Vibration Control of Flexible Structure Based on Prony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible structures have been widely used in many fields due to the advantages of light quality, small damping, and strong flexibility. However, flexible structures exhibit the vibration in the process of manipulation, which reduces the pointing precision of the system and causes fatigue of the machine. So, this paper focuses on the identification method for active vibration control of flexible structure. The modal parameters and transfer function of the system are identified from the step response signal based on Prony algorithm, while the vibration is attenuated by using the input shaping technique designed according to the parameters identified from the Prony algorithm. Eventually, the proposed approach is applied to the most common flexible structure, a piezoelectric cantilever beam actuated by Macro Fiber Composite (MFC. The experimental results demonstrate that the Prony algorithm is very effective and accurate on the dynamic modeling of flexible structure and input shaper could significantly reduce the vibration and improve the response speed of system.

  2. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus on structural flexibility due to scarcity of previous research in that area. The purpose of the research is to answer a question: how can companies design structural supply chain flexibility? In a...

  3. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  4. Active Vibration Control and Coupled Vibration Analysis of a Parallel Manipulator with Multiple Flexible Links

    OpenAIRE

    Quan Zhang; Chaodong Li; Jiantao Zhang; Jiamei Jin

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the active vibration control and coupled vibration analysis of a planar parallel manipulator (PPM) with three flexible links. Multiple piezoelectric ceramic transducers are integrated with the flexible links to constitute the smart beam structures, and hence the vibration of the flexible link can be self-sensed and self-controlled. To prevent the spillover phenomena and improve the vibration control efficiency, the independent modal space control combined with an input sh...

  5. Implementation of a Fuzzy TSK Controller for a Flexible Joint Robot

    OpenAIRE

    AKBARI, M.E; Badamchizadeh, M. A.; Poor, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a fuzzy TSK controller to control a rotary flexible joint manipulator. The flexibility of joint is performed by means of a solenoid nonlinear spring, which is connected between actuator output and joint input in a bilateral connection form to transfer the produced torque; also the smooth model of frictions is used for modeling the dynamics of flexible manipulator. The effect of coulomb friction and also gearbox backlashes is decreased by a pulsation signal as an extra volt...

  6. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  7. INPUT MODELLING USING STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS AND ARENA SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Iuliana GINGU (BOTEANU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of choosing properly the probability distributions for failure time in a flexible manufacturing system. Several well-known distributions often provide good approximation in practice. The commonly used continuous distributions are: Uniform, Triangular, Beta, Normal, Lognormal, Weibull, and Exponential. In this article is studied how to use the Input Analyzer in the simulation language Arena to fit probability distributions to data, or to evaluate how well a particular distribution. The objective was to provide the selection of the most appropriate statistical distributions and to estimate parameter values of failure times for each machine of a real manufacturing line.

  8. Infrared blocking, microwave and terahertz low-loss transmission AlN films grown on flexible polymeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, E.; Tsybrii, Z.; Sizov, F.; Korotash, I.; Polotskiy, D.; Skoryk, M.; Vuichyk, M.; Svezhentsova, K.

    2017-04-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) film coatings on flexible substrates (polymeric Teflon, Mylar) have been obtained using a hybrid helicon-arc ion-plasma deposition technique with high adhesion of coatings. Studies of optical, morphological, and structural properties of AlN films have been carried out. It was found that AlN coatings on Teflon and Mylar thin-film substrates substantially suppress transmission of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectral range λ ˜ 5-20 μm at certain technological parameters and thickness of AlN. Transmission in THz regions by using quasioptics attains T ≈ 79%-95%, and losses measured in the channels within the microwave region 2 to 36 GHz are <0.06 dB. The obtained composite structures (AlN coatings on Teflon and Mylar thin-film substrates), due to a high thermal conductivity of AlN, could be used as efficient blocking structures in the infrared spectral range ("infrared stealth") withdrawing the heat from filters warmed by IR radiation. At the same time, they can be used as the transparent ones in the microwave and THz regions, which can be important for low-temperature detector components of navigation, positioning, and telecommunication systems due to reducing the background noise.

  9. Blurring the Inputs: A Natural Language Approach to Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, William L.; Thompson, Richard A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2007-01-01

    To document model parameter uncertainties and to automate sensitivity analyses for numerical simulation codes, a natural-language-based method to specify tolerances has been developed. With this new method, uncertainties are expressed in a natural manner, i.e., as one would on an engineering drawing, namely, 5.25 +/- 0.01. This approach is robust and readily adapted to various application domains because it does not rely on parsing the particular structure of input file formats. Instead, tolerances of a standard format are added to existing fields within an input file. As a demonstration of the power of this simple, natural language approach, a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is performed for three disparate simulation codes: fluid dynamics (LAURA), radiation (HARA), and ablation (FIAT). Effort required to harness each code for sensitivity analysis was recorded to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of this new approach.

  10. Choice of input fields in stochastic finite elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob

    1999-01-01

    , the flexibility field, as the input to the stochastic finite element model. To answer this question the focus should be on the error of the output of the mechanical model rather than on the input field itself when discretizing the held through replacing it by a field defined in terms of a finite number of random...... variables. Several reported discretization methods define these random variables as integrals of the product of the held and some suitable weight functions. In particular, the weight functions can be Dirac delta functions whereby the random variables become the field values at a finite set of given points....... The replacement field is often defined as the linear regression of the original field on the considered vector of the weighted integrals of the field. For example, this holds for discretizations obtained by truncation of the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of the field, but only approximately so for truncations...

  11. Choice of input fields in stochastic finite elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob

    1996-01-01

    , the flexibility field, as the input to the stochastic finite element model. To answer this question the focus should be on the error of the output of the mechanical model rather than on the input field itself when discretizing the field through replacing it by a field defined in terms of a finite number of random...... variables. Several reported discretization methods define these random variables as integrals of the product of the field and some suitable weight functions. In particular, the weight functions can be Dirac delta functions whereby the random variables become the field values at a finite set of given points....... The replacement field is often defined as the linear regression of the original field on the considered vector of the weighted integrals of the field. For example, this holds for discretizations obtained by truncation of the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of the field, but only approximately so for truncations...

  12. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  13. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  14. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...

  15. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  16. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...

  17. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  18. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  19. Adding flexibility to physician training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Suzanne E

    2011-05-02

    Demographic changes among junior doctors are driving demand for increased flexibility in advanced physician training, but flexible training posts are lacking. Suitable flexible training models include flexible full-time, job-share and part-time positions. Major barriers to establishing flexible training positions include difficulty in finding job-share partners, lack of funding for creating supernumerary positions, and concern over equivalence of educational quality compared with full-time training. Pilot flexible training positions should be introduced across the medical specialties and educational outcomes examined prospectively.

  20. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...

  1. FLEXIBLE GEIGER COUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H.G.; Gillespie, A.S. Jr.

    1963-11-12

    A flexible Geiger counter constructed from materials composed of vinyl chloride polymerized with plasticizers or co-polymers is presented. The counter can be made either by attaching short segments of corrugated plastic sleeving together, or by starting with a length of vacuum cleaner hose composed of the above materials. The anode is maintained substantially axial Within the sleeving or hose during tube flexing by means of polystyrene spacer disks or an easily assembled polyethylene flexible cage assembly. The cathode is a wire spiraled on the outside of the counter. The sleeving or hose is fitted with glass end-pieces or any other good insulator to maintain the anode wire taut and to admit a counting gas mixture into the counter. Having the cathode wire on the outside of the counter substantially eliminates the objectional sheath effect of prior counters and permits counting rates up to 300,000 counts per minute. (AEC)

  2. Flexible Metasurface Holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James; Chen, Xianzhong; Di Falco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Metasurface holograms are typically fabricated on rigid substrates. Here we experimentally demonstrate broadband, flexible, conformable, helicity multiplexed metasurface holograms operating in the visible range, offering increased potential for real life out-of-the-lab applications. Two symmetrically distributed holographic images are obtained when circularly polarized light impinges on the reflective-type metasurface positioned on non- planar targets. The two off-axis images with high fidelity are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of incident light. Our metasurface features the arrangement of spatially varying gold nanorods on a flexible, conformable epoxy resist membrane to realize a Pancharatnam- Berry phase profile. These results pave the way to practical applications including polarization manipulation, beam steering, novel lenses, and holographic displays.

  3. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  4. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  5. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  6. More flexibility for DESY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In the future, budgeting at DESY will be more efficient. The 16 associated research centers are to be granted a wider margin in matters of finance and human resources. The Budget Committee of the German Bundestag has agreed to abstain from mandatory staff appointments. The current pre-determined "job pyramid" will be replaced by a more flexible mechanism, so that the conclusion of fixed labor contracts can more closely follow the needs of research (1 page).

  7. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  8. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  9. Flexible Data Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    reconfiguring the waveform characteristics (on-the-fly) based on the engagement environment. Therefore, flexibility was the highest priority in the design of...the aircraft to a ground antenna . Utilizing the threshold system requirements (100 km range), we calculate the multipath of the aircraft as it...approaches the ground antenna . Figure 3: Multipath scenario #1 The calculation of the reflected path (denoted as A + C in Figure 3) is found through the

  10. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  11. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  12. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  13. Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.

  14. Facilitating agricultural input distribution in Uganda - Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    The input supply market however, suffered a setback as a result of the ... Ltd. redefined the approach emphasizing a demand driven input market by shifting ... Training of business entrepreneurs in business planning, ... The strategy to increase rural demand for agricultural inputs ..... During season 2004A, the basic fertilizers.

  15. Effects of Auditory Input in Individuation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2008-01-01

    Under many conditions auditory input interferes with visual processing, especially early in development. These interference effects are often more pronounced when the auditory input is unfamiliar than when the auditory input is familiar (e.g. human speech, pre-familiarized sounds, etc.). The current study extends this research by examining how…

  16. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.607 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety of...

  17. 7 CFR 3430.15 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.15 Section 3430.15... Stakeholder input. Section 103(c)(2) of the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998... RFAs for competitive programs. CSREES will provide instructions for submission of stakeholder input...

  18. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.907 Section 3430.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. CSREES shall seek and obtain stakeholder input through a variety...

  19. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in energy supply and demand becomes more and more important with increasing Renewable Energy Sources (RES) production and the emergence of the Smart Grid. So-called prosumers, i.e., entities that produce and/or consume energy, can offer their inherent flexibilities through so......-called demand response and thus help stabilize the energy markets. Thus, prosumer flexibility becomes valuable and the ongoing Danish project TotalFlex [1] explores the use of prosumer flexibility in the energy market using the concept of a flex-offer [2], which captures energy flexibilities in time and...... induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  20. Input calibration for negative originals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    1995-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the prepress environment consists of controlling the electronic color reproduction process such that a perfect match of any original can be realized. Whether this goal can be reached depends on many factors such as the dynamic range of the input device (scanner, camera), the color gamut of the output device (dye sublimation printer, ink-jet printer, offset), the color management software etc. The characterization of the color behavior of the peripheral devices is therefore very important. Photographs and positive transparents reflect the original scene pretty well; for negative originals, however, there is no obvious link to either the original scene or a particular print of the negative under consideration. In this paper, we establish a method to scan negatives and to convert the scanned data to a calibrated RGB space, which is known colorimetrically. This method is based on the reconstruction of the original exposure conditions (i.e., original scene) which generated the negative. Since the characteristics of negative film are quite diverse, a special calibration is required for each combination of scanner and film type.

  1. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  2. Flexible composite radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  3. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  4. Flexible plasma linear antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiansen; Wang, Shengzheng; Wu, Huafeng; Liu, Yue; Chang, Yongmeng; Chen, Xinqiang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we introduce a type of plasma antenna that was fabricated using flexible materials and excited using a 5-20 kHz alternating current (ac) power supply. The results showed that the antenna characteristics, including the impedance, the reflection coefficient (S11), the radiation pattern, and the gain, can be controlled rapidly and easily by varying both the discharge parameters and the antenna shapes. The scope for reconfiguration is greatly enhanced when the antenna shape is changed from a monopole to a helix configuration. Additionally, the antenna polarization can also be adjusted by varying the antenna shapes.

  5. An Efficient, Highly Flexible Multi-Channel Digital Downconverter Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhart, Charles E.; Soriano, Melissa A.; Navarro, Robert; Trinh, Joseph T.; Sigman, Elliott H.

    2013-01-01

    In this innovation, a digital downconverter has been created that produces a large (16 or greater) number of output channels of smaller bandwidths. Additionally, this design has the flexibility to tune each channel independently to anywhere in the input bandwidth to cover a wide range of output bandwidths (from 32 MHz down to 1 kHz). Both the flexibility in channel frequency selection and the more than four orders of magnitude range in output bandwidths (decimation rates from 32 to 640,000) presented significant challenges to be solved. The solution involved breaking the digital downconversion process into a two-stage process. The first stage is a 2 oversampled filter bank that divides the whole input bandwidth as a real input signal into seven overlapping, contiguous channels represented with complex samples. Using the symmetry of the sine and cosine functions in a similar way to that of an FFT (fast Fourier transform), this downconversion is very efficient and gives seven channels fixed in frequency. An arbitrary number of smaller bandwidth channels can be formed from second-stage downconverters placed after the first stage of downconversion. Because of the overlapping of the first stage, there is no gap in coverage of the entire input bandwidth. The input to any of the second-stage downconverting channels has a multiplexer that chooses one of the seven wideband channels from the first stage. These second-stage downconverters take up fewer resources because they operate at lower bandwidths than doing the entire downconversion process from the input bandwidth for each independent channel. These second-stage downconverters are each independent with fine frequency control tuning, providing extreme flexibility in positioning the center frequency of a downconverted channel. Finally, these second-stage downconverters have flexible decimation factors over four orders of magnitude The algorithm was developed to run in an FPGA (field programmable gate array) at input data

  6. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  7. Turn customer input into innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, Anthony W

    2002-01-01

    It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis.

  8. Reconsideration of tyre-pavement input parameters for the structural design of flexible pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available which have higher inflation pressures and hence higher contact stresses than was previously the case. The aim of this paper is to highlight the variabilities associated with actual measured three-dimensional tyre-pavement contact loading/stress regimes...

  9. The Flexibility Hypothesis of Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2017-03-01

    Theories of healing have attempted to identify general mechanisms that may work across different modalities. These include altering expectations, remoralization, and instilling hope. In this paper, we argue that many forms of healing and psychotherapy may work by inducing positive psychological states marked by flexibility or an enhanced ability to shift cognitive sets. Healing practices may induce these states of cognitive and emotional flexibility through specific symbolic interventions we term "flexibility primers" that can include images, metaphors, music, and other media. The flexibility hypothesis suggests that cognitive and emotional flexibility is represented, elicited, and enacted through multiple modalities in healing rituals. Identifying psychological processes and cultural forms that evoke and support cognitive and emotional flexibility provides a way to understand the cultural specificity and potential efficacy of particular healing practices and can guide the design of interventions that promote resilience and well-being.

  10. Flexible Satellite Attitude Control via Adaptive Fuzzy Linearization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Ping; LIU Xiang-dong; CHEN Jia-bin; LIU Xiao-he

    2005-01-01

    The adaptive fuzzy control is combined with input-output linearization control to constitute the hybrid controller. The control method is then applied to the attitude maneuver control of the flexible satellite.The basic control structure is given. The rules of the controller parameter selection, which guarantee the attitude stabilization of the satellite with parameter uncertainties, have been analyzed. Simulation results show that the precise attitude control is accomplished in spite of the uncertainty in the system.

  11. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... varying cultural repertoires, in particularly heterogeneous flexible repertoires, influence offending and victimization patterns among young men in high-risk settings....... independently of the authors in neighbouring township areas of Cape Town, we offer insights into patterns of victimization among young men not involved in crime who live and attend school in the townships. Young men who perform decent cultural repertoires are highly exposed to victimization due to their moral...

  12. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016.

  13. Input estimation from measured structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Dustin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cross, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silva, Ramon A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This report will focus on the estimation of unmeasured dynamic inputs to a structure given a numerical model of the structure and measured response acquired at discrete locations. While the estimation of inputs has not received as much attention historically as state estimation, there are many applications where an improved understanding of the immeasurable input to a structure is vital (e.g. validating temporally varying and spatially-varying load models for large structures such as buildings and ships). In this paper, the introduction contains a brief summary of previous input estimation studies. Next, an adjoint-based optimization method is used to estimate dynamic inputs to two experimental structures. The technique is evaluated in simulation and with experimental data both on a cantilever beam and on a three-story frame structure. The performance and limitations of the adjoint-based input estimation technique are discussed.

  14. A 3D Hand-drawn Gesture Input Device Using Fuzzy ARTMAP-based Recognizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel input device based on 3D dynamic hand-drawn gestures is presented. It makes use of inertial sensor and pattern recognition technique. Fuzzy ARTMAP based recognizer is adopted to realize gesture recognition by using 3-axis acceleration signals directly instead of reproduced trajectories of gestures. The proposed method may relax motion constraints during inputting a gesture, which is more convenient for user. This prototype of input device has been implemented on a remote controller to manipulate TVs. The recognition rate of 20 gestures is higher than 97%. It clearly shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed input device. As a result, it is a powerful, flexible interface for modern electronic products.

  15. A 3D Hand-drawn Gesture Input Device Using Fuzzy ARTMAP-based Recognizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel input device based on 3D dynamic hand-drawn gestures is presented. It makes use of inertial sensor and pattern recognition technique. Fuzzy ARTMAP based recognizer is adopted to realize gesture recognition by using 3-axis acceleration signals directly instead of reproduced trajectories of gestures. The proposed method may relax motion constraints during inputting a gesture, which is more convenient for user. This prototype of input device has been implemented on a remote controller to manipulate TVs. The recognition rate of 20 gestures is higher than 97%. It clearly shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed input device. As a result, it is a powerful, flexible interface for modern electronic products.

  16. Input Method "Five Strokes": Advantages and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja PETROVČIČ

    2014-03-01

    Since the Five Stroke input method is easily accessible, simple to master and is not pronunciation-based, we would expect that the students will use it to input unknown characters. The survey comprises students of Japanology and Sinology at Department of Asian and African Studies, takes in consideration the grade of the respondent and therefore his/her knowledge of characters. This paper also discusses the impact of typeface to the accuracy of the input.

  17. Performance Comparison of Sub Phonetic Model with Input Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr E. Ramaraj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quest to arrive at a better model for signal transformation for speech has resulted in striving to develop better signal representations and algorithm. The article explores the word model which is a concatenation of state dependent senones as an alternate for phoneme. The Research Work has an objective of involving the senone with the Input signal processing an algorithm which has been tried with phoneme and has been quite successful and try to compare the performance of senone with ISP and Phoneme with ISP and supply the result analysis. The research model has taken the SPHINX IV[4] speech engine for its implementation owing to its flexibility to the new algorithm, robustness and performance consideration.

  18. Building Highly Flexible Polyelectrolyte Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Flexibility of polyelectrolyte nanotubes is necessary if they are to be exploited in applications such as developing photoelectric devices with strong mechanical properties. In a recent attempt, high flexibility has been observed from such nanotubes prepared by a research team headed by Prof. Li Junbai of the CAS Institute of Chemistry (ICCAS).

  19. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    , Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...

  20. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...

  1. Function Machines & Flexible Algebraic Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gary E.; McGowen, Mercedes A.

    This paper explores how college students understand ideas of functions, and which representations are productive for them in promoting their ability to work flexibly across representations. The study used pre- and post-test scores, and triangulations via student self evaluations, to generate a hypothesis related to flexible thinking and success in…

  2. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  3. Retirement Flexibility and Portfolio Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Y.; Bonenkamp, J.; Meijdam, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between retirement flexibility and portfolio choice in an overlapping-generations model. We analyse this interaction both in a partial-equilibrium and general-equilibrium setting. Retirement flexibility is often seen as a hedge against capital-market risks which

  4. Bilinearity in spatiotemporal integration of synaptic inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songting Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons process information via integration of synaptic inputs from dendrites. Many experimental results demonstrate dendritic integration could be highly nonlinear, yet few theoretical analyses have been performed to obtain a precise quantitative characterization analytically. Based on asymptotic analysis of a two-compartment passive cable model, given a pair of time-dependent synaptic conductance inputs, we derive a bilinear spatiotemporal dendritic integration rule. The summed somatic potential can be well approximated by the linear summation of the two postsynaptic potentials elicited separately, plus a third additional bilinear term proportional to their product with a proportionality coefficient [Formula: see text]. The rule is valid for a pair of synaptic inputs of all types, including excitation-inhibition, excitation-excitation, and inhibition-inhibition. In addition, the rule is valid during the whole dendritic integration process for a pair of synaptic inputs with arbitrary input time differences and input locations. The coefficient [Formula: see text] is demonstrated to be nearly independent of the input strengths but is dependent on input times and input locations. This rule is then verified through simulation of a realistic pyramidal neuron model and in electrophysiological experiments of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The rule is further generalized to describe the spatiotemporal dendritic integration of multiple excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. The integration of multiple inputs can be decomposed into the sum of all possible pairwise integration, where each paired integration obeys the bilinear rule. This decomposition leads to a graph representation of dendritic integration, which can be viewed as functionally sparse.

  5. Light-emitting diodes fabricated on an electrical conducting flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Sik; Kim, Wan Jae; Park, Si-Hyun; Cho, Sung Oh; Lee, June Key; Park, Jun Beom; Ha, Jun-Seok; Chung, Tae Hoon; Jeong, Tak

    2017-01-01

    An array of InGaN-based flexible light-emitting diodes (FLEDs) was fabricated on a Ni-embedded electrical conducting flexible fabric with a full-scale 2-in. size. The FLED chip operation under current injection was realized using a single current probe as the negative electrode on the n-GaN surface; the conducting substrate was used as the positive electrode. The stability of the output power in the FLEDs was improved dramatically on the Ni-embedded conducting flexible fabric compared to that on the conventional polyimide flexible substrate. The former showed linear operation up to an input current 950 mA with no wavelength shift, whereas the latter exhibited rolling-over behavior after an input current of 200 mA.

  6. Numerical Study of Propulsion Mechanism for Oscillating Rigid and Flexible Tuna-Tails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yang; Yumin Su; Qing Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Numerical study on the unsteady hydrodynamic characteristics of oscillating rigid and flexible tuna-tails in viscous flow-field is performed.Investigations are conducted using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a moving adaptive mesh.The effect of swimming speed,flapping amplitude,frequency and flexure amplitude on the propulsion performance of the rigid and flexible tuna-tails are investigated.Computational results reveal that a pair of leading edge vortices develop along the tail surface as it undergoes an oscillating motion.The propulsive efficiency has a strong correlation with various locomotive parameters.Peak propulsive efficiency can be obtained by adjusting these parameters.Particularly,when input power coefficient is less than 2.8,the rigid tail generates larger thrust force and higher propulsive efficiency than flexible tail.However,when input power coefficient is larger than 2.8,flexible tail is superior to rigid tail.

  7. Functional aspects of protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are dynamic entities, and they possess an inherent flexibility that allows them to function through molecular interactions within the cell, among cells and even between organisms. Appreciation of the non-static nature of proteins is emerging, but to describe and incorporate...... this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions....... The thermodynamics involved are reviewed, and examples of structure-function studies involving experimentally determined flexibility descriptions are presented. While much remains to be understood about protein flexibility, it is clear that it is encoded within their amino acid sequence and should be viewed...

  8. Computing Functions by Approximating the Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2012-01-01

    In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their…

  9. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  10. [Flexible root posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Mandzhavidze, N A; Gumberidze, N Sh

    2009-02-01

    The article discusses the current state of restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Nowadays, technical progress allows manufacturers to develop flexible fiberglass posts, aspiring not only to an excellent aesthetics and mechanical properties (first of all, in comparison with metal and cast posts), but also to maintenance of their radio density and a wide range of forms. Growth of fiberglass posts popularity testifies to their clinical efficiency that also is confirmed by results of long-term researches. Introduction of fiberglass posts in a dental practice has rendered huge influence on restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Convincing factors of fiberglass posts superiority provide restoration the appearance similar with the natural dentition; possess close to dentine elasticity; creation of monolithic structure with hard tooth tissues and composite cement, posts, in case of need, can be easily adjusted on length, adhesive linkage of posts gives them additional stability. Modern researches have confirmed that only elastic, namely carbon fiber and the fiberglass posts made of modern technologies possess similar physical properties, as tooth structure. They can create reliable biomimetic design; solve a complex of aesthetic and functional restoration problems.

  11. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  12. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, K; Rost, J M

    2015-01-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable non-adiabatic effects. A joint exciton/motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of non-adiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K.~Leonhardt {\\it et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~Lett. {\\bf 113} 223001 (2014)]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterise the ...

  13. Damage localization under ambient vibration using changes in flexibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has emerged as a new research area in civil engineering. Mostexisting health monitoring methodologies require direct measurement of input excitation for implementation. However, in manycases, there is no easy way to measure these inputs - or alternatively to externally excite the structure. Therefore, SHM methodsbased on ambient vibration have become important in civil engineering. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the DamageLocation Vector (DLV) method to handle the ambient vibration case. Here, this flexibility-matrix-based damage localization methodis combined with a modal expansion technique to eliminate the need to measure the input excitation. As a by-product of thisapproach, in addition to determining the location of the damage, an estimate of the damage extent also can be determined. Finally, anumerical example analyzing a truss structure with limited sensors and noisy measurement is provided to verify the efficacy of theproposed approach.

  14. Statistical identification of effective input variables. [SCREEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    A statistical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for ranking the input data of large computer codes in the order of sensitivity-importance. The method is economical for large codes with many input variables, since it uses a relatively small number of computer runs. No prior judgemental elimination of input variables is needed. The sceening method is based on stagewise correlation and extensive regression analysis of output values calculated with selected input value combinations. The regression process deals with multivariate nonlinear functions, and statistical tests are also available for identifying input variables that contribute to threshold effects, i.e., discontinuities in the output variables. A computer code SCREEN has been developed for implementing the screening techniques. The efficiency has been demonstrated by several examples and applied to a fast reactor safety analysis code (Venus-II). However, the methods and the coding are general and not limited to such applications.

  15. Atmospheric Nitrogen input to the Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asman, W.A.H.; Hertel, O.; Berkowicz, R.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of the processes involved in the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. These processes are incorporated in an atmospheric transport model that is used to calculate the nitrogen input to the Kattegat, the sea area between Denmark and Sweden. The model results show...... that the total atmospheric nitrogen input to the Kattegat is approximately 960 kg N km(-2) yr(-1). The nitrogen input to the Kattegat is dominated by the wet depositions of NHx (42%) and NOy (30%). The contribution from the dry deposition of NHx is 17% and that of the dry deposition of NOy is 11......%. The contribution of the atmospheric input of nitrogen to the Kattegat is about 30% of the total input including the net transport from other sea areas, runoff etc....

  16. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  17. A family of asymptotically stable control laws for flexible robots based on a passivity approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Leonardo; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A general family of asymptotically stabilizing control laws is introduced for a class of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems. The inherent passivity property of this class of systems and the Passivity Theorem are used to show the closed-loop input/output stability which is then related to the internal state space stability through the stabilizability and detectability condition. Applications of these results include fully actuated robots, flexible joint robots, and robots with link flexibility.

  18. Input impedance characteristics of microstrip structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Nazarko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Electromagnetic crystals (EC and EC-inhomogeneities are one of the main directions of microstrip devices development. In the article the input impedance characteristics of EC- and traditional microstrip inhomogeneities and filter based on EC-inhomogeneities are investigated. Transmission coefficient characteristics. Transmission coefficient characteristics of low impedance EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are considered. Characteristics are calculated in the software package Microwave Studio. It is shown that the efficiency of EC-inhomogeneity is much higher. Input impedance characteristics of low impedance inhomogeneities. Dependences of input impedance active and reactive parts of EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are given. Dependences of the active part illustrate significant low impedance transformation of nominal impedance. The conditions of impedance matching of structure and input medium are set. Input impedance characteristics of high impedance inhomogeneities. Input impedance characteristics of high impedance EC- and traditional inhomogeneities are considered. It was shown that the band of transformation by high impedance inhomogeneities is much narrower than one by low impedance inhomogeneities. Characteristics of the reflection coefficient of inhomogeneities are presented. Input impedance characteristics of narrowband filter. The structure of narrowband filter based on the scheme of Fabry-Perot resonator is presented. The structure of the filter is fulfilled by high impedance EC-inhomogeneities as a reflectors. Experimental and theoretical amplitude-frequency characteristics of the filter are presented. Input impedance characteristics of the filter are shown. Conclusions. Input impedance characteristics of the structure allow to analyse its wave properties, especially resonant. EC-inhomogeneity compared with traditional microstrip provide substantially more significant transformation of the the input impedance.

  19. Flexible Blades for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Madeline Carlisle; Macphee, David; Harris, Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has shown that windmills with flexible blades are more efficient than those with rigid blades. Flexibility offers passive pitch control, preferable to active pitch control which is costly and requires maintenance. Flexible blades morph such that the blade more closely resembles its design point at part load and over load. The lift-to-drag ratios on individual blades was investigated. A mold was designed and machined from an acrylic slab for the casting of blades with a NACA 0012 cross section. A flexible blade was cast from silicone and a rigid blade was cast from polyurethane. Each of these blades was tested in a wind tunnel, cantilever mounted, spanning the whole test section. The angle of attack was varied by rotating the mount. All tests were performed at the same wind speed. A load cell within the mount measured forces on the blade, from which the lift and drag forces were calculated. The stall point for the flexible blade occurred later than for the rigid blade, which agrees with previous research. Lift-to-drag ratios were larger for the flexible blade at all angles of attack tested. Flexible blades seem to be a viable option for passive pitch control. Future research will include different airfoil cross sections, wind speeds, and blade materials. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  20. Swarming: flexible roaming plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan D; Harshey, Rasika M

    2013-03-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on "hard" agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a "softer" agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior.

  1. Flexible armored blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.S.

    1978-05-01

    An exploratory development contract was undertaken on December 23, 1977 which had as its purpose the development and demonstration of a flexible armored blanket design suitable for providing ballistic protection to nuclear weapons during shipment. Objectives were to design and fabricate a prototype blanket which will conform to the weapon shape, is troop-handleable in the field, and which, singly or in multiple layers, can defeat a range of kinetic energy armor piercing (AP) ammunition potentially capable of damaging the critical portion of the nuclear weapon. Following empirical testing, including the firing of threat ammunition under controlled laboratory and field test conditions, materials were selected and assembled into two blanket designs, each weighing approximately 54 kg/m{sup 2} (11 lbs/ft{sup 2}) and estimated to cost from $111 to $180 per ft{sup 2} in production. A firing demonstration to evidence blanket performance against terrorist/light infantry weapons, heavy infantry weapons, and aircraft cannon was conducted for representatives of the DOD and interested Sandia employees on April 12, 1978. The blankets performed better than anticipated defeating bullets up to 7.62 mm x 51 mm AP with one layer and projectiles up to 23 mm HEI with two layers. Based on these preliminary tests it is recommended that development work be continued with the following objectives: (1) the selection by the DOD of priority applications, (2) the specific design and fabrication of sufficient quantities of armored blankets for field testing, (3) the evaluation of the blankets by DOD operational units, with reports to Sandia Laboratories to enable final design.

  2. What influences children's conceptualizations of language input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca; Moody, Amanda; Gerken, LouAnn

    2013-10-01

    Children learning language conceptualize the nature of input they receive in ways that allow them to understand and construct utterances they have never heard before. This study was designed to illuminate the types of information children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) focus on to develop their conceptualizations and whether they can rapidly shift their initial conceptualizations if provided with additional input. In 2 studies, preschool children with and without SLI were exposed to an artificial language, the characteristics of which allowed for various types of conceptualizations about its fundamental properties. After being familiarized with the language, children were asked to judge test strings that conformed to the input in 1 of 4 different ways. All children preferred test items that reflected a narrow conceptualization of the input (i.e., items most like those heard during familiarization). Children showed a strong preference for phonology as a defining property of the artificial language. Restructuring the input to the child could induce them to track word order information as well. Children tend toward narrow conceptualizations of language input, but the nature of their conceptualizations can be influenced by the nature of the input they receive.

  3. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  4. Flexible Learning in a Digital World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty; Moonen, Jef

    2002-01-01

    Defines flexible learning and describes components of flexible learning in higher education, including technology, pedagogy or instructional approach, implementation strategies, and institutional framework. Considers factors constraining learning flexibility; changing student characteristics; and the need for lifelong learning, particularly in the…

  5. ON THE DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF 2-DOF PLANAR PARALLEL MECHANISM WITH FLEXIBLE LINKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Lei; Wang Shigang; Mo Jinqiu; Cai Jianguo

    2005-01-01

    The object of study is about dynamic modeling and control for a 2 degree-of-freedom (DOF) planar parallel mechanism (PM) with flexible links. The kinematic and dynamic equations are established according to the characteristics of mixed rigid and flexible structure. By using the singular perturbation approach (SPA), the model of the mechanism can be separated into slow and fast subsystems. Based on the feedback linearization theory and input shaping technique, the large scale rigid motion controller and the flexible link vibration controller can be designed separately to achieve fast and accurate positioning of the PM.

  6. A positive mood, a flexible brain

    OpenAIRE

    Betzel, Richard F.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Gold, Joshua I.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible reconfiguration of human brain networks supports cognitive flexibility and learning. However, modulating flexibility to enhance learning requires an understanding of the relationship between flexibility and brain state. In an unprecedented longitudinal data set, we investigate the relationship between flexibility and mood, demonstrating that flexibility is positively correlated with emotional state. Our results inform the modulation of brain state to enhance response to training in h...

  7. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... energy data management and discuss strategies for aggregation and disaggregation of flex-objects while retaining flexibility. This paper further extends these approaches beyond flex-objects originating from energy consumption by additionally considering flex-objects originating from energy production...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  8. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-01-01

    .... With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched...

  9. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas.

  10. Flexible sensors based on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev-Bar, Meital; Haick, Hossam

    2013-10-22

    Flexible sensors can be envisioned as promising components for smart sensing applications, including consumer electronics, robotics, prosthetics, health care, safety equipment, environmental monitoring, homeland security and space flight. The current review presents a concise, although admittedly nonexhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in flexible sensors. The review attempts to pull together different views and terminologies used in the NP-based sensors, mainly those established via electrical transduction approaches, including, but, not confined to: (i) strain-gauges, (ii) flexible multiparametric sensors, and (iii) sensors that are unaffected by mechanical deformation. For each category, the review presents and discusses the common fabrication approaches and state-of-the-art results. The advantages, weak points, and possible routes for future research, highlighting the challenges for NP-based flexible sensors, are presented and discussed as well.

  11. Flexible protection for metal bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, K. G.

    1970-01-01

    RTV silicone is used with a braided wire sheath surrounding the metal bellows in fluid transfer systems. It demonstrated best overall performance in flexibility and shock absorbing tests, high temperature, low temperature, and salt spray.

  12. Scaling of global input-output networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qi, Zhengling; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Ji; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Jia, Xiaoping; Xu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Examining scaling patterns of networks can help understand how structural features relate to the behavior of the networks. Input-output networks consist of industries as nodes and inter-industrial exchanges of products as links. Previous studies consider limited measures for node strengths and link weights, and also ignore the impact of dataset choice. We consider a comprehensive set of indicators in this study that are important in economic analysis, and also examine the impact of dataset choice, by studying input-output networks in individual countries and the entire world. Results show that Burr, Log-Logistic, Log-normal, and Weibull distributions can better describe scaling patterns of global input-output networks. We also find that dataset choice has limited impacts on the observed scaling patterns. Our findings can help examine the quality of economic statistics, estimate missing data in economic statistics, and identify key nodes and links in input-output networks to support economic policymaking.

  13. Input data to run Landis-II

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location...

  14. Existence conditions for unknown input functional observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, T.; MacDougall, S.; Sreeram, V.; Trinh, H.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence and design of an unknown input Functional observer. The existence of the observer can be verified by computing a nullspace of a known matrix and testing some matrix rank conditions. The existence of the observer does not require the satisfaction of the observer matching condition (i.e. Equation (16) in Hou and Muller 1992, 'Design of Observers for Linear Systems with Unknown Inputs', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 37, 871-875), is not limited to estimating scalar functionals and allows for arbitrary pole placement. The proposed observer always exists when a state observer exists for the unknown input system, and furthermore, the proposed observer can exist even in some instances when an unknown input state observer does not exist.

  15. FLEXIBLE FLATFOOT IN CHILDREN (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Владимир Маркович Кенис; Юрий Алексеевич Лапкин; Руслан Халилович Хусаинов; Андрей Викторович Сапоговский

    2014-01-01

    Flatfoot is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in the daily practice of pediatric orthopedists. Despite of numerous studies, diagnostic criteria and principles of management remain controversial. Flexible flatfoot - is visually detectable decrease in the height of the longitudinal arch of the foot, which can be spontaneously corrected by active or passive motion and not accompanied by any contracture of foot and ankle. Flexible flatfoot is a benign condition which is normal for...

  16. Value of Flexibility - Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-25

    flexibility could also change the calculus of how we determine when to start a new program vice modifying an existing one. Flexibility could even help...decades ago by Steward as a ‖framework for formally identifying and tracking relationships between design variables‖ [ Steward , 1981]. Keese [2007...Paper presented at the 6th Conference on Systems Engineering Research, Los Angeles, CA. Shreve, S. E. (2004). Stochastic calculus for finance. New

  17. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  18. Flexible solar-array mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    One of the key elements of the flexible rolled-up solar array system is a mechanism to deploy, retract, and store the flexible solar-cell arrays. The selection of components, the design of the mechanism assembly, and the tests that were performed are discussed. During 6 months in orbit, all mission objectives were satisfied, and inflight performance has shown good correlation with preflight analyses and tests.

  19. Flexible Learning Spaces Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bullimore, A.; Reader, K.; Sultany, A

    2013-01-01

    City University, London is tackling the challenge of ensuring the learning spaces provided are able to meet the anticipated increase in technology usage and prevalent pedagogies. There is no longer a standard classroom design that will achieve this goal and therefore it is imperative to pilot and explore a variety of flexible learning spaces. This report feeds back on an\\ud evaluation of two flexible learning space approaches piloted in the autumn term of 2012 as alternatives to traditional c...

  20. Combined LTP and LTD of modulatory inputs controls neuronal processing of primary sensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Brent; Zhao, Yanjun; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2011-07-20

    A hallmark of brain organization is the integration of primary and modulatory pathways by principal neurons. However, the pathway interactions that shape primary input processing remain unknown. We investigated this problem in mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where principal cells integrate primary, auditory nerve input with modulatory, parallel fiber input. Using a combined experimental and computational approach, we show that combined LTP and LTD of parallel fiber inputs to DCN principal cells and interneurons, respectively, broaden the time window within which synaptic inputs summate. Enhanced summation depolarizes the resting membrane potential and thus lowers the response threshold to auditory nerve inputs. Combined LTP and LTD, by preserving the variance of membrane potential fluctuations and the membrane time constant, fixes response gain and spike latency as threshold is lowered. Our data reveal a novel mechanism mediating adaptive and concomitant homeostatic regulation of distinct features of neuronal processing of sensory inputs.

  1. Inadequacies of TPR and Krashen's Input Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Meng; LI Laifa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the rationale of TPR and the Input Hypothesis of Krashen which justifies practices of TPR are reviewed and criticized in the light of evidence from teachers'observation of a long-term TPR project.It is argued that the effectiveness of TPR is compromised by its inadequate attention to the complexity of classroom interactions and children's cognition.The Input Hypothesis is believed that it oversimplified the cognitive dynamics of language learning.

  2. Land Scale, Input-Output and Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengzhi; DENG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the investigation of production, inputs and income of tobacco farmers in 337 families in 10 counties of which the specialty is tobacco in Henan Province in 2010, the differences in the production, inputs and income were discussed. Results suggested that in terms of land yield rate and tobacco growers income, the suitable proportion of land for tobacco production in Henan Province is from 0.33 to 0.67 hm2.

  3. Neural Networks with Complex and Quaternion Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Rishiyur, Adityan

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates Kak neural networks, which can be instantaneously trained, for complex and quaternion inputs. The performance of the basic algorithm has been analyzed and shown how it provides a plausible model of human perception and understanding of images. The motivation for studying quaternion inputs is their use in representing spatial rotations that find applications in computer graphics, robotics, global navigation, computer vision and the spatial orientation of instruments. ...

  4. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  5. Oxide Heteroepitaxy for Flexible Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitla, Yugandhar; Chen, Ching; Lee, Hsien-Chang; Do, Thi Hien; Ma, Chun-Hao; Qui, Le Van; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chang, Li; Chiu, Po-Wen; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2016-11-30

    The emerging technological demands for flexible and transparent electronic devices have compelled researchers to look beyond the current silicon-based electronics. However, fabrication of devices on conventional flexible substrates with superior performance are constrained by the trade-off between processing temperature and device performance. Here, we propose an alternative strategy to circumvent this issue via the heteroepitaxial growth of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) on the flexible mica substrate with performance comparable to that of their rigid counterparts. With the examples of ITO and AZO as a case study, a strong emphasis is laid upon the growth of flexible yet epitaxial TCO relying muscovite's superior properties compared to those of conventional flexible substrates and its compatibility with the present fabrication methods. Besides excellent optoelectro-mechanical properties, an additional functionality of high-temperature stability, normally lacking in the current state-of-the-art transparent flexitronics, is provided by these heterostructures. These epitaxial TCO electrodes with good chemical and thermal stabilities as well as mechanical durability can significantly contribute to the field of flexible, light-weight, and portable smart electronics.

  6. Significance of input correlations in striatal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Yi Yim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the main input station of the basal ganglia and is strongly associated with motor and cognitive functions. Anatomical evidence suggests that individual striatal neurons are unlikely to share their inputs from the cortex. Using a biologically realistic large-scale network model of striatum and cortico-striatal projections, we provide a functional interpretation of the special anatomical structure of these projections. Specifically, we show that weak pairwise correlation within the pool of inputs to individual striatal neurons enhances the saliency of signal representation in the striatum. By contrast, correlations among the input pools of different striatal neurons render the signal representation less distinct from background activity. We suggest that for the network architecture of the striatum, there is a preferred cortico-striatal input configuration for optimal signal representation. It is further enhanced by the low-rate asynchronous background activity in striatum, supported by the balance between feedforward and feedback inhibitions in the striatal network. Thus, an appropriate combination of rates and correlations in the striatal input sets the stage for action selection presumably implemented in the basal ganglia.

  7. Real Time Part Input Control of a Pull Production System by Finding IF-THEN Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rizauddin; Yamamoto, Hidehiko; Abu Qudeiri, Jaber

    This paper considers the part input problem of a production system where two Flexible Transfer Lines (FTLs) consisting of an up-stream production line and a down-stream production line while operating under Just In Time (JIT) production management. The up-stream production line processes the raw material after receiving them from suppliers, and after processing them, delivers the processed product to a down-stream production line via a conveyer. In this paper, we have proposed a novel idea for a part input real time control system, known as Algorithm for Real Time Control of Part Input Systems (ARTCOPS). The algorithm is useful when FTLs are in operation under a production order that is different from the pre-decided production schedule. Simulations of virtual production systems have been carried out to verify that ARTCOPS is useful in real time control, although the production orders are different from the pre-decided production scheduling.

  8. Efficient Boolean and multi-input flow techniques for advanced mask data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Daniel; Moore, Bill; Valadez, John

    2012-11-01

    Mask data preparation (MDP) typically involves multiple flows, sometimes consisting of many steps to ensure that the data is properly written on the mask. This may include multiple inputs, transformations (scaling, orientation, etc.), and processing (layer extraction, sizing, Boolean operations, data filtering). Many MDP techniques currently in practice require multiple passes through the input data and/or multiple file I/O steps to achieve these goals. This paper details an approach which efficiently process the data, resulting in minimal I/O and greatly improved turnaround times (TAT). This approach takes advanced processing algorithms and adapts them to produce efficient and reliable data flow. In tandem with this processing flow, an internal jobdeck mapping approach, transparent to the user, allows an essentially unlimited number of pattern inputs to be handled in a single pass, resulting in increased flexibility and ease of use. Transformations and processing operations are critical to MDP. Transformations such as scaling, reverse tone and orientation, along with processing including sizing, Boolean operations and data filtering are key parts of this. These techniques are often employed in sequence and/or in parallel in a complex functional chain. While transformations typically are done "up front" when the data is input, processing is less straightforward, involving multiple reads and writes to handle the more intricate functionality and also the collection of input patterns which may be required to produce the data that comprises a single mask. The approach detailed in this paper consists of two complementary techniques: efficient MDP flow and jobdeck mapping. Efficient MDP flow is achieved by pipelining the output of each step to the input of the subsequent step. Rather than writing the output of a particular processing step to file and then reading it in to the following step, the pipelining or chaining of the steps results in an efficient flow with

  9. Dynamic optically induced planar terahertz quasioptics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    that photoexcitations with sufficient conductivity can induce a partial reflection, capable of steering the pulse inside the two-dimensional waveguide. A beamsplitter is demonstrated as proof of principle and is used to delay the arrival of the reflected terahertz pulse at the detector by several picoseconds by moving...

  10. Quasioptical Imaging Systems at THz Frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blazquez Valles, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Terahertz gap is the portion of the spectrum lying between 300 GHz and 3 THz. The initial development of Terahertz technology was driven by Space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary, cometary and Earth science. However, in recent years, the interest of Terahertz science has been rapidl

  11. A flexible and high-performance bidirectional optical amplifier with all optical gain control using ASE noise path through multi-port circulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Vu Tran; Chang-Joon Chae; Rodney S. Tucker

    2003-01-01

    We report a flexible all-optical gain controlled bidirectional optical amplifier. The device achieves constant gain and low noise figure over a large input power range. Moreover, the device removes Rayleigh backscattered light and amplifier noise.

  12. Dynamics modeling and simulation of flexible airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwen

    The resurgence of airships has created a need for dynamics models and simulation capabilities of these lighter-than-air vehicles. The focus of this thesis is a theoretical framework that integrates the flight dynamics, structural dynamics, aerostatics and aerodynamics of flexible airships. The study begins with a dynamics model based on a rigid-body assumption. A comprehensive computation of aerodynamic effects is presented, where the aerodynamic forces and moments are categorized into various terms based on different physical effects. A series of prediction approaches for different aerodynamic effects are unified and applied to airships. The numerical results of aerodynamic derivatives and the simulated responses to control surface deflection inputs are verified by comparing to existing wind-tunnel and flight test data. With the validated aerodynamics and rigid-body modeling, the equations of motion of an elastic airship are derived by the Lagrangian formulation. The airship is modeled as a free-free Euler-Bernoulli beam and the bending deformations are represented by shape functions chosen as the free-free normal modes. In order to capture the coupling between the aerodynamic forces and the structural elasticity, local velocity on the deformed vehicle is used in the computation of aerodynamic forces. Finally, with the inertial, gravity, aerostatic and control forces incorporated, the dynamics model of a flexible airship is represented by a single set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The proposed model is implemented as a dynamics simulation program to analyze the dynamics characteristics of the Skyship-500 airship. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the influence of structural deformation on the aerodynamic forces and the dynamics behavior of the airship. The nonlinear equations of motion are linearized numerically for the purpose of frequency domain analysis and for aeroelastic stability analysis. The results from the latter for the

  13. Composite Fuzzy Logic Control Approach to a Flexible Joint Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ashraf Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The raised complicatedness of the dynamics of a robot manipulator considering joint elasticity makes conventional model‐based control strategies complex and hard to synthesize. This paper presents investigations into the development of hybrid intelligent control schemes for the trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, a collocated proportional‐derivative (PD‐type Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC is first developed for the tip angular position control of a flexible joint manipulator. This is then extended to incorporate a non‐collocated Fuzzy Logic Controller, a non‐collocated proportional‐ integral‐derivative (PID and an input‐shaping scheme for the vibration reduction of the flexible joint system. The positive zero‐vibration‐derivative‐derivative (ZVDD shaper is designed based on the properties of the system. The implementation results of the response of the flexible joint manipulator with the controllers are presented in time and frequency domains. The performances of the hybrid control schemes are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, a comparative assessment of the control techniques is presented and discussed.

  14. Robotic control of a traditional flexible endoscope for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, J G; Bonnema, G M; van der Voort, M C; Broeders, I A M J

    2013-09-01

    In therapeutic flexible endoscopy a team of physician and assistant(s) is required to control all independent translations and rotations of the flexible endoscope and its instruments. As a consequence the physician lacks valuable force feedback information on tissue interaction, communication errors easily occur, and procedures are not cost-effective. Current tools are not suitable for performing therapeutic procedures in an intuitive and user-friendly way by one person. A shift from more invasive surgical procedures that require external incisions to endoluminal procedures that use the natural body openings could be expected if enabling techniques were available. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a robotic system which interacts with traditional flexible endoscopes to perform therapeutic procedures that require advanced maneuverability. The physician uses one multi-degree-of-freedom input device to control camera steering as well as shaft manipulation of the motorized flexible endoscope, while the other hand is able to manipulate instruments. We identified critical use aspects that need to be addressed in the robotic setup. A proof-of-principle setup was built and evaluated to judge the usability of our system. Results show that robotic endoscope control increases efficiency and satisfaction. Participants valued its intuitiveness, its accuracy, the feeling of being in control, and its single-person setup. Future work will concentrate on the design of a system that is fully functional and takes safety, cleanability, and easy positioning close to the patient into account.

  15. The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work-Schedule Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah J.; Binder, Melissa; Krause, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Controlling for human capital inputs and unobserved heterogeneity explained 55-57% of the wage gap between mothers and nonmothers. Mothers faced the highest wage penalty at return to work. High school graduates suffered more prolonged, severe losses than women with lower or higher attainment. Their jobs were less likely to offer flexibility needed…

  16. Flexible, wearable, and functional graphene-textile composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Kun-Ning; Zhang, Ying; Tao, Lu-Qi; Li, Yu-Xing; Wang, Dan-Yang; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a flexible, wearable, and functional graphene-textile composite is demonstrated. Laser scribing technology is applied to fabricate a graphene film. The thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane is covered on the surface of the graphene-textile film evenly, which would improve the abrasive resistance of the film, enhance the ability to adapt to environmental changes, and extend the service life, while maintaining the device's excellent flexibility and comfort. The graphene-textile composite can achieve constant temperature heating by controlling the input voltage, detect the human movement, and perceive the human pulse signal. The composite presents great commercial prospects and a large value in the medical, daily wear, and other areas that are closely related to human lives.

  17. DC SQUIDS with planar input coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegrum, C.M.; Donaldson, G.B.; Hutson, D.; Tugwell, A.

    1985-03-01

    We describe the key parts of our recent work to develop a planar thin-film DC SQUID with a closely-coupled spiral input coil. Our aim has been to make a device that is superior to present RF SQUID sensors in terms of sensitivity and long-term reliability. To be compatible with an RF SQUID the inductance of the input coils must be relatively large, typically 2..mu..H, and the input noise current in the white noise region should be below 10pA Hz /SUP -1/2/ . A low level of 1/f noise is also necessary for many applications and should be achieved without the use of complex noisecancelling circuitry. Our devices meet these criteria. We include a description of work on window and edge junction fabrication using ion beam cleaning, thermal oxidation and RF plasma processing.

  18. Flexible Coupling for Angle Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Flexure strips ensure parallelism between input and output shafts. Coupling essentially gimbal mounting that behaves as four-bar linkage. Creates remote phantom pivot point that remains stationary for small displacements of coupling.

  19. Harmonize input selection for sediment transport prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin; Keshtegar, Behrooz; Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, three modeling approaches using a Neural Network (NN), Response Surface Method (RSM) and response surface method basis Global Harmony Search (GHS) are applied to predict the daily time series suspended sediment load. Generally, the input variables for forecasting the suspended sediment load are manually selected based on the maximum correlations of input variables in the modeling approaches based on NN and RSM. The RSM is improved to select the input variables by using the errors terms of training data based on the GHS, namely as response surface method and global harmony search (RSM-GHS) modeling method. The second-order polynomial function with cross terms is applied to calibrate the time series suspended sediment load with three, four and five input variables in the proposed RSM-GHS. The linear, square and cross corrections of twenty input variables of antecedent values of suspended sediment load and water discharge are investigated to achieve the best predictions of the RSM based on the GHS method. The performances of the NN, RSM and proposed RSM-GHS including both accuracy and simplicity are compared through several comparative predicted and error statistics. The results illustrated that the proposed RSM-GHS is as uncomplicated as the RSM but performed better, where fewer errors and better correlation was observed (R = 0.95, MAE = 18.09 (ton/day), RMSE = 25.16 (ton/day)) compared to the ANN (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.17 (ton/day), RMSE = 33.09 (ton/day)) and RSM (R = 0.91, MAE = 20.06 (ton/day), RMSE = 31.92 (ton/day)) for all types of input variables.

  20. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  1. Inorganic semiconductors for flexible electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; Rogers, J. A.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Illinois

    2007-08-03

    This article reviews several classes of inorganic semiconductor materials that can be used to form high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) for large area, flexible electronics. Examples ranging from thin films of various forms of silicon to nanoparticles and nanowires of compound semiconductors are presented, with an emphasis on methods of depositing and integrating thin films of these materials into devices. Performance characteristics, including both electrical and mechanical behavior, for isolated transistors as well as circuits with various levels of complexity are reviewed. Collectively, the results suggest that flexible or printable inorganic materials may be attractive for a range of applications not only in flexible but also in large-area electronics, from existing devices such as flat-panel displays to more challenging (in terms of both cost and performance requirements) systems such as large area radiofrequency communication devices, structural health monitors, and conformal X-ray imagers.

  2. Global Flexibility, synecdoche of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Selva Olid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the flexibility, its uses, types and new concepts to address and empower the global flexibility as an integral tool to facilitate change, adapt to the environment in an advantageous manner and innovate. In times of economic, social, technological and global chances, like today, partners and organizations are claimed to increase their polyvalence and versatility, in order to move towards new organizational and dedication models. In this context and given the need to have a construct that broadly and inherently meets and baste transversely to the different stakeholders of the organization, its structures and forms and mediation between them emerges global flexibility. Despite the challenge of proposing and permeabilising a new construct, no less what it provides, as it is presented as a natural tool to empower wellbeing within organizational and social life.

  3. Wearable Flexible Sensors: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2017-05-18

    The paper provides a review on some of the significant research work done on wearable flexible sensors (WFS). Sensors fabricated with flexible materials have been attached to a person along with the embedded system to monitor a parameter and transfer the significant data to the monitoring unit for further analyses. The use of wearable sensors has played a quite important role to monitor physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. The paper categorizes the work according to the materials used for designing the system, the network protocols and different types of activities that were being monitored. The challenges faced by the current sensing systems and future opportunities for the wearable flexible sensors regarding its market values are also briefly explained in the paper.

  4. Studies Of Residual Flexibility And Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    Collection of reports presents theoretical and experimental studies in which concept of residual flexibility applied to modal vibration testing and verification of mathematical models of vibrations of flexible structure constrained by another structure. "Residual flexibility" denotes that part of interface flexibility due to mode shapes out of frequency range of test. Studies directed toward assessing residual-flexibility approach as substitute for fixed-base vibrational testing of payloads installed in spacecraft.

  5. Nonlinearities with Non-Gaussian Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    possessing a spectral density function . a constant. Then Jet arc tan [G(t)J be the input. By Theorem 3 this input is not bandlimited; and if The rando...such that the absolute ,,~~ovalue of any point in the spectrum is less than N. If the Gaussian process X(t) possesses a H ~ ) spectral density function (i.e...Gaussian process and th. series ii convergent pointvise as veil X(t ) possesses a spectral density function . as in an sense (51. Let z~( ) and g2

  6. Input/Output Subroutine Library Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, James B.

    1988-01-01

    Efficient, easy-to-use program moved easily to different computers. Purpose of NAVIO, Input/Output Subroutine Library, provides input/output package of software for FORTRAN programs that is portable, efficient, and easy to use. Implemented as hierarchy of libraries. At bottom is very small library containing only non-portable routines called "I/O Kernel." Design makes NAVIO easy to move from one computer to another, by simply changing kernel. NAVIO appropriate for software system of almost any size wherein different programs communicate through files.

  7. Polymer electronics a flexible technology

    CERN Document Server

    Technology, Rapra

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide market for polymer electronic products has been estimated to be worth up to £15 billion by 2015 and the opportunity for new markets could be as high as £125 billion by 2025.'The rapid development of polymer electronics has revealed the possibility for transforming the electronics market by offering lighter, flexible and more cost effective alternatives to conventional materials and products. With applications ranging from printed, flexible conductors and novel semiconductor components to intelligent labels and large area displays and solar panels, products that were previously un

  8. Lost and Found in Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    'New work' is characterized by mobility and flexibility and a growing need to facilitate social awareness. The paper discusses how to augment the environment with social awareness and suggest 'awareness-in-transition' as a lable for awareness in mobile work in flexible work environments......, and as locus for building social awareness in the 'new work'. A transition (e.g. taking information from a whiteboard in a meeting room to the desktop of a personal computer)--besides the immediate implications at the functional level--has important interpersonal, intra-personal, and organizational...

  9. Flexible Stamp for Nanoimprint Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Theodor; Pedersen, Rasmus H.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a flexible silicon stamp for homogenous large area nanoimprint lithography (NIL) are presented. The flexible stamp is fabricated by bulk semiconductor micro machining of a 4-inch silicon wafer and consists of thick anchor like imprint areas connected...... by membranes. The bending stiffness difference between the imprint areas and the membranes ensures that the deformation of the stamp during the imprint process mainly takes place in the membranes, leaving the imprint structures unaffected. By this design the strong demand to the parallelism between stamp...

  10. Balancing energy flexibilities through aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    One of the main goals of recent developments in the Smart Grid area is to increase the use of renewable energy sources. These sources are characterized by energy fluctuations that might lead to energy imbalances and congestions in the electricity grid. Exploiting inherent flexibilities, which exist...... in both energy production and consumption, is the key to solving these problems. Flexibilities can be expressed as flex-offers, which due to their high number need to be aggregated to reduce the complexity of energy scheduling. In this paper, we discuss balance aggregation techniques that already during...

  11. Transparent and flexible force sensor array based on optical waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsung; Park, Suntak; Park, Seung Koo; Yun, Sungryul; Kyung, Ki-Uk; Sun, Kyung

    2012-06-18

    This paper suggests a force sensor array measuring contact force based on intensity change of light transmitted throughout optical waveguide. For transparency and flexibility of the sensor, two soft prepolymers with different refractive index have been developed. The optical waveguide consists of two cladding layers and a core layer. The top cladding layer is designed to allow light scattering at the specific area in response to finger contact. The force sensor shows a distinct tendency that output intensity decreases with input force and measurement range is from 0 to -13.2 dB.

  12. Robust control of a hydraulically driven flexible arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang LI; Khajepour AMIR

    2004-01-01

    A new robust controller is proposed to regulate both flexural vibrations and rigid body motion of a hydraulically driven flexible arm. The controller combines backstepping control and sliding mode to arrive at a controller capable of dealing with a nonlinear system with uncertainties. The sliding mode technique is used to achieve an asymptotic joint angle and vibration regulation in the presence of payload uncertainty by providing a virtual torque input at the joint while the backstepping technique is used to regulate the spool position of a hydraulic valve to provide the required torque. It is shown that there is no chatter in the hydraulic valve, which results in smoother operation of the system.

  13. Flexible Capacitive Electrodes for Minimizing Motion Artifacts in Ambulatory Electrocardiograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Su Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the use of flexible capacitive electrodes for reducing motion artifacts in a wearable electrocardiogram (ECG device. The capacitive electrodes have conductive foam on their surface, a shield, an optimal input bias resistor, and guarding feedback. The electrodes are integrated in a chest belt, and the acquired signals are transmitted wirelessly for ambulatory heart rate monitoring. We experimentally validated the electrode performance with subjects standing and walking on a treadmill at speeds of up to 7 km/h. The results confirmed the highly accurate heart rate detection capacity of the developed system and its feasibility for daily-life ECG monitoring.

  14. PASSIVE-ACTIVE CONTROL OF A FLEXIBLE ISOLATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Kongjie; Zhang Bing; Sun Lingling; Sun Yuguo

    2003-01-01

    Passive-active control of a flexible isolation system is investigated from the viewpoint of power flow. Dynamic transfer equations of the system are deduced based on a matrix method which uses mobility or impedance representations of three substructures: the source of vibration, the receiver and the mounting system which connects the source to the receiver. The cancellation of axial input forces to the receiver is considered as the active control strategy and its effects are discussed. The results of the study show that the strategy adopted herein can effectively reduce the power transmitted to the receiver.

  15. An Analysis of Input Hypothesis in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖菲菲

    2016-01-01

    Input plays a significant role in the process of foreign language teaching and learning. One of the most important studies about input is Krashen's Input Hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of comprehensive input in foreign language teaching and learning. This paper aims to study the significance of Input Hypothesis and its application to English teaching.

  16. Maneuver and vibration reduction of flexible spacecraft using sliding mode/command shaping technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qing-lei; MA Guang-fu; ZHANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    A generalized scheme based on the sliding mode and component synthesis vibration suppression (CSVS) method has been proposed for the rotational maneuver and vibration suppression of an orbiting spacecraft with flexible appendages. The proposed control design process is twofold: design of the attitude controller followed by the design of a flexible vibration attenuator. The attitude controller using only the attitude and the rate information for the flexible spacecraft (FS) is designed to serve two purposes: it forces the attitude motion onto a pre-selected sliding surface and then guides it to the state space origin. The shaped command input controller based on the CSVS method is designed for the reduction of the flexible mode vibration, which only requires information about the natural frequency and damping of the closed system. This information is used to discretize the input so that minimum energy is injected via the controller to the flexible nodes of the spacecraft. Additionally, to extend the CSVS method to the system with the on-off actuators, the pulse-width pulse-frequency ( PWPF) modulation is introduced to control the thruster firing and integrated with the CSVS method. PWPF modulation is a control method that provides pseudo-linear operation for an on-off thruster. The proposed control strategy has been implemented on a FS, which is a hub with symmetric cantilever flexible beam appendages and can undergo a single axis rotation. The results have been proven the potential of this technique to control FS.

  17. Declarative Semantics of Input Consuming Logic Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro; Rossi, Sabina; Bruynooghe, Maurice; Lau, Kung-Kia

    2004-01-01

    Most logic programming languages actually provide some kind of dynamic scheduling to increase the expressive power and to control execution. Input consuming derivations have been introduced to describe dynamic scheduling while abstracting from the technical details. We review and compare the differe

  18. Input and age effects: Quo vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerman, F.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the important role played input in language acquisition. Topics include the difficulty in obtaining the difference between groups and languages, the visibility of the success of children concerning inflection in their knowledge, and the description of lexical mistake for monoli

  19. Selecting training inputs via greedy rank covering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, A.L.; Santen, J.P.H. van [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We present a general method for selecting a small set of training inputs, the observations of which will suffice to estimate the parameters of a given linear model. We exemplify the algorithm in terms of predicting segmental duration of phonetic-segment feature vectors in a text-to-speech synthesizer, but the algorithm will work for any linear model and its associated domain.

  20. The Contrast Theory of negative input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, M

    1997-02-01

    Beliefs about whether or not children receive corrective input for grammatical errors depend crucially on how one defines the concept of correction. Arguably, previous conceptualizations do not provide a viable basis for empirical research (Gold, 1967; Brown & Hanlon, 1970; Hirsh-Pasek, Treiman & Schneiderman, 1984). Within the Contrast Theory of negative input, an alternative definition of negative evidence is offered, based on the idea that the unique discourse structure created in the juxtaposition of child error and adult correct form can reveal to the child the contrast, or conflict, between the two forms, and hence provide a basis for rejecting the erroneous form. A within-subjects experimental design was implemented for 36 children (mean age 5;0), in order to compare the immediate effects of negative evidence with those of positive input, on the acquisition of six novel irregular past tense forms. Children reproduced the correct irregular model more often, and persisted with fewer errors, following negative evidence rather than positive input.

  1. Capital Power:From Input to Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wanlong; Alice

    2009-01-01

    @@ After thirty yeas "going out" of China overseas investment,we learn from our failed lessons and also successful experience.Chinese enterprises are now standing at a new starting point of "going out".China is transforming from "capital input power" to "capital output power".

  2. Treatments of Precipitation Inputs to Hydrologic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrological models are used to assess many water resources problems from agricultural use and water quality to engineering issues. The success of these models are dependent on correct parameterization; the most sensitive being the rainfall input time series. These records can come from land-based ...

  3. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  4. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  5. Declarative Semantics of Input Consuming Logic Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro; Rossi, Sabina; Bruynooghe, Maurice; Lau, Kung-Kia

    2004-01-01

    Most logic programming languages actually provide some kind of dynamic scheduling to increase the expressive power and to control execution. Input consuming derivations have been introduced to describe dynamic scheduling while abstracting from the technical details. We review and compare the differe

  6. Programmable Input for Nanomagnetic Logic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt-Landsiedel D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A programmable magnetic input, based on the magnetic interaction of a soft and hard magnetic layer is presented for the first time. Therefore, a single-domain Co/Pt nanomagnet is placed on top of one end of a permalloy bar, separated by a thin dielectric layer. The permalloy bar of the introduced input structure is magnetized by weak easy-axis in-plane fields. Acting like a ’magnetic amplifier’, the generated fringing fields of the permalloy pole are strong enough to control the magnetization of the superimposed Co/Pt nanomagnets, which have high crystalline perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. This magnetostatic interaction results in a shift of the hysteresis curve of the Co/Pt nanomagnet, measured by magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The Co/Pt nanomagnet is fixed by the fringing field of the permalloy and thereby not affected by the magnetic power clock of the Nanomagnetic Logic system. MFM measurements verify the functionality of the programmable magnetic input structure. The fringing fields are extracted from micromagnetic simulations and are in good agreement with experimental results. The introduced input structure enables switching the logic functionality of the majority gate from NAND to NOR during runtime, offering programmable Nanomagnetic Logic.

  7. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders, perfo

  8. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders, perfo

  9. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.L. Sijbom; O. Janssen; N.W. van Yperen

    2014-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders, perfo

  10. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,

  11. AGFATL- ACTIVE GEAR FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT TAKEOFF AND LANDING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Takeoff and Landing Analysis program, AGFATL, was developed to provide a complete simulation of the aircraft takeoff and landing dynamics problem. AGFATL can represent an airplane either as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom or as a flexible body with multiple degrees of freedom. The airframe flexibility is represented by the superposition of up to twenty free vibration modes on the rigid-body motions. The analysis includes maneuver logic and autopilots programmed to control the aircraft during glide slope, flare, landing, and takeoff. The program is modular so that performance of the aircraft in flight and during landing and ground maneuvers can be studied separately or in combination. A program restart capability is included in AGFATL. Effects simulated in the AGFATL program include: (1) flexible aircraft control and performance during glide slope, flare, landing roll, and takeoff roll under conditions of changing winds, engine failures, brake failures, control system failures, strut failures, restrictions due to runway length, and control variable limits and time lags; (2) landing gear loads and dynamics for up to five gears; (3) single and multiple engines (maximum of four) including selective engine reversing and failure; (4) drag chute and spoiler effects; (5) wheel braking (including skid-control) and selective brake failure; (6) aerodynamic ground effects; (7) aircraft carrier operations; (8) inclined runways and runway perturbations; (9) flexible or rigid airframes; 10) rudder and nose gear steering; and 11) actively controlled landing gear shock struts. Input to the AGFATL program includes data which describe runway roughness; vehicle geometry, flexibility and aerodynamic characteristics; landing gear(s); propulsion; and initial conditions such as attitude, attitude change rates, and velocities. AGFATL performs a time integration of the equations of motion and outputs comprehensive information on the airframe

  12. Robotic steering of flexible endoscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozeboom, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes were originally designed for non-invasive inspection of body cavities and hollow organs. Today, they are also used for complex minimal invasive interventions. Control of the endoscope is difficult and complexity rises with interventional procedures. Endoscopists suffer from long

  13. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  14. Lifelong Open and Flexible Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and Flexible (LOF) learning embracing characteristics as: open learning, distance learning, e-learning, online learning, open accessibility, multimedia support, virtual mobility, learning communities, dual mode (earn & learn) approaches, and the like.In my presentation I will focus on the EADTU strategies...

  15. Flexible Learning: A Luddite View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the flexible learning concept through the eyes of the 19th-century industrial activists known as the Luddites. During a period of economic uncertainty, the Luddite perspective provides a sensitive justification for a change-free educational environment, and for a backlash in favour of "inflexible learning" (IL). The…

  16. Flexibility in Language and Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Many words can be used flexibly: a book can be physically heavy, but also have provocative content, a "chicken" might live in a coop, but could also be tasty to eat. What do the uses of "polysemous" words such as these reveal about the structure of language and thought? Paper 1 examined 4-year-old children's representations of polysemous words…

  17. Creep behaviour of flexible adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, IJ.J. van; Botter, E.; Berg, A. van den; Beers, P. van

    2004-01-01

    Since flexible adhesives are used more and more in structural applications, designers should have a better understanding of its behaviour under various conditions as ultimate load, fatigue load, long-term load and environmental conditions. This paper focuses on long-term load conditions and its effe

  18. Flexible working motivates all staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    A recent survey has demolished the myth that work-life balance is only of interest to women with children. The survey, commissioned by Lloyds TSB on behalf of the Employers for Work Life Balance organisation, shows that young workers and men are equally interested in flexible working arrangements that allow them to pursue interests outside of work.

  19. Flexible fixation and fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Strohm, Peter C; Jaeger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    to the bone surface than external fixator bars. External fixators have the advantage of being less expensive, highly flexible, and technically less demanding. They remain an integral part of orthopaedic surgery for emergent stabilization, for pediatric fractures, for definitive osteosynthesis in certain...

  20. Drops spreading on flexible fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somszor, Katarzyna; Boulogne, François; Sauret, Alban; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are encountered in many engineered systems such as textile, paper and insulating materials. In most of these materials, fibers are randomly oriented and form a complex network in which drops of wetting liquid tend to accumulate at the nodes of the network. Here we investigate the role of the fiber flexibility on the spreading of a small volume of liquid on a pair of crossed flexible fibers. A drop of silicone oil is dispensed at the point of contact of the fibers and we characterize the liquid morphologies as we vary the volume of liquid, the angle between the fibers, and the length and bending modulus of the fibers. Drop morphologies previously reported for rigid fibers, i.e. a drop, a column and a mixed morphology, are also observed on flexible fibers with modified domains of existence. Moreover, at small inclination angles of the fibers, a new behavior is observed: the fibers bend and collapse. Depending on the volume, the liquid can adopt a column or a mixed morphology on the collapsed fibers. We rationalize our observations with a model based on energetic considerations. Our study suggests that the fiber flexibility adds a rich variety of behaviors that can be crucial for industrial applications.

  1. FLEXIBLE FLATFOOT IN CHILDREN (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Маркович Кенис

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Flatfoot is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions in the daily practice of pediatric orthopedists. Despite of numerous studies, diagnostic criteria and principles of management remain controversial. Flexible flatfoot - is visually detectable decrease in the height of the longitudinal arch of the foot, which can be spontaneously corrected by active or passive motion and not accompanied by any contracture of foot and ankle. Flexible flatfoot is a benign condition which is normal for childhood. But this term is also used to describe a painful deformity with marked limitation of dorsiflection and “not physiological” flatfoot with unfavorable course and prognosis. Despite of the awareness of the parents, flexible flatfoot does not lead to pain and should not be followed by any kind of treatment. Special shoe modifications and orthopedic insoles are useless in the attempt to improve the foot, but can influence negatively psychological condition and self-estimation. Proper diagnosis of flexible flatfoot is necessary in order to avoid unnecessary treatment and to reveal patients with adverse prognosis and rigid forms of flatfoot which need special approach.

  2. Functional flexibility and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E.; Slomp, J.

    1999-01-01

    This study deals with workforce flexibility defined in terms of 'multifunctionality' and 'redundancy'. These concepts refer, respectively, to the number of different tasks a worker has mastered and the number of workers that are qualified to do a specific task. A third factor to be considered is wor

  3. Taming Time with Flexible Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, David

    1995-01-01

    Because of increasing incidence of burnout among midlevel managers, many companies are reducing workload schedules, an arrangement that would have been unthinkable 10 years ago. Surveys have made the case that flexible work arrangements increase employee happiness and, therefore, productivity. (JOW)

  4. Protein stability, flexibility and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2011-01-01

    Proteins rely on flexibility to respond to environmental changes, ligand binding and chemical modifications. Potentially, a perturbation that changes the flexibility of a protein may interfere with its function. Millions of mutations have been performed on thousands of proteins in quests for a de......Proteins rely on flexibility to respond to environmental changes, ligand binding and chemical modifications. Potentially, a perturbation that changes the flexibility of a protein may interfere with its function. Millions of mutations have been performed on thousands of proteins in quests...... for a delineation of the molecular details of their function. Several of these mutations interfered with the binding of a specific ligand with a concomitant effect on the stability of the protein scaffold. It has been ambiguous and not straightforward to recognize if any relationships exist between the stability...... of a protein and the affinity for its ligand. In this review, we present examples of proteins where changes in stability results in changes in affinity and of proteins where stability and affinity are uncorrelated. We discuss the possibility for a relationship between stability and binding. From the data...

  5. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  6. Implementation of a Fuzzy TSK Controller for a Flexible Joint Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Akbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fuzzy TSK controller to control a rotary flexible joint manipulator. The flexibility of joint is performed by means of a solenoid nonlinear spring, which is connected between actuator output and joint input in a bilateral connection form to transfer the produced torque; also the smooth model of frictions is used for modeling the dynamics of flexible manipulator. The effect of coulomb friction and also gearbox backlashes is decreased by a pulsation signal as an extra voltage that is added to the control voltage of actuator. Actuator dynamics is modeled by consideration of saturation mode of armature current. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed controller has an ability to control flexible joint manipulator with a good performance.

  7. Optimum vibration control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the structural vibrations of flexible beams is examined. A Modified Independent Modal Space Control (MIMSC) method is devised to enable the selection of the optimal location, control gains and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the amplitudes of vibrations of beams to which these actuators are bonded, as well as the input control energy necessary to suppress these vibrations. The developed method accounts for the effects that the piezoelectric actuators have on changing the elastic and inertial properties of the flexible beams. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed MIMSC method in minimizing the structural vibrations of beams of different materials when subjected to different loading and end conditions using ceramic or polymeric piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised method in designing more realistic active control systems for flexible beams, in particular, and large flexible structures in general.

  8. Optimum vibration control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Studer, P.

    1988-01-01

    The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the structural vibrations of flexible beams is examined. A Modified Independent Modal Space Control (MIMSC) method is devised to enable the selection of the optimal location, control gains and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the amplitudes of vibrations of beams to which these actuators are bonded, as well as the input control energy necessary to suppress these vibrations. The developed method accounts for the effects that the piezoelectric actuators have on changing the elastic and inertial properties of the flexible beams. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed MIMSC method in minimizing the structural vibrations of beams of different materials when subjected to different loading and end conditions using ceramic or polymeric piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised method in designing more realistic active control systems for flexible beams, in particular, and large flexible structures in general.

  9. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  10. Do efficiency scores depend on input mix?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the possibility of using the standard Kruskal-Wallis (KW) rank test in order to evaluate whether the distribution of efficiency scores resulting from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is independent of the input (or output) mix of the observations. Since the DEA frontier...... is estimated, many standard assumptions for evaluating the KW test statistic are violated. Therefore, we propose to explore its statistical properties by the use of simulation studies. The simulations are performed conditional on the observed input mixes. The method, unlike existing approaches...... the assumption of mix independence is rejected the implication is that it, for example, is impossible to determine whether machine intensive project are more or less efficient than labor intensive projects....

  11. Multimodal interfaces with voice and gesture input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milota, A.D.; Blattner, M.M.

    1995-07-20

    The modalities of speech and gesture have different strengths and weaknesses, but combined they create synergy where each modality corrects the weaknesses of the other. We believe that a multimodal system such a one interwining speech and gesture must start from a different foundation than ones which are based solely on pen input. In order to provide a basis for the design of a speech and gesture system, we have examined the research in other disciplines such as anthropology and linguistics. The result of this investigation was a taxonomy that gave us material for the incorporation of gestures whose meanings are largely transparent to the users. This study describes the taxonomy and gives examples of applications to pen input systems.

  12. Virtual input device with diffractive optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching Chin; Chu, Chang Sheng

    2005-02-01

    As a portable device, such as PDA and cell phone, a small size build in virtual input device is more convenient for complex input demand. A few years ago, a creative idea called 'virtual keyboard' is announced, but up to now there's still no mass production method for this idea. In this paper we'll show the whole procedure of making a virtual keyboard. First of all is the HOE (Holographic Optical Element) design of keyboard image which yields a fan angle about 30 degrees, and then use the electron forming method to copy this pattern in high precision. And finally we can product this element by inject molding. With an adaptive lens design we can get a well correct keyboard image in distortion and a wilder fan angle about 70 degrees. With a batter alignment of HOE pattern lithography, we"re sure to get higher diffraction efficiency.

  13. Neuroprosthetics and the science of patient input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Heather L; Civillico, Eugene F

    2017-01-01

    Safe and effective neuroprosthetic systems are of great interest to both DARPA and CDRH, due to their innovative nature and their potential to aid severely disabled populations. By expanding what is possible in human-device interaction, these devices introduce new potential benefits and risks. Therefore patient input, which is increasingly important in weighing benefits and risks, is particularly relevant for this class of devices. FDA has been a significant contributor to an ongoing stakeholder conversation about the inclusion of the patient voice, working collaboratively to create a new framework for a patient-centered approach to medical device development. This framework is evolving through open dialogue with researcher and patient communities, investment in the science of patient input, and policymaking that is responsive to patient-centered data throughout the total product life cycle. In this commentary, we will discuss recent developments in patient-centered benefit-risk assessment and their relevance to the development of neural prosthetic systems.

  14. Model based optimization of EMC input filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggl, K; Kolar, J. W. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T. [Levitronix GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Input filters of power converters for compliance with regulatory electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards are often over-dimensioned in practice due to a non-optimal selection of number of filter stages and/or the lack of solid volumetric models of the inductor cores. This paper presents a systematic filter design approach based on a specific filter attenuation requirement and volumetric component parameters. It is shown that a minimal volume can be found for a certain optimal number of filter stages for both the differential mode (DM) and common mode (CM) filter. The considerations are carried out exemplarily for an EMC input filter of a single phase power converter for the power levels of 100 W, 300 W, and 500 W. (author)

  15. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy input functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargatze, L.F.; McPherron, R.L.; Baker, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    A new formula for the solar wind-magnetosphere energy input parameter, P/sub i/, is sought by applying the constraints imposed by dimensional analysis. Applying these constraints yields a general equation for P/sub i/ which is equal to rho V/sup 3/l/sub CF//sup 2/F(M/sub A/,theta) where, rho V/sup 3/ is the solar wind kinetic energy density and l/sub CF//sup 2/ is the scale size of the magnetosphere's effective energy ''collection'' region. The function F which depends on M/sub A/, the Alfven Mach number, and on theta, the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle is included in the general equation for P/sub i/ in order to model the magnetohydrodynamic processes which are responsible for solar wind-magnetosphere energy transfer. By assuming the form of the function F, it is possible to further constrain the formula for P/sub i/. This is accomplished by using solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indices, and simple statistical methods. It is found that P/sub i/ is proportional to (rho V/sup 2/)/sup 1/6/VBG(theta) where, rho V/sup 2/ is the solar wind dynamic pressure and VBG(theta) is a rectified version of the solar wind motional electric field. Furthermore, it is found that G(theta), the gating function which modulates the energy input to the magnetosphere, is well represented by a ''leaky'' rectifier function such as sin/sup 4/(theta/2). This function allows for enhanced energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented southward. This function also allows for some energy input when the interplanetary magnetic field is oriented northward. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  17. EMOWARS: INTERACTIVE GAME INPUT MENGGUNAKAN EKSPRESI WAJAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Chowanda

    2013-11-01

    opportunity for researchers in affective game with a more interactive game play as well as rich and complex story. Hopefully this will improve the user affective state and emotions in game. The results of this research imply that happy emotion obtains 78% of detection, meanwhile the anger emotion has the lowest detection of 44.4%. Moreover, users prefer mouse and FER (face expression recognition as the best input for this game.

  18. Cometary micrometeorites and input of prebiotic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The apparition of life on the early Earth was probably favored by inputs of extraterrestrial matter brought by carbonaceous chondrite-like objects or cometary material. Interplanetary dust collected nowadays on Earth is related to carbonaceous chondrites and to cometary material. They contain in particular at least a few percent of organic matter, organic compounds (amino-acids, PAHs,…), hydrous silicates, and could have largely contributed to the budget of prebiotic matter on Earth, about 4 ...

  19. Emowars: Interactive Game Input Menggunakan Ekspresi Wajah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Chowanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in the affective game has received attention from the research communities over this lustrum. As a crucial aspect of a game, emotions play an important role in user experience as well as to emphasize the user’s emotions state on game design. This will improve the user’s interactivity while they playing the game. This research aims to discuss and analyze whether emotions can replace traditional user game inputs (keyboard, mouse, and others. The methodology used in this research is divided into two main phases: game design and facial expression recognition. The results of this research indicate that users preferred to use a traditional input such as mouse. Moreover, user’s interactivities with game are still slightly low. However, this is a great opportunity for researchers in affective game with a more interactive game play as well as rich and complex story. Hopefully this will improve the user affective state and emotions in game. The results of this research imply that happy emotion obtains 78% of detection, meanwhile the anger emotion has the lowest detection of44.4%. Moreover, users prefer mouse and FER (face expression recognition as the best input for this game.

  20. Molecular structure input on the web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertl Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A molecule editor, that is program for input and editing of molecules, is an indispensable part of every cheminformatics or molecular processing system. This review focuses on a special type of molecule editors, namely those that are used for molecule structure input on the web. Scientific computing is now moving more and more in the direction of web services and cloud computing, with servers scattered all around the Internet. Thus a web browser has become the universal scientific user interface, and a tool to edit molecules directly within the web browser is essential. The review covers a history of web-based structure input, starting with simple text entry boxes and early molecule editors based on clickable maps, before moving to the current situation dominated by Java applets. One typical example - the popular JME Molecule Editor - will be described in more detail. Modern Ajax server-side molecule editors are also presented. And finally, the possible future direction of web-based molecule editing, based on technologies like JavaScript and Flash, is discussed.

  1. WAGE FLEXIBILITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TECULESCU Silviu Alexandru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows to offer the most efficient solutions for the attainment by Romania of the economic development level associated to the Western European countries. It proposes the division of the flexibility of labour market in three components, namely: internal flexibility, external flexibility and wage flexibility. The analysis performed within the present study will emphasize the wage flexibility. Wage flexibility can be classified in four components: a plans of individual and group incentives; b plans of assigning wages out of productivity; c plans of distribution of profits and, respectively, d plans of suggestions. The labour market flexibility, in general, and especially the wage flexibility contributes to the increase of employee motivation at the workplace, aspect which leeds to the growth of labour productivity, through this one being put the bases of the medium- and long-term economic development.

  2. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  3. Understanding flexible and distributed software development processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agerfalk, Par J.; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    peer-reviewed The minitrack on Flexible and Distributed Software Development Processes addresses two important and partially intertwined current themes in software development: process flexibility and globally distributed software development

  4. Flexible Temperature Sensors on Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sloma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used. Elaborated material was adapted to printing and dip-coating techniques to produce NTC composites. Nanotube sensors were free from tensometric effect typical for other carbon-polymer sensor, and demonstrated TCR of 0.13%/K. Obtained temperature sensors, compatible with textile structure, can be applied in rapidly developing smart textiles and be used for health and protections purposes.

  5. Flexible spintronic devices on Kapton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Donolato, Marco; Gobbi, Marco;

    2014-01-01

    of bending angle (r = 5 mm) have been achieved without degradation of the device performance, reaching room-temperature tunneling magnetoresistance ratios of 12% in bended Co/Al2O3/NiFe junctions. In addition, a suitable route to pattern high-quality nanostructures directly on the polyimide surface......Magnetic tunnel junctions and nano-sized domain-wall conduits have been fabricated on the flexible substrate Kapton. Despite the delicate nature of tunneling barriers and zig-zag shaped nanowires, the devices show an outstanding integrity and robustness upon mechanical bending. High values...... is established. These results demonstrate that Kapton is a promising platform for low-cost, flexible spintronic applications involving tunnel junction elements and nanostructurization. ...

  6. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  7. The evolution of flexible parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Nick J; Russell, Andrew F; Wilson, Alastair J

    2014-08-15

    Parenting behaviors, such as the provisioning of food by parents to offspring, are known to be highly responsive to changes in environment. However, we currently know little about how such flexibility affects the ways in which parenting is adapted and evolves in response to environmental variation. This is because few studies quantify how individuals vary in their response to changing environments, especially social environments created by other individuals with which parents interact. Social environmental factors differ from nonsocial factors, such as food availability, because parents and offspring both contribute and respond to the social environment they experience. This interdependence leads to the coevolution of flexible behaviors involved in parenting, which could, paradoxically, constrain the ability of individuals to rapidly adapt to changes in their nonsocial environment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Advanced solderless flexible thermal link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian G.; Jensen, Scott M.; Batty, J. Clair

    1996-10-01

    Flexible thermal links play an important role int he thermal management of cryogenically cooled components. The purpose of these links is to provide a means of transferring heat from a cooled component to a cooler reservoir with little increase in temperature. The standard soldered approach although effective proves to be time consuming and contributes to added thermal impedances which degrade the performance of the link. For system with little tolerance for temperature differences between cooled components and a cooling source this is undesirable. The authors of this paper have developed a technique by which thin metal foil or braided wire can be attached to metal end blocks without any solder using the swaging process. Swaging provides a fast, simple method for providing a low thermal impedance between the foils and blocks. This paper describes the characteristics of these thermal links in terms of length, mass, thermal resistance, flexibility, and survivability.

  9. Lost and Found in Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Christiansen, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    'New work' is characterized by mobility and flexibility and a growing need to facilitate social awareness. The paper discusses how to augment the environment with social awareness and suggest 'awareness-in-transition' as a lable for awareness in mobile work in flexible work environments, and as l...... studies, the authors develop a requirements specification framework and a revised list of challenges for developers of Information Systems that support social awareness in 'New work'......., and as locus for building social awareness in the 'new work'. A transition (e.g. taking information from a whiteboard in a meeting room to the desktop of a personal computer)--besides the immediate implications at the functional level--has important interpersonal, intra-personal, and organizational...

  10. Superhydrophobicity enhancement through substrate flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Thomas; Gerber, Julia; Prautzsch, Jana; Schutzius, Thomas M; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-11-22

    Inspired by manifestations in nature, microengineering and nanoengineering of synthetic materials to achieve superhydrophobicity has been the focus of much work. Generally, hydrophobicity is enhanced through the combined effects of surface texturing and chemistry; being durable, rigid materials are the norm. However, many natural and technical surfaces are flexible, and the resulting effect on hydrophobicity has been largely ignored. Here, we show that the rational tuning of flexibility can work synergistically with the surface microtexture or nanotexture to enhance liquid repellency performance, characterized by impalement and breakup resistance, contact time reduction, and restitution coefficient increase. Reduction in substrate areal density and stiffness imparts immediate acceleration and intrinsic responsiveness to impacting droplets (∼350 × g), mitigating the collision and lowering the impalement probability by ∼60% without the need for active actuation. Furthermore, we exemplify the above discoveries with materials ranging from man-made (thin steel or polymer sheets) to nature-made (butterfly wings).

  11. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  12. Force and Power Measurements of a Functionally-Graded Chordwise-Flexible Flapping Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudbhari, Durlav; Erdogan, Malcolm; Moored, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Flyers and swimmers flap their wings and fins to propel themselves efficiently over long distances. A key element to achieve their high performance is the flexibility of their appendages. While numerous studies have shown that homogeneously flexible wings can enhance force production and efficiency, animals actually have wings with varying flexural rigidity along their chord and span. The goal of this study is to understand and characterize the force production and energetics of functionally-graded, chordwise flexible wings. A flapping wing composed of a rigid and a flexible region, that define a chordwise gradient in flexural rigidity, is used to model functionally-graded materials. By varying the ratio of the lengths of the rigid to flexible regions, the flexural rigidity of the flexible region, and the flapping frequency, the thrust production of a functionally-graded wing is directly measured in a wind tunnel. A novel vacuum chamber apparatus is used in conjunction with the wind tunnel measurements to reliably measure the aerodynamic power input and the propulsive efficiency. Limited flow visualization is performed with particle image velocimetry in order to connect the force production and energetics of the partially-flexible wing with its generated flow structures. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  13. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  14. CRISIS FOCUS Uncertainty and Flexibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As the world continued to watch the unfolding financial and economic crises this month, Robert Zoellick, President of the World Bank, arrived in China for discussions on how the country can help support the global economy and the efforts it has taken to strengthen its own recovery. Zoellick, who had seen many uncertainties in 2009, called for China to be flexible with its macroeconomic policy. He made the following comments at a press conference in Beijing on December 15. Edited excerpts follow:

  15. Organisationsprinzipien zielgerichteter Bewegungen flexibler Greiforgane

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    Flexible grasping organs like the trunk of elephants and the grasping tail of spider monkeys have to deal with a high degree of movement freedom in their goal-directed movements. The aim of this study was to find the basic organisation principles they apply in order to lower the coordination expense of their movements. Therefore, in hypothesis I a reduction of the degree of movement freedom was postulated whereas hypothesis II assumed a specialization of movements towards one side. Since trun...

  16. Flexible Photonic Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Guidetti, G.; Atifi, S; Vignolini, S; Hamad, WY

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of self-assembled cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films of tunable photonic and mechanical properties using a facile, green approach is demonstrated. The combination of tunable flexibility and iridescence can dramatically expand CNC coating and film barrier capabilities for paints and coating applications, sustainable consumer packaging products, as well as effective templates for photonic and optoelectronic materials and structures. CelluForce Inc., Biotechnology and Biologica...

  17. Flexible Execution of Cognitive Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-30

    Rosenbloom. P. (1988). Symbolic Architectures. In Posner, M. (Ed.), FoundatiCns of Cogniive Science . Cambridge. MKA MIT Press. In preparation. Nii. P. , 1986...Procedures 00 Technical Report PCG-5 14 Kurt VanLehn and William Ball Departments of Psychology and Computer Science Carnegie-Mellon University...Psychology and Computer Science Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 U.S.A 30 June 1987 Running head: Flexible Execution of Cognitive

  18. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  19. Native listening: The flexibility dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2012-01-01

    The way we listen to spoken language is tailored to the specific benefit of native-language speech input. Listening to speech in non-native languages can be significantly hindered by this native bias. Is it possible to determine the degree to which a listener is listening in a native-like manner? Pr

  20. UNITY OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS FLEXIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    George MOLDOVEANU; Cosmin DOBRIN

    2012-01-01

    The paper has the goal to analyse the correlation of the flexibility of all organizational functions. Based upon theoretical and practical studies, the decrease of flexibility into an "activity area" of organizations implies a diminution on a large scale of the flexibility of the processing system as a law expression of the decreasing outputs within economy. Therefore, at the level of each organizational function there are several major directions ensuring the flexibility of the "ensemble".

  1. Vibration Control of Flexible Mode for a Beam-Type Substrate Transport Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hoon Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beam‐type substrate transport robots are widely used to handle substrates, especially in the solar cell manufacturing process. To reduce the takt time and increase productivity, accurate position control becomes increasingly important as the size of the substrate increases. However, the vibration caused by the flexible forks in beam‐type robots interferes with accurate positioning, which results in long takt times in the manufacturing process. To minimize the vibration and transport substrates on the fork as fast as possible, the trajectories should be prevented from exciting the flexible modes of the forks. For this purpose, a fifth‐order polynomial trajectory generator and input shaping were incorporated into the controller of the beam‐type robot in this study. The flexible modes of the forks were identified by measuring the frequency response function (FRF, and the input shaping was designed so as not to excite the flexible modes. The controller was implemented by using MATLAB/xPC Target. In this paper, the design procedure of input shaping and its effectiveness for vibration attenuation in both “no load” and “load” cases is presented.

  2. Vibration Control of Flexible Mode for a Beam-Type Substrate Transport Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Hoon Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beam-type substrate transport robots are widely used to handle substrates, especially in the solar cell manufacturing process. To reduce the takt time and increase productivity, accurate position control becomes increasingly important as the size of the substrate increases. However, the vibration caused by the flexible forks in beam-type robots interferes with accurate positioning, which results in long takt times in the manufacturing process. To minimize the vibration and transport substrates on the fork as fast as possible, the trajectories should be prevented from exciting the flexible modes of the forks. For this purpose, a fifth-order polynomial trajectory generator and input shaping were incorporated into the controller of the beam-type robot in this study. The flexible modes of the forks were identified by measuring the frequency response function (FRF, and the input shaping was designed so as not to excite the flexible modes. The controller was implemented by using MATLAB/xPC Target. In this paper, the design procedure of input shaping and its effectiveness for vibration attenuation in both “no load” and “load” cases is presented.

  3. [Flexibility and safety in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, G M; Barni, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the reasons according to which the newly-planned hospitals must adopt the concept of advanced flexibility (structural, technological, organizational, diagnostic and therapeutic), in order to avoid the risk of being already obsolete at the moment of their opening, and this due to the fact that too much time elapses in this Country between the moment of planning a new hospital and the moment of the start of its activity. Flexibility is needed at different levels: at low or medium levels for what concerns administrative spaces and also patient rooms (except, in this latter case, when differential intensity of care is adopted); at advanced levelfor what concerns diagnostic and therapeutic areas, which must be rapidly adaptable to new solutions offered by advances in technology and organization. From a different standpoint, flexibility applies also to the fact that hospital must increasingly become a node of a large net including territorial health services: the latter devoted to take care of chronicity, while hospitals should concentrate on acute pathology. Of course the territory surrounding the hospital, through its outpatient service and consultories, is in charge also for first level diagnosy and therapy, leaving the hospital to more sophisticated activities.

  4. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Loher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL, skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL. Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass, insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  5. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel

    2016-09-14

    In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  6. Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.

    2008-01-01

    A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.

  7. A DNA-based system for selecting and displaying the combined result of two input variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huajie; Wang, Jianbang; Song, S

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based technologies for biosensing or bio-regulation produce huge amounts of rich high-dimensional information. There is a consequent need for flexible means to combine diverse pieces of such information to form useful derivative outputs, and to display those immediately. Here we...... demonstrate this capability in a DNA-based system that takes two input numbers, represented in DNA strands, and returns the result of their multiplication, writing this as a number in a display. Unlike a conventional calculator, this system operates by selecting the result from a library of solutions rather...

  8. Financial Flexibility in North Carolina Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Tanya M.; Polen, Deborah A.

    This paper explores educational financial flexibility with a focus on the specific issues surrounding local flexibility in North Carolina school districts. Strategies that states have used to increase local financial flexibility include waivers, reduction of budget categories, block grants, and school-based budgeting. The North Carolina system of…

  9. Shaft-Guidance for Flexible Endoscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes (long, slender, flexible instruments with a camera and light at the distal end, having working channels to introduce flexible instruments) are used for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions inside the human digestive system and inside the abdomen. Though used for their flexibi

  10. Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

  11. OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Richardson N; Mikulovic, Sanja; Leão, Katarina E; Munguba, Hermany; Gezelius, Henrik; Enjin, Anders; Patra, Kalicharan; Eriksson, Anders; Loew, Leslie M; Tort, Adriano B L; Kullander, Klas

    2012-11-01

    The vast diversity of GABAergic interneurons is believed to endow hippocampal microcircuits with the required flexibility for memory encoding and retrieval. However, dissection of the functional roles of defined interneuron types has been hampered by the lack of cell-specific tools. We identified a precise molecular marker for a population of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons known as oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. By combining transgenic mice and optogenetic tools, we found that OLM cells are important for gating the information flow in CA1, facilitating the transmission of intrahippocampal information (from CA3) while reducing the influence of extrahippocampal inputs (from the entorhinal cortex). Furthermore, we found that OLM cells were interconnected by gap junctions, received direct cholinergic inputs from subcortical afferents and accounted for the effect of nicotine on synaptic plasticity of the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results suggest that acetylcholine acting through OLM cells can control the mnemonic processes executed by the hippocampus.

  12. The Importance of Input and Interaction in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党春花

    2009-01-01

    As is known to us, input and interaction play the crucial roles in second language acquisition (SLA). Different linguistic schools have different explanations to input and interaction Behaviorist theories hold a view that input is composed of stimuli and response, putting more emphasis on the importance of input, while mentalist theories find input is a necessary condition to SLA, not a sufficient condition. At present, social interaction theories, which is one type of cognitive linguistics, suggests that besides input, interaction is also essential to language acquisition. Then, this essay will discuss how input and interaction result in SLA.

  13. Cone inputs to murine striate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouras Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recorded responses from single neurons in murine visual cortex to determine the effectiveness of the input from the two murine cone photoreceptor mechanisms and whether there is any unique selectivity for cone inputs at this higher region of the visual system that would support the possibility of colour vision in mice. Each eye was stimulated by diffuse light, either 370 (strong stimulus for the ultra-violet (UV cone opsin or 505 nm (exclusively stimulating the middle wavelength sensitive (M cone opsin, obtained from light emitting diodes (LEDs in the presence of a strong adapting light that suppressed the responses of rods. Results Single cells responded to these diffuse stimuli in all areas of striate cortex. Two types of responsive cells were encountered. One type (135/323 – 42% had little to no spontaneous activity and responded at either the on and/or the off phase of the light stimulus with a few impulses often of relatively large amplitude. A second type (166/323 – 51% had spontaneous activity and responded tonically to light stimuli with impulses often of small amplitude. Most of the cells responded similarly to both spectral stimuli. A few (18/323 – 6% responded strongly or exclusively to one or the other spectral stimulus and rarely in a spectrally opponent manner. Conclusion Most cells in murine striate cortex receive excitatory inputs from both UV- and M-cones. A small fraction shows either strong selectivity for one or the other cone mechanism and occasionally cone opponent responses. Cells that could underlie chromatic contrast detection are present but extremely rare in murine striate cortex.

  14. Comparison between Input Hypothesis and Interaction Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳

    2012-01-01

      Krashen’s Input hypothesis and Long’s Interaction hypothesis are both valuable research results in the field of language acquisition and play a significant role in language teaching and learning instruction. Through comparing them, their similarities lie in same goal and basis, same focus on comprehension and same challenge the traditional teaching concept. While the differences lie in Different ways to make exposure comprehensible and different roles that learners play. It is meaningful to make the compari⁃son because the results can be valuable guidance and highlights for language teachers and learners to teach or acquire a new lan⁃guage more efficiently.

  15. LISTENING COMPREHENSION: MORE THAN JUST COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of Krashen’s theory on second language acquisition (SLA), the role of comprehensible input (CI) in the learning/acquiring of a language has received considerable attention (Krashen, 1982, 1985; Ellis, 1991, 1992; Long, 1983, 1985). As a result of these studies researchers now agree on the following points. Exposure to a language does not lead to acquisition; the personal accounts of so many language learners who have spent many years in a country or who have listened to endless hours of radio and television without being able to understand or speak the language attest to this fact.

  16. Operational modal analysis with non stationnary inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Gouache, Thibault; Morlier, Joseph; Michon, Guilhem; Coulange, Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) techniques enable the use of in-situ and uncontrolled vibrations to be used to lead modal analysis of structures. In reality operational vibrations are a combination of numerous excitations sources that are much more complex than a random white noise or a harmonic. Numerous OMA techniques exist like SSI, NExT, FDD and BSS. All these methods are based on the fundamental hypothesis that the input or force applied to the structure to be analyzed is a stationary w...

  17. TSM control of the delayed input system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The paper proposed a terminal sliding mode control method for the delayed input system with uncertainties. Firstly, through the state transformation, the original system was transformed into the non-delayed controllable canonical form system. Then the paper designed a terminal sliding mode and terminal sliding control law with Lyapunov method for the transformed system. Through the method, the reaching time of the any initial state and the convergencing time to the equilibrium points are constrained in finite time. The simulation results show the validation of the method.

  18. Intelligent Graph Layout Using Many Users' Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoru; Che, Limei; Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Xin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new strategy for graph drawing utilizing layouts of many sub-graphs supplied by a large group of people in a crowd sourcing manner. We developed an algorithm based on Laplacian constrained distance embedding to merge subgraphs submitted by different users, while attempting to maintain the topological information of the individual input layouts. To facilitate collection of layouts from many people, a light-weight interactive system has been designed to enable convenient dynamic viewing, modification and traversing between layouts. Compared with other existing graph layout algorithms, our approach can achieve more aesthetic and meaningful layouts with high user preference.

  19. Input-output-controlled nonlinear equation solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    To upgrade the efficiency and stability of the successive substitution (SS) and Newton-Raphson (NR) schemes, the concept of input-output-controlled solvers (IOCS) is introduced. By employing the formal properties of the constrained version of the SS and NR schemes, the IOCS algorithm can handle indefiniteness of the system Jacobian, can maintain iterate monotonicity, and provide for separate control of load incrementation and iterate excursions, as well as having other features. To illustrate the algorithmic properties, the results for several benchmark examples are presented. These define the associated numerical efficiency and stability of the IOCS.

  20. Example of input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The thirty sectors included in the ECASTAR energy input-output model were listed. Five of these belong to energy producing sectors, fifteen to manufacturing industries, two to residential and commercial sectors, and eight to service industries. The model is capable of tracing impacts of an action in three dimensions: dollars, BTU's of energy, and labor. Four conservation actions considered were listed and then discussed separately, dealing with the following areas: increase in fuel efficiency, reduction in fuel used by the transportation and warehousing group, manufacturing of smaller automobiles, and a communications/transportation trade-off.

  1. Input data to run Landis-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location of each mapcode, b) Cohort_ages, which includes the ages for each tree species-cohort within each mapcode, c) Ecoregions, which consist of different regions of soils and climate, d) Ecoregion_codes, which define the ecoregions, and e) Species_Params, which link the potential establishment and growth rates for each species with each ecoregion.

  2. Culture Input in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晶

    2009-01-01

    Language and culture are highly interrelated, that is to say, language is not only the carrier of culture but it is also restricted by culture. Therefore, foreign language teaching aiming at cultivate students' intercultural communication should take culture differences into consideration. In this paper, the relationship between language and culture will be discussed. Then I will illustrate the importance of intercultural communication. Finally, according to the present situation of foreign language teaching in China, several strategies for cultural input in and out of class will be suggested.

  3. Approximate input physics for stellar modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pols, O R; Eggleton, P P; Han, Z; Pols, O R; Tout, C A; Eggleton, P P; Han, Z

    1995-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient, yet reasonably accurate, equation of state, which at the moderately low temperatures and high densities found in the interiors of stars less massive than the Sun is substantially more accurate than its predecessor by Eggleton, Faulkner & Flannery. Along with the most recently available values in tabular form of opacities, neutrino loss rates, and nuclear reaction rates for a selection of the most important reactions, this provides a convenient package of input physics for stellar modelling. We briefly discuss a few results obtained with the updated stellar evolution code.

  4. Increase in flexibility with latest technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuebi, Michael; Krull, Florian Felix [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany); Ladwig, Michael [Alstom (Switzerland) AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Flexibility demands on conventional power plants rise to ensure grid stability within a power generation mix with drastically increasing capacities of renewable power generation sources such as wind farms and photovoltaics. In this paper flexibility requirements for a power plant portfolio are discussed. Through selected examples of projects from RWE's current investment programme, comprising around 13 GW of efficient and flexible power plant capacity in Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey and the UK, application of the latest technologies to fulfil flexibility requirements is presented. Further, the potential of smart retrofits in terms of combined flexibility and efficiency gains is illustrated by means of an existing power plant unit retrofit project. (orig.)

  5. Designing for Flexibility in the Traditional University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Collis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Instructors in traditional universities are expected to respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse student body by making more flexibility available in their courses. Based on a systematic analysis of flexibility options, various tools to help instructors in the design of their course Web environments for more flexibility have been built into the CMS (Course Management System used at the University of Twente since 1997. It is our experience that instructors use the tools to increase course flexibility with regard to the efficiency and logistics of participation but do relatively less with respect to increasing course flexibility when this involves new pedagogies.

  6. Evaluation of input devices for teleoperation of concentric tube continuum robots for surgical tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellmann, Carolin; Kashi, Daryoush; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    For those minimally invasive surgery where conventional surgical instruments cannot reach the surgical site due to their straight structure and rigidity, concentric tube continuum robots are a promising technology because of their small size (comparable to a needle) and maneuverability. These flexible, compliant manipulators can easily access hard to reach anatomical structures, e.g. by turning around corners. By teleoperating the robot the surgeon stays in direct control at any time. In this paper, three off-the-shelf input devices are considered for teleoperation of a concentric tube continuum robot: a 3D mouse, a gamepad, and a 3 degrees of freedom haptic input device. Three tasks which mimic relevant surgical maneuvers are performed by 12 subjects using each input device: reaching specific locations, picking and placing objects from one location to another, and approaching the surgical site through a restricted pathway. We present quantitative results (task completion time, accuracy, etc.), a statistical analysis, and empirical results (questionnaires). Overall, the performance of subjects using the 3D mouse was superior to the performance using the other input devices. The subjective ranking of the 3D mouse by the subjects confirms this result.

  7. Experimental demonstration of a classical approach for flexible space structure control: NASA CSI testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Wie

    1991-01-01

    The results of active control experiments performed for the Mini-Mast truss structure are presented. The primary research objectives were: (1) to develop active structural control concepts and/or techniques; (2) to verify the concept of robust non-minimum-phase compensation for a certain class of non-colocated structural control problems through ground experiments; (3) to verify a 'dipole' concept for persistent disturbance rejection control of flexible structures; and (4) to identify CSI (Control Structure Interaction) issues and areas of emphasis for the next generation of large flexible spacecraft. The classical SISO (Single Input and Single Output) control design approach was employed.

  8. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  9. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...... the adoption of the flexibility solutions, such as flexible electricity generation, demand-response, and electricity storage. This paper tries to analyze the current energy flexibility solutions and the factors that can influence the energy flexibility adoption. This paper takes Philippines as case study...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper....

  10. Power analysis in flexible automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Nathan A.

    1992-12-01

    The performance of an automation or robotic device can be measured in terms of its power efficiency. Screw theory is used to mathematically define the task instantaneously with two screws. The task wrench defines the effect of the device on its environment, and the task twist describes the motion of the device. The tasks can be separated into three task types: kinetic, manipulative, and reactive. Efficiency metrics are developed for each task type. The output power is strictly a function of the task screws, while device input power is shown to be a function of the task, the device Jacobian, and the actuator type. Expressions for input power are developed for two common types of actuators, DC servometers and hydraulic actuators. Simple examples are used to illustrate how power analysis can be used for task/workspace planning, actuator selection, device configuration design, and redundancy resolution.

  11. Cometary micrometeorites and input of prebiotic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engrand C.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The apparition of life on the early Earth was probably favored by inputs of extraterrestrial matter brought by carbonaceous chondrite-like objects or cometary material. Interplanetary dust collected nowadays on Earth is related to carbonaceous chondrites and to cometary material. They contain in particular at least a few percent of organic matter, organic compounds (amino-acids, PAHs,…, hydrous silicates, and could have largely contributed to the budget of prebiotic matter on Earth, about 4 Ga ago. A new population of cometary dust was recently discovered in the Concordia Antarctic micrometeorite collection. These “Ultracarbonaceous Antarctic Micrometeorites” (UCAMMs are dominated by deuterium-rich and nitrogen-rich organic matter. They seem related to the “CHON” grains identified in the comet Halley in 1986. Although rare in the micrometeorites flux (<5% of the micrometeorites, UCAMMs could have significantly contributed to the input of prebiotic matter. Their content in soluble organic matter is currently under study.

  12. Processing in (linear) systems with stochastic input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutu, Catalin Silviu; Axinte, Tiberiu

    2016-12-01

    The paper is providing a different approach to real-world systems, such as micro and macro systems of our real life, where the man has little or no influence on the system, either not knowing the rules of the respective system or not knowing the input of the system, being thus mainly only spectator of the system's output. In such a system, the input of the system and the laws ruling the system could be only "guessed", based on intuition or previous knowledge of the analyzer of the respective system. But, as we will see in the paper, it exists also another, more theoretical and hence scientific way to approach the matter of the real-world systems, and this approach is mostly based on the theory related to Schrödinger's equation and the wave function associated with it and quantum mechanics as well. The main results of the paper are regarding the utilization of the Schrödinger's equation and related theory but also of the Quantum mechanics, in modeling real-life and real-world systems.

  13. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  14. [Prosody, speech input and language acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungheim, M; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In order to acquire language, children require speech input. The prosody of the speech input plays an important role. In most cultures adults modify their code when communicating with children. Compared to normal speech this code differs especially with regard to prosody. For this review a selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was performed. Prosodic characteristics are a key feature of spoken language. By analysing prosodic features, children gain knowledge about underlying grammatical structures. Child-directed speech (CDS) is modified in a way that meaningful sequences are highlighted acoustically so that important information can be extracted from the continuous speech flow more easily. CDS is said to enhance the representation of linguistic signs. Taking into consideration what has previously been described in the literature regarding the perception of suprasegmentals, CDS seems to be able to support language acquisition due to the correspondence of prosodic and syntactic units. However, no findings have been reported, stating that the linguistically reduced CDS could hinder first language acquisition.

  15. Flexible experimental FPGA based platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental flexible Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based platform for testing and verifying digital controlled dc-dc converters. The platform supports different types of control strategies, dc-dc converter topologies and switching frequencies. The controller platform...... interface supporting configuration and reading of setup parameters, controller status and the acquisition memory in a simple way. The FPGA based platform, provides an easy way within education or research to use different digital control strategies and different converter topologies controlled by an FPGA...

  16. International Expansion through Flexible Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Anna; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    to local environments and under the impact of new learning. To illuminate these issues, we draw on a longitudinal in-depth study of Swedish home furnishing giant IKEA, involving more than 70 interviews. We find that IKEA has developed organizational mechanisms that support an ongoing learning process aimed......, etc.) are replicated in a uniform manner across stores, and change only very slowly (if at all) in response to learning (“flexible replication”). We conclude by discussing the factors that influence the approach to replication adopted by an international replicator....

  17. Mundari as a flexible language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeveld, Kees; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2005-01-01

    by a critical evaluation of the three criteria Evans & Osada (E&O - this volume) use to establish the lack of word class distinctions in a language (section 3). In section 4 we present evidence to support our claim that Mundari has ‘flexible’ basic lexemes (i.e. there is no fundamental distinction between nouns...... and verbs), thus disputing E&O’s claim that Mundari has clearly definable classes of verbs and nouns. The last section is concerned with a set of grammatical features which correlate with the presence of flexible lexemes in a language. It is concluded that Mundari displays all of the predicted features...

  18. Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: scheduling application; the motivation for the Flexible Envelope Request Notation (FERN); characteristics of FERN; types of information needed in requests; where information is stored in requests; FERN structures; generic requests; resource availability for pooled resources; expressive notation; temporal constraints; time formats; changes to FERN; sample FERN requests; the temporal relationship between two steps; maximum activity length to limit step delays; alternative requests; the temporal relationship between two activities; and idle resource usage between steps.

  19. Flexible high-speed CODEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segallis, Greg P.; Wernlund, Jim V.; Corry, Glen

    1993-08-01

    This report is prepared by Harris Government Communication Systems Division for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract NAS3-25087. It is written in accordance with SOW section 4.0 (d) as detailed in section 2.6. The purpose of this document is to provide a summary of the program, performance results and analysis, and a technical assessment. The purpose of this program was to develop a flexible, high-speed CODEC that provides substantial coding gain while maintaining bandwidth efficiency for use in both continuous and bursted data environments for a variety of applications.

  20. Versatile Flexible Graphene Multielectrode Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, Dmitry; Seyock, Silke; Ernst, Mathis; Maybeck, Vanessa; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2016-12-23

    Graphene is a promising material possessing features relevant to bioelectronics applications. Graphene microelectrodes (GMEAs), which are fabricated in a dense array on a flexible polyimide substrate, were investigated in this work for their performance via electrical impedance spectroscopy. Biocompatibility and suitability of the GMEAs for extracellular recordings were tested by measuring electrical activities from acute heart tissue and cardiac muscle cells. The recordings show encouraging signal-to-noise ratios of 65 ± 15 for heart tissue recordings and 20 ± 10 for HL-1 cells. Considering the low noise and excellent robustness of the devices, the sensor arrays are suitable for diverse and biologically relevant applications.

  1. The flexibility of optical metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, Eduardo; Smolyaninov, Igor; Smolyaninova, Vera N

    2015-01-01

    We firstly revisit the importance, naturalness and limitations of the so-called optical metrics for describing the propagation of light rays in the limit of geometric optics. We then exemplify their flexibility and nontriviality in some nonlinear material media and in the context of nonlinear theories of the electromagnetism, both underlain by curved backgrounds, where optical metrics could be flat and impermeable membranes only to photons could be conceived, respectively. Finally, we underline and discuss the relevance and potential applications of our analyses in a broad sense, ranging from material media to compact astrophysical systems.

  2. Versatile Flexible Graphene Multielectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kireev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a promising material possessing features relevant to bioelectronics applications. Graphene microelectrodes (GMEAs, which are fabricated in a dense array on a flexible polyimide substrate, were investigated in this work for their performance via electrical impedance spectroscopy. Biocompatibility and suitability of the GMEAs for extracellular recordings were tested by measuring electrical activities from acute heart tissue and cardiac muscle cells. The recordings show encouraging signal-to-noise ratios of 65 ± 15 for heart tissue recordings and 20 ± 10 for HL-1 cells. Considering the low noise and excellent robustness of the devices, the sensor arrays are suitable for diverse and biologically relevant applications.

  3. Fully Integral, Flexible Composite Driveshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    An all-composite driveshaft incorporating integral flexible diaphragms was developed for prime contractor testing. This new approach makes obsolete the split lines required to attach metallic flex elements and either metallic or composite spacing tubes in current solutions. Subcritical driveshaft weights can be achieved that are half that of incumbent technology for typical rotary wing shaft lengths. Spacing tubes compose an integral part of the initial tooling but remain part of the finished shaft and control natural frequencies and torsional stability. A concurrently engineered manufacturing process and design for performance competes with incumbent solutions at significantly lower weight and with the probability of improved damage tolerance and fatigue life.

  4. A Flexible Microcontroller-Based Data Acquisition Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Hercog

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost microcontroller-based data acquisition device. The key component of the presented solution is a configurable microcontroller-based device with an integrated USB transceiver and a 12-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. The presented embedded DAQ device contains a preloaded program (firmware that enables easy acquisition and generation of analogue and digital signals and data transfer between the device and the application running on a PC via USB bus. This device has been developed as a USB human interface device (HID. This USB class is natively supported by most of the operating systems and therefore any installation of additional USB drivers is unnecessary. The input/output peripheral of the presented device is not static but rather flexible, and could be easily configured to customised needs without changing the firmware. When using the developed configuration utility, a majority of chip pins can be configured as analogue input, digital input/output, PWM output or one of the SPI lines. In addition, LabVIEW drivers have been developed for this device. When using the developed drivers, data acquisition and signal processing algorithms as well as graphical user interface (GUI, can easily be developed using a well-known, industry proven, block oriented LabVIEW programming environment.

  5. A flexible microcontroller-based data acquisition device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercog, Darko; Gergič, Bojan

    2014-06-02

    This paper presents a low-cost microcontroller-based data acquisition device. The key component of the presented solution is a configurable microcontroller-based device with an integrated USB transceiver and a 12-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The presented embedded DAQ device contains a preloaded program (firmware) that enables easy acquisition and generation of analogue and digital signals and data transfer between the device and the application running on a PC via USB bus. This device has been developed as a USB human interface device (HID). This USB class is natively supported by most of the operating systems and therefore any installation of additional USB drivers is unnecessary. The input/output peripheral of the presented device is not static but rather flexible, and could be easily configured to customised needs without changing the firmware. When using the developed configuration utility, a majority of chip pins can be configured as analogue input, digital input/output, PWM output or one of the SPI lines. In addition, LabVIEW drivers have been developed for this device. When using the developed drivers, data acquisition and signal processing algorithms as well as graphical user interface (GUI), can easily be developed using a well-known, industry proven, block oriented LabVIEW programming environment.

  6. On the concept of flexibility: A dual control perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.J. de Leeuw (A. C J); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational flexibility has recently received much attention from researchers, management consultants and practitioners. In general, the term 'flexibility' has a positive connotation: flexible organizations are the better ones. However, the meaning of flexibility as well as its

  7. On the concept of flexibility : A dual control perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, A.C.J.; Volberda, H.W.

    Organizational flexibility has recently received much attention from researchers, management consultants and practitioners, In general, the term 'flexibility' has a positive connotation: flexible organizations are the better ones. However, the meaning of flexibility as well as its relation to the

  8. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Smallwood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

  9. Fuzzy Model-based Pitch Stabilization and Wing Vibration Suppression of Flexible Wing Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Mohammad A.; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy nonlinear controller to regulate the longitudinal dynamics of an aircraft and suppress the bending and torsional vibrations of its flexible wings. The fuzzy controller utilizes full-state feedback with input constraint. First, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy linear model is developed which approximates the coupled aeroelastic aircraft model. Then, based on the fuzzy linear model, a fuzzy controller is developed to utilize a full-state feedback and stabilize the system while it satisfies the control input constraint. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are employed to solve the fuzzy control problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  10. Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Emre O; Balcı, Osman; Kocabas, Coskun

    2014-10-01

    Graphene emerges as a viable material for optoelectronics because of its broad optical response and gate-tunable properties. For practical applications, however, single layer graphene has performance limits due to its small optical absorption defined by fundamental constants. Here, we demonstrated a new class of flexible electrochromic devices using multilayer graphene (MLG) which simultaneously offers all key requirements for practical applications; high-contrast optical modulation over a broad spectrum, good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Our method relies on electro-modulation of interband transition of MLG via intercalation of ions into the graphene layers. The electrical and optical characterizations reveal the key features of the intercalation process which yields broadband optical modulation up to 55 per cent in the visible and near-infrared. We illustrate the promises of the method by fabricating reflective/transmissive electrochromic devices and multi-pixel display devices. Simplicity of the device architecture and its compatibility with the roll-to-roll fabrication processes, would find wide range of applications including smart windows and display devices. We anticipate that this work provides a significant step in realization of graphene based optoelectronics.

  11. Wetting of flexible fibre arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat, C; Protière, S; Beebe, A Y; Stone, H A

    2012-02-23

    Fibrous media are functional and versatile materials, as demonstrated by their ubiquity both in natural systems such as feathers and adhesive pads and in engineered systems from nanotextured surfaces to textile products, where they offer benefits in filtration, insulation, wetting and colouring. The elasticity and high aspect ratios of the fibres allow deformation under capillary forces, which cause mechanical damage, matting self-assembly or colour changes, with many industrial and ecological consequences. Attempts to understand these systems have mostly focused on the wetting of rigid fibres or on elastocapillary effects in planar geometries and on a fibre brush withdrawn from an infinite bath. Here we consider the frequently encountered case of a liquid drop deposited on a flexible fibre array and show that flexibility, fibre geometry and drop volume are the crucial parameters that are necessary to understand the various observations referred to above. We identify the conditions required for a drop to remain compact with minimal spreading or to cause a pair of elastic fibres to coalesce. We find that there is a critical volume of liquid, and, hence, a critical drop size, above which this coalescence does not occur. We also identify a drop size that maximizes liquid capture. For both wetting and deformation of the substrates, we present rules that are deduced from the geometric and material properties of the fibres and the volume of the drop. These ideas are applicable to a wide range of fibrous materials, as we illustrate with examples for feathers, beetle tarsi, sprays and microfabricated systems.

  12. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  13. Analysis on relation between safety input and accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing-guo; ZHANG Xue-mu; LI Chun-hui

    2007-01-01

    The number of safety input directly determines the level of safety, and there exists dialectical and unified relations between safety input and accidents. Based on the field investigation and reliable data, this paper deeply studied the dialectical relationship between safety input and accidents, and acquired the conclusions. The security situation of the coal enterprises was related to the security input rate, being effected little by the security input scale, and build the relationship model between safety input and accidents on this basis, that is the accident model.

  14. Auto Draw from Excel Input Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Goullioud, Renaud; Cox, Brian; Grimes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The design process often involves the use of Excel files during project development. To facilitate communications of the information in the Excel files, drawings are often generated. During the design process, the Excel files are updated often to reflect new input. The problem is that the drawings often lag the updates, often leading to confusion of the current state of the design. The use of this program allows visualization of complex data in a format that is more easily understandable than pages of numbers. Because the graphical output can be updated automatically, the manual labor of diagram drawing can be eliminated. The more frequent update of system diagrams can reduce confusion and reduce errors and is likely to uncover symmetric problems earlier in the design cycle, thus reducing rework and redesign.

  15. Distribution Development for STORM Ingestion Input Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulton, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Sandia-developed Transport of Radioactive Materials (STORM) code suite is used as part of the Radioisotope Power System Launch Safety (RPSLS) program to perform statistical modeling of the consequences due to release of radioactive material given a launch accident. As part of this modeling, STORM samples input parameters from probability distributions with some parameters treated as constants. This report described the work done to convert four of these constant inputs (Consumption Rate, Average Crop Yield, Cropland to Landuse Database Ratio, and Crop Uptake Factor) to sampled values. Consumption rate changed from a constant value of 557.68 kg / yr to a normal distribution with a mean of 102.96 kg / yr and a standard deviation of 2.65 kg / yr. Meanwhile, Average Crop Yield changed from a constant value of 3.783 kg edible / m 2 to a normal distribution with a mean of 3.23 kg edible / m 2 and a standard deviation of 0.442 kg edible / m 2 . The Cropland to Landuse Database ratio changed from a constant value of 0.0996 (9.96%) to a normal distribution with a mean value of 0.0312 (3.12%) and a standard deviation of 0.00292 (0.29%). Finally the crop uptake factor changed from a constant value of 6.37e-4 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) to a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean value of 3.38e-4 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) and a standard deviation value of 3.33 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg)

  16. Flexible network wireless transceiver and flexible network telemetry transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-05

    A transceiver for facilitating two-way wireless communication between a baseband application and other nodes in a wireless network, wherein the transceiver provides baseband communication networking and necessary configuration and control functions along with transmitter, receiver, and antenna functions to enable the wireless communication. More specifically, the transceiver provides a long-range wireless duplex communication node or channel between the baseband application, which is associated with a mobile or fixed space, air, water, or ground vehicle or other platform, and other nodes in the wireless network or grid. The transceiver broadly comprises a communication processor; a flexible telemetry transceiver including a receiver and a transmitter; a power conversion and regulation mechanism; a diplexer; and a phased array antenna system, wherein these various components and certain subcomponents thereof may be separately enclosed and distributable relative to the other components and subcomponents.

  17. Development of PDMS-based flexible dry type SEMG electrodes by micromachining technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jung Mo; Cha, Doo Yeol; Kim, Deok Su; Yang, Hee Jun; Choi, Kyo Sang; Choi, Jong Myoung; Chang, Sung Pil

    2014-09-01

    The authors developed PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)-based dry type surface electromyography (SEMG) electrodes for myoelectric prosthetic hands. The SEMG electrodes were strongly recommended to be fabricated on a flexible substrate to be compatible with the surface of skin. In this study, the authors designed a bar-shaped dry-type flexible SEMG electrodes comprised of two input electrodes and a reference electrode on a flexible PDMS substrate to measure EMG signals. The space distance between each electrode with a size of 10 mm × 2 mm was chosen to 18 mm to get optimal result according to the simulation result with taking into consideration the conduction velocity and the median frequency of EMG signals. Raw EMG signals were measured from Brachioradialis, Biceps brachii, deltoideus, and pectoralis major muscles, to drive the application of the myoelectric hand prosthesis. Measured raw EMG signals were transformed to root mean square (RMS) EMG signals using Acqknowledge4.2. The experimental peak voltage values of RMS EMG signals from Brachioradialis, Biceps brachii, deltoideus, and pectoralis major muscles were 2.96 V, 4.45 V, 1.74 V, and 2.62 V, respectively. Values from the dry type flexible SEMG electrodes showed higher peak values than a commercially available wet type Ag-AgCl electrode. The study shows that the PDMS-based flexible electrode devised for measuring myoelectric signals from the surface of skin is more useful for prosthetic hands because of its greater sensitivity and flexibility.

  18. Robust input design for nonlinear dynamic modeling of AUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Nowrouz Mohammad; Valadi, Mehrdad

    2017-09-01

    Input design has a dominant role in developing the dynamic model of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) through system identification. Optimal input design is the process of generating informative inputs that can be used to generate the good quality dynamic model of AUVs. In a problem with optimal input design, the desired input signal depends on the unknown system which is intended to be identified. In this paper, the input design approach which is robust to uncertainties in model parameters is used. The Bayesian robust design strategy is applied to design input signals for dynamic modeling of AUVs. The employed approach can design multiple inputs and apply constraints on an AUV system's inputs and outputs. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to solve the constraint robust optimization problem. The presented algorithm is used for designing the input signals for an AUV, and the estimate obtained by robust input design is compared with that of the optimal input design. According to the results, proposed input design can satisfy both robustness of constraints and optimality. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Language, Cognitive Flexibility, and Explicit False Belief Understanding: Longitudinal Analysis in Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of…

  20. Against Comprehensible Input: The Input Hypothesis and the Development of Second-language Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia

    1987-01-01

    Discusses several objections to Krashen's Input Hypothesis which states that language acquisition is the learners' understanding of a language at a stage slightly higher than their current one because of their understanding of extralinguistic cues of the language. (Author/LMO)

  1. Are Financial Variables Inputs in Delivered Production Functions? Are Financial Variables Inputs in Delivered Production Functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kiguel

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Fischer's classic (1974 paper develops conditions under which it is appropriate to use money as an input in a 'delivered' production function. In this paper, we extend Fischer's model I (the Baumol-Tobin inventory approach by incorporating credit into the analysis. Our investigation of the extended model brings out a very restrictive but necessary implicit assumption employed by Fischer to treat money as an input. Namely. that there exists a binding constraint on the use of money! A similar result holds for our more general model. Fischer's classic (1974 paper develops conditions under which it is appropriate to use money as an input in a 'delivered' production function. In this paper, we extend Fischer's model I (the Baumol-Tobin inventory approach by incorporating credit into the analysis. Our investigation of the extended model brings out a very restrictive but necessary implicit assumption employed by Fischer to treat money as an input. Namely. that there exists a binding constraint on the use of money! A similar result holds for our more general model.

  2. Hybrid input function estimation using a single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Shoghi, Kooresh I.

    2009-02-01

    A hybrid blood input function (BIF) model that incorporates region of interests (ROIs) based peak estimation and a two exponential tail model was proposed to describe the blood input function. The hybrid BIF model was applied to the single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) optimization based approach for BIF estimation using time activity curves (TACs) obtained from ROIs defined at left ventricle (LV) blood pool and myocardium regions of dynamic PET images. The proposed BIF estimation method was applied with 0, 1 and 2 blood samples as constraints for BIF estimation using simulated small animal PET data. Relative percentage difference of the area-under-curve (AUC) measurement between the estimated BIF and the true BIF was calculated to evaluate the BIF estimation accuracy. SIMO based BIF estimation using Feng's input function model was also applied for comparison. The hybrid method provided improved BIF estimation in terms of both mean accuracy and variability compared to Feng's model based BIF estimation in our simulation study. When two blood samples were used as constraints, the percentage BIF estimation error was 0.82 +/- 4.32% for the hybrid approach and 4.63 +/- 10.67% for the Feng's model based approach. Using hybrid BIF, improved kinetic parameter estimation was also obtained.

  3. Effect of input compression and input frequency response on music perception in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emily R; Jones, Linor L; Fraser, Matthew; Lockley, Morag; Hill-Feltham, Penelope; McKay, Colette M

    2015-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether modifications to input compression and input frequency response characteristics can improve music-listening satisfaction in cochlear implant users. Experiment 1 compared three pre-processed versions of music and speech stimuli in a laboratory setting: original, compressed, and flattened frequency response. Music excerpts comprised three music genres (classical, country, and jazz), and a running speech excerpt was compared. Experiment 2 implemented a flattened input frequency response in the speech processor program. In a take-home trial, participants compared unaltered and flattened frequency responses. Ten and twelve adult Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant users participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Experiment 1 revealed a significant preference for music stimuli with a flattened frequency response compared to both original and compressed stimuli, whereas there was a significant preference for the original (rising) frequency response for speech stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed no significant mean preference for the flattened frequency response, with 9 of 11 subjects preferring the rising frequency response. Input compression did not alter music enjoyment. Comparison of the two experiments indicated that individual frequency response preferences may depend on the genre or familiarity, and particularly whether the music contained lyrics.

  4. How Much Input Is Enough? Correlating Comprehension and Child Language Input in an Endangered Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakins, Felicity; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    In situations of language endangerment, the ability to understand a language tends to persevere longer than the ability to speak it. As a result, the possibility of language revival remains high even when few speakers remain. Nonetheless, this potential requires that those with high levels of comprehension received sufficient input as children for…

  5. Simulation and analysis of flexibly jointed manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.; Saridis, George M.

    1990-01-01

    Modeling, simulation, and analysis of robot manipulators with non-negligible joint flexibility are studied. A recursive Newton-Euler model of the flexibly jointed manipulator is developed with many advantages over the traditional Lagrange-Euler methods. The Newton-Euler approach leads to a method for the simulation of a flexibly jointed manipulator in which the number of computations grows linearly with the number of links. Additionally, any function for the flexibility between the motor and link may be used permitting the simulation of nonlinear effects, such as backlash, in a uniform manner for all joints. An analysis of the control problems for flexibly jointed manipulators is presented by converting the Newton-Euler model to a Lagrange-Euler form. The detailed structure available in the model is used to examine linearizing controllers and shows the dependency of the control on the choice of flexible model and structure of the manipulator.

  6. Strength, flexibility, and maturity in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, M

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between lower-extremity strength and flexibility and maturational status as measured by Tanner staging (TS) was assessed in 84 male high school athletes. The sum of one-repetition maximum lifts for knee extension and flexion was determined and flexibility was measured with the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance sit-and-reach test. Chronologic age, body weight, and percent fat were also recorded. Strength and flexibility were compared for each maturational and chronologic age category. Maturational age was better correlated with strength and flexibility than was chronologic age. All correlations were significant. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations of TS and age with strength and flexibility. Tanner staging had greater predictive value than age for strength and flexibility. After adjusting for age, the relationship between TS and strength remained significant.

  7. A Study on the Input Hypothesis and Interaction Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪清

    2016-01-01

    In Second Language Acquisition theory, input and interaction are considered as two key factors greatly influencing the learners’acquisition rate and quality, and therefore input and interaction research has been receiving increasing attention in re-cent years. Among the large amount of research, Krashen’s input hypothesis and Long’s interaction hypothesis are perhaps most influential theories, from which most of input and interaction studies have developed. Input hypothesis claims that compre-hensible input is the only one way to acquire language, whereas interaction hypothesis argues that interaction is necessary for language acquisition. Therefore,this thesis attempts to conduct a descriptive analysis between input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis, based on their basic ideas, theoretical basis, comparisons and empirical work. It concludes that input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis succeed in interpreting the process of language acquisition to some extent, and offer both theoretical and practical inspirations on second language teaching.

  8. Characterization of Input Current Interharmonics in Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz

    2017-01-01

    -edge symmetrical regularly sampled Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique, on the input current interharmonic components are presented and discussed. Particular attention is also given to the influence of the asymmetrical regularly sampled modulation technique on the drive input current interharmonics...

  9. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  10. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  11. Adaptive High Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Hypersonic Vehicle with Flexible Body Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bailing Tian; Wenru Fan; Qun Zong; Jie Wang; Fang Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a nonlinear robust adaptive controller for a flexible hypersonic vehicle model which is nonlinear, multivariable, and unstable, and includes uncertain parameters. Firstly, a control-oriented model is derived for controller design. Then, the model analysis is conducted for this model via input-output (I/O) linearized technique. Secondly, the sliding mode manifold is designed based on the homogeneity theory. Then, the adaptive high order sliding mode controlle...

  12. A Digital Program for Calculating the Interaction Between Flexible Structures, Unsteady Aerodynamics and Active Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peele, E. L.; Adams, W. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program, ISAC, is described which calculates the stability and response of a flexible airplane equipped with active controls. The equations of motion relative to a fixed inertial coordinate system are formulated in terms of the airplane's rigid body motion and its unrestrained normal vibration modes. Unsteady aerodynamic forces are derived from a doublet lattice lifting surface theory. The theoretical basis for the program is briefly explained together with a description of input data and output results.

  13. A user's guide to the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    A guide to the use of the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program (FSD) is presented covering input requirements, control words, orbit generation, spacecraft description and simulation options, and output definition. The program can be used in dynamics and control analysis as well as in orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. The program is applicable to inertially oriented spinning, Earth oriented or gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. Internal and external environmental effects can be simulated.

  14. The Neural and Genetic Basis of Executive Function: Attention, Cognitive Flexibility, and Response Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Logue, Sheree F; Gould, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Executive function is a collection of cognitive processes essential for higher order mental function. Processes involved in executive function include, but are not limited to, working memory, attention, cognitive flexibility, and impulse control. These complex behaviors are largely mediated by prefrontal cortical function but are modulated by dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic input. The ability of these neurotransmitter systems to modulate executive function allows fo...

  15. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    a growing body of evidence supports the use of mobile technologies, the diverse implications of mobile health have yet to be fully documented. Objective: Our objective was to examine a large-scale government-sponsored mobile health implementation program in the Danish home care sector and to understand how...... stakeholders in the Danish home care sector (government bodies, vendors, consultants, interest organizations, and managers) helped initiate and energize the change process, and government funding supported quick and widespread technology adoption. However, although supported by the same government-sponsored...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...

  16. Flexible polymer waveguide tunable lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Kim, Jun-Whee; Oh, Min-Cheol; Noh, Young-Ouk; Lee, Hyung-Jong

    2010-04-12

    A flexible polymeric Bragg reflector is fabricated for the purpose of demonstrating widely tunable lasers with a compact simple structure. The external feedback of the Bragg reflected light into a superluminescent laser diode produces the lasing of a certain resonance wavelength. The highly elastic polymer device enables the direct tuning of the Bragg wavelength by controlling the imposed strain and provides a much wider tuning range than silica fiber Bragg gratings or thermo-optic tuned polymer devices. Both compressive and tensile strains are applied within the range from -36000 microepsilon to 35000 microepsilon, so as to accomplish the continuous tuning of the Bragg reflection wavelength over a range of up to 100 nm. The external feedback laser with the tunable Bragg reflector exhibits a repetitive wavelength tuning range of 80 nm with a side mode suppression ratio of 35 dB.

  17. Mundari as a flexible language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hengeveld, Kees; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we intend to show that Mundari is one of the languages without distinct classes of verbs and nouns as far as its basic, non-derived vocabulary is concerned. Our contribution is organized as follows. Section 2 briefly presents a typology of parts-of-speech (PoS) systems, followed...... and verbs), thus disputing E&O’s claim that Mundari has clearly definable classes of verbs and nouns. The last section is concerned with a set of grammatical features which correlate with the presence of flexible lexemes in a language. It is concluded that Mundari displays all of the predicted features...... of a language that does not clearly distinguish between separate classes of nouns and verbs....

  18. Adhesion Transition of Flexible Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur; Lauga, Eric

    2009-03-01

    As forays into fabrication and self-assembly venture to increasingly small length scales, the role of adhesion events between material elements of the system must be closely scrutinized. This area of study is typically dominated by investigations into capillary adhesion, but relatively recent interest in carbon nanotubes and biomimetic devices have spurred interest in intermolecular forces as another source of micro- and nano-scale adhesion. We present here a far-field model for ``dry'' adhesion. We consider a small number N of flexible beams interacting with each other via a typical Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, and describe the behavior of the system as the ratio of bending rigidity to beam-beam attraction is reduced. Applications ranging from fibrillar systems to the comparatively stiff carbon nanotubes are discussed.

  19. Lifelong Open and Flexible Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and Flexible (LOF) learning embracing characteristics as: open learning, distance learning, e-learning, online learning, open accessibility, multimedia support, virtual mobility, learning communities, dual mode (earn & learn) approaches, and the like.In my presentation I will focus on the EADTU strategies......EADTU members are universities that are dedicated to off-campus target groups using distance teaching methods as well as associations consisting of universities with mainly mainstream on-campus students but also offering education for off-campus students. Consequently our focus is on Lifelong Open...... for creating a synergy network in e-learning – eventually leading to a European Learning Space that supports virtual mobility of students, staff and courses, adds an e-dimension to the Bologa process and facilitates collaboration between universities and the corporate sector....

  20. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mobile technologies have emerged as important tools that health care personnel can use to gain easy access to client data anywhere. This is particularly useful for nurses and care workers in home health care as they provide services to clients in many different settings. Although...... a growing body of evidence supports the use of mobile technologies, the diverse implications of mobile health have yet to be fully documented. Objective: Our objective was to examine a large-scale government-sponsored mobile health implementation program in the Danish home care sector and to understand how......-sponsored program, mobile technology proved to have considerable interpretive flexibility with variation in perceived nature of technology, technology strategy, and technology use between agencies. What was first seen as a very promising innovation across the Danish home care sector subsequently became the topic...

  1. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMIC INPUT-OUTPUT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoChonghui; TangHuanwen

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic input-output model is well known in economic theory and practice. In this paper, the asymptotic stability and balanced growth solutions of the dynamic input-output system are considered. Under some natural assumptions which do not require the technical coefficient matrix to be indecomposable,it has been proved that the dynamic input-output system is not asymptotically stable and the closed dynamic input-output model has a balanced growth solution.

  2. Estimating nonstationary input signals from a single neuronal spike train

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hideaki; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Neurons temporally integrate input signals, translating them into timed output spikes. Because neurons nonperiodically emit spikes, examining spike timing can reveal information about input signals, which are determined by activities in the populations of excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic neurons. Although a number of mathematical methods have been developed to estimate such input parameters as the mean and fluctuation of the input current, these techniques are based on the unrealistic as...

  3. Input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    This report describs the input modelling for subchannel analysis of CANFLEX fuel bundle using CASS(Candu thermalhydraulic Analysis by Subchannel approacheS) code which has been developed for subchannel analysis of CANDU fuel channel. CASS code can give the different calculation results according to users' input modelling. Hence, the objective of this report provide the background information of input modelling, the accuracy of input data and gives the confidence of calculation results. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Regional Input Output Table for the State of Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Inderjeet; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2011-01-01

    Because of policy relevance of regional input-output analysis, a vast literature on the construction of regional input-output tables has emerged in the recent past, especially on the non-survey and hybrid methods. Although, construction of regional input-output tables is not new in India, but generation of input-output table using non-survey methods is relatively a rare phenomenon. This work validates alternative non-survey, location quotient methodologies and finally uses comparatively bette...

  5. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  6. Business Models for Power System Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    2016-01-01

    -enabling business models, adding new activities to the existing supply chain. Ranging from technological to market-based innovation, this chapter reviews the latest developments in these emerging models. The main conclusion is that when flexibility becomes scarce in the system, new players with their innovative......As intermittent, renewable resources gain more share in the generation mix, the need for power system flexibility increases more than ever. Parallel to this, technological change and the emergence of new players bringing about innovative solutions are boosting the development of flexibility...... business models will play an important role in ensuring sufficiency and efficiency of flexibility services....

  7. Material challenge for flexible organic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lewis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Outside of the active device layers, there are a variety of requisite functional layers in flexible organic electronic devices. Whether the application is in displays, lighting, integrated circuits, or photovoltaics, there are materials challenges in implementing flexible and/or organic devices into practical applications. We highlight two topics that are common to most flexible electronic technologies. First, we describe the difficulty in developing suitable permeation barriers on polymer substrates, the approaches being taken to solve this problem, and their current status. Second, we highlight the limited mechanical ruggedness of brittle inorganic films and present approaches for improving overall device flexibility.

  8. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  9. SELF-RECONFIGURATION OF UNDERACTUATED REDUNDANT MANIPULATORS WITH OPTIMIZING THE FLEXIBILITY ELLIPSOID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Guangping; Lu Zhen

    2005-01-01

    The multi-modes feature, the measure of the manipulating flexibility, and self-reconfiguration control method of the underactuated redundant manipulators are investigated based on the optimizing technology. The relationship between the configuration of the joint space and the manipulating flexibility of the underactuated redundant manipulator is analyzed, a new measure of manipulating flexibility ellipsoid for the underactuated redundant manipulator with passive joints in locked mode is proposed, which can be used to get the optimal configuration for the realization of the self-reconfiguration control. Furthermore, a time-varying nonlinear control method based on harmonic inputs is suggested for fulfilling the self-reconfiguration. A simulation example of a three-DOFs underactuated manipulator with one passive joint features some aspects of the investigations.

  10. THE FLEXIBILITY-AUTOMATION CORRESPONDENCE TO A VIRTUAL COMMERCIAL SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Doble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and operation of FMS is based on system requirement can be as productive and flexible as necessary, i.e. obtaining controlled correspondence between the degree of flexibility and automation of system.The flexibility of a FMS (Flexible Manufacturing Systems is determined by two important criteria: Flexible hardware structure of the system; Flexible software structure. Flexible hardware structure of the CS system (calculation system is determined to its turn according to three components: Flexibility of technological subsystem; Flexibility subsystem of storage, transport and handling;Flexibility of informational subsystem.

  11. 42 CFR 460.138 - Committees with community input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Committees with community input. 460.138 Section 460.138 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... community input. A PACE organization must establish one or more committees, with community input, to do...

  12. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Rewoldt

    2003-09-08

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

  13. On the Nature of the Input in Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heck, Fabian; Müller, Gereon; Vogel, Ralf;

    2002-01-01

    The input has two main functions in optimality theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993). First, the input defines the candidate set, in other words it determines which output candidates compete for optimality, and which do not. Second, the input is referred to by faithfulness constraints that prohibit...

  14. REFLECTIONS ON THE INOPERABILITY INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Miller, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the inoperability input-output model is a straightforward - albeit potentially very relevant - application of the standard input-output model. In addition, we propose two less standard input-output approaches as alternatives to take into consideration when analyzing the effects of disa

  15. Waste treatment in physical input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E

    2005-01-01

    When compared to monetary input-output tables (MIOTs), a distinctive feature of physical input-output tables (PIOTs) is that they include the generation of waste as part of a consistent accounting framework. As a consequence, however, physical input-output analysis thus requires that the treatment o

  16. A bio-inspired study on tidal energy extraction with flexible flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendi; Xiao, Qing; Cheng, Fai

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the flexible structure of flapping wings has shown an improved propulsion performance in comparison to rigid wings. However, not much is known about this function in terms of power efficiency modification for flapping wing energy devices. In order to study the role of the flexible wing deformation in the hydrodynamics of flapping wing energy devices, we computationally model the two-dimensional flexible single and twin flapping wings in operation under the energy extraction conditions with a large Reynolds number of 106. The flexible motion for the present study is predetermined based on a priori structural result which is different from a passive flexibility solution. Four different models are investigated with additional potential local distortions near the leading and trailing edges. Our simulation results show that the flexible structure of a wing is beneficial to enhance power efficiency by increasing the peaks of lift force over a flapping cycle, and tuning the phase shift between force and velocity to a favourable trend. Moreover, the impact of wing flexibility on efficiency is more profound at a low nominal effective angle of attack (AoA). At a typical flapping frequency f * = 0.15 and nominal effective AoA of 10°, a flexible integrated wing generates 7.68% higher efficiency than a rigid wing. An even higher increase, around six times that of a rigid wing, is achievable if the nominal effective AoA is reduced to zero degrees at feathering condition. This is very attractive for a semi-actuated flapping energy system, where energy input is needed to activate the pitching motion. The results from our dual-wing study found that a parallel twin-wing device can produce more power compared to a single wing due to the strong flow interaction between the two wings.

  17. The impact of enterprise systems on process flexibility and organisational flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen Guang; Ding, Yajing; Shou, Yongyi; Zhou, Honggeng; Du, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In light of the current dynamic business environment, companies nowadays need to respond rapidly to changes. Companies often invest heavily in enterprise systems in the hope that these can improve their flexibility in coping with such changes. However, previous studies have shown that the impact of enterprise systems on flexibility can be either positive or negative. To resolve this inconsistency in the existing research, this paper suggests that a company's flexibility should be distinguished between process level and organisational level. Specifically, this paper proposes that enterprise systems will affect process flexibility negatively but affect organisational flexibility positively. The analysis results show that enterprise systems have different effects on process and organisational flexibility. Furthermore, industry clockspeed sets a boundary for the effect on process flexibility but not for that on organisational flexibility. Research and practical implications of this study are discussed.

  18. Comparison between Input Hypothesis and Interaction Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗琦

    2016-01-01

    Second Language Acquisition has received more and more attention since 1950s when it becomes an autonomous field of research. Linguists have carried out many theoretical and empirical studies with a sharp purpose to promote Second Language Acquisition. Krashen’s Input Hypothesis and Long’s Interaction Hypothesis are most influential ones among the studies. They both play important roles in language teaching and learning. The paper will present an account of the two great theories, includ-ing the main claims, theoretical foundations as well as some related empirical works and try to investigate commons and differ-ences between them, based on literature and empirical studies. The purpose of writing this paper is to provide a clear outline of the two theories and point out how they are interrelated yet separate predictions about how second language are learned. It is meaningful because the results can be valuable guidance and highlights for language teachers and learners to teach or acquire a language better.

  19. Investigating Text Input Methods for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry O’Riordan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Computer Interaction is a primary factor in the success or failure of any device but if an objective view is taken of the current mobile phone market you would be forgiven for thinking usability was secondary to aesthetics. Many phone manufacturers modify the design of phones to be different than the competition and to target fashion trends, usually at the expense of usability and performance. There is a lack of awareness among many buyers of the usability of the device they are purchasing and the disposability of modern technology is an effect rather than a cause of this. Designing new text entry methods for mobile devices can be expensive and labour-intensive. The assessment and comparison of a new text entry method with current methods is a necessary part of the design process. The best way to do this is through an empirical evaluation. The aim of the study was to establish which mobile phone text input method best suits the requirements of a select group of target users. This study used a diverse range of users to compare devices that are in everyday use by most of the adult population. The proliferation of the devices is as yet unmatched by the study of their application and the consideration of their user friendliness.

  20. Vibration Adaptive Control of the Flexible Lunar Regolith Sampler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-guo XU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the problem of big volume, large weight and high power consumption of lunar sampler nowadays, the paper firstly described a novel flexible mini lunar regolith sampler. Then the vibration model of it is established while drilling. The drilling efficiency can be improved more effectively by controlling the lunar regolith sampler always in the resonance state. But the dynamical modeling of the sampler-regolith system is difficult to obtain and time varies when the sampler is in different depth in the lunar regolith. So we present a method of the vibration frequency fuzzy adaptive control based on the dynamic prediction by using the Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation (LMBP neural networks. The LMBP with a FIR filter in series is used to predict the resonant frequency dynamically. And the fuzzy adaptive control is used to calculate the sweeping frequency bandwidth with the input of the amplitude and variation. The simul

  1. CliniProteus: A flexible clinical trials information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathura, Venkatarajan S; Rangareddy, Mahendiranath; Gupta, Pankaj; Mullan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Clinical trials involve multi-site heterogeneous data generation with complex data input-formats and forms. The data should be captured and queried in an integrated fashion to facilitate further analysis. Electronic case-report forms (eCRF) are gaining popularity since it allows capture of clinical information in a rapid manner. We have designed and developed an XML based flexible clinical trials data management framework in .NET environment that can be used for efficient design and deployment of eCRFs to efficiently collate data and analyze information from multi-site clinical trials. The main components of our system include an XML form designer, a Patient registration eForm, reusable eForms, multiple-visit data capture and consolidated reports. A unique id is used for tracking the trial, site of occurrence, the patient and the year of recruitment. Availability http://www.rfdn.org/bioinfo/CTMS/ctms.html. PMID:21670796

  2. Dynamic Model of a Rotating Flexible Arm-Flexible Root Mechanism Driven by a Shaft Flexible in Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model of a rotating flexible beam carrying a payload at its tip. The model accounts for the driving shaft and the arm root flexibilities. The finite element method and the Lagrangian dynamics are used in deriving the equations of motion with the small deformation theory assumptions and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The obtained model is a nonlinear-coupled system of differential equations. The model is simulated for different combinations of shaft and root flexibilities and arm properties. The simulation results showed that the root flexibility is an important factor that should be considered in association with the arm and shaft flexibilities, as its dynamics influence the motor motion. Moreover, the effect of system non-linearity on the dynamic behavior is investigated by simulating the equivalent linearized system and it was found to be an important factor that should be considered, particularly when designing a control strategy for practical implementation.

  3. Parvalbumin-producing cortical interneurons receive inhibitory inputs on proximal portions and cortical excitatory inputs on distal dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Hiroshi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyo H; Tanaka, Takuma; Sohn, Jaerin; Sonomura, Takahiro; Furuta, Takahiro; Fujiyama, Fumino; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2012-03-01

    To examine inputs to parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons, we generated transgenic mice expressing somatodendritic membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein specifically in the interneurons, and completely visualized their dendrites and somata. Using immunolabeling for vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT)1, VGluT2, and vesicular GABA transporter, we found that VGluT1-positive terminals made contacts 4- and 3.1-fold more frequently with PV-producing interneurons than VGluT2-positive and GABAergic terminals, respectively, in the primary somatosensory cortex. Even in layer 4, where VGluT2-positive terminals were most densely distributed, VGluT1-positive inputs to PV-producing interneurons were 2.4-fold more frequent than VGluT2-positive inputs. Furthermore, although GABAergic inputs to PV-producing interneurons were as numerous as VGluT2-positive inputs in most cortical layers, GABAergic inputs clearly preferred the proximal dendrites and somata of the interneurons, indicating that the sites of GABAergic inputs were more optimized than those of VGluT2-positive inputs. Simulation analysis with a PV-producing interneuron model compatible with the present morphological data revealed a plausible reason for this observation, by showing that GABAergic and glutamatergic postsynaptic potentials evoked by inputs to distal dendrites were attenuated to 60 and 87%, respectively, of those evoked by somatic inputs. As VGluT1-positive and VGluT2-positive axon terminals were presumed to be cortical and thalamic glutamatergic inputs, respectively, cortical excitatory inputs to PV-producing interneurons outnumbered the thalamic excitatory and intrinsic inhibitory inputs more than two-fold in any cortical layer. Although thalamic inputs are known to evoke about two-fold larger unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials than cortical ones, the present results suggest that cortical inputs control PV-producing interneurons at least as strongly as thalamic inputs.

  4. Evaluation of Piloted Inputs for Onboard Frequency Response Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Martos, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Frequency response estimation results are presented using piloted inputs and a real-time estimation method recently developed for multisine inputs. A nonlinear simulation of the F-16 and a Piper Saratoga research aircraft were subjected to different piloted test inputs while the short period stabilator/elevator to pitch rate frequency response was estimated. Results show that the method can produce accurate results using wide-band piloted inputs instead of multisines. A new metric is introduced for evaluating which data points to include in the analysis and recommendations are provided for applying this method with piloted inputs.

  5. OIL—Output input language for data connectivity between geoscientific software applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Khan, Khalid; Akhter, Gulraiz; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2010-05-01

    Geoscientific computing has become so complex that no single software application can perform all the processing steps required to get the desired results. Thus for a given set of analyses, several specialized software applications are required, which must be interconnected for electronic flow of data. In this network of applications the outputs of one application become inputs of other applications. Each of these applications usually involve more than one data type and may have their own data formats, making them incompatible with other applications in terms of data connectivity. Consequently several data format conversion utilities are developed in-house to provide data connectivity between applications. Practically there is no end to this problem as each time a new application is added to the system, a set of new data conversion utilities need to be developed. This paper presents a flexible data format engine, programmable through a platform independent, interpreted language named; Output Input Language (OIL). Its unique architecture allows input and output formats to be defined independent of each other by two separate programs. Thus read and write for each format is coded only once and data connectivity link between two formats is established by a combination of their read and write programs. This results in fewer programs with no redundancy and maximum reuse, enabling rapid application development and easy maintenance of data connectivity links.

  6. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  7. TangiWheel: A Widget for Manipulating Collections on Tabletop Displays Supporting Hybrid Input Modality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro Catalá; Fernando Garcia-Sanjuan; Javier Jaen; Jose A.Mocholi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present TangiWheel,a collection manipulation widget for tabletop displays.Our implementation is flexible,allowing either multi-touch or interaction,or even a hybrid scheme to better suit user choice and convenience.Different TangiWheel aspects and features are compared with other existing widgets for collection manipulation.The study reveals that TangiWheel is the first proposal to support a hybrid input modality with large resemblance levels between touch and tangible interaction styles.Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the techniques used in each input scheme for a better understanding of tangible surface interfaces in complex tasks performed by a single user (e.g.,involving a typical master-slave exploration pattern).The results show that tangibles perform significantly better than fingers,despite dealing with a greater number of interactions,in situations that require a large number of acquisitions and basic manipulation tasks such as establishing location and orientation.However,when users have to perform multiple exploration and selection operations that do not require previous basic manipulation tasks,for instance when collections are fixed in the interface layout,touch input is significantly better in terms of required time and number of actions.Finally,when a more elastic collection layout or more complex additional insertion or displacement operations are needed,the hybrid and tangible approaches clearly outperform finger-based interactions.

  8. Adaptive control for an uncertain robotic manipulator with input saturations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trong-Toan TRAN; Shuzhi Sam GE; Wei HE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the control problem of an uncertain robotic manipulator with input saturations, unknown input scalings and disturbances. For this purpose, a model reference adaptive control like (MRAC-like) is used to handle the input saturations. The model reference is input to state stable (ISS) and driven by the errors between the required control signals and input saturations. The uncertain parameters are dealt with by using linear-in-the-parameters property of robotic dynamics, while unknown input scalings and disturbances are handled by non-regressor based approach. Our design ensures that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded, and the tracking error converges to the compact set which depends on the predetermined bounds of the control inputs. Simulation on a planar elbow manipulator with two joints is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  9. Micromachined dual input axis rate gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneau, Thor Nelson

    The need for inexpensive yet reliable angular rate sensors in fields ranging from automotive to consumer electronics has motivated prolific micromachined rate gyroscope research. The vast majority of research has focused on single input axis rate gyroscopes based upon either translational resonance, such as tuning forks, or structural mode resonance, such as vibrating rings. However, this work presents a novel, contrasting approach based on angular resonance of a rotating rigid rotor suspended by torsional springs. The inherent symmetry of the circular design allows angular rate measurement about two axes simultaneously, hence the name micromachined dual-axis rate gyroscope. The underlying theory of operation, mechanical structure design optimization, electrical interface circuitry, and signal processing are described in detail. Several operational versions were fabricated using two different fully integrated surface micromachining processes as proof of concept. The heart of the dual-axis rate gyroscope is a ˜2 mum thick polysilicon disk or rotor suspended above the substrate by a four beam suspension. When this rotor in driven into angular oscillation about the axis perpendicular to the substrate, a rotation rate about the two axes parallel to the substrate invokes an out of plane rotor tilting motion due to Coriolis acceleration. This tilting motion is capacitively measured and on board integrated signal processing provides two output voltages proportional to angular rate input about the two axes parallel to the substrate. The design process begins with the derivation of gyroscopic dynamics. The equations suggest that tuning sense mode frequencies to the drive oscillation frequency can vastly increase mechanical sensitivity. Hence the supporting four beam suspension is designed such that electrostatic tuning can match modes despite process variations. The electrostatic tuning range is limited only by rotor collapse to the substrate when tuning-voltage induced

  10. Studies of a flexible heliac configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hender, T.C.; Cantrell, J.L.; Harris, J.H.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Fabregas, J.A.; Guasp, J.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Navarro, A.P.

    1987-07-01

    This paper documents a detailed study of the Flexible Heliac configuration. The remarkable flexibility of this device - which allows variation of the rotational transform, shear, and magnetic well depth over a relatively wide range - is described. Engineering considerations of error fields, finite cross-section conductors, and plasma coil clearances are also discussed.

  11. Flexible benefit plans in Dutch organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrink, C.

    2006-01-01

    Flexible benefit plans give employees a greater say over the composition of their benefits than traditional Dutch benefit plans. These arrangements developed in a time of further individualisation, increasing flexibility in the workplace, and a tight labour market in the Netherlands. By giving

  12. Semiconductor films on flexible iridium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2005-03-29

    A laminate semiconductor article includes a flexible substrate, an optional biaxially textured oxide buffer system on the flexible substrate, a biaxially textured Ir-based buffer layer on the substrate or the buffer system, and an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor. Ir can serve as a substrate with an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor thereon.

  13. Designing Flexible Software for the "Electronic Board."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira

    1984-01-01

    Argues that software for electronic boards should address a variety of teaching styles, student abilities and ages, class textbooks, teaching objectives, and learning environments for flexibility of use. The software features that contribute to flexibility include frequent stops, options for going backwards, inter- and intra-unit jumps, and…

  14. Flexible Learning in an Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Badrul, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Flexible Learning in an Information Society uses a flexible learning framework to explain the best ways of creating a meaningful learning environment. This framework consists of eight factors--institutional, management, technological, pedagogical, ethical, interface design, resource support, and evaluation--and a systematic understanding of these…

  15. Quality and workflow integration in flexible manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, ten D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In recognising the relevance of production networks and flexible manufacturing, CNC Worknet aims to be a company that approaches the new era of flexible manufacturing by developing a novel business model that combines the technologies of e-Business with production networks. This business model is ba

  16. New business model of flexible housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zairul, Z.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Open Building (OB) and the concept of flexible housing has alwaysassociated with user’s ability to respond to changing demand. It is necessary that housing can adap to changing market conditions and different users’ requirements. Flexibility makes a crucial concept that one cannot ignore. Howeve

  17. Scheduling parameters in flexible manufacturing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.; Ahmad, M.M.; Sullivan, W.G.; Migliore, H.; Randhawa, S.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of a well-designed scheduling procedure is a major condition for an effective integration of a flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in the material flow of a firm. This paper shows the presence and relative importance of three parameter types in the scheduling of operations on a flexible

  18. Harnessing Flexibility from Hot and Cold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Heinen, Steve; Qazi, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    As has been often reported, electricity systems with high levels of variable wind and solar power generation would benefit from demand flexibility. What is not as often mentioned is that electrification of the transport and heat sectors could exacerbate the need for flexibility, if they are imple...

  19. Scheduling parameters in flexible manufacturing cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.; Ahmad, M.M.; Sullivan, W.G.; Migliore, H.; Randhawa, S.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of a well-designed scheduling procedure is a major condition for an effective integration of a flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in the material flow of a firm. This paper shows the presence and relative importance of three parameter types in the scheduling of operations on a flexible

  20. CHANGE MANAGEMENT ESSENTIALS TO MANAGE BUSINESS FLEXIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Cãtãlin Cristian BABALÂC; Mihaela UDÃ

    2014-01-01

    The present paper has as objective to introduce essential concepts that stand as basis for change and risk management, having a direct influence on flexibility. The competitive advantage represented by the company flexibility either if it is achieved by technology or with the help of human factor follows a path characterized by risk and possible resistance to what is the normal state.

  1. New business model of flexible housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zairul, Z.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Open Building (OB) and the concept of flexible housing has alwaysassociated with user’s ability to respond to changing demand. It is necessary that housing can adap to changing market conditions and different users’ requirements. Flexibility makes a crucial concept that one cannot ignore. Howeve

  2. Towards automated visual flexible endoscope navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, van der N.; Heijden, van der F.; Broeders, I.A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now

  3. Role of Flexibility in Sustainable Port Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taneja, P.; Vellinga, T.; Ros, R.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability has become a high profile objective in all aspects of our lives, including the development of our infrastructures. Flexibility can enhance sustainability endeavors, yet its contribution is not clear to most. In this paper we investigate the role of flexibility in sustainable port deve

  4. Alternative lithography strategies for flexible electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Main aim of the research has been the development of alternative lithography strategies for the fabrication of complex, flexible electronic devices. Flexible bottom-contact, bottom-gate thin-film transistors were solely patterned with UV nanoimprint lithography on poly(ethylene naphthalate) foil. Pa

  5. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...

  6. Quality and workflow integration in flexible manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Dam, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In recognising the relevance of production networks and flexible manufacturing, CNC Worknet aims to be a company that approaches the new era of flexible manufacturing by developing a novel business model that combines the technologies of e-Business with production networks. This business model is

  7. 76 FR 40208 - Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Comment Period End 04/04/05 Next Action Undetermined ......... Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required... FR 10521 NPRM Comment Period End 04/04/05 Next Action Undetermined ......... Regulatory Flexibility... 70 FR 10521 NPRM Comment Period End 04/04/05 Next Action Undetermined ............

  8. Quality and workflow integration in flexible manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Dam, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In recognising the relevance of production networks and flexible manufacturing, CNC Worknet aims to be a company that approaches the new era of flexible manufacturing by developing a novel business model that combines the technologies of e-Business with production networks. This business model is ba

  9. The Flexibility of Pusher Furnace Grate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słowik J.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of guide grates in pusher furnaces for heat treatment could be increased by raising the flexibility of their structure through, for example, the replacement of straight ribs, parallel to the direction of grate movement, with more flexible segments. The deformability of grates with flexible segments arranged in two orientations, i.e. crosswise (perpendicular to the direction of compression and lengthwise (parallel to the direction of compression, was examined. The compression process was simulated using SolidWorks Simulation program. Relevant regression equations were also derived describing the dependence of force inducing the grate deformation by 0.25 mm ‒ modulus of grate elasticity ‒ on the number of flexible segments in established orientations. These calculations were made in Statistica and Scilab programs. It has been demonstrated that, with the same number of segments, the crosswise orientation of flexible segments increases the grate structure flexibility in a more efficient way than the lengthwise orientation. It has also been proved that a crucial effect on the grate flexibility has only the quantity and orientation of segments (crosswise / lengthwise, while the exact position of segments changes the grate flexibility by less than 1%.

  10. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  11. Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Karl Eric

    Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal

  12. Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Albor, Víctor; Seco Miguelez, Marcos; Fernandez Pena, Tomas; Mendez Muñoz, Victor; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for several

  13. Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.

    2015-09-01

    Flexibility, low cost, versatility, miniaturization and multi-functionality are key aspects driving research and innovation in many branches of the electronics industry. With many anticipated emerging applications, like wearable, transparent and biocompatible devices, interest among the research community in pursuit for novel multifunctional miniaturized materials have been amplified. In this context, multiferroic polymer-based nanocomposites, possessing both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, are highly appealing. Most importantly, these nanocomposites possess tunable ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties based on the parameters of their constituent materials as well as the magnetoelectric effect, which is the coupling between electric and magnetic properties. This tunability and interaction is a fascinating fundamental research field promising tremendous potential applications in sensors, actuators, data storage and energy harvesting. This dissertation work is devoted to the investigation of a new class of multiferroic polymer-based flexible nanocomposites, which exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature, with the goal of understanding and optimizing the origin of their magnetoelectric coupling. The nanocomposites consist of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer, poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. First, electrochemical deposition of ferromagnetic NWs inside anodic aluminum oxide membranes is discussed. Characterization of electrodeposited iron, nickel and highly magnetostrictive iron-gallium alloy NWs was done using XRD, electron and magnetic force microscopy. Second, different nanocomposite films have been fabricated by means of spin coating and drop casting techniques. The effect of incorporation of NWs inside the ferroelectric polymer on its electroactive phase is discussed. The remanent and saturation polarization as well

  14. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  15. Gust alleviation of highly flexible UAVs with artificial hair sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; Reich, Gregory W.

    2015-04-01

    Artificial hair sensors (AHS) have been recently developed in Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) using carbon nanotube (CNT). The deformation of CNT in air flow causes voltage and current changes in the circuit, which can be used to quantify the dynamic pressure and aerodynamic load along the wing surface. AFRL has done a lot of essential work in design, manufacturing, and measurement of AHSs. The work in this paper is to bridge the current AFRL's work on AHSs and their feasible applications in flight dynamics and control (e.g., the gust alleviation) of highly flexible aircraft. A highly flexible vehicle is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with finite-state inflow aerodynamics. A feedback control algorithm for the rejection of gust perturbations will be developed. A simplified Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller will be implemented based on the state-space representation of the linearized system. All AHS measurements will be used as the control input, i.e., wing sectional aerodynamic loads will be defined as the control output for designing the feedback gain. Once the controller is designed, closed-loop aeroelastic simulations will be performed to evaluate the performance of different controllers with the force feedback and be compared to traditional controller designs with the state feedback. From the study, the feasibility of AHSs in flight control will be assessed. The whole study will facilitate in building a fly-by-feel simulation environment for autonomous vehicles.

  16. Use of computer graphics simulation for teaching of flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, J; Jowell, P; Evangelou, H; Bickel, W; Cotton, P

    1991-05-01

    The concept of simulation training in endoscopy is now well-established. The systems currently under development employ either computer graphics simulation or interactive video technology; each has its strengths and weaknesses. A flexible sigmoidoscopy training device has been designed which uses graphic routines--such as object oriented programming and double buffering--in entirely new ways. These programming techniques compensate for the limitations of currently available desk-top microcomputers. By boosting existing computer 'horsepower' with next generation coprocessors and sophisticated graphics tools such as intensity interpolation (Gouraud shading), the realism of computer simulation of flexible sigmoidoscopy is being greatly enhanced. The computer program has teaching and scoring capabilities, making it a truly interactive system. Use has been made of this ability to record, grade and store each trainee encounter in computer memory as part of a multi-center, prospective trial of simulation training being conducted currently in the USA. A new input device, a dummy endoscope, has been designed that allows application of variable resistance to the insertion tube. This greatly enhances tactile feedback, such as resistance during looping. If carefully designed trials show that computer simulation is an attractive and effective training tool, it is expected that this technology will evolve rapidly and be made widely available to trainee endoscopists.

  17. A Flexible Phased-MIMO Array Antenna with Transmit Beamforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although phased-array antennas have been widely employed in modern radars, the requirements of many emerging applications call for new more advanced array antennas. This paper proposes a flexible phased-array multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO array antenna with transmit beamforming. This approach divides the transmit antenna array into multiple subarrays that are allowed to overlap each subarray coherently transmits a distinct waveform, which is orthogonal to the waveforms transmitted by other subarrays, at a distinct transmit frequency. That is, a small frequency increment is employed in each subarray. Each subarray forms a directional beam and all beams may be steered to different directions. The subarrays jointly offer flexible operating modes such as MIMO array which offers spatial diversity gain, phased-array which offers coherent directional gain and frequency diverse array which provides range-dependent beampattern. The system performance is examined by analyzing the transmit-receive beampatterns. The proposed approach is validated by extensive numerical simulation results.

  18. Probabilistic Quantification of Potentially Flexible Residential Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    of residential consumers. The procedure is based on non-flexible consumer clustering and subsequent statistical analysis. Consequently, the power consumption pattern of a flexible consumer is compared to a 3D probability distribution created by the previously referred methodology. The results show a strong......The balancing of power systems with high penetration of renewable energy is a serious challenge to be faced in the near future. One of the possible solutions, recently capturing a lot of attention, is demand response. Demand response can only be achieved by power consumers holding loads which allow...... them to modify their normal power consumption pattern, namely flexible consumers. However flexibility, despite being constantly mentioned, is usually not properly defined and even rarer quantified. This manuscript introduces a methodology to identify and quantify potentially flexible demand...

  19. Flexible Ultrasonic Phased-Array Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施克仁; 阙开良; 郭大勇

    2004-01-01

    In ultrasonic phased-array testing, most probes are rigid with fixed elements. However, when testing a cambered piece, a rigid probe cannot be used directly, but an ultrasonic chock or coupling media must be used, which adds cost and reduces the accuracy. The objective of this research was to improve the tests of cambered pieces. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe was developed to do the flexible phased-array testing. The key technologies in the flexible phased-array probe include the probe design and the phased-array control. A new method was developed to design the flexible probe according to the curvature of the piece and the test depth. The method includes the calculation of the element's height (he), the relative rotation angle ((e), the distance between the adjoining elements (de), and the element's effective testing range. A flexible ultrasonic phased-array probe has been developed using this method.

  20. Smart Tendon Actuated Flexible Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masum Billah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the kinematic feasibility of a tendon-based flexible parallel platform actuator. Much of the research on tendon-driven Stewart platforms is devoted either to the completely restrained positioning mechanism (CRPM or to one particular type of the incompletely restrained positioning mechanism (IRPM where the external force is provided by the gravitational pull on the platform such as in cable-suspended Stewart platforms. An IRPM-based platform is proposed which uses the external force provided by a compliant member. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve n DOFs with n tendons. In particular, this investigation focuses on the angular deflection of the upper platform with respect to the lower platform. The application here is aimed at developing a linkable module that can be connected to one another so as to form a “snake robot” of sorts. Since locomotion takes precedence over positioning in this application, a 3-DOF Stewart platform is adopted. For an arbitrary angular displace of the end-effector, the corresponding length of each tendon can be determined through inverse kinematics. Mathematical singularities are investigated using the traditional analytical method of defining the Jacobian.

  1. Flexible resources for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Nicolai; Orsucci, Davide; Skotiniotis, Michalis; Sekatski, Pavel; Dunjko, Vedran; Briegel, Hans J.; Dür, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Quantum metrology offers a quadratic advantage over classical approaches to parameter estimation problems by utilising entanglement and nonclassicality. However, the hurdle of actually implementing the necessary quantum probe states and measurements, which vary drastically for different metrological scenarios, is usually not taken into account. We show that for a wide range of tasks in metrology, 2D cluster states (a particular family of states useful for measurement-based quantum computation) can serve as flexible resources that allow one to efficiently prepare any required state for sensing, and perform appropriate (entangled) measurements using only single qubit operations. Crucially, the overhead in the number of qubits is less than quadratic, thus preserving the quantum scaling advantage. This is ensured by using a compression to a logarithmically sized space that contains all relevant information for sensing. We specifically demonstrate how our method can be used to obtain optimal scaling for phase and frequency estimation in local estimation problems, as well as for the Bayesian equivalents with Gaussian priors of varying widths. Furthermore, we show that in the paradigmatic case of local phase estimation 1D cluster states are sufficient for optimal state preparation and measurement.

  2. GROMACS: fast, flexible, and free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Spoel, David; Lindahl, Erik; Hess, Berk; Groenhof, Gerrit; Mark, Alan E; Berendsen, Herman J C

    2005-12-01

    This article describes the software suite GROMACS (Groningen MAchine for Chemical Simulation) that was developed at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in the early 1990s. The software, written in ANSI C, originates from a parallel hardware project, and is well suited for parallelization on processor clusters. By careful optimization of neighbor searching and of inner loop performance, GROMACS is a very fast program for molecular dynamics simulation. It does not have a force field of its own, but is compatible with GROMOS, OPLS, AMBER, and ENCAD force fields. In addition, it can handle polarizable shell models and flexible constraints. The program is versatile, as force routines can be added by the user, tabulated functions can be specified, and analyses can be easily customized. Nonequilibrium dynamics and free energy determinations are incorporated. Interfaces with popular quantum-chemical packages (MOPAC, GAMES-UK, GAUSSIAN) are provided to perform mixed MM/QM simulations. The package includes about 100 utility and analysis programs. GROMACS is in the public domain and distributed (with source code and documentation) under the GNU General Public License. It is maintained by a group of developers from the Universities of Groningen, Uppsala, and Stockholm, and the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz. Its Web site is http://www.gromacs.org.

  3. Piezoelectric array elements for sound reconstruction with a digital input

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-10-13

    Various examples are provided for digital sound reconstruction using piezoelectric array elements. In one example, a digital loudspeaker includes a fixed frame and an array of transducers disposed on the fixed frame. Individual transducers of the array of transducers can include a flexible membrane disposed on a piezoelectric actuation element positioned over a corresponding opening that extends through the fixed frame. In another example, a method includes forming a flexible membrane structure on a substrate and backetching the substrate opposite the flexible membrane structure. The flexible membrane structure can be formed by disposing a first electrode layer on a substrate, disposing a piezoelectric layer on the first electrode layer and disposing a second electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer. A flexible membrane layer (e.g., polyimide) can be disposed on the second electrode layer.

  4. Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Cobley

    Full Text Available The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50. This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.

  5. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  6. Development of a flexible trigger system for FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penschuck, Manuel; Michel, Jan; Stroth, Joachim [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Traxler, Michael [GSI Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In the scope of experimental set-ups for the upcoming FAIR experiments, a general purpose trigger and read-out board (TRB3) has been developed which is already in use in several detector set-ups. For on- and off-board communication between the DAQ's subsystems, TrbNet, a specialized high-speed, low-latency network protocol developed for the DAQ system of the HADES detector, is used. Communication with any computer infrastructure is provided by Gigabit Ethernet. The TRB3 can be operated as a stand-alone board for small detectors, in combination with other TrbNet-enabled front-ends, or as a subsystem of an existing DAQ infrastructure. In order to support these different scenarios, a flexible and modular central trigger system was developed. Trigger criteria can range from basic trigger strobes, internal pulser signals to complex data streams from other, foreign trigger systems. Additional features include detection of coincidence from several input signals with adjustable time delays and windows. A precise time information of all input signals with 20 ps precision is foreseen in the design. In this contribution the design of the new trigger system and its web-based control and monitoring tools are presented.

  7. Input/Output of ab-initio nuclear structure calculations for improved performance and portability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laghave, Nikhil [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Many modern scientific applications rely on highly computation intensive calculations. However, most applications do not concentrate as much on the role that input/output operations can play for improved performance and portability. Parallelizing input/output operations of large files can significantly improve the performance of parallel applications where sequential I/O is a bottleneck. A proper choice of I/O library also offers a scope for making input/output operations portable across different architectures. Thus, use of parallel I/O libraries for organizing I/O of large data files offers great scope in improving performance and portability of applications. In particular, sequential I/O has been identified as a bottleneck for the highly scalable MFDn (Many Fermion Dynamics for nuclear structure) code performing ab-initio nuclear structure calculations. We develop interfaces and parallel I/O procedures to use a well-known parallel I/O library in MFDn. As a result, we gain efficient I/O of large datasets along with their portability and ease of use in the down-stream processing. Even situations where the amount of data to be written is not huge, proper use of input/output operations can boost the performance of scientific applications. Application checkpointing offers enormous performance improvement and flexibility by doing a negligible amount of I/O to disk. Checkpointing saves and resumes application state in such a manner that in most cases the application is unaware that there has been an interruption to its execution. This helps in saving large amount of work that has been previously done and continue application execution. This small amount of I/O provides substantial time saving by offering restart/resume capability to applications. The need for checkpointing in optimization code NEWUOA has been identified and checkpoint/restart capability has been implemented in NEWUOA by using simple file I/O.

  8. Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, Andrew E.

    2010-08-01

    As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.

  9. Flexible Learning in an Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edited by Badrul H. Khan and Reviewed by Dr. Adile Aşkım Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Badrul H. Khan, Director of the Educational Technology Leadership graduate cohort program at The George Washington University, and published by Information Science Publishing an imprint of Idea Group Inc.The information age has brought about many ways for educators to help their students learn, creating an atmosphere where the learners desire flexibility in the way they learn. With the increasing use of variety of approaches for learning, students’ preferences are changing from wanting to be taught mostly in lectures or direct training sessions to wanting increased flexibility. Students expect on demand anytime/anywhere high-quality learning environments with good support services. They want increased flexibility.This book uses a flexible learning framework to create meaningful flexible learning environments. This framework consists of eight factors; institutional, management, technological, pedagogical, ethical, interface design, resource support, and evaluation. This book presents a broad understanding of the emerging field of flexible learning and provides guidance in creating these environments. The book has thirty chapters, encompass various critical issues dealing with one or more categories of the flexible learning framework and offer a variety of points of view on these issues.

  10. Graphene-cellulose paper flexible supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Zhe; Su, Yang; Li, Feng; Du, Jinhong; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Da-Wei [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    A simple and scalable method to fabricate graphene-cellulose paper (GCP) membranes is reported; these membranes exhibit great advantages as freestanding and binder-free electrodes for flexible supercapacitors. The GCP electrode consists of a unique three-dimensional interwoven structure of graphene nanosheets and cellulose fibers and has excellent mechanical flexibility, good specific capacitance and power performance, and excellent cyclic stability. The electrical conductivity of the GCP membrane shows high stability with a decrease of only 6% after being bent 1000 times. This flexible GCP electrode has a high capacitance per geometric area of 81 mF cm{sup -2}, which is equivalent to a gravimetric capacitance of 120 F g{sup -1} of graphene, and retains >99% capacitance over 5000 cycles. Several types of flexible GCP-based polymer supercapacitors with various architectures are assembled to meet the power-energy requirements of typical flexible or printable electronics. Under highly flexible conditions, the supercapacitors show a high capacitance per geometric area of 46 mF cm{sup -2} for the complete devices. All the results demonstrate that polymer supercapacitors made using GCP membranes are versatile and may be used for flexible and portable micropower devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Flexible, transparent, and conductive defrosting glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingjing [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Hongli; Gao, Binyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Garner, Sean; Cimo, Pat [Corning Incorporated, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Barcikowski, Zachary [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mignerey, Alice [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hu, Liangbing, E-mail: binghu@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Flexible and transparent electronics play a predominant role in the next-generation electrical devices. In this study, a printable aqueous graphene oxide (GO) ink that enables direct deposition of GO onto flexible glass substrates is demonstrated and its application on fabricating a transparent, conductive, and flexible glass device by solution coating process is investigated as well. A uniform GO layer is formed on the flexible glass through Meyer-rod coating followed by an annealing process to reduce GO into graphene. The obtained thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flexible glass has a transmittance of over 40%, as well as a sheet resistance of ∼ 5 × 10{sup 3} Ω/sq. In addition, a defrosting window fabricated from the RGO coated flexible glass is demonstrated, which shows excellent defrosting performance. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of aqueous graphene oxide (GO) suspension is demonstrated. • Scalable printing of GO suspension is achieved with Meyer-rod coating technique. • A flexible glass is utilized as a substrate for the deposition of GO suspension. • Reduced graphene oxide films show improved conductivity with great transmittance. • Its potential to be applied in window defrosting is demonstrated and illustrated.

  12. Implementation of Flexible Access System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Hsiang; Peng, Jan-Wen; Shao, Shou-Kuo; Chen, Tzooming E.; Chen, Shih Chang; Lee, Meng-Shu; Yen, K.-Y.; Chen, Tsung-Mao; Wang, Ching Sheu; Tu, Yuan-Kuang

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we present the architecture, operation, and the implementation of a prototype system, flexible access system (FAS), developed by CHT T.L. for FITL applications. FAS adopts fiber to the curb (FTTC) topology and provides POTS, ISDN BRA, and T1 services. The system consists of three main parts, namely, fiber central office terminal (FCOT) at switch side, fiber nodes (FN) at customer side, and a monitor station. FCOT and FNs are connected through an STM-1 fiber distribution ring. The hardware structure and the operation principle for each module are described. FAS contains the mux-demux module, POTS, ISDN, and T1 central office/customer service modules, operation modules, and power module. In the design, each central office service module in FCOT simulates as a CPE to terminate signals from switch, and will separate the data and signaling and map them into DS1 format. Mux/demux module will add/drop these DS1, put the operation information in data communication channel (DCC), and convert them to STM-1 optical link. Each customer service module in FN simulates switch line cart to regenerate the signal for customers. The prototype system implementation confirms the benefits of introducing SDH add/drop technologies to FITL system to provide basic telecommunication services. The design experience reveals that the clock synchronization method and noise reduction technique can significantly influence the performance in such a system. The test results that demonstrate and verify the designed functionality and the service quality of the prototype system will be presented.

  13. Inhibitory Gating of Input Comparison in the CA1 Microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Aaron D; Bloss, Erik B; Apostolides, Pierre F; Vaidya, Sachin P; Dilly, Geoffrey A; Zemelman, Boris V; Magee, Jeffrey C

    2015-09-23

    Spatial and temporal features of synaptic inputs engage integration mechanisms on multiple scales, including presynaptic release sites, postsynaptic dendrites, and networks of inhibitory interneurons. Here we investigate how these mechanisms cooperate to filter synaptic input in hippocampal area CA1. Dendritic recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons reveal that proximal inputs from CA3 as well as distal inputs from entorhinal cortex layer III (ECIII) sum sublinearly or linearly at low firing rates due to feedforward inhibition, but sum supralinearly at high firing rates due to synaptic facilitation, producing a high-pass filter. However, during ECIII and CA3 input comparison, supralinear dendritic integration is dynamically balanced by feedforward and feedback inhibition, resulting in suppression of dendritic complex spiking. We find that a particular subpopulation of CA1 interneurons expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) contributes prominently to this dynamic filter by integrating both ECIII and CA3 input pathways and potently inhibiting CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites.

  14. Uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marbjerg, Gerd; Brunskog, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    summarizes potential advanced absorption measurement techniques that can improve the quality of input data for room acoustic simulations. Lastly, plenty of uncertain input data are copied from unreliable sources. Software developers and users should be careful when spreading such uncertain input data. More......Although many room acoustic simulation models have been well established, simulation results will never be accurate with inaccurate and uncertain input data. This study addresses inappropriateness and uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations. Firstly, the random incidence absorption......-included input data are proven to produce perceptually noticeable changes in the objective parameters, such as the sound pressure level, and loudness-based reverberation time. Surfaces should not be assumed to be locally reacting, particularly for multi-layered absorbers having air cavities. Secondly...

  15. Comparison of Parameter Estimations Using Dual-Input and Arterial-Input in Liver Kinetic Studies of FDG Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunfeng; Bai, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Liver kinetic study of [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) metabolism in human body is an important tool for functional modeling and glucose metabolic rate estimation. In general, the arterial blood time-activity curve (TAC) and the tissue TAC are required as the input and output functions for the kinetic model. For liver study, however, the arterial-input may be not consistent with the actual model input because the liver has a dual blood supply from the hepatic artery (HA) and the portal vein (PV) to the liver. In this study, the result of model parameter estimation using dual-input function is compared with that using arterial-input function. First, a dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) experiment is performed after injection of FDG into the human body. The TACs of aortic blood, PV blood, and five regions of interest (ROIs) in liver are obtained from the PET image. Then, the dual-input curve is generated by calculating weighted sum of both the arterial and PV input curves. Finally, the five liver ROIs' kinetic parameters are estimated with arterial-input and dual-input functions respectively. The results indicate that the two methods provide different parameter estimations and the dual-input function may lead to more accurate parameter estimation.

  16. Flexible flatfoot in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Vincent S.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible flatfoot is a normal foot shape that is present in most infants and many adults. The arch elevates spontaneously in most children during the first decade of life. There is no evidence that a longitudinal arch can be created in a child’s foot by any external forces or devices. Flexible flatfoot with a short Achilles tendon, in contrast to simple flexible flatfoot, is known to cause pain and disability in some adolescents and adults. Joint-preserving, deformity-correcting surgery is in...

  17. Rigidity and flexibility of biological networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Merse E

    2012-01-01

    The network approach became a widely used tool to understand the behaviour of complex systems in the last decade. We start from a short description of structural rigidity theory. A detailed account on the combinatorial rigidity analysis of protein structures, as well as local flexibility measures of proteins and their applications in explaining allostery and thermostability is given. We also briefly discuss the network aspects of cytoskeletal tensegrity. Finally, we show the importance of the balance between functional flexibility and rigidity in protein-protein interaction, metabolic, gene regulatory and neuronal networks. Our summary raises the possibility that the concepts of flexibility and rigidity can be generalized to all networks.

  18. On the flexibility of Kokotsakis meshes

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenkov, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study geometric, algebraic, and computational aspects of flexibility and infinitesimal flexibility of Kokotsakis meshes. A Kokotsakis mesh is a mesh that consists of a face in the middle and a certain band of faces attached to the middle face by its perimeter. In particular any 3x3-mesh made of quadrangles is a Kokotsakis mesh. We express the infinitesimal flexibility condition in terms of Ceva and Menelaus theorems. Further we study semi-algebraic properties of the set of fl...

  19. A flexible infrared sensor for tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl; Thyssen, Anders; Engholm, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    We present a flexible infrared sensor for use in tissue oximetry with the aim of treating prematurely born infants. The sensor will detect the oxygen saturation in brain tissue through near infrared spectroscopy. The sensor itself consists of several individual silicon photo detectors fully...... integrated in a flexible array. The flexibility is achieved by combining silicon with Polydimethylsiloxane and polyimide using standard IC manufacturing. This ensures that the electrical interconnects on the sensor can withstand being bent in order for the sensor to confine to the curved surface of the head...

  20. Global added value of flexible benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Rosaline Chow

    2011-01-01

    Flexible benefits, or "flex," is a strategic human resources solution that can give companies a truly competitive edge in winning the global war for talent and containing costs. Several companies in Asia plan to implement flex in the next few years, and a number of emerging best practices in flexible benefits design are being developed. This article discusses the many advantages of flex, flex best practices emerging across Asia, and important considerations for employers when designing flexible benefits. Finally, the author shows how one global company in Singapore found flex to be an effective differentiator for attracting and retaining talent as well as helping manage employee health care costs.