WorldWideScience

Sample records for flexible polymer composite

  1. Conductive polymer/metal composites for interconnect of flexible devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Jin; Hashimoto Shinoda, Yasuo; Shuto, Takanori; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-06-01

    An interconnect of flexible and foldable devices based on advanced electronics requires high electrical conductivity, flexibility, adhesiveness on a plastic substrate, and efficient productivity. In this study, we investigated the applicability of a conductive polymer/metal composite to the interconnect of flexible devices. By combining an inkjet process and a photochemical reaction, micropatterns of a polypyrrole/silver composite were formed on flexible plastic substrates with an average linewidth of approximately 70 µm within 10 min. The conductivity of the composite was improved to 6.0 × 102 Ω-1·cm-1. From these results, it is expected that the conducting polymer/metal composite can be applied to the microwiring of flexible electronic devices.

  2. All-solid state flexible supercapacitors based on graphene/polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Won; Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: bgchoi@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic equipment has led to advancements in the development of sufficiently compact and flexible energy storage. A challenge remains to integrate the storage elements as closely as possible within a fully flexible device. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of all-solid state flexible supercapacitors with the integration of two electrodes that consist of graphene/polymer composites. Robust conductive free-standing thin graphene/polymer composite electrodes were prepared through a simple “physical grinding” process. As-prepared composite electrodes store energy up to a reversible gravimetric capacitance of 90.6 F/g, at a constant current density of 0.5 A/g while also delivering long-term durability (90% retention) for excess of five-thousands of cycles. Notably, the enhancement of mechanical properties of supercapacitors enables them to maintain their electrochemical performance even when twisted or folded. This straightforward approach to the fabrication of fully flexible supercapacitors provides new design opportunities within wearable electronics and electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • All solid-sate supercapacitors were fabricated using graphene/polymer composite electrodes. • Supercapacitor devices show an excellent mechanical flexibility. • High electrochemical performances were demonstrated.

  3. All-solid state flexible supercapacitors based on graphene/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Won; Choi, Bong Gill

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic equipment has led to advancements in the development of sufficiently compact and flexible energy storage. A challenge remains to integrate the storage elements as closely as possible within a fully flexible device. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of all-solid state flexible supercapacitors with the integration of two electrodes that consist of graphene/polymer composites. Robust conductive free-standing thin graphene/polymer composite electrodes were prepared through a simple “physical grinding” process. As-prepared composite electrodes store energy up to a reversible gravimetric capacitance of 90.6 F/g, at a constant current density of 0.5 A/g while also delivering long-term durability (90% retention) for excess of five-thousands of cycles. Notably, the enhancement of mechanical properties of supercapacitors enables them to maintain their electrochemical performance even when twisted or folded. This straightforward approach to the fabrication of fully flexible supercapacitors provides new design opportunities within wearable electronics and electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • All solid-sate supercapacitors were fabricated using graphene/polymer composite electrodes. • Supercapacitor devices show an excellent mechanical flexibility. • High electrochemical performances were demonstrated

  4. Photovoltaic properties of conjugated polymer/fullerene composites on large area flexible substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Gebeyehu

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present measurements of the photovoltaic response of bulk donor-acceptor heterojunction between the conjugated polymer, poly(3-octylthiophene, P3OT, (as a donor, D and fullerene (methanofullerene, (as acceptor, A, deposited between indium tin oxide and aluminum electrodes. The innovation involves the substrate, which is a polymer foil instead of glass. These devices are based on ultrafast, reversible, metastable photoinduced electron transfer and charge separation. We also present the efficiency and stability studies on large area (6 cm x 6 cm flexible plastic solar cells with monochromatic energy conversion efficiency (e of about 1.5% and carrier collection efficiency of nearly 20%. Further more, we have investigated the surface network morphology of these films layers by atomic force microscope (AFM. The development of solar cells based on composites of organic conjugated semi-conducting polymers with fullerene derivatives can provide a new method in the exploitation of solar energy.

  5. Aerogel / Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  6. Flexible nano-GFO/PVDF piezoelectric-polymer nano-composite films for mechanical energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monali; Roy, Amritendu; Dash, Sukalyan; Mukherjee, Somdutta

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the persistent quest of renewable energy technology, piezoelectric energy harvesters are gathering considerable research interest due to their potential in driving microelectronic devices with small power requirement. Electrical energy (milli to microwatt range) is generated from mechanical counterparts such as vibrations of machines, human motion, flowing water etc. based on the principles of piezoelectricity. Flexible high piezoelectric constant (d33) ceramic/polymer composites are crucial components for fabricating these energy harvesters. The polymer composites composed of gallium ferrite nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the matrix have been synthesized by solvent casting method. First, 8 wt. % PVDF was dissolved in DMF and then different compositions of GaFeO3 or GFO (10, 20, 30 wt. %) (with respect to PVDF only) nanocomposites were synthesized. The phase of the synthesized nanocomposites were studied by X- Ray diffraction which shows that with the increase in the GFO concentration, the intensity of diffraction peaks of PVDF steadily decreased and GFO peaks became increasingly sharp. As the concentration of GFO increases in the PVDF polymer matrix, band gap is also increased albeit to a small extent. The maximum measured output voltage and current during mechanical pressing and releasing conditions were found to be ~ 3.5 volt and 4 nA, respectively in 30 wt % GFO-PVDF composite, comparable to the available literature.

  7. Transparent and flexible quantum dot-polymer composites using an ionic liquid as compatible polymerization medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woelfle, Caroline; Claus, Richard O

    2007-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD)-polymer composites were fabricated based on a solution of QDs dispersed in an ionic liquid. Positively charged water-soluble nanocrystals were obtained from solutions of CdSe/ZnS QDs dispersed in toluene by ligand exchange with 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol (DAET). The resulting QDs were further transferred into a hydrophobic ionic liquid HMITFSI (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) by cation exchange, resulting in a CdSe/ZnS-HMITFSI solution, which was used as a compatible medium for the polymerization and cross-linking of polymethyl methacrylate networks. Transparent, fluorescent and flexible materials resulted. The quantum yields of the composites depended on the initial properties of the QDs dispersed in toluene, and medium-size QDs (2.6 nm) resulted in the highest quantum yields

  8. Nanotube liquid crystal elastomers: photomechanical response and flexible energy conversion of layered polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xiaoming; King, Benjamin C; Loomis, James; Panchapakesan, Balaji; Campo, Eva M; Hegseth, John; Cohn, Robert W; Terentjev, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Elastomeric composites based on nanotube liquid crystals (LCs) that preserve the internal orientation of nanotubes could lead to anisotropic physical properties and flexible energy conversion. Using a simple vacuum filtration technique of fabricating nanotube LC films and utilizing a transfer process to poly (dimethyl) siloxane wherein the LC arrangement is preserved, here we demonstrate unique and reversible photomechanical response of this layered composite to excitation by near infra-red (NIR) light at ultra-low nanotube mass fractions. On excitation by NIR photons, with application of small or large pre-strains, significant expansion or contraction of the sample occurs, respectively, that is continuously reversible and three orders of magnitude larger than in pristine polymer. Schlieren textures were noted in these LC composites confirming long range macroscopic nematic order of nanotubes within the composites. Order parameters of LC films ranged from S optical  = 0.51–0.58 from dichroic measurements. Film concentrations, elastic modulus and photomechanical stress were all seen to be related to the nematic order parameter. For the same nanotube concentration, the photomechanical stress was almost three times larger for the self-assembled LC nanotube actuator compared to actuator based on randomly oriented carbon nanotubes. Investigation into the kinetics of photomechanical actuation showed variation in stretching exponent β with pre-strains, concentration and orientation of nanotubes. Maximum photomechanical stress of ∼0.5 MPa W −1 and energy conversion of ∼0.0045% was achieved for these layered composites. The combination of properties, namely, optical anisotropy, reversible mechanical response to NIR excitation and flexible energy conversion all in one system accompanied with low cost makes nanotube LC elastomers important for soft photochromic actuation, energy conversion and photo-origami applications. (paper)

  9. Effects of Operating Temperature on Droplet Casting of Flexible Polymer/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chern Chiou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the performance of a flexible polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT composite sensor array as a function of operating temperature. The response magnitudes of a cost-effective flexible gas sensor array equipped with a heater were measured with respect to five different operating temperatures (room temperature, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C via impedance spectrum measurement and sensing response experiments. The selected polymers that were droplet cast to coat a MWCNT conductive layer to form two-layer polymer/MWCNT composite sensing films included ethyl cellulose (EC, polyethylene oxide (PEO, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. Electrical characterization of impedance, sensing response magnitude, and scanning electron microscope (SEM morphology of each type of polymer/MWCNT composite film was performed at different operating temperatures. With respect to ethanol, the response magnitude of the sensor decreased with increasing operating temperatures. The results indicated that the higher operating temperature could reduce the response and influence the sensitivity of the polymer/MWCNT gas sensor array. The morphology of polymer/MWCNT composite films revealed that there were changes in the porous film after volatile organic compound (VOC testing.

  10. Flexible and conductive waste tire-derived carbon/polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-04-10

    A method of making a supercapacitor from waste tires, includes the steps of providing rubber pieces and contacting the rubber pieces with a sulfonation bath to produce sulfonated rubber; pyrolyzing the sulfonated rubber to produce a tire-derived carbon composite comprising carbon black embedded in rubber-derived carbon matrix comprising graphitized interface portions; activating the tire-derived carbon composite by contacting the tire-derived carbon composite with a specific surface area-increasing composition to increase the specific surface area of the carbon composite to provide an activated tire-derived carbon composite; and, mixing the activated tire-derived carbon composite with a monomer and polymerizing the monomer to produce a redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite. The redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite can be formed into a film. An electrode and a supercapacitor are also disclosed.

  11. Improving the thermal dimensional stability of flexible polymer composite backing materials for ultrasound transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    State, M.; Brands, P.J.; Vosse, van de F.N.

    2010-01-01

    Novel ultrasound backing materials based on polymer composites with improved dimensional stability and low coefficient of thermal expansion are being developed and analyzed. For this purpose a filled epoxy resin (Stycast1265), a commonly used backing material, was considered reference material and

  12. A vanadium-doped ZnO nanosheets-polymer composite for flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Kwon, Yang Hyeog; Lee, Min Hyung; Jung, Joo-Yun; Seol, Jae Hun; Nah, Junghyo

    2016-01-01

    We report high performance flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) by employing vanadium (V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite structure. The V-doped ZnO NSs were synthesized to overcome the inherently low piezoelectric properties of intrinsic ZnO. Ferroelectric phase transition induced in the V-doped ZnO NSs contributed to significantly improve the performance of the PENGs after the poling process. Consequently, the PENGs exhibited high output voltage and current up to ~32 V and ~6.2 μA, respectively, under the applied strain, which are sufficient to directly turn on a number of light emitting diodes (LEDs). The composite approach for PENG fabrication is scalable, robust, and reproducible during periodic bending/releasing over extended cycles. The approach introduced here extends the performance limits of ZnO-based PENGs and demonstrates their potential as energy harvesting devices.We report high performance flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) by employing vanadium (V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite structure. The V-doped ZnO NSs were synthesized to overcome the inherently low piezoelectric properties of intrinsic ZnO. Ferroelectric phase transition induced in the V-doped ZnO NSs contributed to significantly improve the performance of the PENGs after the poling process. Consequently, the PENGs exhibited high output voltage and current up to ~32 V and ~6.2 μA, respectively, under the applied strain, which are sufficient to directly turn on a number of light emitting diodes (LEDs). The composite approach for PENG fabrication is scalable, robust, and reproducible during periodic bending/releasing over extended cycles. The approach introduced here extends the performance limits of ZnO-based PENGs and demonstrates their potential as energy harvesting devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07185b

  13. Highly Stable and Flexible Pressure Sensors with Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites for Human Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin; Ming, Yue; Li, Wei; Li, Yafang; Wu, Maoqi; Song, Jinzhong; Li, Xiaojiu; Liu, Hao

    2018-04-26

    A facile method for preparing an easy processing, repeatable and flexible pressure sensor was presented via the synthesis of modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWNTs) and polyurethane (PU) films. The surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) simultaneously used a silane coupling agent (KH550) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) to improve the dispersibility and compatibility of the MWNTs in a polymer matrix. The electrical property and piezoresistive behavior of the m-MWNT/PU composites were compared with raw multi-walled carbon nanotube (raw MWNT)/PU composites. Under linear uniaxial pressure, the m-MWNT/PU composite exhibited 4.282%kPa −1 sensitivity within the pressure of 1 kPa. The nonlinear error, hysteresis error and repeatability error of the piezoresistivity of m-MWNT/PU decreased 9%, 16.72% and 54.95% relative to raw MWNT/PU respectively. Therefore, the piezoresistive response of m-MWNT/PU had better stability than that of raw MWNT/PU composites. The m-MWNT/PU sensors could be utilized in wearable devices for body movement detection, monitoring of respiration and pressure detection in garments.

  14. Carbon nanotube/polymer composite electrodes for flexible, attachable electrochemical DNA sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lee, Eun-Cheol

    2015-09-15

    All-solution-processed, easily-made, flexible multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based electrodes were fabricated and used for electrochemical DNA sensors. These electrodes could serve as a recognition layer for DNA, without any surface modification, through π-π interactions between the MWCNTs and DNA, greatly simplifying the fabrication process for DNA sensors. The electrodes were directly connected to an electrochemical analyzer in the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements, where methylene blue was used as a redox indicator. Since neither functional groups nor probe DNA were immobilized on the surfaces of the electrodes, the sensor can be easily regenerated by washing these electrodes with water. The limit of detection was found to be 1.3 × 10(2)pM (S/N=3), with good DNA sequence differentiation ability. Fast fabrication of a DNA sensor was also achieved by cutting and attaching the MWCNT-PDMS composite electrodes at an analyte solution-containable region. Our results pave the way for developing user-fabricated easily attached DNA sensors at low costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Laser patterned polymer/nanotube composite electrodes for nanowire transistors on flexible substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication techniques such as laser patterning offer excellent potential for low cost and large area device fabrication. Conductive polymers can be used to replace expensive metallic inks such as silver and gold nanoparticles for printing technology. Electrical conductivity of the polymers can...

  16. Polymer electronics a flexible technology

    CERN Document Server

    Technology, Rapra

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide market for polymer electronic products has been estimated to be worth up to £15 billion by 2015 and the opportunity for new markets could be as high as £125 billion by 2025.'The rapid development of polymer electronics has revealed the possibility for transforming the electronics market by offering lighter, flexible and more cost effective alternatives to conventional materials and products. With applications ranging from printed, flexible conductors and novel semiconductor components to intelligent labels and large area displays and solar panels, products that were previously un

  17. Microgel polymer composite fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis some novel ideas and advancements in the field of polymer composite fibres, specifically microgel-based polymer composite fibres have been achieved. The main task was to investigate and understand the electrospinning process of microgels and polymers and the interplay of parameter influences, in order to fabricate reproducible and continuously homogenous composite fibres. The main aim was to fabricate a composite material which combines the special properties of polymer fibres ...

  18. A stretchable polymer-carbon nanotube composite electrode for flexible lithium-ion batteries: porosity engineering by controlled phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hojun; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Jung, Yeon Sik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Material R and D Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ho [Icheon Branch, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kisuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Flexible energy-storage devices have attracted growing attention with the fast development of bendable electronic systems. However, it still remains a challenge to find reliable electrode materials with both high mechanical flexibility/toughness and excellent electron and lithium-ion conductivity. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of highly porous, stretchable, and conductive polymer nanocomposites embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for application in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The systematic optimization of the porous morphology is performed by controllably inducing the phase separation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and removing PMMA, in order to generate well-controlled pore networks. It is demonstrated that the porous CNT-embedded PDMS nanocomposites are capable of good electrochemical performance with mechanical flexibility, suggesting these nanocomposites could be outstanding anode candidates for use in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The optimization of the pore size and the volume fraction provides higher capacity by nearly seven-fold compared to a nonporous nanocomposite. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Flat flexible polymer heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Bright, Victor M; Lee, Y C

    2013-01-01

    Flat, flexible, lightweight, polymer heat pipes (FPHP) were fabricated. The overall geometry of the heat pipe was 130 mm × 70 mm × 1.31 mm. A commercially available low-cost film composed of laminated sheets of low-density polyethylene terephthalate, aluminum and polyethylene layers was used as the casing. A triple-layer sintered copper woven mesh served as a liquid wicking structure, and water was the working fluid. A coarse nylon woven mesh provided space for vapor transport and mechanical rigidity. Thermal power ranging from 5 to 30 W was supplied to the evaporator while the device was flexed at 0°, 45° and 90°. The thermal resistance of the FPHP ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 K W −1 depending on the operating conditions while the thermal resistance for a similar-sized solid copper reference was a constant at 4.6 K W −1 . With 25 W power input, the thermal resistance of the liquid–vapor core of the FPHP was 23% of a copper reference sample with identical laminated polymer material. This work shows a promising combination of technologies that has the potential to usher in a new generation of highly flexible, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance thermal management solutions. (paper)

  20. Toward flexible polymer and paper-based energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyholm, Leif [Department of Materials Chemistry, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Gustav; Mihranyan, Albert; Stroemme, Maria [Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    All-polymer and paper-based energy storage devices have significant inherent advantages in comparison with many currently employed batteries and supercapacitors regarding environmental friendliness, flexibility, cost and versatility. The research within this field is currently undergoing an exciting development as new polymers, composites and paper-based devices are being developed. In this report, we review recent progress concerning the development of flexible energy storage devices based on electronically conducting polymers and cellulose containing composites with particular emphasis on paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. We discuss recent progress in the development of the most commonly used electronically conducting polymers used in flexible device prototypes, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy storage devices, as well as the two main approaches used in the manufacturing of paper-based charge storage devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Non-monotonic piezoresistive behaviour of graphene nanoplatelet (GNP-polymer composite flexible films prepared by solvent casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Makireddi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-polymer nanocomposite films show good piezoresistive behaviour and it is reported that the sensitivity increases either with the increased sheet resistance or decreased number density of the graphene fillers. A little is known about this behaviour near the percolation region. In this study, graphene nanoplatelet (GNP/poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA flexible films are fabricated via solution casting process at varying weight percent of GNP. Electrical and piezoresistive behaviour of these films is studied as a function of GNP concentration. Piezoresistive strain sensitivity of the films is measured by affixing the film to an aluminium specimen which is subjected to monotonic uniaxial tensile load. The change in resistance of the film with strain is monitored using a four probe. An electrical percolation threshold at 3 weight percent of GNP is observed. We report non-monotonic piezoresistive behaviour of these films as a function GNP concentration. We observe an increase in gauge factor (GF with unstrained resistance of the films up to a critical resistance corresponding to percolation threshold. Beyond this limit the GF decreases with unstrained resistance.

  2. Electroactive properties of flexible piezoelectric composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto Walter Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A flexible piezoelectric composite with 0-3 connectivity, made from Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT powder and vegetable-based polyurethane (PU, was doped with small amount of semiconductor powder. As a result a composite with 0-0-3 connectivity was obtained. The nature of absorption and steady state electrical conduction and the dielectric behaviour have been studied for this ceramic/polymer composite. The dielectric loss processes of the composite were observed to be dominated by those the polymer. Adding a semiconductor phase in the composite the electrical conductivity can be controlled and a continuous electric flux path could be created between the PZT grains. This composite may be poled at low voltage and in shorter time compared with composites without a conductive phase.

  3. Development of permanent magnet MnAlC/polymer composites and flexible filament for bonding and 3D-printing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, Javier; de Vicente, Javier; Skårman, Björn; Vidarsson, Hilmar; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Searching for high-performance permanent magnets components with no limitation in shape and dimensions is highly desired to overcome the present design and manufacturing restrictions, which affect the efficiency of the final devices in energy, automotive and aerospace sectors. Advanced 3D-printing of composite materials and related technologies is an incipient route to achieve functional structures avoiding the limitations of traditional manufacturing. Gas-atomized MnAlC particles combined with polymer have been used in this work for fabricating scalable rare earth-free permanent magnet composites and extruded flexible filaments with continuous length exceeding 10 m. Solution casting has been used to synthesize homogeneous composites with tuned particles content, made of a polyethylene (PE) matrix embedding quasi-spherical particles of the ferromagnetic τ-MnAlC phase. A maximum filling factor of 86.5 and 72.3% has been obtained for the composite and the filament after extrusion, respectively. The magnetic measurements reveal no deterioration of the properties of the MnAlC particles after the composite synthesis and filament extrusion. The produced MnAlC/PE materials will serve as precursors for an efficient and scalable design and fabrication of end-products by different processing techniques (polymerized cold-compacted magnets and 3D-printing, respectively) in view of technological applications (from micro electromechanical systems to energy and transport applications).

  4. Design and Development of a Flexible Strain Sensor for Textile Structures Based on a Conductive Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Dufour

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a smart flexible sensor adapted to textile structures, able to measure their strain deformations. The sensors are “smart” because of their capacity to adapt to the specific mechanical properties of textile structures that are lightweight, highly flexible, stretchable, elastic, etc. Because of these properties, textile structures are continuously in movement and easily deformed, even under very low stresses. It is therefore important that the integration of a sensor does not modify their general behavior. The material used for the sensor is based on a thermoplastic elastomer (Evoprene/carbon black nanoparticle composite, and presents general mechanical properties strongly compatible with the textile substrate. Two preparation techniques are investigated: the conventional melt-mixing process, and the solvent process which is found to be more adapted for this particular application. The preparation procedure is fully described, namely the optimization of the process in terms of filler concentration in which the percolation theory aspects have to be considered. The sensor is then integrated on a thin, lightweight Nylon fabric, and the electromechanical characterization is performed to demonstrate the adaptability and the correct functioning of the sensor as a strain gauge on the fabric. A normalized relative resistance is defined in order to characterize the electrical response of the sensor. Finally, the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature and atmospheric humidity, on the sensor performance is investigated. The results show that the sensor’s electrical resistance is particularly affected by humidity. This behavior is discussed in terms of the sensitivity of the carbon black filler particles to the presence of water.

  5. Innovative micro-textured hydroxyapatite and poly(l-lactic)-acid polymer composite film as a flexible, corrosion resistant, biocompatible, and bioactive coating for Mg implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Mi; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Lim, Ho-Kyung; Byun, Soo-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Sung-Mi

    2017-12-01

    The utility of a novel ceramic/polymer-composite coating with a micro-textured microstructure that would significantly enhance the functions of biodegradable Mg implants is demonstrated here. To accomplish this, bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) micro-dots can be created by immersing a Mg implant with a micro-patterned photoresist surface in an aqueous solution containing calcium and phosphate ions. The HA micro-dots can then be surrounded by a flexible poly(l-lactic)-acid (PLLA) polymer using spin coating to form a HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer. The HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer showed an excellent corrosion resistance when it was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and good biocompatibility, which was assessed by in vitro cell tests. In addition, the HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer had high deformation ability, where no apparent changes in the coating layer were observed even after a 5% elongation, which would be unobtainable using HA and PLLA coating layers; furthermore, this allowed the mechanically-strained Mg implant with the HA/PLLA micro-textured coating layer to preserve its excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Conductive polymer composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a conductive polymer composition comprising graphene and the articles obtained by this process. The process comprises the following steps: A) contacting graphite oxide in an aqueous medium with a water-soluble or dispersible

  7. Rapid synthesis of flexible conductive polymer nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, C O; Sotiriou, G A; Pratsinis, S E

    2015-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposite films with nanoparticle-specific properties are sought out in novel functional materials and miniaturized devices for electronic and biomedical applications. Sensors, capacitors, actuators, displays, circuit boards, solar cells, electromagnetic shields and medical electrodes rely on flexible, electrically conductive layers or films. Scalable synthesis of such nanocomposite films, however, remains a challenge. Here, flame aerosol deposition of metallic nanosliver onto bare or polymer-coated glass substrates followed by polymer spin-coating on them leads to rapid synthesis of flexible, free-standing, electrically conductive nanocomposite films. Their electrical conductivity is determined during their preparation and depends on substrate composition and nanosilver deposition duration. Accordingly, thin (<500 nm) and flexible nanocomposite films are made having conductivity equivalent to metals (e.g. 5  × 10 4 S cm −1 ), even during repetitive bending. (paper)

  8. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  9. Silver nanowire/polymer composite soft conductive film fabricated by large-area compatible coating for flexible pressure sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sujie; Li, Siying; Peng, Sai; Huang, Yukun; Zhao, Jiaqing; Tang, Wei; Guo, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    Soft conductive films composed of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, a neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS over-coating layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer substrate are fabricated by large area compatible coating processes. The neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS layer is shown to be able to significantly improve the conductivity, stretchability and air stability of the conductive films. The soft conductive films are patterned using a simple maskless patterning approach to fabricate an 8 × 8 flexible pressure sensor array. It is shown that such soft conductive films can help to improve the sensitivity and reduce the signal crosstalk over the pressure sensor array. Project supported by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 16JC1400603).

  10. Flexible ITO-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the material-of-choice for transparent conductors in any optoelectronic application. However, scarce resources of indium and high market demand of ITO have created large price fluctuations and future supply concerns. In polymer solar cells (PSCs), ITO is the single......-cost alternatives to ITO suitable for use in PSCs. These alternatives belong to four material groups: polymers; metal and polymer composites; metal nanowires and ultra-thin metal films; and carbon nanotubes and graphene. We further present the progress of employing these alternatives in PSCs and identify future...

  11. Polymer Ferroelectric Memory for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohd Adnan

    2013-11-01

    With the projected growth of the flexible and plastic electronics industry, there is renewed interest in the research community to develop high performance all-polymeric memory which will be an essential component of any electronic circuit. Some of the efforts in polymer memories are based on different mechanisms such as filamentary conduction, charge trapping effects, dipole alignment, and reduction-oxidation to name a few. Among these the leading candidate are those based on the mechanism of ferroelectricity. Polymer ferroelectric memory can be used in niche applications like smart cards, RFID tags, sensors etc. This dissertation will focus on novel material and device engineering to fabricate high performance low temperature polymeric ferroelectric memory for flexible electronics. We address and find solutions to some fundamental problems affecting all polymer ferroelectric memory like high coercive fields, fatigue and thermal stability issues, poor breakdown strength and poor p-type hole mobilities. Some of the strategies adopted in this dissertation are: Use of different flexible substrates, electrode engineering to improve charge injection and fatigue properties of ferroelectric polymers, large area ink jet printing of ferroelectric memory devices, use of polymer blends to improve insulating properties of ferroelectric polymers and use of oxide semiconductors to fabricate high mobility p-type ferroelectric memory. During the course of this dissertation we have fabricated: the first all-polymer ferroelectric capacitors with solvent modified highly conducting polymeric poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] electrodes on plastic substrates with performance as good as devices with metallic Platinum-Gold electrodes on silicon substrates; the first all-polymer high performance ferroelectric memory on banknotes for security applications; novel ferroelectric capacitors based on blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride

  12. Polymer Ferroelectric Memory for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohd Adnan

    2013-01-01

    With the projected growth of the flexible and plastic electronics industry, there is renewed interest in the research community to develop high performance all-polymeric memory which will be an essential component of any electronic circuit. Some of the efforts in polymer memories are based on different mechanisms such as filamentary conduction, charge trapping effects, dipole alignment, and reduction-oxidation to name a few. Among these the leading candidate are those based on the mechanism of ferroelectricity. Polymer ferroelectric memory can be used in niche applications like smart cards, RFID tags, sensors etc. This dissertation will focus on novel material and device engineering to fabricate high performance low temperature polymeric ferroelectric memory for flexible electronics. We address and find solutions to some fundamental problems affecting all polymer ferroelectric memory like high coercive fields, fatigue and thermal stability issues, poor breakdown strength and poor p-type hole mobilities. Some of the strategies adopted in this dissertation are: Use of different flexible substrates, electrode engineering to improve charge injection and fatigue properties of ferroelectric polymers, large area ink jet printing of ferroelectric memory devices, use of polymer blends to improve insulating properties of ferroelectric polymers and use of oxide semiconductors to fabricate high mobility p-type ferroelectric memory. During the course of this dissertation we have fabricated: the first all-polymer ferroelectric capacitors with solvent modified highly conducting polymeric poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] electrodes on plastic substrates with performance as good as devices with metallic Platinum-Gold electrodes on silicon substrates; the first all-polymer high performance ferroelectric memory on banknotes for security applications; novel ferroelectric capacitors based on blends of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride

  13. Application of Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    ...)PEO-based composite polymer electrolytes, by a series of specifically addressed electrochemical tests which included the determination of the conductivity and of the lithium transference number...

  14. Optical temperature sensing on flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stanislav; Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Schmidt, Thomas; Gleissner, Uwe; Zappe, Hans

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to established semiconductor waveguide-based or glass fiber-based integrated optical sensors, polymerbased optical systems offer tunable material properties, such as refractive index or viscosity, and thus provide additional degrees of freedom for sensor design and fabrication. Of particular interest in sensing applications are fully-integrated optical waveguide-based temperature sensors. These typically rely on Bragg gratings which induce a periodic refractive index variation in the waveguide so that a resonant wavelength of the structure is reflected.1,2 With broad-band excitation, a dip in the spectral output of the waveguide is thus generated at a precisely-defined wavelength. This resonant wavelength depends on the refractive index of the waveguide and the grating period, yet both of these quantities are temperature dependent by means of the thermo-optic effect (change in refractive index with temperature) and thermal expansion (change of the grating period with temperature). We show the design and fabrication of polymer waveguide-integrated temperature sensors based on Bragggratings, fabricated by replication technology on flexible PMMA foil substrates. The 175 μm thick foil serves as lower cladding for a polymeric waveguide fabricated from a custom-made UV-crosslinkable co-monomer composition. The fabrication of the grating structure includes a second replication step into a separate PMMA-foil. The dimensions of the Bragg-gratings are determined by simulations to set the bias point into the near infrared wavelength range, which allows Si-based detectors to be used. We present design considerations and performance data for the developed structures. The resulting sensor's signal is linear to temperature changes and shows a sensitivity of -306 nm/K, allowing high resolution temperature measurements.

  15. Ductile thermoset polymers via controlling network flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, N; Salim, N V; Walsh, T R; Wiggins, J S; Ajayan, P M; Fox, B L

    2015-06-18

    We report the design and synthesis of a polymer structure from a cross-linkable epoxy-ionic liquid system which behaves like a hard and brittle epoxy thermoset, perfectly ductile thermoplastic and an elastomer, all depending on controllable network compositions.

  16. Wear of polymers and composites

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelbary, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In the field of tribology, the wear behaviour of polymers and composite materials is considered a highly non-linear phenomenon. Wear of Polymers and Composites introduces fundamentals of polymers and composites tribology. The book suggests a new approach to explore the effect of applied load and surface defects on the fatigue wear behaviour of polymers, using a new tribometer and thorough experiments. It discusses effects of surface cracks, under different static and cyclic loading parameters on wear, and presents an intelligent algorithm, in the form of a neural network, to map the relations

  17. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, K.

    1974-01-01

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  18. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor); Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  19. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  20. Developing Flexible, High Performance Polymers with Self-Healing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Scott T.; Williams, Martha K.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Caraccio, Anne J.

    2011-01-01

    Flexible, high performance polymers such as polyimides are often employed in aerospace applications. They typically find uses in areas where improved physical characteristics such as fire resistance, long term thermal stability, and solvent resistance are required. It is anticipated that such polymers could find uses in future long duration exploration missions as well. Their use would be even more advantageous if self-healing capability or mechanisms could be incorporated into these polymers. Such innovative approaches are currently being studied at the NASA Kennedy Space Center for use in high performance wiring systems or inflatable and habitation structures. Self-healing or self-sealing capability would significantly reduce maintenance requirements, and increase the safety and reliability performance of the systems into which these polymers would be incorporated. Many unique challenges need to be overcome in order to incorporate a self-healing mechanism into flexible, high performance polymers. Significant research into the incorporation of a self-healing mechanism into structural composites has been carried out over the past decade by a number of groups, notable among them being the University of I1linois [I]. Various mechanisms for the introduction of self-healing have been investigated. Examples of these are: 1) Microcapsule-based healant delivery. 2) Vascular network delivery. 3) Damage induced triggering of latent substrate properties. Successful self-healing has been demonstrated in structural epoxy systems with almost complete reestablishment of composite strength being achieved through the use of microcapsulation technology. However, the incorporation of a self-healing mechanism into a system in which the material is flexible, or a thin film, is much more challenging. In the case of using microencapsulation, healant core content must be small enough to reside in films less than 0.1 millimeters thick, and must overcome significant capillary and surface

  1. The influence of flexible branches in flexible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    In this work the influence of branches in flexible polymer systems has been investigated by consideration of (1) the behaviour of isolated poly-α-olefin chains and (2) the p -T phase behaviour of poly(4-methylpentene-1)(P4MP1). Molecular dynamics simulations of isolated poly-α-olefins were performed in order to gauge directly the effect of molecular structure on chain dimensions, flexibility (via the persistence length) and shape. Under Θ-conditions the addition of short linear branches was shown to increase the flexibility of the backbone. In conditions of good solvent, however, the effect of longer and bulkier branches was to increase the persistence length and average size of the coil with the arrangement of side chain atoms making a small difference. The side branches themselves also affected the solvent conditions experienced by the backbone, behaving much like bound solvent. Consideration of ethylene-α-olefin copolymers, where the branch content was varied from 0-50%, showed that under good solvent conditions the branches increased the chain stiffness only when the gap between side branches was less than five backbone carbon atoms. The backbone torsions were also shown to play an important role in determining these trends. For comparison with the above simulations, persistence length values for polyethylene (= 7.3±0.2A) and P4MP1 (=7.6±0.3A) were measured experimentally by neutron scattering in dilute solution. A value of 6.7±0.5 for the characteristic ratio of PE was also calculated. To investigate the role of a bulky side group in crystalline phases, wide angle X-ray diffraction experiments using a Hikosaka pressure cell were performed on P4MP1. Computer modelling, utilising the experimental data obtained, determined the structure of a disordered phase produced at room temperature and a new high pressure/high temperature phase. The disordered phase was found to be due to a collapse of the backbone combined with some disordering of the side chains

  2. Polymer compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.

    2018-02-06

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  3. Effect of Target Composition and Sputtering Deposition Parameters on the Functional Properties of Nitrogenized Ag-Permalloy Flexible Thin Films Deposited on Polymer Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Khan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the first results of functional properties of nitrogenized silver-permalloy thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalic ester {PETE (C10H8O4n} flexible substrates by magnetron sputtering. These new soft magnetic thin films have magnetization that is comparable to pure Ni81Fe19 permalloy films. Two target compositions (Ni76Fe19Ag5 and Ni72Fe18Ag10 were used to study the effect of compositional variation and sputtering parameters, including nitrogen flow rate on the phase evolution and surface properties. Aggregate flow rate and total pressure of Ar+N2 mixture was 60 sccm and 0.55 Pa, respectively. The distance between target and the substrate was kept at 100 mm, while using sputtering power from 100–130 W. Average film deposition rate was confirmed at around 2.05 nm/min for argon atmosphere and was reduced to 1.8 nm/min in reactive nitrogen atmosphere. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and contact angle measurements were used to characterize the functional properties. Nano sized character of films was confirmed by XRD and SEM. It is found that the grain size was reduced by the formation of nitride phase, which in turns enhanced the magnetization and lowers the coercivity. Magnetic field coupling efficiency limit was determined from 1.6–2 GHz frequency limit. The results of comparable magnetic performance, lowest magnetic loss, and highest surface free energy, confirming that 15 sccm nitrogen flow rate at 115 W is optimal for producing Ag-doped permalloy flexible thin films having excellent magnetic field coupling efficiency.

  4. Conjugated Polymers for Flexible Energy Harvesting and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhitao; Liao, Meng; Lou, Huiqing; Hu, Yajie; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2018-03-01

    Since the discovery of conjugated polymers in the 1970s, they have attracted considerable interest in light of their advantages of having a tunable bandgap, high electroactivity, high flexibility, and good processability compared to inorganic conducting materials. The above combined advantages make them promising for effective energy harvesting and storage, which have been widely studied in recent decades. Herein, the key advancements in the use of conjugated polymers for flexible energy harvesting and storage are reviewed. The synthesis, structure, and properties of conjugated polymers are first summarized. Then, their applications in flexible polymer solar cells, thermoelectric generators, supercapacitors, and lithium-ion batteries are described. The remaining challenges are then discussed to highlight the future direction in the development of conjugated polymers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Polymer-metal hybrid transparent electrodes for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongkyu; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Kwanghee

    2015-03-01

    Despite nearly two decades of research, the absence of ideal flexible and transparent electrodes has been the largest obstacle in realizing flexible and printable electronics for future technologies. Here we report the fabrication of ‘polymer-metal hybrid electrodes’ with high-performance properties, including a bending radius 95% and a sheet resistance solar cells that exhibit a high power conversion efficiency of 10% and polymer light-emitting diodes that can outperform those based on transparent conducting oxides.

  6. High temperature polymer concrete compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Reams, Walter

    1985-01-01

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system. A preferred formulation emphasizing the major necessary components is as follows: ______________________________________ Component A: Silica sand 60-77 wt. % Silica flour 5-10 wt. % Portland cement 15-25 wt. % Acrylamide 1-5 wt. % Component B: Styrene 50-60 wt. % Trimethylolpropane 35-40 wt. % trimethacrylate ______________________________________ and necessary initiators, accelerators, and surfactants.

  7. Phase behaviour of rod-like colloid + flexible polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Stroobants, A.

    The effect of non-adsorbing, flexible polymer on the isotropic-nematic transition in dispersions of rod-like colloids is investigated. A widening of the biphasic gap is observed, in combination with a marked polymer partitioning between the coexisting phases. Under certain conditions, areas of

  8. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    owing to the sensitivity of this resonant tunneling effect, such as optical filters, optical power limiters, antireflection coatings, electrochromic devices, to name a few. Our second approach to realizing an alternative flexible TC is based on random networks of Ag-NWs and their composites with various polymers that are electrically conducting or insulating. While considered a highly promising material system with a potential to replace commercially used TCOs like ITO, the high variability in films of Ag-NWs fabricated from solutions is however a major issue for scalability and reproducibility. This variability can in turn be attributed partly to NW dispersion instability, which can be addressed by the use of polymer additives and modified solution chemistries. In preparing such composites, considerable attention has been given to the use of conducting polymers like PEDOT:PSS which can contribute to charge transport as well. We present here a systematic approach to obtaining quantifiably uniform, highly transparent and conducting films in a reproducible manner, with composites of Ag-NWs with both conducting (PEDOT:PSS) and nonconducting polymers (like PSS and PVA), demonstrating the effectiveness of such an approach. While Ag-NW films spun cast from solution show good electrical conductivity (˜2-50 = O/□) and high transparency (˜ 70-90%), they also show high variability (˜15-20% in RSheet and NW coverage) and poor reproducibility. Ag- NW/polymer composites, on the other hand, show similar electrical and optical properties with high figures of merit but with lower variability and greater uniformity (mechanical flexing, further justifying the use of polymer-stabilized networks and paving the way for greater control and ease in processing transparent, conducting and flexible films for novel devices. The Ag-NWs based TCs were also incorporated in organic solar cell devices to test for their efficacy in an application and their performances were compared to that of

  9. Ceramic matrix composites using polymer pyrolysis and liquid densification processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.O.; Petrak, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The polymer precursor approach for manufacture of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is both flexible and tailorable to shape and engineering requirements. The tailorability includes a wide range of reinforcements, polymer matrix precursors and fillers. Processing is selected based on cure/pressure requirements to best produce the required shape, radii, fiber volume and fiber orientation. Combinations of tooling used for cure/pressure applications are discussed and fabricated components are shown. ((orig.))

  10. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were ...

  11. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were determined by .... Water transport process of resin and polymer composite specimens at ..... simulation. ... Kwon Y W and Bang H 1997 Finite element method using matlab.

  12. Mechanical properties of flexible knitted composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the matrix material and the degree of prestretch of a knitted fibre structure on the mechanical properties of knitted composites with low fibre volume fractions. By embedding a flexible textile structure in an elastomeric matrix, composite materials are

  13. Magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnassar, M.; Alfadhel, A.; Ivanov, Yu. P.; Kosel, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite that exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature. The multiferroic nanocomposite consists of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic iron nanowires embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE). The nanocomposite has been fabricated via a simple low temperature spin coating technique. Structural, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric properties of the developed nanocomposite have been characterized. The nanocomposite films showed isotropic magnetic properties due to the random orientation of the iron nanowires inside the film. In addition, the embedded nanowires did not hinder the ferroelectric phase development of the nanocomposite. The developed nanocomposite showed a high magnetoelectric coupling response of 156 mV/cmOe measured at 3.1 kOe DC bias field. This value is among the highest reported magnetoelectric coupling in two phase particulate polymer nanocomposites

  14. Magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite for flexible electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.

    2015-03-06

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite that exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature. The multiferroic nanocomposite consists of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic iron nanowires embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE). The nanocomposite has been fabricated via a simple low temperature spin coating technique. Structural, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric properties of the developed nanocomposite have been characterized. The nanocomposite films showed isotropic magnetic properties due to the random orientation of the iron nanowires inside the film. In addition, the embedded nanowires did not hinder the ferroelectric phase development of the nanocomposite. The developed nanocomposite showed a high magnetoelectric coupling response of 156 mV/cmOe measured at 3.1 kOe DC bias field. This value is among the highest reported magnetoelectric coupling in two phase particulate polymer nanocomposites.

  15. Magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite for flexible electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite that exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature. The multiferroic nanocomposite consists of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic iron nanowires embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE). The nanocomposite has been fabricated via a simple low temperature spin coating technique. Structural, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric properties of the developed nanocomposite have been characterized. The nanocomposite films showed isotropic magnetic properties due to the random orientation of the iron nanowires inside the film. In addition, the embedded nanowires did not hinder the ferroelectric phase development of the nanocomposite. The developed nanocomposite showed a high magnetoelectric coupling response of 156 mV/cmOe measured at 3.1 kOe DC bias field. This value is among the highest reported magnetoelectric coupling in two phase particulate polymer nanocomposites.

  16. Molecular model for solubility of gases in flexible polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Ole; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    We propose a model for a priori prediction of the solubility of gases in flexible polymers. The model is based on the concept of ideal solubility of gases in liquids. According to this concept, the mole fraction of gases in liquids is given by Raoult's law with the total pressure and the vapor...... pressure of the gas, where the latter may have to be extrapolated. However, instead of considering each polymer molecule as a rigid structure, we estimate the effective number of degrees of freedom from an equivalent freely jointed bead-rod model for the flexible polymer. In this model, we associate...... the length of the rods with the molecular weight corresponding to a Kuhn step. The model provides a tool for crude estimation of the gas solubility on the basis of only the monomer unit of the polymer and properties of the gas. A comparison with the solubility data for several gases in poly...

  17. Structure-Property Relationships of Semiconducting Polymers for Flexible and Durable Polymer Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Je; Jung, A-Ra; Lee, Myeongjae; Kim, Dongjin; Ro, Suhee; Jin, Seon-Mi; Nguyen, Hieu Dinh; Yang, Jeehye; Lee, Kyung-Koo; Lee, Eunji; Kang, Moon Sung; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Kim, BongSoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2017-11-22

    We report high-performance top-gate bottom-contact flexible polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated by flow-coating diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based polymers (P(DPP2DT-T2), P(DPP2DT-TT), P(DPP2DT-DTT), P(NDI2OD-T2), P(NDI2OD-F2T2), and P(NDI2OD-Se2)) as semiconducting channel materials. All of the polymers displayed good FET characteristics with on/off current ratios exceeding 10 7 . The highest hole mobility of 1.51 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and the highest electron mobility of 0.85 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were obtained from the P(DPP2DT-T2) and P(NDI2OD-Se2) polymer FETs, respectively. The impacts of the polymer structures on the FET performance are well-explained by the interplay between the crystallinity, the tendency of the polymer backbone to adopt an edge-on orientation, and the interconnectivity of polymer fibrils in the film state. Additionally, we demonstrated that all of the flexible polymer-based FETs were highly resistant to tensile stress, with negligible changes in their carrier mobilities and on/off ratios after a bending test. Conclusively, these high-performance, flexible, and durable FETs demonstrate the potential of semiconducting conjugated polymers for use in flexible electronic applications.

  18. Flexible Photonics: Polymer LEDs Made from Monochromatic Red Emitting Lanthanide/Polymer Blends. Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Regan, Marie

    1999-01-01

    .... Spectrally pure, red emitting flexible LEDs have been fabricated. Close to a four-fold increase in device efficiency is obtained when a suitable lanthanide complex is blended with the semi-conducting host polymer...

  19. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  20. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  1. Flexible polymers in a nematic medium : a Monte Carlo simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, J.H. van; Luyten, M.C.; Brinke, G. ten

    Monte Carlo simulations of self-avoiding random walks surrounded by aligned rods on a square lattice and a simple cubic lattice were performed to address the topological constraints involved for dilute solutions of flexible polymers in a highly oriented nematic solvent. The nematic constraint

  2. Blending effect of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene–graphene composite layers for flexible thin film transistors with a polymer gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sarbani; Adriyanto, Feri; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2014-01-01

    Solution processible poly(4-vinylphenol) is employed as a transistor dielectric material for low cost processing on flexible substrates at low temperatures. A 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene–graphene hybrid semiconductor is drop cast to fabricate bottom-gate and bottom-contact field-effect transistor devices on flexible and glass substrates under an ambient air environment. A few layers of graphene flakes increase the area in the conduction channel, and form bridge connections between the crystalline regions of the semiconductor layer which can change the surface morphology of TIPS pentacene films. The TIPS pentacene–graphene hybrid semiconductor-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) cross-linked with a poly(4-vinylphenol) gate dielectric exhibit an effective field-effect mobility of 0.076 cm 2  V −1  s −1 and a threshold voltage of −0.7 V at V gs = −40 V. By contrast, typical TIPS pentacene shows four times lower mobility of 0.019 cm 2  V −1  s −1 and a threshold voltage of 5 V. The graphene/TIPS pentacene hybrids presented in this paper can enhance the electrical characteristics of OTFTs due to their high crystallinity, uniform large-grain distribution, and effective reduction of crystal misorientation of the organic semiconductor layer, as confirmed by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical microscopy studies. (paper)

  3. Blending effect of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene-graphene composite layers for flexible thin film transistors with a polymer gate dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sarbani; Adriyanto, Feri; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2014-02-28

    Solution processible poly(4-vinylphenol) is employed as a transistor dielectric material for low cost processing on flexible substrates at low temperatures. A 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene-graphene hybrid semiconductor is drop cast to fabricate bottom-gate and bottom-contact field-effect transistor devices on flexible and glass substrates under an ambient air environment. A few layers of graphene flakes increase the area in the conduction channel, and form bridge connections between the crystalline regions of the semiconductor layer which can change the surface morphology of TIPS pentacene films. The TIPS pentacene-graphene hybrid semiconductor-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) cross-linked with a poly(4-vinylphenol) gate dielectric exhibit an effective field-effect mobility of 0.076 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and a threshold voltage of -0.7 V at V(gs) = -40 V. By contrast, typical TIPS pentacene shows four times lower mobility of 0.019 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and a threshold voltage of 5 V. The graphene/TIPS pentacene hybrids presented in this paper can enhance the electrical characteristics of OTFTs due to their high crystallinity, uniform large-grain distribution, and effective reduction of crystal misorientation of the organic semiconductor layer, as confirmed by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical microscopy studies.

  4. Solid polymer composite electrolytes for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, S M.J.; Mikhailenko, S D; Kaliaguine, S

    1998-07-01

    Composite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell technology were prepared from solid state proton conductors and polymer binders. The polymers were partially sulfonated and non-sulfonated polysulfone (PS), porous polyetherimide (PEI) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). As proton conductors H-chabazite, tungstophosphoric acid and its Na-salt and non-stoichiometric boron phosphate were employed. All membranes prepared using sulfonated PS as a binder with sulfonation degree higher than 50% were found to be mechanically unstable. They possess however reasonably high conductivity up to 6{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. Introducing the tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) into the nonsulfonated porous PS makes possible to obtain strong and flexible membranes with s=4{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm, while use of boron phosphate in that case results in the conductivity of about 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm. Porous PEI impregnated with aqueous solution of TPA retains its original tensile strength and exhibited the conductivity s=2{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. It however fell to 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} S/cm when the binder was modified with 2% of propionic acid, which caused a decrease in polymer pore size. Incorporation of the sodium acid salt of TPA into PEI allows one to obtain a composite with reasonably good mechanical properties and a conductivity of ca 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm for membranes prepared by the cast method. Using the phase inversion technique for preparation of the membranes of the same composition makes possible to increase their conductivity up to 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. When boron phosphate was used in lieu of TPA salt the conductivity obtained is still higher reaching 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} and 3{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm for membranes prepared by cast and phase inversion techniques respectively. The PMMA based membranes were mechanically stable even when a solid content reached 55wt.%. Among PMMA membranes the highest conductivity of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm was registered for

  5. Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirilă, Adrian; Buecheler, Stephan; Pianezzi, Fabian; Bloesch, Patrick; Gretener, Christina; Uhl, Alexander R; Fella, Carolin; Kranz, Lukas; Perrenoud, Julian; Seyrling, Sieghard; Verma, Rajneesh; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Bilger, Gerhard; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2011-09-18

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) absorber layers have yielded the highest conversion efficiency among all thin-film technologies, and the use of flexible polymer films as substrates offers several advantages in lowering manufacturing costs. However, given that conversion efficiency is crucial for cost-competitiveness, it is necessary to develop devices on flexible substrates that perform as well as those obtained on rigid substrates. Such comparable performance has not previously been achieved, primarily because polymer films require much lower substrate temperatures during absorber deposition, generally resulting in much lower efficiencies. Here we identify a strong composition gradient in the absorber layer as the main reason for inferior performance and show that, by adjusting it appropriately, very high efficiencies can be obtained. This implies that future manufacturing of highly efficient flexible solar cells could lower the cost of solar electricity and thus become a significant branch of the photovoltaic industry.

  6. Method for producing nanowire-polymer composite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qibing; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-11-21

    A method for producing flexible, nanoparticle-polymer composite electrodes is described. Conductive nanoparticles, preferably metal nanowires or nanotubes, are deposited on a smooth surface of a platform to produce a porous conductive layer. A second application of conductive nanoparticles or a mixture of nanoparticles can also be deposited to form a porous conductive layer. The conductive layer is then coated with at least one coating of monomers that is polymerized to form a conductive layer-polymer composite film. Optionally, a protective coating can be applied to the top of the composite film. In one embodiment, the monomer coating includes light transducing particles to reduce the total internal reflection of light through the composite film or pigments that absorb light at one wavelength and re-emit light at a longer wavelength. The resulting composite film has an active side that is smooth with surface height variations of 100 nm or less.

  7. Tribology of natural fiber polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Chand, N

    2008-01-01

    Environmental concerns are driving demand for bio-degradable materials such as plant-based natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. These composites are fast replacing conventional materials in many applications, especially in automobiles, where tribology (friction, lubrication and wear) is important. This book covers the availability and processing of natural fiber polymer composites and their structural, thermal, mechanical and, in particular, tribological properties.Chapter 1 discusses sources of natural fibers, their extraction and surface modification. It also reviews the ther

  8. Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Weitsman, Y Jack

    2012-01-01

    Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites, written by the late Dr. Y. Jack Weitsman, addresses the wide range of parameters that affect the interaction of fluids with polymers and polymeric composites. The book aims at broadening the scope of available data, mostly limited up to this time to weight-gain recordings of fluid ingress into polymers and composites, to the practical circumstances of fluctuating exposure. Various forms of experimental data are given, in conjunction with theoretical models derived from basic scientific principles, and correlated with severity of exposure conditions and interpreted by means of rationally based theoretical models. The practical implications of the effects of fluids are discussed. The issue of fluid effects on polymers and polymeric composites is of concern to engineers and scientists active in aerospace and naval structures, as an increasing portion of these structures are made of polymeric composites and employ polymeric adhesives as a joining device. While...

  9. Mechanics of biological polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Cartilage and cuticle are two natural materials capable of remarkable mechanical performance, especially considering the limitations on composition and processing conditions under which they are constructed. Their impressive properties are postulated to be a consequence of their complex multi-scale organization which has commonly been characterized by biochemical and microscopic methods. The objective of this dissertation is to overcome the limitations of such methods with mechanical analysis techniques generally reserved for the study of synthetic polymers. Methods for transient and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of porcine TMJ disc sections and Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor elytral (modified forewing) cuticle were developed to characterize the mechanical performance of these biomaterials. The TMJ disc dynamic elastic modulus (E') was determined to be a strong function of disc orientation and pretension ranging from 700+/-240 kPa at (1g pretension) in the mediolateral direction to 73+/-8.5 MPa (150g preload) in the anteroposterior direction. Analogous mechanical testing was used to understand the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of beetle elytral cuticle at variable stages of maturation (tanning). Untanned elytra of both beetle species were ductile with a Young's modulus (E) of 44+/-8 MPa, but became brittle with an E of 2400+/-1100 MPa when fully tanned. Significantly, the E' of the TMJ disc and elytral cuticle exhibited a weak power law increase as a function of oscillation frequency. The exponent of the power law fit ( n) was determined to be a sensitive measure of molecular structure within these biomaterials. With increasing cuticular tanning, more so than with drying, the frequency dependence of cuticle E' diminished, suggesting cuticular cross-linking was an important component of tanning, as postulated by the quinone tanning hypothesis. The natural Black phenotype as well as TcADC iRNA suppressed Tribolium cuticle

  10. Liquid crystallinity in flexible and rigid rod polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Galen T.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    We apply an anisotropic version of the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) integral equation description of flexible polymers to analyze athermal liquid crystallinity. The polymers are characterized by a statistical segment length, σ o , and by a physical hard-core thickness, d, that prevents the overlap of monomers on different chains. At small segment densities, ρ, the microscopic length scale d is irrelevant (as it must be in the universal semidilute regime), but becomes important in concentrated solutions and melts. Under the influence of the excluded volume interactions alone, the chains undergo a lyotropic, first-order isotropic-nematic transition at a concentration dependent upon the dimensionless ''aspect ratio,'' σ o /d. The transition becomes weaker as d→0, becoming second order, as has been previously shown. We extend the theory to describe the transition of rigid, thin rods, and discuss the evolution of the anisotropic liquid structure in the ordered phase. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. Irradiatable polymer composition with improved oxidation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the incorporation of a substantially insoluble organic phosphite into a polymer composition such as polyolefin polymers or ethylene copolymers to prevent oxidation of the polymer at elevated temperatures after radiation-induced crosslinking. The crosslinking is readily achieved without affecting the antioxidant properties of the organic phosphite. Particularly suitable organic compounds are derivatives of pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, and tripentaerythritol in cooncentrations of 1 to 3% of the mixture to be irradiated

  12. Thermal Protective Coating for High Temperature Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Andrew R.

    1999-01-01

    The central theme of this research is the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticles as precursors to thermally protective coatings for high temperature polymer composites. In addition, we will investigate the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticle as a component to polymer composites. The objective of this research was the high temperature protection of polymer composites via novel chemistry. The significance of this research is the development of a low cost and highly flexible synthetic methodology, with a compatible processing technique, for the fabrication of high temperature polymer composites. We proposed to accomplish this broad goal through the use of a class of ceramic precursor material, alumoxanes. Alumoxanes are nano-particles with a boehmite-like structure and an organic periphery. The technical goals of this program are to prepare and evaluate water soluble carboxylate-alumoxane for the preparation of ceramic coatings on polymer substrates. Our proposed approach is attractive since proof of concept has been demonstrated under the NRA 96-LeRC-1 Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines, HITEMP Program. For example, carbon and Kevlar(tm) fibers and matting have been successfully coated with ceramic thermally protective layers.

  13. Atomic Origins of the Self-Healing Function in Cement–Polymer Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Manh Thuong; Wang, Zheming; Rod, Kenton A.; Childers, Matthew I.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Koech, Phillip K.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2018-01-09

    Motivated by recent advances in self-healing cement and epoxy polymer composites, we present a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy study of a calcium-silicate-hydrate/polymer interface. On stable, low-defect surfaces, the polymer only weakly adheres through coordination and hydrogen bonding interactions and can be easily mobilized towards defected surfaces. Conversely, on fractured surfaces, the polymer strongly anchors through ionic Ca-O bonds resulting from the deprotonation of polymer hydroxyl groups. In addition, polymer S-S groups are turned away from the cement/polymer interface, allowing for the self-healing function within the polymer. The overall elasticity and healing properties of these composites stem from a flexible hydrogen bonding network that can readily adapt to surface morphology. The theoretical vibrational signals associated with the proposed cement-polymer interfacial chemistry were confirmed experimentally by SFG spectroscopy.

  14. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovar, Bryan S [Los Alamos, NM; Thorn, David L [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-01

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  15. The effect of chain flexibility and chain mobility on radiation crosslinking reactions of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jiazhen

    2003-01-01

    Flexibility of polymer chains is an important factor to effects of radiation crosslinking of the polymer. Polymers with flexible chains are easier to be crosslinked, with lower dose of gelation, than polymers with more rigid chains. And it is known that most polymers with abnormal rigidity can be radiation-crosslinked only at high temperatures when the molecular chains get enough mobility. The flexibility of polymer chains also influences the relationship between degree of degradation and radiation dose. A chain flexibility factor β has been introduced to modify the Charlesby-Pinner equation of sol-fraction and radiation dose. The new relationship equation applies to a wider range of polymers in radiation crosslinking. Studies also show that for flexible polymers with lower T g and molecular internal rotating factor, mechanism of radiation crosslinking is mainly in H type, whereas for rigid polymers with higher T g and molecular internal rotating factor, mechanism of radiation crosslinking is mainly in T type

  16. Strong Adhesion of Silver/Polypyrrole Composite onto Plastic Substrates toward Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Jin; Hashimoto, Yasuo; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2013-06-01

    Flexible electronics require sufficient adhesion to substrates, such as a plastic or a polymer, of the electric wiring for devices. A composite of a conducting metal and a polymer is a candidate alternative to pure metals in terms of wire flexibility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adhesiveness of a silver/polypyrrole composite to plastic substrates and to clarify the mechanism of adhesion. The composite was prepared on various plastic substrates by dropping its fluid dispersion. Its adhesiveness was evaluated by the peel-off test and its interfacial structure was characterized by microscopy measurements. Some polymers including Teflon with generally weak adhesion to different materials showed a high adhesiveness of more than 90%. The strong adhesion was related to the anchoring effect of the composite penetrating into the pores near the surface of the substrate.

  17. High temperature performance of polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The authors explain the changes in the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of polymer composites under elevated temperatures and fire conditions. Using microscale physical and chemical concepts they allow researchers to find reliable solutions to their engineering needs on the macroscale. In a unique combination of experimental results and quantitative models, a framework is developed to realistically predict the behavior of a variety of polymer composite materials over a wide range of thermal and mechanical loads. In addition, the authors treat extreme fire scenarios up to more than 1000°C for two hours, presenting heat-protection methods to improve the fire resistance of composite materials and full-scale structural members, and discuss their performance after fire exposure. Thanks to the microscopic approach, the developed models are valid for a variety of polymer composites and structural members, making this work applicable to a wide audience, including materials scientists, polymer chemist...

  18. Flexible Composite-Material Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Glen; Haggard, Roy; Harris, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed lightweight pressure vessel would be made of a composite of high-tenacity continuous fibers and a flexible matrix material. The flexibility of this pressure vessel would render it (1) compactly stowable for transport and (2) more able to withstand impacts, relative to lightweight pressure vessels made of rigid composite materials. The vessel would be designed as a structural shell wherein the fibers would be predominantly bias-oriented, the orientations being optimized to make the fibers bear the tensile loads in the structure. Such efficient use of tension-bearing fibers would minimize or eliminate the need for stitching and fill (weft) fibers for strength. The vessel could be fabricated by techniques adapted from filament winding of prior composite-material vessels, perhaps in conjunction with the use of dry film adhesives. In addition to the high-bias main-body substructure described above, the vessel would include a low-bias end substructure to complete coverage and react peak loads. Axial elements would be overlaid to contain damage and to control fiber orientation around side openings. Fiber ring structures would be used as interfaces for connection to ancillary hardware.

  19. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  20. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2017-10-17

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  1. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-07-21

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  2. Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Nanocomposites Flexible Stress and Strain Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Sauti, Godfrey; Park, Cheol; Scholl, Jonathan A.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    Conformable stress and strain sensors are required for monitoring the integrity of airframe structures as well as for sensing the mechanical stimuli in prosthetic arms. For this purpose, we have developed a series of piezoresistive single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/polymer nanocomposites. The electromechanical coupling of pressure with resistance changes in these nanocomposites is exceptionally greater than that of metallic piezoresistive materials. In fact, the piezoresistive stress coefficient (pi) of a SWCNT/polymer nanocomposite is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of a typical metallic piezoresistive. The piezoresistive stress coefficient is a function of the nanotube concentration wherein the maximum value occurs at a concentration just above the percolation threshold concentration (phi approx. 0.05 %). This response appears to originate from a change in intrinsic resistivity under compression/tension. A systematic study of the effect of the modulus of the polymer matrix on piezoresistivity allowed us to make flexible and conformable sensors for biomedical applications. The prototype haptic sensors using these nanocomposites are demonstrated. The piezocapacitive properties of SWCNT/polymer are also characterized by monitoring the capacitance change under pressure.

  3. Polymer Composites Corrosive Degradation: A Computational Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation of polymer composites corrosive durability is presented. The corrosive environment is assumed to manage the polymer composite degradation on a ply-by-ply basis. The degradation is correlated with a measured pH factor and is represented by voids, temperature and moisture which vary parabolically for voids and linearly for temperature and moisture through the laminate thickness. The simulation is performed by a computational composite mechanics computer code which includes micro, macro, combined stress failure and laminate theories. This accounts for starting the simulation from constitutive material properties and up to the laminate scale which exposes the laminate to the corrosive environment. Results obtained for one laminate indicate that the ply-by-ply degradation degrades the laminate to the last one or the last several plies. Results also demonstrate that the simulation is applicable to other polymer composite systems as well.

  4. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert

    2016-07-01

    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  5. PEO + PVP blended polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Blended polymer films of polyethylene oxide + polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PEO + PVP) containing transition metal (TM) ions like Fe3+, Co2+ and Ni2+ have been synthesized by a solution casting method. For these films, structural, thermal, magnetic and optical properties have been studied. X-ray diffraction results reveal the ...

  6. Development of 3D carbon nanotube interdigitated finger electrodes on polymer substrate for flexible capacitive sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Wang, Jhih-Yu; Fang, Weileun; Liu, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Ming-Han

    2013-01-01

    This study reports a novel approach to the implementation of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) interdigitated finger electrodes on flexible polymer, and the detection of strain, bending curvature, tactile force and proximity distance are demonstrated. The merits of the presented CNT-based flexible sensor are as follows: (1) the silicon substrate is patterned to enable the formation of 3D vertically aligned CNTs on the substrate surface; (2) polymer molding on the silicon substrate with 3D CNTs is further employed to transfer the 3D CNTs to the flexible polymer substrate; (3) the CNT–polymer composite (∼70 μm in height) is employed to form interdigitated finger electrodes to increase the sensing area and initial capacitance; (4) other structures such as electrical routings, resistors and mechanical supporters are also available using the CNT–polymer composite. The preliminary fabrication results demonstrate a flexible capacitive sensor with 50 μm high CNT interdigitated electrodes on a poly-dimethylsiloxane substrate. The tests show that the typical capacitance change is several dozens of fF and the gauge factor is in the range of 3.44–4.88 for strain and bending curvature measurement; the sensitivity of the tactile sensor is 1.11% N −1 ; a proximity distance near 2 mm away from the sensor can be detected. (paper)

  7. Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, S. A. H.; Rasid, Z. A.; Hassan, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Bamboo has greatly attention of researchers due to their advantages over synthetic polymers. It is entirely renewable, environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, cheap, non-abrasive and fully biodegradable. This review paper summarized an oveview of the bamboo, fiber extraction and mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced composites. A number of studies proved that mechanical properties of bamboo fibers reinforced reinforced polymer composites are excellent and competent to be utilized in high-tech applications. The properties of the laminate are influenced by the fiber loading, fibre orientation, physical and interlaminar adhesion between fibre and matrix. In contrast, the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and wax substances in natural fibres preventing them from firmly binding with polymer resin. Thus, led to poor mechanical properties for composites. Many attempt has been made in order to overcome this issue by using the chemical treatment.

  8. Longitudinal relaxation of initially straight flexible and stiff polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis; Dissanayake, Inuka

    2004-11-01

    The present talk considers the relaxation of a single flexible or stiff polymer chain from an initial straight configuration in a viscous solvent. This problem commonly arises when strong flows are turned off in both industrial and biological applications. The problem is also motivated by recent experiments with single biopolymer molecules relaxing after being fully extended by applied forces as well as by the recent development of micro-devices involving stretched tethered biopolymers. Our results are applicable to a wide array of synthetic polymers such as polyacrylamides, Kevlar and polyesters as well as biopolymers such as DNA, actin filaments, microtubules and MTV. In this talk we discuss the mechanism of the polymer relaxation as was revealed through Brownian Dynamics simulations covering a broad range of time scales and chain stiffness. After the short-time free diffusion, the chain's longitudinal reduction at early intermediate times is shown to constitute a universal behavior for any chain stiffness caused by a quasi-steady relaxation of tensions associated with the deforming action of the Brownian forces. Stiff chains are shown to exhibit a late intermediate-time longitudinal reduction associated with a relaxation of tensions affected by the deforming Brownian and the restoring bending forces. The longitudinal and transverse relaxations are shown to obey different laws, i.e. the chain relaxation is anisotropic at all times. In the talk, we show how from the knowledge of the relaxation mechanism, we can predict and explain the polymer properties including the polymer stress and the solution birefringence. In addition, a generalized stress-optic law is derived valid for any time and chain stiffness. All polymer properties which depend on the polymer length are shown to exhibit two intermediate-time behaviors with the early one to constitute a universal behavior for any chain stiffness. This work was supported in part by the Minta Martin Research Fund. The

  9. Optical fiber sensors embedded in flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoe, Bram; van Steenberge, Geert; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis; Webb, David; van Daele, Peter

    2010-04-01

    In traditional electrical sensing applications, multiplexing and interconnecting the different sensing elements is a major challenge. Recently, many optical alternatives have been investigated including optical fiber sensors of which the sensing elements consist of fiber Bragg gratings. Different sensing points can be integrated in one optical fiber solving the interconnection problem and avoiding any electromagnetical interference (EMI). Many new sensing applications also require flexible or stretchable sensing foils which can be attached to or wrapped around irregularly shaped objects such as robot fingers and car bumpers or which can even be applied in biomedical applications where a sensor is fixed on a human body. The use of these optical sensors however always implies the use of a light-source, detectors and electronic circuitry to be coupled and integrated with these sensors. The coupling of these fibers with these light sources and detectors is a critical packaging problem and as it is well-known the costs for packaging, especially with optoelectronic components and fiber alignment issues are huge. The end goal of this embedded sensor is to create a flexible optical sensor integrated with (opto)electronic modules and control circuitry. To obtain this flexibility, one can embed the optical sensors and the driving optoelectronics in a stretchable polymer host material. In this article different embedding techniques for optical fiber sensors are described and characterized. Initial tests based on standard manufacturing processes such as molding and laser structuring are reported as well as a more advanced embedding technique based on soft lithography processing.

  10. Polymer/Layered Silicate Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhit, M.E.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer–clay nano composites have attracted the attention of many researchers and experimental results are presented in a large number of recent papers and patents because of the outstanding mechanical properties and low gas permeabilities that are achieved in many cases. Polymer-clay nano composites are a new class of mineral-field polymer that contain relatively small amounts (<10%) of nanometer-sized clay particles. Polymer/clay nano composites have their origin in the pioneering research conducted at Toyota Central Research Laboratories and the first historical record goes back to 1987. The matrix was nylon-6 and the filler MMT. Because of its many advantages such as high mechanical properties, good gas barrier, flame retardation, etc. polymer/clay nano composites have been intensely investigated and is currently the subject of many research programs. Nano composite materials are commercially important and several types of products with different shapes and applications including food packaging films and containers, engine parts, dental materials, etc. are now available in markets. A number of synthesis routes have been developed in the recent years to prepare these materials, which include intercalation of polymers or prepolymers from solution, in-situ polymerization, melt intercalation etc. In this study, new nano composite materials were produced from the components of rubber (Nbr, SBR and EPDM) as the polymeric matrix and organically modified quaternary alkylammonium montmorillonite in different contents (3, 5, 7, and 10 phr) as the filler by using an extruder then, the rubber nano composite sheets were irradiated at a dose of 0, 50, 75, 100 and 150 KGy using Electron beam Irradiation technique as a crosslinking agent. These new materials can be characterized by using various analytical techniques including X-ray diffractometer XRD, Thermogravimetric analyzer TGA, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM),Fourier transform

  11. Use of flexible engineered cementitious composite in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitab, A.; Nadeem, M.; Hussain, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the applications and benefits of a recently developed smart building material namely Engineered cementitious composite (ECC), also known as flexible or bendable concrete. Conventional concretes have a strain capacity of only 0.1 percent and are highly brittle and rigid. This lack of bend ability is a major cause of failure under strain and has been a pushing factor in the development of an elegant material which is capable to exhibit an enhanced flexibility. An ECC has a strain capacity of more than 3 percent and thus acts more like a ductile metal rather than like a brittle glass. The aim of this paper is to highlight a probable success of ECC in terms of industrial and commercial use in Pakistan. With the introduction of flexible concrete in building technology, it is likely to have safer and more durable construction. The material is expected to display reduced detrimental impacts on the natural environment. A bendable concrete is composed of all the ingredients of a traditional concrete minus coarse aggregates or crushed stones and is reinforced with micro mechanically designed polymer fibers. The mechanism of action of the micro-polymeric fibers in concrete has also been emphasized. The principles of mix designs of the mortar incorporating fibers to make an ECC have also been explained. It has also been mentioned in detail as how this technology can be used to enhance the flexibility of some modern concrete types like flowing concrete, self-compacting concrete, and lightweight concrete. ECC is a green construction material. The possible benefits like environment friendliness, cost effectiveness, and durability have been also been elucidated in the paper. (author)

  12. Inkjet printing of conjugated polymer precursors on paper substrates for colorimetric sensing and flexible electrothermochromic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bora; Ham, Dae-Young; Yarimaga, Oktay; An, Hyosung; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man

    2011-12-08

    Inkjet-printable aqueous suspensions of conjugated polymer precursors are developed for fabrication of patterned color images on paper substrates. Printing of a diacetylene (DA)-surfactant composite ink on unmodified paper and photopaper, as well as on a banknote, enables generation of latent images that are transformed to blue-colored polydiacetylene (PDA) structures by UV irradiation. Both irreversible and reversible thermochromism with the PDA printed images are demonstrated and applied to flexible and disposable sensors and to displays. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Diamond structures grown from polymer composite nanofibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Martinová, L.; Pokorný, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 519-521 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapour deposition * composite polymer * nanocrystalline diamond * nanofiber sheet * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  14. Polymer-ceramic piezoelectric composites (PZT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassora, L.A.; Eiras, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Polymer-ceramic piezoelectric transducers, with 1-3 of connectivity were prepared with different concentration of ceramic material. Piezoelectric composites, with equal electromechanical coupling factor and acoustic impedance of one third from that ceramic transducer, were obtained when the fractionary volume of PZT reach 30%. (C.G.C.)

  15. Cellulose Nanofiber Composite Substrates for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Jung-Hun Seo; Zhenqiang Ma

    2012-01-01

    Flexible electronics have a large number of potential applications including malleable displays and wearable computers. The current research into high-speed, flexible electronic substrates employs the use of plastics for the flexible substrate, but these plastics typically have drawbacks, such as high thermal expansion coefficients. Transparent films made from...

  16. Semi-flexible polymers near interfaces : equilibrium aspects and adsorption kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van M.

    1998-01-01

    The first chapter is about semi-flexible polymers at a liquid-liquid interface: self-consistent-field calculations. The adsorption of semi-flexible polymers at a liquid-liquid interface largely differs from that at a solid surface. The width of the interface is an additional length scale in

  17. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2012-02-01

    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy varied from 1.6 J/m2 to 0.1 J/m2 depending on the composition of the P3HT:PCBM layer. Post-deposition annealing time and temperature were shown to increase the adhesion at this interface. Additionally the PEDOT:PSS cells are compared with V2O5 cells whereby adhesive failure marked by high fracture energies was observed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Polymer - (BEDT-TTF) polyiodide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulanski, J [Polymer Inst., Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland); Glowacki, I [Polymer Inst., Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland); Kryszewski, M [Polymer Inst., Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland); Jeszka, J K [Center of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Lodz (Poland); Tracz, A [Center of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Lodz (Poland); Laukhina, E [Inst. of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1993-03-29

    Preparation and properties of reticulate doped polymers containing BEDT-TTF polyiodide crystalline network are discussed. The highly conducting films are obtained using different methods, including recently developed one in which oxidation of the donor with iodine and crystallization of the resulting salt take place simultaneously in situ, in the swollen polymer matrix. It was found that the temperature dependence of conductivity of the separated microcrystal grown in the film exhibits metallic character with a maximum around 100K. The conductivity of the as-obtained composite increases with temperature up to ca. 120K with an activation energy of ca. 50 meV, then levels off. Annealing of the composites in order to transform the BEDT-TTF polyiodide crystalites into superconducting [beta][sup *]-phase causes dramatic changes in the conductivity behaviour; the [sigma](T) dependence of the composite switches from semiconductor- to metal-like. Stability of the films at ambient conditions is good. (orig.)

  19. Influence of membrane composition on its flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbelli, B.B.; Teixeira da Silva, E.R.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Oliveira, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Lamellar phases and vesicles composed of lipids have been used as model systems to investigate biological process related to cell membrane as well as promising carriers for drugs and gene therapy. The composition of the membrane determines its three dimensional shape and its properties such as rigidity and compressibility which play an important role on membrane fusion, protein adhesion, interactions between proteins, etc. We present systematic study of a lamellar system composed mainly of lecithin which is a biocompatible phospholipid and simusol, which is a mixture of fatty acids that acts as a cosurfactant introducing flexibility to the membrane. Using X ray scattering we determine the lamellar periodicity as a function of the hydration for different formulations of the membrane; ranging from 100 % to 50 % mass fraction of lecithin. The X-ray spectra are fitted using a 4 Gaussian model [1]that allows us to determine the lamellar periodicity and the Caille parameter [2]. The ideal swelling law relating the membrane volume fraction (φ m ) to the lamellar periodicity (D) is given by φ m =δ m /D, where δ m is the thickness membrane, however, when steric interactions are dominant with respect to electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, deviations from this behavior are expected [3]. We present experimental data illustrating the swelling behavior for the membrane compositions and the respective behavior of the hydration limit, membrane Luzzati [4], of the Caille parameter and qualitative interpretation of the interaction forces the systems studying the parameter membrane square amplitude fluctuation[5]. [1] Private communication with Prof. Dr. Cristiano Luis Pinto de Oliveira. [2] Caille A. et all, Acad. Sci. Paris B274 (1972) 891. [3] E. Kurtisovski et all, PRL 98, 258103 (2007). [4] Nagle et all, Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2000 Aug;10(4):474-80. [5] H. I. Petrache. Structure and interactions of fluid phospholipids bilayers measured by high resolution

  20. Technology and development of self-reinforced polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcock, B.; Peijs, T.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of interest, both commercially and scientifically, in the emerging field of "self-reinforced polymer composites". These materials, which are sometimes also referred to as "single polymer composites", or "all-polymer composites", were first

  1. Chemical microsensors based on polymer fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessick, Royal F.; Levit, Natalia; Tepper, Gary C.

    2005-05-01

    There is an urgent need for new chemical sensors for defense and security applications. In particular, sensors are required that can provide higher sensitivity and faster response in the field than existing baseline technologies. We have been developing a new solid-state chemical sensor technology based on microscale polymer composite fiber arrays. The fibers consist of an insulating polymer doped with conducting particles and are electrospun directly onto the surface of an interdigitated microelectrode. The concentration of the conducting particles within the fiber is controlled and is near the percolation threshold. Thus, the electrical resistance of the polymer fiber composite is very sensitive to volumetric changes produced in the polymer by vapor absorption. Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of the new microsensor. The objective is to take advantage of the very high surface to volume ratio, low thermal mass and linear geometry of the composite fibers to produce sensors exhibiting an extremely high vapor sensitivity and rapid response. The simplicity and low cost of a resistance-based chemical microsensor makes this sensing approach an attractive alternative to devices requiring RF electronics or time-of-flight analysis. Potential applications of this technology include battlespace awareness, homeland security, environmental surveillance, medical diagnostics and food process monitoring.

  2. Polymer compositions, polymer films and methods and precursors for forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J

    2013-09-24

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  3. Polymer-Ceramic Composite Materials for Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D; Currie, J. R.; Penn, B. G.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    Ferroelectrics:Polymer composites can be considered an established substitute for conventional electroceramics and ferroelectric polymers. The composites have a unique blend of polymeric properties such as mechanical flexibility, high strength, formability, and low cost, with the high electro-active properties of ceramic materials. They have attracted considerable interest because of their potential use in pyroelectric infrared detecting devices and piezoelectric transducers. These flexible sensors and transducers may eventually be useful for their health monitoring applications for NASA crew launch vehicles and crew exploration vehicles being developed. In the light of many technologically important applications in this field, it is worthwhile to present an overview of the pyroelectric infrared detector theory, models to predict dielectric behavior and pyroelectric coefficient, and the concept of connectivity and fabrication techniques of biphasic composites. An elaborate review of Pyroelectric-Polymer composite materials investigated to date for their potential use in pyroelectric infrared detectors is presented.

  4. The radiation chemistry of polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, M.

    1991-01-01

    With the use of plastics in the construction of space satellites which may be exposed in geosynchronous orbit to 100 MGy (10,000 Mrad) of high-energy radiation in 30 years of use, the effect of these radiations on the polymer becomes of practical importance. To understand the effects we consider first various radiation-resistant groups that are incorporated into the polymer and their relative effectiveness in reducing molecular scissions due to the radiation. The location of such groups in the polymer is also discussed. Next the chemical structures of a number of resins such as epoxies, polyimides, etc. are described followed by a detailed account of methods of improving the radiation resistance of plastics by the incorporation of carbon or glass fibers. Finally, the role of oxygen in causing chain scissions and other effects during irradiation which reduce the mechanical strength of the plastics and the fiber resin composites are also considered. (author)

  5. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  6. Influence of membrane composition on its flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbelli, B.B.; Teixeira da Silva, E.R.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Oliveira, E.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Lamellar phases and vesicles composed of lipids have been used as model systems to investigate biological process related to cell membrane as well as promising carriers for drugs and gene therapy. The composition of the membrane determines its three dimensional shape and its properties such as rigidity and compressibility which play an important role on membrane fusion, protein adhesion, interactions between proteins, etc. We present systematic study of a lamellar system composed mainly of lecithin which is a biocompatible phospholipid and simusol, which is a mixture of fatty acids that acts as a cosurfactant introducing flexibility to the membrane. Using X ray scattering we determine the lamellar periodicity as a function of the hydration for different formulations of the membrane; ranging from 100 % to 50 % mass fraction of lecithin. The X-ray spectra are fitted using a 4 Gaussian model [1]that allows us to determine the lamellar periodicity and the Caille parameter [2]. The ideal swelling law relating the membrane volume fraction ({phi}{sub m}) to the lamellar periodicity (D) is given by {phi}{sub m} ={delta}{sub m}/D, where {delta}{sub m} is the thickness membrane, however, when steric interactions are dominant with respect to electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, deviations from this behavior are expected [3]. We present experimental data illustrating the swelling behavior for the membrane compositions and the respective behavior of the hydration limit, membrane Luzzati [4], of the Caille parameter and qualitative interpretation of the interaction forces the systems studying the parameter membrane square amplitude fluctuation[5]. [1] Private communication with Prof. Dr. Cristiano Luis Pinto de Oliveira. [2] Caille A. et all, Acad. Sci. Paris B274 (1972) 891. [3] E. Kurtisovski et all, PRL 98, 258103 (2007). [4] Nagle et all, Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2000 Aug;10(4):474-80. [5] H. I. Petrache. Structure and interactions of fluid phospholipids

  7. Limited access: gender, occupational composition, and flexible work scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauber, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The current study draws on national data to explore differences in access to flexible work scheduling by the gender composition of women's and men's occupations. Results show that those who work in integrated occupations are more likely to have access to flexible scheduling. Women and men do not take jobs with lower pay in return for greater access to flexibility. Instead, jobs with higher pay offer greater flexibility. Integrated occupations tend to offer the greatest access to flexible scheduling because of their structural locations. Part-time work is negatively associated with men's access to flexible scheduling but positively associated with women's access. Women have greater flexibility when they work for large establishments, whereas men have greater flexibility when they work for small establishments.

  8. Strain induced tunable wavelength filters based on flexible polymer waveguide Bragg reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2008-02-04

    A tunable wavelength filter is demonstrated by imposing a strain on a polymeric Bragg reflection waveguide fabricated on a flexible substrate. The highly elastic property of flexible polymer device enables much wider tuning than the silica fiber. To produce a uniform grating pattern on a flexible plastic substrate, a post lift-off process along with an absorbing layer is incorporated. The flexible Bragg reflector shows narrow bandwidth, which is convincing the uniformity of the grating structure fabricated on plastic film. By stretching the flexible polymer device, the Bragg reflection wavelength is tuned continuously up to 45 nm for the maximum strain of 31,690 muepsilon, which is determined by the elastic expansion limit of waveguide polymer. From the linear wavelength shift proportional to the strain, the photoelastic coefficient of the ZPU polymer is found.

  9. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney; Burkhard, George F.; McGehee, Michael D.; Peumans, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2011-04-29

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Solid particle erosion of polymers and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K.; Almajid, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    After a general introduction to the subject of solid particle erosion of polymers and composites, the presentation focusses more specifically on the behavior of unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites under such loadings, using different impact conditions and erodents. The data were analyzed on the basis of a newly defined specific erosive wear rate, allowing a better comparison of erosion data achieved under various testing conditions. Characteristic wear mechanisms of the CF/PEEK composites consisted of fiber fracture, matrix cutting and plastic matrix deformation, the relative contribution of which depended on the impingement angles and the CF orientation. The highest wear rates were measured for impingement angles between 45 and 60°. Using abrasion resistant neat polymer films (in this case PEEK or thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) ones) on the surface of a harder substrate (e.g. a CF/PEEK composite plate) resulted in much lower specific erosive wear rates. The use of such polymeric films can be considered as a possible method to protect composite surfaces from damage caused by minor impacts and erosion. In fact, they are nowadays already successfully applied as protections for wind energy rotor blades.

  12. Microwave Measurements of Ferrite Polymer Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Dosoudil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the microwave measurements performed on the nickel-zinc sintered ferrite with the chemical formula Ni0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 produced by the ceramic technique and composite materials based on this ferrite and a non-magnetic polymer (polyvinyl chloride matrix. The prepared composite samples had the same particle size distribution 0-250um but different ferrite particle concentrations between 23 vol% and 80 vol%. The apparatus for measurement of the signal proportional to the absolute value of scattering parameter S11 (reflexion coefficient is described and the dependence of measured reflected signal on a bias magnetic field has been studied. By means of experiments, the resonances to be connected with the geometry of microwave experimental set-up were distinguished from ferromagnetic resonance arising in ferrite particles of composite structure. The role of local interaction fields of ferrite particles in composite material has been discussed.

  13. Hybrid Composite Tensile Armour Wires in Flexible Risers: A Multi-scale Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Mayank; Katnam, Kali-Babu; Potluri, Venkata; Jha, Vivekanand; Latto, J.; Dodds, NI

    2017-01-01

    Traditional carbon-steel armour wires pose limitations (e.g. long spans, weight reduction, corrosion and fatigue) for flexible risers to operate in demanding and deeper water environments. In this context, an alternative to carbon-steel tensile armour wires is proposed recently by the authors (Gautam et al. [1]), comprising of hexagonally packed polymer composite rods with uni-directional fibres and an over-braided (i.e. bi-axial braid with high performance fibres) sleeve. These hybrid compos...

  14. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings, a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, David J; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2014-03-04

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  15. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings: a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, David J.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2016-02-02

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  16. Directed walk models of adsorbing semi-flexible polymers subject to an elongational force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliev, G K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Orlandini, E [Dipartimento di Fisica, CNISM, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Whittington, S G [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2010-08-06

    We consider several directed path models of semi-flexible polymers. In each model we associate an energy parameter for every pair of adjacent collinear steps, allowing for a model of a polymer with tunable stiffness. We introduce weightings for vertices or edges in a distinguished plane to model the interaction of a semi-flexible polymer with an impenetrable surface. We also investigate the desorption of such a polymer under the influence of an elongational force and study the order of the associated phase transitions. Using a simple low-temperature theory, we approximate and study the ground state behaviour of the models.

  17. Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of polymer-ceramic composites for sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this PhD thesis is to develop new routes and concepts for manufacturing piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with adequate piezoelectric properties while retaining ease of manufacturing and mechanical flexibility and explore new possibilities to maximize especially the

  18. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Laser patterning of thin film PEDOT:PSS on polymer foils is characterized in great detail. • PEDOT:PSS does not need to be fully removed to create electrically insulating patterns. • The underlying polymer foil influences the ablation behavior. - Abstract: Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  19. Flexibility Matters: Cooperative Active Sites in Covalent Organic Framework and Threaded Ionic Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Aguila, Briana; Perman, Jason; Nguyen, Nicholas; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-12-07

    The combination of two or more reactive centers working in concert on a substrate to facilitate the reaction is now considered state of the art in catalysis, yet there still remains a tremendous challenge. Few heterogeneous systems of this sort have been exploited, as the active sites spatially separated within the rigid framework are usually difficult to cooperate. It is now shown that this roadblock can be surpassed. The underlying principle of the strategy presented here is the integration of catalytic components with excellent flexibility and porous heterogeneous catalysts, as demonstrated by the placement of linear ionic polymers in close proximity to surface Lewis acid active sites anchored on the walls of a covalent organic framework (COF). Using the cycloaddition of the epoxides and CO 2 as a model reaction, dramatic activity improvements have been achieved for the composite catalysts in relation to the individual catalytic component. Furthermore, they also clearly outperform the benchmark catalytic systems formed by the combination of the molecular organocatalysts and heterogeneous Lewis acid catalysts, while affording additional recyclability. The extraordinary flexibility and enriched concentration of the catalytically active moieties on linear polymers facilitate the concerted catalysis, thus leading to superior catalytic performance. This work therefore uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing bifunctional catalysts with double-activation behavior and opens a new avenue in the design of multicapable systems that mimic biocatalysis.

  20. POLYMER COMPOSITE FILMS WITH SIZE-SELECTED METAL NANOPARTICLES FABRICATED BY CLUSTER BEAM TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Popok, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Formation of polymer films with size-selected silver and copper nanoparticles (NPs) is studied. Polymers are prepared by spin coating while NPs are fabricated and deposited utilizing a magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus. The particle embedding into the films is provided by thermal annealing...... after the deposition. The degree of immersion can be controlled by the annealing temperature and time. Together with control of cluster coverage the described approach represents an efficient method for the synthesis of thin polymer composite layers with either partially or fully embedded metal NPs....... Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition and thermal annealing allows to form ordered arrays of metal NPs on polymer films. Plasticity and flexibility of polymer host and specific properties added by coinage metal NPs open a way for different applications of such composite materials...

  1. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  2. Tethered Nanoparticle–Polymer Composites: Phase Stability and Curvature

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Agarwal, Praveen; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    different small-angle X-ray scattering signatures in comparison to phase-separated composites comprised of bare or sparsely grafted nanoparticles. A general diagram for the dispersion state and phase stability of polymer tethered nanoparticle-polymer

  3. Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites.

    KAUST Repository

    Mangal, Rahul

    2015-06-05

    Nanoparticle-polymer composites, or polymer-nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.

  4. Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites.

    KAUST Repository

    Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-polymer composites, or polymer-nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.

  5. Shape memory-based tunable resistivity of polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongsheng, E-mail: hongshengluo@163.com [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Xingdong; Ma, Yuanyuan [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Yi, Guobin, E-mail: ygb116@163.com [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Cheng, Xiaoling [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Yong [Shanghai Hiend Polyurethane Inc., No. 389, Jinshan District, Shanghai (China); Zu, Xihong; Zhang, Nanjun; Huang, Binghao; Yu, Lifang [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-02-15

    of the polymeric nano-composites by combining the composition method and a thermo-mechanical programming, which may greatly benefit the application of intelligent polymers in flexible electronics and sensors fields.

  6. Towards flexibility in transactional service compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderle-Ma, S.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; De Roure, D.; Thuraisingham, B.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Complex services can be described by service compositions and executed by service orchestrations. Changing service compositions is a frequent requirement in practical settings. Changing the composition must not result in a violation of its functional or non-functional properties. Whereas functional

  7. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Oliver, Mark; Krebs, Frederik C.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2012-01-01

    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven

  8. EFFICIENCY OF THE CAPACITY-TYPE SOLAR WATER HEATER WITH THE FLEXIBLE POLYMER ABSORBER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratschii V.V.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Energetic indexes of solar capacity-type water heaters with flexible polymer absorbers and different constructions of enclosures using the refined method of calculus were obtained.

  9. Comparative Experimental Study on Ionic Polymer Mental Composite based on Nafion and Aquivion Membrane as Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Chen, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Most ionic polymer mental composites employ Nafion as the polymer matrix, Aquivion can also manufactured as ionic polymer mental composite while research was little. This paper researched on two kinds of ionic polymer mental composite based on Aquivion and Nafion matrix with palladium electrode called Aquivion-IPMC and Nafion-IPMC. The samples were fabricated by the same preparation process. The current and deformation responses of the samples were measured at voltage to characterize the mechano-electrical properties. The experimental observations revealed that shorter flexible side chains in Aquivion-IPMC provide a larger force than Nafion-IPMC, while the displacement properties were similar in two different samples. The results also showed that Aquivion membrane can also replace Nafion to reproduce IPMC application in soft robots, MEMS, and so on.

  10. Combined use of polymer composites and metals in engineering structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoa, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites have found many applications in the construction of light weight structures such as those in aircrafts, automobiles, sports equipment etc. This is because these materials possess high stiffness, high strength and low densities. In applications of polymer matrix composites in the light weight structures, the polymer composites are however, not used by themselves alone in most cases. Usually the polymer composites are used in conjunction with some metal components. The metal components are used either to provide means for joining the composite components or the composites are used to repair the cracked metal structures. The synergistic effect of both metals and composites can provide excellent performance with good economy. This paper presents a few applications where polymer composites are used in conjunction with metals in engineering structures. (author)

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of New Linear Thermally Stable Schiff Base Polymers with Flexible Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Farah; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Jahangir, Taj Muhammad; Channar, Abdul Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Five new linear Schiff base polymers having azomethine structures, ether linkages and extended aliphatic chain lengths with flexible spacers were synthesized by polycondensation of dialdehyde (monomer) with aliphatic and aromatic diamines. The formation yields of monomer and polymers were obtained within 75-92%. The polymers with flexible spacers of n-hexane were somewhat soluble in acetone, chloroform, THF, DMF and DMSO on heating. The monomer and polymers were characterized by melting point, elemental microanalysis, FT-IR, (1)HNMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), fluorescence emission, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and viscosities and thermodynamic parameters measurements of their dilute solutions. The studies supported formation of the monomer and polymers and on the basis of these studies their structures have been assigned. The synthesized polymers were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  12. Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Nancy Margaret; Blackwood, Larry Gene; Torres, Lucinda Laine; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo; Yoder, Timothy Scott

    1999-03-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  13. A review of electrohydrodynamic casting energy conversion polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong X. Gan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review on manufacturing polymer composite materials through the nontraditional electrohydrodynamic (EHD casting approach. First, the EHD technology will be introduced. Then, typical functional polymer composite materials including thermoelectric and photoelectric energy conversion polymers and their composites will be presented. Specifically, how to make composite materials containing functional nanoparticles will be discussed. Converting polymeric fibers into partially carbonized fiber composites will also be shown. The latest research results of polymeric composite materials with energy conversion and sensing functions will be given.

  14. Technology and Development of Self-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Ben; Peijs, Ton

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of interest, both commercially and scientifically, in the emerging field of "self-reinforced polymer composites". These materials, which are sometimes also referred to as "single polymer composites", or "all-polymer composites", were first conceived in the 1970s, and are now beginning to appear in a range of commercial products. While high mechanical performance polymer fibres or tapes are an obvious precursor for composite development, various different technologies have been developed to consolidate these into two- or three-dimensional structures. This paper presents a review of the various processing techniques that have been reported in the literature for the manufacture of self-reinforced polymer composites from fibres or tapes of different polymers, and so exploit the fibre or tape performance in a commercial material or product.

  15. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them. Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and aluminum borate whiskers, which also comprise the new generation of inorganic whiskers. According to research results, composites filled by inorganic whiskers show improved strength, wear-resistance, thermal conductivity, and antistatic properties. It explains the importance of modifying polymer materials for use with inorganic whiskers and describes preparation and evaluation methods of polymers filled with inorganic ...

  16. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Oliver, Mark; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy......The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We...... energies was observed....

  17. Mechanical Evaluation of Polymer Composite Hip Protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Diniz Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip fractures often result in serious health implications, particularly in the geriatric population, and have been related to long-term morbidity and death. In most cases, these fractures are caused by impact loads in the area of the greater trochanter, which are produced in a fall. This work is aimed at developing hip protectors using composite materials and evaluating their effectiveness in preventing hip fractures under high impact energy (120 J. The hip protectors were developed with an inner layer of energy absorbing soft material and an outer rigid shell of fiberglass-reinforced polymer composite. According to the experimental results, all tested configurations proved to be effective at reducing the impact load to below the average fracture threshold of proximal femur. Furthermore, an addition of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA to the impacted area of the composite shell proved to be beneficial to increase impact strength of the hip protectors. Thus, composite hip protectors proved to be a viable alternative for a mechanically efficient and cost-effective solution to prevent hip fractures.

  18. A Study of Flexible Composites for Expandable Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Payload volume for launch vehicles is a critical constraint that impacts spacecraft design. Deployment mechanisms, such as those used for solar arrays and antennas, are approaches that have successfully accommodated this constraint, however, providing pressurized volumes that can be packaged compactly at launch and expanded in space is still a challenge. One approach that has been under development for many years is to utilize softgoods - woven fabric for straps, cloth, and with appropriate coatings, bladders - to provide this expandable pressure vessel capability. The mechanics of woven structure is complicated by a response that is nonlinear and often nonrepeatable due to the discrete nature of the woven fiber architecture. This complexity reduces engineering confidence to reliably design and certify these structures, which increases costs due to increased requirements for system testing. The present study explores flexible composite materials systems as an alternative to the heritage softgoods approach. Materials were obtained from vendors who utilize flexible composites for non-aerospace products to determine some initial physical and mechanical properties of the materials. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed to obtain the stress-strain response of the flexible composites and the failure behavior. A failure criterion was developed from the data, and a space habitat application was used to provide an estimate of the relative performance of flexible composites compared to the heritage softgoods approach. Initial results are promising with a 25% mass savings estimated for the flexible composite solution.

  19. Optically transparent semiconducting polymer nanonetwork for flexible and transparent electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kilho; Park, Byoungwook; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Jehan; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Junghwan; Yoon, Myung-Han; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and excellent charge mobility in semiconducting polymers has presented a challenge for the application of these materials in future “flexible” and “transparent” electronics (FTEs). Here, by blending only a small amount (∼15 wt %) of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer (DPP2T) into an inert polystyrene (PS) matrix, we introduce a polymer blend system that demonstrates both high field-effect transistor (FET) mobility and excellent optical transparency that approaches 100%. We discover that in a PS matrix, DPP2T forms a web-like, continuously connected nanonetwork that spreads throughout the thin film and provides highly efficient 2D charge pathways through extended intrachain conjugation. The remarkable physical properties achieved using our approach enable us to develop prototype high-performance FTE devices, including colorless all-polymer FET arrays and fully transparent FET-integrated polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27911774

  20. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin [Los Alamos, NM; Jeon, Sea Ho [Dracut, MA; Mack, Nathan H [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  1. Structure and Dynamics of Polymer/Polymer grafted nanoparticle composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lynden

    Addition of nanoparticles to polymers is a well-practiced methodology for augmenting various properties of the polymer host, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, barrier properties, dimensional stability and wear resistance. Many of these property changes are known to arise from nanoparticle-induced modification of polymer structure and chain dynamics, which are strong functions of the dispersion state of the nanoparticles' and on their relative size (D) to polymer chain dimensions (e.g. Random coil radius Rg or entanglement mesh size a) . This talk will discuss polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) comprised of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) tethered silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PEG) dispersed in polymers as model systems for investigating phase stability and dynamics of PNCs. On the basis of small-angle X-ray Scattering, it will be shown that favorable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered chains and a polymer host provides an important mechanism for creating PNCs in which particle aggregation is avoided. The talk will report on polymer and particle scale dynamics in these materials and will show that grafted nanoparticles well dispersed in a polymer host strongly influence the host polymer relaxation dynamics on all timescales and the polymers in turn produce dramatic changes in the nature (from diffusive to hyperdiffusive) and speed of nano particle decorrelation dynamics at the polymer entanglement threshold. A local viscosity model capable of explaining these observations is discussed and the results compared with scaling theories for NP motions in polymers This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation Award Nos. DMR-1609125 and CBET-1512297.

  2. Preparation of pinewood/polymer/composites using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajji, Zaki [Polymer Technology Division, Department of Radiation Technology, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: atomic@aec.org.sy

    2006-09-15

    Wood/polymer composites (WPC) have been prepared from pinewood with different compounds using gamma irradiation: butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and unsaturated polyester styrene resin. The polymer loading was determined with respect to the compound concentration and the irradiation dose. The polymer loading increases generally with increase in the monomer or polymer concentration. Tensile and compression strength have been improved in the four cases, but no improvement was observed using unsaturated polyester styrene resin or acrylamide.

  3. Flexible Ultrahigh-Temperature Polymer-Based Dielectrics with High Permittivity for Film Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Pu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this report, flexible cross-linked polyarylene ether nitrile/functionalized barium titanate(CPEN/F-BaTiO3 dielectrics films with high permittivitywere prepared and characterized. The effects of both the F-BaTiO3 and matrix curing on the mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of the CPEN/F-BaTiO3 dielectric films were investigated in detail. Compared to pristine BaTiO3, the surface modified BaTiO3 particles effectively improved their dispersibility and interfacial adhesion in the polymer matrix. Moreover, the introduction of F-BaTiO3 particles enhanced dielectric properties of the composites, with a relatively high permittivity of 15.2 and a quite low loss tangent of 0.022 (1 kHz when particle contents of 40 wt % were utilized. In addition, the cyano (–CN groups of functional layer also can serve as potential sites for cross-linking with polyarylene ether nitrile terminated phthalonitrile (PEN-Ph matrix and make it transform from thermoplastic to thermosetting. Comparing with the pure PEN-ph film, the latter results indicated that the formation of cross-linked network in the polymer-based system resulted in increased tensile strength by ~67%, improved glass transition temperature (Tg by ~190 °C. More importantly, the CPEN/F-BaTiO3 composite films filled with 30 wt % F-BaTiO3 particles showed greater energy density by nearly 190% when compared to pure CPEN film. These findings enable broader applications of PEN-based composites in high-performance electronics and energy storage devices materials used at high temperature.

  4. Flexible Nanocellulose - Nanoparticle Composites: Structures and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    UTHPALA MANAVI GARUSINGHE

    2018-01-01

    Nanocellulose is biodegradable and renewable and has many attractive properties of technological interest. Therefore, nanocellulose can be converted into thin films, which is used in wide range of applications. However, the property range achievable with nanocellulose by itself still has limitations. This thesis focuses on the production of nanocellulose-inorganic nanoparticle composites to combine the advantage associated with both individual components together to extend the range of proper...

  5. Developing polymer composite materials: carbon nanotubes or graphene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuemei; Sun, Hao; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-10-04

    The formation of composite materials represents an efficient route to improve the performances of polymers and expand their application scopes. Due to the unique structure and remarkable mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and catalytic properties, carbon nanotube and graphene have been mostly studied as a second phase to produce high performance polymer composites. Although carbon nanotube and graphene share some advantages in both structure and property, they are also different in many aspects including synthesis of composite material, control in composite structure and interaction with polymer molecule. The resulting composite materials are distinguished in property to meet different applications. This review article mainly describes the preparation, structure, property and application of the two families of composite materials with an emphasis on the difference between them. Some general and effective strategies are summarized for the development of polymer composite materials based on carbon nanotube and graphene. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hybrid polymer composite membrane for an electromagnetic (EM) valveless micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Muzalifah Mohd; Yunas, Jumril; Bais, Badariah; Azlan Hamzah, Azrul; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report on a hybrid membrane used as an actuator in an electromagnetically driven valveless micropump developed using MEMS processes. The membrane structure consists of the combination of a magnetic polymer composite membrane and an attached bulk permanent magnet which is expected to have a compact structure and a strong magnetic force with maintained membrane flexibility. A soft polymeric material made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is initially mixed with neodymium magnetic particles (NdFeB) to form a magnetic polymer composite membrane. The membrane is then bonded with the PDMS based microfluidic part, developed using soft lithography process. The developed micropump was tested in terms of the actuator membrane deflection capability and the fluidic flow of the injected fluid sample through the microfluidic channel. The experimental results show that the magnetic composite actuator membrane with an attached bulk permanent magnet is capable of producing a maximum membrane deflection of up to 106 µm. The functionality test of the electromagnetic (EM) actuator for fluid pumping purposes was done by supplying an AC voltage with various amplitudes, signal waves and frequencies. A wide range of sample injection rates from a few µl min-1 to tens of nl min-1 was achieved with a maximum flow rate of 6.6 µl min-1. The injection flow rate of the EM micropump can be controlled by adjusting the voltage amplitude and frequency supplied to the EM coil, to control the membrane deflection in the pump chamber. The designed valveless EM micropump has a very high potential to enhance the drug delivery system capability in biomedical applications.

  7. Processing and characterization of ceramic superconductor/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kander, R.G.; Namboodri, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    One way to more easily process a brittle high-temperature ceramic superconductor into a useful structure is to combine it with a polymer to form a composite material. Processing of polymer-based composites into complex shapes is well established and relatively easy when compared with traditional ceramic processing unit operations. In addition, incorporating a ceramic superconductor into a polymer matrix can improve mechanical performance as compared with a monolithic ceramic. Finally, because ceramic superconductors are susceptible to attack by moisture, a polymer-based composite structure can also provide protection from deleterious environmental effects. This paper focuses on the processing and subsequent characterization of ceramic superconductor/polymer composites designed primarily for electromagnetic shielding and diamagnetic applications. YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x [YBCO] ceramic superconductor is combined with poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] to form novel composite structures. Composite structures have been molded with both a discontinuous superconducting phase (i.e., ceramic particulate reinforced polymers) and with a continuous superconducting phase (i.e., polymer infiltrated porous ceramics). Characterization of these composite structures includes the determination of diamagnetic strength, electromagnetic shielding effectiveness, mechanical performance, and environmental resistance. The goal of this program is to produce a composite structure with increased mechanical integrity and environmental resistance at liquid nitrogen temperatures without compromising the electromagnetic shielding and diamagnetic properties of the superconducting phase. Composites structures of this type are potentially useful in numerous magnetic applications including electromagnetic shielding, magnetic sensors, energy storage, magnetic levitation, and motor windings

  8. A new intermediate for the production of flexible stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Method of incorporating ether linkages into perfluoroalkylene segment of a dianydride intermediate yields intermediate that may be used in synthesis of flexible, stable polyimides for use as high-temperature, solvent-resistant sealants.

  9. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  10. Supercapacitors based on flexible graphene/polyaniline nanofiber composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Xu, Yuxi; Yao, Zhiyi; Liu, Anran; Shi, Gaoquan

    2010-04-27

    Composite films of chemically converted graphene (CCG) and polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs) were prepared by vacuum filtration the mixed dispersions of both components. The composite film has a layered structure, and PANI-NFs are sandwiched between CCG layers. Furthermore, it is mechanically stable and has a high flexibility; thus, it can be bent into large angles or be shaped into various desired structures. The conductivity of the composite film containing 44% CCG (5.5 x 10(2) S m(-1)) is about 10 times that of a PANI-NF film. Supercapacitor devices based on this conductive flexible composite film showed large electrochemical capacitance (210 F g(-1)) at a discharge rate of 0.3 A g(-1). They also exhibited greatly improved electrochemical stability and rate performances.

  11. Nanostructured graphene composite papers for highly flexible and foldable supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Weiya; Chen, Xiaodong; Xie, Sishen

    2014-07-23

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and polyaniline (PANI) assemble onto the surface of cellulose fibers (CFs) and into the pores of CF paper, to form a hierarchical nanostructured PANI-rGO/CF composite paper. Based on these composite papers, flexible and foldable all-solid-state supercapacitors are achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sol-gel derived polymer composites for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kuo

    Sol-gel process is a simple chemistry to convert the small precursor molecules into an inorganic polymer, which could be applied to synthesize inorganic materials, modify the interface of materials, bridge the organic and inorganic materials, etc. In this dissertation, novel sol-gel derived composites have been developed for high dielectric breakdown capacitors, low high frequency loss capacitors and flexible piezoelectrics. Numerous efforts have been made in the past decades to improve the energy storage capability of composite materials by incorporating nanometer scale ceramic addictives with high dielectric permittivity into dielectric polymers with high breakdown strength. However, most composites suffer from the low breakdown strength and make the potential gain in energy density small. Here, a new chemical strategy is proposed that, through sol-gel reactions between ceramic precursors and functional groups at the end of the functionalized Poly(vinylidene fluoride -co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) chains, amorphous low permittivity ceramics was in-situ generated in the polymer matrix and cross-linked the polymer chains simultaneously. By carefully tuning precursors, the polymer/precursors feeding ratios, a series of nanocomposites were systematically designed. All the samples are comprehensively characterized and the structure-property correlations are well investigated. The optimal samples exhibit higher breakdown strength than the pristine polymer. The enhanced breakdown strength ascribed to low contrast in permittivity, great dispersion and improved electrical and mechanical properties. This newly developed approach has shown great promise for new composite capacitors. The percolative polymer composites have recently exhibited great potential in energy storage due to their high dielectric permittivities at the neighborhood of the percolation threshold. Yet high energy dissipation and poor voltage endurance of the percolative composites resulted from electrical

  13. Anomalies in the coil-stretch transition of flexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2018-03-01

    The flow-induced coil-stretch transition of high molecular weight polymers has generally been held to be of first order. But evidence of significant slowing down in the rate at which the polymers relax to equilibrium in the vicinity of the transition suggests that the thermodynamic character of the transition may be less clear-cut. The above slowing down effect is actually characteristic of a second-order transition, and it points to the existence of a broad spectrum of conformational states in the transition region, analogous to the existence of fluctuations of all length scales at a critical point. In this paper, using a path integral approach based on a free-draining finitely extensible chain model, we calculate various polymer properties as a function of elongational flow as a way of exploring different statistical mechanical details of the coil-stretch transition. These properties include the molecular weight dependence of the flow-extension curve of the polymer, the distribution of its steady-state end-to-end distances, and the characteristic relaxation time τR of these distances. Among other findings, our calculations indicate that the coil-stretch transition is discontinuous in the N → ∞ limit, that the effective free energy of the chain is unimodal at all values of the flow, becoming broad and flat in the immediate vicinity of the transition, and that the ratio of τR to the Rouse relaxation time increases abruptly at the transition before eventually reaching a plateau value at large flow strengths. These aspects of the coil-stretch transition place it among a larger class of unconventional nominally first-order single chain transitions that include the adsorption transition of surface-tethered polymers and the escape transition of compressed polymers.

  14. Flexible Graphene Composites for Human Space Flight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide allows for better dispersion stability in aqueous and organic solvents. Stabilizers provide dispersion of pristine graphene. Roll coating provide the best coverage of polyurethane sheets. Graphene and GO coated polyurethane used to fabricate flexible laminate composite. Permeation testing indicates that pristine graphene acts as a better gas barrier material. Continuous graphene films are expected to provide even better gas barrier properties.

  15. Large Dielectric Constant Enhancement in MXene Percolative Polymer Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Shao Bo

    2018-04-06

    near the percolation limit of about 15.0 wt % MXene loading, which surpasses all previously reported composites made of carbon-based fillers in the same polymer. With up to 10 wt % MXene loading, the dielectric loss of the MXene/P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) composite indicates only an approximately 5-fold increase (from 0.06 to 0.35), while the dielectric constant increased by 25 times over the same composition range. Furthermore, the ratio of permittivity to loss factor of the MXene-polymer composite is superior to that of all previously reported fillers in this same polymer. The dielectric constant enhancement effect is demonstrated to exist in other polymers as well when loaded with MXene. We show that the dielectric constant enhancement is largely due to the charge accumulation caused by the formation of microscopic dipoles at the surfaces between the MXene sheets and the polymer matrix under an external applied electric field.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of all-polymer, transparent ferroelectric capacitors on flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2011-12-01

    All-polymer, transparent ferroelectric devices, based on the functional polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)], have been fabricated on flexible substrates. The performance of the all-polymer devices was studied and compared to devices with metal electrodes. Specifically, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) [PEDOT:PSS] and platinum (Pt) electrode effects on the morphology, crystallinity and orientation of P(VDF-TrFE) films were investigated. The devices with PEDOT:PSS electrodes showed similar hysteresis and switching current response compared to Pt electrodes but with tremendously improved fatigue performance. Further, the devices with PEDOT:PSS electrodes showed lower coercive field and better fatigue performance than values reported for other polymer electrodes used with P(VDF-TrFE) on flexible substrates. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. New Microlayer and Nanolayer Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baer, E

    2001-01-01

    ... (see attached, interim report (1/1/99 - 12/31/99). (4) High barrier, injection moldable systems have been produced by microlayering a polymer with good water barrier and a polymer with good oxygen barrier...

  18. Fabrication of flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal films using conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang-Bae; Park, Sucheol; Hong, Jin-Who

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymers exhibit good mechanical and interfacial compatibility with plastic substrates. We prepared an optimized coating formulation based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl acrylate and fabricated a transparent electrode on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. The surface resistances and transmittance of the prepared thin films were 500-600 Ω/□ and 87% at 500 nm, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the conducting polymer electrode, we fabricated a five-layer flexible polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) device as a PET-PEDOT-PDLC-PEDOT-PET flexible film. The prepared PDLC device exhibited a low driving voltage (15 VAC), high contrast ratio (60:1), and high transmittance in the ON state (60%), characteristics that are comparable with those of conventional PDLC film based on indium tin oxide electrodes. The fabrication of conducting polymer thin films as the driving electrodes in this study showed that such films can be used as a substitute for an indium tin oxide electrode, which further enhances the flexibility of PDLC film

  19. Semi-flexible polymer engendered aggregation/dispersion of fullerene (C60) nano-particles: An atomistic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Pattanayek, Sudip K.

    2018-06-01

    Semi flexible polymer chain has been modeled by choosing various values of persistent length (stiffness). As the polymer chain stiffness increases, the shape of polymer chain changes from globule to extended cigar to toroid like structure during cooling from a high temperature. The aggregation of fullerene nano-particles is found to depend on the morphology of polymer chain. To maximize, the number of polymer bead-nanoparticle contacts, all nano-particle have positioned inside the polymer globule. To minimize, the energy penalty, due to bending of the polymer chain, all nano-particle have positioned on the surface of the polymer's cigar and toroid morphology.

  20. Tailoring the mechanical properties by molecular integration of flexible and stiff polymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haixiao; Shen, Jianxiang; Gao, Naishen; Liu, Jun; Gao, Yangyang; Zhang, Liqun

    2018-03-28

    Designing a multiple-network structure at the molecular level to tailor the mechanical properties of polymeric materials is of great scientific and technological importance. Through the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we successfully construct an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) composed of a flexible polymer network and a stiff polymer network. First, we find that there is an optimal chain stiffness for a single network (SN) to achieve the best stress-strain behavior. Then we turn to study the mechanical behaviors of IPNs. The result shows that the stress-strain behaviors of the IPNs appreciably exceed the sum of that of the corresponding single flexible and stiff network, which highlights the advantage of the IPN structure. By systematically varying the stiffness of the stiff polymer network of the IPNs, optimal stiffness also exists to achieve the best performance. We attribute this to a much larger contribution of the non-bonded interaction energy. Last, the effect of the component concentration ratio is probed. With the increase of the concentration of the flexible network, the stress-strain behavior of the IPNs is gradually enhanced, while an optimized concentration (around 60% molar ration) of the stiff network occurs, which could result from the dominant role of the enthalpy rather than the entropy. In general, our work is expected to provide some guidelines to better tailor the mechanical properties of the IPNs made of a flexible network and a stiff network, by manipulating the stiffness of the stiff polymer network and the component concentration ratio.

  1. Micro-fabrication of Flexible Coils with Copper Filled Through Polymer Via Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Q S; Zhang, Y; Itoh, T; Maeda, R; Toda, A

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present one flexible 3D micro-coil. This 3D micro-coil is successfully prepared in a thin polymer film with a thickness of 120μm. The flexible coil is expected to be used in current sensing and energy harvesting MEMS those require a large deformation degree to wrap target object. A typical micro-machined 3D coil is composed of bottom, vertical and top windings. We firstly adopt through polymer vias (TPVs) and metal filling technology to fabricate the vertical windings. A high-speed copper electrodeposition technology of TPVs is developed to obtain void-free vertical windings

  2. Nanomorphological study of polymer bulk heterojuntion used in flexible solar devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Ortiz, Gabriel; Carrasco, Hector; Vedrine-Pauleus, Josee

    2014-03-01

    Solar cells fabricated with organic polymeric materials can enable large area fabrication on printable and flexible substrates, but increasing their efficiency is coupled to understanding their electrical properties and mechanical function on the nanoscale. In this study we measure the nanoscale conducting and mechanical properties of organic bulk heterojunction polymers coated on graphene and flexible PET or Si substrates. We characterize the nanomorphology of bulk heterojunction conducting polymers by applying conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM), and force volume mapping for quantitative nanomechanical property calculations.

  3. Bioinspired Transparent Laminated Composite Film for Flexible Green Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Lim, Young-Woo; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jeong, Seonju; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Park, Jang-Ung; Lee, Jung-Yong; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2017-07-19

    Herein, we report a new version of a bioinspired chitin nanofiber (ChNF) transparent laminated composite film (HCLaminate) made of siloxane hybrid materials (hybrimers) reinforced with ChNFs, which mimics the nanofiber-matrix structure of hierarchical biocomposites. Our HCLaminate is produced via vacuum bag compressing and subsequent UV-curing of the matrix resin-impregnated ChNF transparent paper (ChNF paper). It is worthwhile to note that this new type of ChNF-based transparent substrate film retains the strengths of the original ChNF paper and compensates for ChNF paper's drawbacks as a flexible transparent substrate. As a result, compared with high-performance synthetic plastic films, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ether sulfone), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and polyimide, our HCLaminate is characterized to exhibit extremely smooth surface topography, outstanding optical clarity, high elastic modulus, high dimensional stability, etc. To prove our HCLaminate as a substrate film, we use it to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel. As far as we know, this work is the first to demonstrate flexible optoelectronics, such as flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel, actually fabricated on a composite film made of ChNF. Given its desirable macroscopic properties, we envision our HCLaminate being utilized as a transparent substrate film for flexible green optoelectronics.

  4. Flexible, wearable, and functional graphene-textile composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Kun-Ning; Zhang, Ying; Tao, Lu-Qi; Li, Yu-Xing; Wang, Dan-Yang; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a flexible, wearable, and functional graphene-textile composite is demonstrated. Laser scribing technology is applied to fabricate a graphene film. The thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane is covered on the surface of the graphene-textile film evenly, which would improve the abrasive resistance of the film, enhance the ability to adapt to environmental changes, and extend the service life, while maintaining the device's excellent flexibility and comfort. The graphene-textile composite can achieve constant temperature heating by controlling the input voltage, detect the human movement, and perceive the human pulse signal. The composite presents great commercial prospects and a large value in the medical, daily wear, and other areas that are closely related to human lives.

  5. A new material for chemical industry - wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Patil, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the advantages of the radiation cured wood-polymer composites (WPC) for application in certain critical areas of chemical industry. The wood-polymer composite made filterpress frames and plates were tested in a chemical plant. The entire exercise is elaborated. The radiation cured wood exhibited a considerably extended useful life in alkaline and acidic solutions. Composites based on teak wood showed a remarkable improvement with a nominal polymer loading of 10%. The reports of accelerated aging test of WPC are also presented. (auth.)

  6. Investigation of a nanoconfined, ceramic composite, solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekara, Indumini; Poyner, Mark; Teeters, Dale

    2017-01-01

    The challenges for further development of lithium rechargeable batteries are finding electrolyte materials that are safe, have mechanical and thermal stability and have sufficiently high ionic conduction. Polymer electrolytes have many of these advantages, but suffer with low ionic conduction. This study involves the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes having nanochannels filled with polymer electrolyte to make composite solid electrolytes having ionic conductivity several orders of magnitude higher (10 −4 Ω ‐1 cm −1 ) than non-confined polymer. SEM, ac impedance spectroscopy, temperature dependence studies, XRD, ATR- FTIR and DSC studies were done in order to characterize and understand the behavior of nanoconfined polymer electrolytes. The composite polymer electrolyte was found to be more amorphous with polymer chains aligned in the direction of the nanochannels, which is felt to promote ion conduction. The electrolyte systems, confined in nanoporous membranes, can be used as electrolytes for the fabrication of a room temperature all solid state battery.

  7. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  8. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  9. Investigations of carbon nanotubes and polyacrylonitrile composites for flexible textronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiński, J.; Wróblewski, G.; Janczak, D.; Jakubowska, M.

    2017-08-01

    Thin composite layers based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) were fabricated by means of spray coating with pneumatic atomization. Research was conducted to achieve transparent and flexible electrodes. Prepared suspensions in different proportions of functional phase provided good dispersion quality of CNTs and the stability. The carbon nanotubes were dispersed in dimethylformamide and then added to polyacrylonitrile solution. Suspension was sprayed onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil. After thermal treatment, samples were mechanically and electrically tested. Thanks to carbon nanomaterials used in prepared coatings, high electrical conductivity and mechanical resistance was observed. Use of a polyacrylonitrile guarantee the flexibility of electrodes and high potential in integration with polyacrylonitrile based fabrics.

  10. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability and degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  11. Electron beam curing of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, C.J.; Wheeler, D.; Saunders, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the CRADA was to conduct research and development activities to better understand and utilize the electron beam PMC curing technology. This technology will be used to replace or supplement existing PMC thermal curing processes in Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) projects and American aircraft and aerospace industries. This effort involved Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc./Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (Contractor), Sandia National Laboratories, and ten industrial Participants including four major aircraft and aerospace companies, three advanced materials companies, and three electron beam processing organizations. The technical objective of the CRADA was to synthesize and/or modify high performance, electron beam curable materials that meet specific end-use application requirements. There were six tasks in this CRADA including: Electron beam materials development; Electron beam database development; Economic analysis; Low-cost Electron Beam tooling development; Electron beam curing systems integration; and Demonstration articles/prototype structures development. The contractor managed, participated and integrated all the tasks, and optimized the project efforts through the coordination, exchange, and dissemination of information to the project participants. Members of the Contractor team were also the principal inventors on several electron beam related patents and a 1997 R and D 100 Award winner on Electron-Beam-Curable Cationic Epoxy Resins. The CRADA achieved a major breakthrough for the composites industry by having successfully developed high-performance electron beam curable cationic epoxy resins for use in composites, adhesives, tooling compounds, potting compounds, syntactic foams, etc. UCB Chemicals, the world's largest supplier of radiation-curable polymers, has acquired a license to produce and sell these resins worldwide

  12. Photoactive glazed polymer-cement composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Liana; Patachia, Silvia; Tierean, Mircea; Ekincioglu, Ozgur; Ozkul, Hulusi M.

    2018-04-01

    Macro defect free cements (MDF), a kind of polymer-cement composites, are characterized by remarkably high mechanical properties. Their flexural strengths are 20-30 times higher than those of conventional cement pastes, nearly equal to that of an ordinary steel. The main drawback of MDF cements is their sensitivity to water. This paper presents a method to both diminish the negative impact of water on MDF cements mechanical properties and to enlarge their application by conferring photoactivity. These tasks were solved by glazing MDF cement with an ecological glaze containing nano-particles of TiO2. Efficiency of photocatalytic activity of this material was tested against methylene blue aqueous solution (4.4 mg/L). Influence of the photocatalyst concentration in the glaze paste and of the contact time on the photocatalysis process (efficiency and kinetic) was studied. The best obtained photocatalysis yield was of 97.35%, after 8 h of exposure to 254 nm UV radiation when used an MDF glazed with 10% TiO2 in the enamel paste. Surface of glazed material was characterized by optic microscopy, scratch test, SEM, XRD, and EDS. All these properties were correlated with the aesthetic aspect of the glazed surface aiming to propose using of this material for sustainable construction development.

  13. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taj, S.; Khan, S.; Munawar, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

  14. Atomic layer deposition on polymer based flexible packaging materials: Growth characteristics and diffusion barrier properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Tommi O.; Maydannik, Philipp; Cameron, David C.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka

    2011-01-01

    One of the most promising areas for the industrial application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is for gas barrier layers on polymers. In this work, a packaging material system with improved diffusion barrier properties has been developed and studied by applying ALD on flexible polymer based packaging materials. Nanometer scale metal oxide films have been applied to polymer-coated papers and their diffusion barrier properties have been studied by means of water vapor and oxygen transmission rates. The materials for the study were constructed in two stages: the paper was firstly extrusion coated with polymer film, which was then followed by the ALD deposition of oxide layer. The polymers used as extrusion coatings were polypropylene, low and high density polyethylene, polylactide and polyethylene terephthalate. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) were measured according to method SCAN-P 22:68 and oxygen transmission rates (O 2 TRs) according to a standard ASTM D 3985. According to the results a 10 nm oxide layer already decreased the oxygen transmission by a factor of 10 compared to uncoated material. WVTR with 40 nm ALD layer was better than the level currently required for most common dry flexible packaging applications. When the oxide layer thickness was increased to 100 nm and above, the measured WVTRs were limited by the measurement set up. Using an ALD layer allowed the polymer thickness on flexible packaging materials to be reduced. Once the ALD layer was 40 nm thick, WVTRs and O 2 TRs were no longer dependent on polymer layer thickness. Thus, nanometer scale ALD oxide layers have shown their feasibility as high quality diffusion barriers on flexible packaging materials.

  15. Atomic layer deposition on polymer based flexible packaging materials: Growth characteristics and diffusion barrier properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Tommi O., E-mail: tommi.kaariainen@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Cameron, David C., E-mail: david.cameron@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.lahtinen@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Johansson, Petri, E-mail: petri.johansson@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Kuusipalo, Jurkka, E-mail: jurkka.kuusipalo@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2011-03-01

    One of the most promising areas for the industrial application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is for gas barrier layers on polymers. In this work, a packaging material system with improved diffusion barrier properties has been developed and studied by applying ALD on flexible polymer based packaging materials. Nanometer scale metal oxide films have been applied to polymer-coated papers and their diffusion barrier properties have been studied by means of water vapor and oxygen transmission rates. The materials for the study were constructed in two stages: the paper was firstly extrusion coated with polymer film, which was then followed by the ALD deposition of oxide layer. The polymers used as extrusion coatings were polypropylene, low and high density polyethylene, polylactide and polyethylene terephthalate. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) were measured according to method SCAN-P 22:68 and oxygen transmission rates (O{sub 2}TRs) according to a standard ASTM D 3985. According to the results a 10 nm oxide layer already decreased the oxygen transmission by a factor of 10 compared to uncoated material. WVTR with 40 nm ALD layer was better than the level currently required for most common dry flexible packaging applications. When the oxide layer thickness was increased to 100 nm and above, the measured WVTRs were limited by the measurement set up. Using an ALD layer allowed the polymer thickness on flexible packaging materials to be reduced. Once the ALD layer was 40 nm thick, WVTRs and O{sub 2}TRs were no longer dependent on polymer layer thickness. Thus, nanometer scale ALD oxide layers have shown their feasibility as high quality diffusion barriers on flexible packaging materials.

  16. A numerical investigation on piezoresistive behaviour of carbon nanotube/polymer composites: mechanism and optimizing principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifeng; Ye Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled polymeric composites can be used as a kind of flexible piezoresistive material in potentially many fields. Due to the diversity of CNTs and polymers, the mechanism and features of their piezoresistive behaviour is still not fully understood. This paper reports our investigations into the mechanism and optimization of piezoresistive CNT/polymer composites. Numerical simulation results showed that the junction resistances between CNTs are a major component of the network conductance of the composite as well as the piezoresistive behaviour. Average junction gap variation (AJGV) was introduced as a quantitative description of the conductance variation of a CNT network caused by strain and the conductance variation of the CNT network was found to be dominated by AJGV. Numerical simulation and analytical results indicated that the key parameters affecting AJGV include the orientation and diameter of CNTs, Poisson’s ratio of the polymer, and the concentration of CNTs in the polymer matrix. An optimizing principle was then given for piezoresistive CNT/polymer composites. (paper)

  17. Process for the preparation of a vinylidene chloride polymer composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Process for the preparation of a vinylidene chloride polymer composite comprising a solid particulate encapsulated in the vinylidene chloride polymer. The process comprises providing a dispersion of a solid particulate material in a liquid phase, said dispersion comprising a RAFT/MADIX agent;

  18. 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    The formation of 3D objects composed of shape memory polymers for flexible electronics is described. Layer-by-layer photopolymerization of methacrylated semicrystalline molten macromonomers by a 3D digital light processing printer enables rapid fabrication of complex objects and imparts shape memory functionality for electrical circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fabrication of ferroelectric polymer nanostructures on flexible substrates by soft-mold reverse nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jingfeng; Lu, Haidong; Gruverman, Alexei; Ducharme, Stephen; Li, Shumin; Tan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Conventional nanoimprint lithography with expensive rigid molds is used to pattern ferroelectric polymer nanostructures on hard substrate for use in, e.g., organic electronics. The main innovation here is the use of inexpensive soft polycarbonate molds derived from recordable DVDs and reverse nanoimprint lithography at low pressure, which is compatible with flexible substrates. This approach was implemented to produce regular stripe arrays with a spacing of 700 nm from vinylidene fluoride co trifluoroethylene ferroelectric copolymer on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The nanostructures have very stable and switchable piezoelectric response and good crystallinity, and are highly promising for use in organic electronics enhanced or complemented by the unique properties of the ferroelectric polymer, such as bistable polarization, piezoelectric response, pyroelectric response, or electrocaloric function. The soft-mold reverse nanoimprint lithography also leaves little or no residual layer, affording good isolation of the nanostructures. This approach reduces the cost and facilitates large-area, high-throughput production of isolated functional polymer nanostructures on flexible substrates for the increasing application of ferroelectric polymers in flexible electronics. (paper)

  20. Fabrication of ferroelectric polymer nanostructures on flexible substrates by soft-mold reverse nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingfeng; Lu, Haidong; Li, Shumin; Tan, Li; Gruverman, Alexei; Ducharme, Stephen

    2016-01-08

    Conventional nanoimprint lithography with expensive rigid molds is used to pattern ferroelectric polymer nanostructures on hard substrate for use in, e.g., organic electronics. The main innovation here is the use of inexpensive soft polycarbonate molds derived from recordable DVDs and reverse nanoimprint lithography at low pressure, which is compatible with flexible substrates. This approach was implemented to produce regular stripe arrays with a spacing of 700 nm from vinylidene fluoride co trifluoroethylene ferroelectric copolymer on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The nanostructures have very stable and switchable piezoelectric response and good crystallinity, and are highly promising for use in organic electronics enhanced or complemented by the unique properties of the ferroelectric polymer, such as bistable polarization, piezoelectric response, pyroelectric response, or electrocaloric function. The soft-mold reverse nanoimprint lithography also leaves little or no residual layer, affording good isolation of the nanostructures. This approach reduces the cost and facilitates large-area, high-throughput production of isolated functional polymer nanostructures on flexible substrates for the increasing application of ferroelectric polymers in flexible electronics.

  1. Flexible Multibody Systems Models Using Composite Materials Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Maria Augusta; Ambr'osio, Jorge A. C.; Leal, Rog'erio Pereira

    2004-01-01

    The use of a multibody methodology to describe the large motion of complex systems that experience structural deformations enables to represent the complete system motion, the relative kinematics between the components involved, the deformation of the structural members and the inertia coupling between the large rigid body motion and the system elastodynamics. In this work, the flexible multibody dynamics formulations of complex models are extended to include elastic components made of composite materials, which may be laminated and anisotropic. The deformation of any structural member must be elastic and linear, when described in a coordinate frame fixed to one or more material points of its domain, regardless of the complexity of its geometry. To achieve the proposed flexible multibody formulation, a finite element model for each flexible body is used. For the beam composite material elements, the sections properties are found using an asymptotic procedure that involves a two-dimensional finite element analysis of their cross-section. The equations of motion of the flexible multibody system are solved using an augmented Lagrangian formulation and the accelerations and velocities are integrated in time using a multi-step multi-order integration algorithm based on the Gear method

  2. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. ...

  3. Influence of composition of functional additives and deformation modes on flow behavior of polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoprienko, N. N.; Rahimbaev, Sh M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the results of the influence of composition of functional water-soluble polymers and viscosity of domestic and foreign one-percent water solution polymer on flow parameters of cement and polymer test. It also gives the results of rheogoniometry of Eunice Granit tile adhesive used for large-size plates from natural stone and ceramic granite.

  4. Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Nano Bio Composite for Orthopedic Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, K., Dr.; Rajan, Sankar

    2018-04-01

    The bio-based polymer composites have been the focus of many scientific and research projects, as well as many commercial programs. In recent years, scientists and engineers have been working together to use the inherent strength and performance of the new class of bio-based composites which is compactable with human body and can act as a substitute for living cells. In this stage the polymer composites also stepped into human bone implants as a replacement for metallic implants which was problems like corrosion resistance and high cost. The polymer composite have the advantage that it can be molded to the required shape, the polymers have high corrosion resistance, less weight and low cost. The aim of this research is to develop and analyze the suitable bio compactable polymer composite for human implants. The nano particles reinforced polymer composites provides good mechanical properties and shows good tribological properties especially in the total hip and knee replacements. The graphene oxide powders are bio compactable and acts as anti biotic. GO nano powder where reinforced into High-density polyethylene in various weight percentage of 0.5% to 2%. The performance of GO nano powder shows better tribological properties. The material produced does not cause any pollution to the environment and at the same time it can be bio compactable and sustainable. The product will act environmentally friendly.

  5. Photovoltaic properties of conjugated polymer/fullerene composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The innovation involves the substrate, which is a polymer foil instead of glass. These devices are based on ultrafast, reversible, metastable photoinduced electron transfer and charge separation. We also present the efficiency and stability studies on large area (6 cm x 6 cm) flexible plastic solar cells with monochromatic ...

  6. Tethered Nanoparticle–Polymer Composites: Phase Stability and Curvature

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya

    2012-04-17

    Phase behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tethered silica nanoparticles dispersed in PEG hosts is investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering. Phase separation in dispersions of densely grafted nanoparticles is found to display strikingly different small-angle X-ray scattering signatures in comparison to phase-separated composites comprised of bare or sparsely grafted nanoparticles. A general diagram for the dispersion state and phase stability of polymer tethered nanoparticle-polymer composites incorporating results from this as well as various other contemporary studies is presented. We show that in the range of moderate to high grafting densities the dispersion state of nanoparticles in composites is largely insensitive to the grafting density of the tethered chains and chemistry of the polymer host. Instead, the ratio of the particle diameter to the size of the tethered chain and the ratio of the molecular weights of the host and tethered polymer chains (P/N) are shown to play a dominant role. Additionally, we find that well-functionalized nanoparticles form stable dispersions in their polymer host beyond the P/N limit that demarcates the wetting/dewetting transition in polymer brushes on flat substrates interacting with polymer melts. A general strategy for achieving uniform nanoparticle dispersion in polymers is proposed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure.

  8. The application of radiothermoluminescence method to the analysis of polymers and polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikol'skii, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The basic results concerning the examination of copolymers, cross-linked polymers and polyblends structure, obtained by means of radiothermoluminescence method, are reviewed. The main emphasis is on the glow curve shape analysis that allows: a) to determine quantitatively the random copolymer composition; b) to reveal the existence of blocks in macromolecules; c) to examine the grafted copolymer distribution in polymer matrix; d) to estimate the degree of cross-linking both for individual polymers and heterogeneous polyblends; e) to study the mutual solubility of polymers. (author)

  9. Processing and properties of ceramic matrix-polymer composites for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan Yao

    The basic composite structure of natural hard tissue was used to guide the design and processing of dental restorative materials. The design incorporates the methodology of using inorganic minerals as the main structural phase reinforced with a more ductile but tougher organic phase. Ceramic-polymer composites were prepared by slip casting a porous ceramic structure, heating and chemical treating the porous preform, infiltrating with monomer and then curing. The three factors that determined the mechanical properties of alumina-polymer composites were the type of polymer used, the method of silane treatments, and the type of bond between particles in the porous preforms. Without the use of silane coupling agents, the composites were measured to have a lower strength. The composite with a more "flexible" porous alumina network had a greater ability to plastically dissipate the energy of propagating cracks. However, the aggressive nature of the alumina particles on opposing enamel requires that these alumina-polymer composites have a wear compatible coating for practical application. A route to dense bioactive apatite wollastonite glass ceramics (AWGC)-polymer composites was developed. The problems associated with glass dissolution into the aqueous medium for slip casting were overcome with the use of silane. The role of heating rate and development of ceramic compact microstructure on composite properties was explored. In general, if isothermal heating was not applied, decreasing heating rate increased glass crystallinity and particle-particle fusion, but decreased pore volume. Also composite strength and fracture toughness decreased while modulus and hardness increased with decreasing heating rate. If isothermal heating was applied, glass crystallinity, pore content, and composite mechanical properties showed relatively little change regardless of the initial heating rate. The potential of AWGC-polymer composites for dental and implant applications was explored

  10. Rational Design of Coordination Polymers with Flexible Oxyethylene Side Chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Young; Gao, Chunji; Lee, Suck Hyun; Kwon, O Pil

    2012-01-01

    We rationally designed and synthesized metallopolymers with organic 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) linkers with different lengths of oxyethylene side chains in order to examine the influence of side chains on the coordination characteristics. While in a previous report the BDC linkers with alkyl side chains were found to form three-dimensional (3D) isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) structures or one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymeric structures with short -O(CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 or long -O(CH 2 ) 9 CH 3 side chains, respectively, new BDC linkers with oxyethylene side chains of the same lengths, -(OCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 and -(OCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 CH 3 , form only 3D IRMOF structures. This result is attributed to the higher flexibility and smaller volume of oxyethylene side chains compared to alkyl side chains

  11. Graphene-Reinforced Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Ashish K.; Xiong, Guoping; Menezes, Pradeep L.

    2018-06-01

    Composites have tremendous applicability due to their excellent capabilities. The performance of composites mainly depends on the reinforcing material applied. Graphene is successful as an efficient reinforcing material due to its versatile as well as superior properties. Even at very low content, graphene can dramatically improve the properties of polymer and metal matrix composites. This article reviews the fabrication followed by mechanical and tribological properties of metal and polymer matrix composites filled with different kinds of graphene, including single-layer, multilayer, and functionalized graphene. Results reported to date in literature indicate that functionalized graphene or graphene oxide-polymer composites are promising materials offering significantly improved strength and frictional properties. A similar trend of improved properties has been observed in case of graphene-metal matrix composites. However, achieving higher graphene loading with uniform dispersion in metal matrix composites remains a challenge. Although graphene-reinforced composites face some challenges, such as understanding the graphene-matrix interaction or fabrication techniques, graphene-reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites have great potential for application in various fields due to their outstanding properties.

  12. A flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Woo-Eon; Moon, Yong-Ju; Park, Cheon-Ho; Choi, Seung Tae

    2014-01-01

    To provide tactile feedback on flexible touch screens, transparent relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrators were designed and fabricated in this study. The film vibrator can be integrated underneath a transparent cover film or glass, and can also produce acoustic waves that cause a tactile sensation on human fingertips. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] polymer was used as the relaxor ferroelectric polymer because it produces a large strain under applied electric fields, shows a fast response, and has excellent optical transparency. The natural frequency of this tactile-feedback touch screen was designed to be around 200–240 Hz, at which the haptic perception of human fingertips is the most sensitive; therefore, the resonance of the touch screen at its natural frequency provides maximum haptic sensation. A multilayered relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrator was also demonstrated to provide the same vibration power at reduced voltage. The flexible P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) film vibrators developed in this study are expected to provide tactile sensation not only in large-area flat panel displays, but also in flexible displays and touch screens. (papers)

  13. Flexible, Penetrating Brain Probes Enabled by Advances in Polymer Microfabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuva Weltman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of high-fidelity, long-term neural recordings in vivo is critically important to advance neuroscience and brain–machine interfaces. For decades, rigid materials such as metal microwires and micromachined silicon shanks were used as invasive electrophysiological interfaces to neurons, providing either single or multiple electrode recording sites. Extensive research has revealed that such rigid interfaces suffer from gradual recording quality degradation, in part stemming from tissue damage and the ensuing immune response arising from mechanical mismatch between the probe and brain. The development of “soft” neural probes constructed from polymer shanks has been enabled by advancements in microfabrication; this alternative has the potential to mitigate mismatch-related side effects and thus improve the quality of recordings. This review examines soft neural probe materials and their associated microfabrication techniques, the resulting soft neural probes, and their implementation including custom implantation and electrical packaging strategies. The use of soft materials necessitates careful consideration of surgical placement, often requiring the use of additional surgical shuttles or biodegradable coatings that impart temporary stiffness. Investigation of surgical implantation mechanics and histological evidence to support the use of soft probes will be presented. The review concludes with a critical discussion of the remaining technical challenges and future outlook.

  14. Transparent conductive-polymer strain sensors for touch input sheets of flexible displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Seiichi; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Muraki, Masato; Iwase, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2010-01-01

    A transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array, designed especially for touch input sheets of flexible displays, was developed. A transparent conductive polymer, namely poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), was utilized owing to its strength under repeated mechanical bending. PEDOT:PSS strain sensors with a thickness of 130 nm exhibited light transmittance of 92%, which is the same as the transmittance of ITO electrodes widely used in flat panel displays. We demonstrated that the sensor array on a flexible sheet was able to sustain mechanical bending 300 times at a bending radius of 5 mm. The strain sensor shows a gauge factor of 5.2. The touch point on a flexible sheet could be detected from histograms of the outputs of the strain sensors when the sheet was pushed with an input force of 5 N. The touch input could be detected on the flexible sheet with a curved surface (radius of curvature of 20 mm). These results show that the developed transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array is applicable to touch input sheets of mechanically bendable displays.

  15. Unconventional ordering behavior of semi-flexible polymers in dense brushes under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchev, Andrey; Binder, Kurt

    2014-06-07

    Using a coarse-grained bead-spring model for semi-flexible macromolecules which form a polymer brush, the structure and dynamics of the polymers were investigated, varying the chain stiffness and the grafting density. The anchoring conditions for the grafted chains were chosen such that their first bonds were oriented along the normal to the substrate plane. The compression of such a semi-flexible brush by a planar piston was observed to be a two-stage process: for a small compression the chains were shown to contract by "buckling" deformation whereas for a larger compression the chains exhibited a collective (almost uniform) bending deformation. Thus, the stiff polymer brush underwent a 2nd order phase transition of collective bond reorientation. The pressure, required to keep the stiff brush at a given degree of compression, was thereby significantly smaller than for an otherwise identical brush made of entirely flexible polymer chains! While both the brush height and the chain linear dimensions in the z-direction perpendicular to the substrate increased monotonically with an increase in the chain stiffness, the lateral (xy) chain linear dimensions exhibited a maximum at an intermediate chain stiffness. Increasing the grafting density led to a strong decrease of these lateral dimensions which is compatible with an exponential decay. Also the recovery kinetics after removal of the compressing piston were studied, and were found to follow a power-law/exponential decay with time. A simple mean-field theoretical consideration, accounting for the buckling/bending behavior of semi-flexible polymer brushes under compression was suggested.

  16. Multifunctional Hybrid Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Cano, Roberto J.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Luong, Hoa; Grimsley, Brian W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    For aircraft primary structures, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites possess many advantages over conventional aluminum alloys due to their light weight, higher strengthand stiffness-to-weight ratio, and low life-cycle maintenance costs. However, the relatively low electrical and thermal conductivities of CFRP composites fail to provide structural safety in certain operational conditions such as lightning strikes. Despite several attempts to solve these issues with the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) into polymer matrices, and/or by interleaving CNT sheets between conventional carbon fiber (CF) composite layers, there are still interfacial problems that exist between CNTs (or CF) and the resin. In this study, hybrid CNT/CF polymer composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets with Hexcel® IM7/8852 prepreg. Resin concentrations from 1 wt% to 50 wt% were used to infuse the CNT sheets prior to composite fabrication. The interlaminar properties of the resulting hybrid composites were characterized by mode I and II fracture toughness testing (double cantilever beam and end-notched flexure test). Fractographical analysis was performed to study the effect of resin concentration. In addition, multi-directional physical properties like thermal conductivity of the orthotropic hybrid polymer composite were evaluated. Interleaving CNT sheets significantly improved the in-plane (axial and perpendicular direction of CF alignment) thermal conductivity of the hybrid composite laminates by 50 - 400%.

  17. Water based, solution-processable, transparent and flexible graphene oxide composite as electrodes in organic solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, L F; Matos, C F; Gonçalves, L C; Roman, L S; Salvatierra, R V; Zarbin, A J G; Cava, C E

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose an easy method to achieve a conductive, transparent and flexible graphene oxide (GO)-based composite thin film from an aqueous dispersion. We investigated the blend ratio between GO and the conjugated polymer poly(3,4–ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) by comparing the thin film optical transmittance, sheet resistance, morphology and mechanical stability. It was found that reasonable values of transmittance and resistivity coupled with its excellent flexibility – the conductivity remains almost the same even after 1000 bends cycles – make this composite very attracting for flexible optoelectronic applications. Thus, these films were used as transparent electrodes in a bilayer structured organic solar cell and the device architecture PET/GO:PEDOT/F8T2/C 60 /Al could reach a power conversion efficiency around 1.10%. This result presents a better performance compared with pristine PEDOT produced with similar parameters. (paper)

  18. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliahmad, Nojan; Shrestha, Sudhir; Varahramyan, Kody [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute (INDI), Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Agarwal, Mangilal, E-mail: agarwal@iupui.edu [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute (INDI), Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDH-HFP) porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphone)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP), with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}. Combining ceramic (LATP) with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) electrodes and (i) standard metallic current collectors and (ii) paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i) 123 mAh g{sup −1} for standard metallic current collectors and (ii) 99.5 mAh g{sup −1} for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  19. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nojan Aliahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDH-HFP porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphoneimide (LiTFSI and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP, with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10−3 S cm−1. Combining ceramic (LATP with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO electrodes and (i standard metallic current collectors and (ii paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i 123 mAh g−1 for standard metallic current collectors and (ii 99.5 mAh g−1 for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  20. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmad, Nojan; Shrestha, Sudhir; Varahramyan, Kody; Agarwal, Mangilal

    2016-06-01

    Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDH-HFP) porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphone)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP), with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10-3 S cm-1. Combining ceramic (LATP) with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) electrodes and (i) standard metallic current collectors and (ii) paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i) 123 mAh g-1 for standard metallic current collectors and (ii) 99.5 mAh g-1 for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  1. A novel polymer nanotube composite for photovoltaic packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, J; Manna, I; Manoj, A G; Liu, J; Carroll, D L

    2008-01-01

    Packaging of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is an important issue which has been rarely addressed in the past. With the recent reports of high efficiency organic photovoltaics (6%), the need to produce materials which can effectively protect the device from degradation due to exposure to oxygen, moisture and radiation is pressing. We report a novel Saran (a co-polymer of vinylidene chloride and acrylonitrile) based polymer nanotube composite, which shows high transparency in the visible region, good barrier properties and thermal stability, for use as an encapsulant for OPV devices. Different loadings of Saran and boron nitride nanotubes were taken and the composites were prepared to optimize the composition of the composite. UV-visible spectroscopy, infra-red spectroscopy and thermal analysis were used to characterize the composite. The barrier properties of the composite were tested on poly(3-hexylthiophene), which is used in high efficiency OPV devices

  2. Standard Guide for Testing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the application of ASTM standard test methods (and other supporting standards) to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. The most commonly used or most applicable ASTM standards are included, emphasizing use of standards of Committee D30 on Composite Materials. 1.2 This guide does not cover all possible standards that could apply to polymer matrix composites and restricts discussion to the documented scope. Commonly used but non-standard industry extensions of test method scopes, such as application of static test methods to fatigue testing, are not discussed. A more complete summary of general composite testing standards, including non-ASTM test methods, is included in the Composite Materials Handbook (MIL-HDBK-17). Additional specific recommendations for testing textile (fabric, braided) composites are contained in Guide D6856. 1.3 This guide does not specify a system of measurement; the systems specified within each of the referenced standards shall appl...

  3. The effect of water on thermal stresses in polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of the thermodynamic theory of mixtures and continuum thermochemistry are reviewed for a mixture of condensed water and polymer. A specific mixture which is mechanically elastic with temperature and water concentration gradients present is considered. An expression for the partial pressure of water in the mixture is obtained based on certain assumptions regarding the thermodynamic state of the water in the mixture. Along with a simple diffusion equation, this partial pressure expression may be used to simulate the thermostructural behavior of polymer composite materials due to water in the free volumes of the polymer. These equations are applied to a specific polymer composite material during isothermal heating conditions. The thermal stresses obtained by the application of the theory are compared to measured results to verify the accuracy of the approach.

  4. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  5. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  6. An inter-laboratory stability study of roll-to-roll coated flexible polymer solar modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Medford, Andrew James; Bundgaard, Eva

    2011-01-01

    A large number of flexible polymer solar modules comprising 16 serially connected individual cells was prepared at the experimental workshop at Risø DTU. The photoactive layer was prepared from several varieties of P3HT (Merck, Plextronics, BASF and Risø DTU) and two varieties of ZnO (nanoparticu......A large number of flexible polymer solar modules comprising 16 serially connected individual cells was prepared at the experimental workshop at Risø DTU. The photoactive layer was prepared from several varieties of P3HT (Merck, Plextronics, BASF and Risø DTU) and two varieties of Zn......O (nanoparticulate, thin film) were employed as electron transport layers. The devices were all tested at Risø DTU and the functional devices were subjected to an inter-laboratory study involving the performance and the stability of modules over time in the dark, under light soaking and outdoor conditions. 24...

  7. Virus-Assembled Flexible Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces for Enhanced Polymer-Based Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-aspect-ratio cobalt-oxide-coated Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV- assembled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE nonstick surfaces were integrated with a solvent-free polymer electrolyte to create an anode-electrolyte interface for use in lithium-ion batteries. The virus-assembled PTFE surfaces consisted primarily of cobalt oxide and were readily intercalated with a low-molecular-weight poly (ethylene oxide (PEO based diblock copolymer electrolyte to produce a solid anode-electrolyte system. The resulting polymer-coated virus-based system was then peeled from the PTFE backing to produce a flexible electrode-electrolyte component. Electrochemical studies indicated the virus-structured metal-oxide PEO-based interface was stable and displayed robust charge transfer kinetics. Combined, these studies demonstrate the development of a novel solid-state electrode architecture with a unique peelable and flexible processing attribute.

  8. Conductive polymer composites with carbonic fillers: Shear induced electrical behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Zdeněk; Krückel, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 139, 14 March (2018), s. 52-59 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05654S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer-matrix composites * carbon fibres * electrical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer sci ence Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  9. Polymer-Nanoparticle Composites: From Synthesis to Modern Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hanemann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The addition of inorganic spherical nanoparticles to polymers allows the modification of the polymers physical properties as well as the implementation of new features in the polymer matrix. This review article covers considerations on special features of inorganic nanoparticles, the most important synthesis methods for ceramic nanoparticles and nanocomposites, nanoparticle surface modification, and composite formation, including drawbacks. Classical nanocomposite properties, as thermomechanical, dielectric, conductive, magnetic, as well as optical properties, will be summarized. Finally, typical existing and potential applications will be shown with the focus on new and innovative applications, like in energy storage systems.

  10. Ultraviolet photodetection of flexible ZnO nanowire sheets in polydimethylsiloxane polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Jinzhang Liu; Nunzio Motta; Soonil Lee

    2012-01-01

    Summary ZnO nanowires are normally exposed to an oxygen atmosphere to achieve high performance in UV photodetection. In this work we present results on a UV photodetector fabricated using a flexible ZnO nanowire sheet embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a gas-permeable polymer, showing reproducible UV photoresponse and enhanced photoconduction. PDMS coating results in a reduced response speed compared to that of a ZnO nanowire film in air. The rising speed is slightly reduced, while the ...

  11. Measurement of radiation shielding properties of polymer composites by using HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anil; Pillay, H.C.M.; Kale, P.K.; Datta, D.; Suman, S.K.; Gover, V.

    2014-01-01

    Lead is the most common radiation shield and its composite with polymers can be used as flexible radiation shields for different applications. However, lead is very hazardous and has been found to be associated with neurological disorders, kidney failure and hematotoxicity. Lead free radiation shield material has been developed by synthesizing radiation cross linked PDMS/Bi 2 O 3 polymer composites. In order to have a lead free radiation shield the relevant shielding properties such as linear attenuation, half value thickness (HVT) and tenth value thickness (TVT) have been measured by using HPGe detector. The present study describes the methodology of measurement of the shielding properties of the lead free shield material. In the measurement gamma energies such as 59.537 keV ( 241 Am), 122.061 keV and 136.474 keV ( 57 Co) are taken into consideration

  12. Composite materials obtained by the ion-plasma sputtering of metal compound coatings on polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikov, Nikolai; Polyakov, Evgenii; Borisov, Sergei; Barashev, Nikolai; Biramov, Emir; Maltceva, Anastasia; Vereshchagin, Artem; Khartov, Stas; Voronin, Anton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the principle and examples composite materials obtained by deposition of metal compound coatings on polymer film substrates by the ion-plasma sputtering method are presented. A synergistic effect is to obtain the materials with structural properties of the polymer substrate and the surface properties of the metal deposited coatings. The technology of sputtering of TiN coatings of various thicknesses on polyethylene terephthalate films is discussed. The obtained composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is shown. The examples of application of this method, such as receiving nanocomposite track membranes and flexible transparent electrodes, are considered.

  13. Electrospinning of polymer-aerogel composite fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Fojan, Peter

    En poster om produktion af polymer-aerogel kompositfibre ved hjælp af elektrospinning. Fiberne er produceret fra en opløsning af aerogel og polyethylene oxide i vand, som er elektrospundet gennem en enkeltnålsprocess....

  14. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  15. Flexible Tactile Sensing Based on Piezoresistive Composites: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassi, Stefano; Cauda, Valentina; Canavese, Giancarlo; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The large expansion of the robotic field in the last decades has created a growing interest in the research and development of tactile sensing solutions for robot hand and body integration. Piezoresistive composites are one of the most widely employed materials for this purpose, combining simple and low cost preparation with high flexibility and conformability to surfaces, low power consumption, and the use of simple read-out electronics. This work provides a review on the different type of composite materials, classified according to the conduction mechanism and analyzing the physics behind it. In particular piezoresistors, strain gauges, percolative and quantum tunnelling devices are reviewed here, with a perspective overview on the most used filler types and polymeric matrices. A description of the state-of-the-art of the tactile sensor solutions from the point of view of the architecture, the design and the performance is also reviewed, with a perspective outlook on the main promising applications. PMID:24638126

  16. Electro-optics of novel polymer-liquid crystalline composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, T.D.; Bayramov, G.M.; Imamaliyev, A.R.; Bayramov, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The polymer network liquid crystals based on the liquid crystals H37 and 5CB with PMVP and PEG have been developed. Mesogene substance HOBA is served for stabilization of obtaining composites. Kinetics of network formation is investigated by methods of polarization microscopy and integrated small-angle scattering. It is shown that gel-like states of the composite H-37+PMVP+HOBA and 5CB+PEG+HOBA are formed at polymer concentration above 7 percent and 9 percent, correspondingly. The basic electro-optic parameters of the obtained composites are determined at room temperature. Experimental results are explained by phase separation of the system, diminution of a working area of electro-optical effects and influence of areas with high polymer concentration on areas with their low concentration

  17. Fabrication of an Electrically-Resistive, Varistor-Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz A. Mohammadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the fabrication and electrical characterization of a polymer composite based on nano-sized varistor powder. The polymer composite was fabricated by the melt-blending method. The developed nano-composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX. The XRD pattern revealed the crystallinity of the composite. The XRD study also showed the presence of secondary phases due to the substitution of zinc by other cations, such as bismuth and manganese. The TEM picture of the sample revealed the distribution of the spherical, nano-sized, filler particles throughout the matrix, which were in the 10–50 nm range with an average of approximately 11 nm. The presence of a bismuth-rich phase and a ZnO matrix phase in the ZnO-based varistor powder was confirmed by FeSEM images and EDX spectra. From the current-voltage curves, the non-linear coefficient of the varistor polymer composite with 70 wt% of nano filler was 3.57, and its electrical resistivity after the onset point was 861 KΩ. The non-linear coefficient was 1.11 in the sample with 100 wt% polymer content. Thus, it was concluded that the composites established a better electrical non-linearity at higher filler amounts due to the nano-metric structure and closer particle linkages.

  18. Quickly updatable hologram images with high performance photorefractive polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Naoto; Kinashi, Kenji; Nonomura, Asato; Sakai, Wataru

    2012-02-01

    We present here quickly updatable hologram images using high performance photorefractive (PR) polymer composite based on poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVCz). PVCz is one of the pioneer materials for photoconductive polymer. PVCz/7- DCST/CzEPA/TNF (44/35/20/1 by wt) gives high diffraction efficiency of 68 % at E = 45 V/μm with fast response speed. Response speed of optical diffraction is the key parameter for real-time 3D holographic display. Key parameter for obtaining quickly updatable hologram images is to control the glass transition temperature lower enough to enhance chromophore orientation. Object image of the reflected coin surface recorded with reference beam at 532 nm (green beam) in the PR polymer composite is simultaneously reconstructed using a red probe beam at 642 nm. Instead of using coin object, object image produced by a computer was displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM) is used as an object for hologram. Reflected object beam from a SLM interfered with reference beam on PR polymer composite to record a hologram and simultaneously reconstructed by a red probe beam. Movie produced in a computer was recorded as a realtime hologram in the PR polymer composite and simultaneously clearly reconstructed with a video rate.

  19. Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A

    2001-01-01

    X-ray radiographic examination of the bone fracture healing process is a widely used method in the treatment and management of patients. Medical devices made of metallic alloys reportedly produce considerable artifacts that make the interpretation of radiographs difficult. Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been proposed to replace metallic alloys in certain medical devices because of their radiolucency, light weight, and tailorable mechanical properties. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a comparable radiographic analysis of different fiber reinforced polymer composites that are considered suitable for biomedical applications. Composite materials investigated consist of glass, aramid (Kevlar-29), and carbon reinforcement fibers, and epoxy and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) matrices. The total mass attenuation coefficient of each material was measured using clinical X-rays (50 kev). The carbon fiber reinforced composites were found to be more radiolucent than the glass and kevlar fiber reinforced composites.

  20. High field dielectric properties of anisotropic polymer-ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomer, V.; Randall, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Using dielectrophoretic assembly, we create anisotropic composites of BaTiO 3 particles in a silicone elastomer thermoset polymer. We study a variety of electrical properties in these composites, i.e., permittivity, dielectric breakdown, and energy density as function of ceramic volume fraction and connectivity. The recoverable energy density of these electric-field-structured composites is found to be highly dependent on the anisotropy present in the system. Our results indicate that x-y-aligned composites exhibit higher breakdown strengths along with large recoverable energy densities when compared to 0-3 composites. This demonstrates that engineered anisotropy can be employed to control dielectric breakdown strengths and nonlinear conduction at high fields in heterogeneous systems. Consequently, manipulation of anisotropy in high-field dielectric properties can be exploited for the development of high energy density polymer-ceramic systems

  1. Flexible organization of floor composition and flexible organization of dwelling space as a response to contemporary market demands

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Goran

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the application of the principle of flexibility of architectonic space on the concrete example of flat composition. This example demonstrates that with a proper choice of structural spans dimensions and regular arrangement of sanitary and ventilation vertical assemblies, a structure with high flexibility in terms of flat space organization and floor space organization, can be achieved.

  2. Preparation of smooth, flexible and stable silver nanowires- polyurethane composite transparent conductive films by transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shengchi; Wang, Haifeng; Yang, Hui; Zhang, He; Guo, Xingzhong

    2018-02-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-polyurethane (PU) composite transparent conductive films were fabricated via transfer method using AgNWs conductive inks and polyurethane as starting materials, and the effects of post-treatments including heat treatment, NaCl solution bath and HCl solution bath for AgNWs film on the sheet resistance and transmittance of the composite films were respectively investigated in detail. AgNWs networks are uniformly embedded in the PU layer to improve the adhesion and reduce the surface roughness of AgNWs-PU composite films. Heat treatment can melt and weld the nanowires, and NaCl and HCl solution baths promote the dissolution and re-deposition of silver and the dissolving of the polymer, both which form conduction pathways and improve contact of AgNWs for reducing the sheet resistance. Smooth and flexible AgNWs-PU composite film with a transmittance of 85% and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω · sq‑1 is obtained after treated in 0.5 wt% HCl solution bath for 60 s, and the optoelectronic properties of the resultant composite film can maintain after 1000 cycles of bending and 100 days.

  3. Large energy absorption in Ni-Mn-Ga/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuchtwanger, Jorge; Richard, Marc L.; Tang, Yun J.; Berkowitz, Ami E.; O'Handley, Robert C.; Allen, Samuel M.

    2005-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys can respond to a magnetic field or applied stress by the motion of twin boundaries and hence they show large hysteresis or energy loss. Ni-Mn-Ga particles made by spark erosion have been dispersed and oriented in a polymer matrix to form pseudo 3:1 composites which are studied under applied stress. Loss ratios have been determined from the stress-strain data. The loss ratios of the composites range from 63% to 67% compared to only about 17% for the pure, unfilled polymer samples

  4. Characterization of polymer silver pastes for screen printed flexible RFID antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczek, Kamil; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Futera, Konrad; MłoŻniak, Anna; Kozioł, GraŻyna; Araźna, Aneta

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems have become more and more popular in the last few years because of their wide application fields, such as supply chain management and logistics. To continue their development further investigations of new conductive materials for fabrication of RFID transponders' antennas are necessary to be carried out. These materials should provide high flexibility and good radiation performance of printed antennas. In this paper, two polymer silver pastes based on silver flakes were characterized with regard to manufacturing of flexible RFID antennas with screen printing technique. Foil and paper were used as a substrate materials. Surface profile of the printed antennas was measured using an optical profilometer and their resistance was measured with a four-point-probe method. Antenna flexibility was evaluated in cyclic bending tests and its performance with reflection coefficient measurements with the use of differential probe connected to a vector network analyzer. In addition, a maximum read distance of a fabricated RFID transponder was measured.

  5. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  6. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol % were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  7. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  8. Elaboration of fabrication technology of ITO/CdS/CdTe solar cells on flexible polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potlog, T.; Spalatu, N.; Capros, N.

    2007-01-01

    The development of high efficiency, stable, lightweight and flexible solar cell is important for terrestrial and space applications. We have developed a novel process to make solar cells on flexible polymer sheets. A thin layer of CdTe compound semiconductor is used for the absorption of solar light and generation of electrical current. In this work the solar electricity conversion efficiency of 4,66% is the highest efficiency reported for a solar cell grown on a polymer sheet. (authors)

  9. Clamping effect on the piezoelectric responses of screen-printed low temperature PZT/Polymer films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almusallam, A.; Yang, K.; Zhu, D.; Torah, R. N.; Komolafe, A.; Tudor, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a new flexible lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/polymer composite material that can be screen-printed onto fabrics and flexible substrates, and investigates the clamping effect of these substrates on the characterization of the piezoelectric material. Experimental results showed that the optimum blend of PZT/polymer binder with a weight ratio of 12:1 provides a dielectric constant of 146. The measured value of the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was found to depend on the substrate used. Measured d33clp values of 70, 40, 36 pC N-1 were obtained from the optimum formulation printed on Polyester-cotton with an interface layer, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. The variation in the measured d33clp values occurs because of the effect of the mechanical boundary conditions of the substrate. The piezoelectric film is mechanically bonded to the surface of the substrate and this constrains the film in the plane of the substrate (the 1-direction). This constraint means that the perpendicular forces (applied in the 3-direction) used to measure d33 introduce a strain in the 1-direction that produces a charge of the opposite polarity to that induced by the d33 effect. This is due to the negative sign of the d31 coefficient and has the effect of reducing the measured d33 value. Theoretical and experimental investigations confirm a reduction of 13%, 50% and 55% in the estimated freestanding d33fs values (80 pC N-1) on Polyester-cotton, Kapton and alumina substrates, respectively. These results demonstrate the effect of the boundary conditions of the substrate/PZT interface on the piezoelectric response of the PZT/polymer film and in particular the reduced effect of fabric substrates due to their lowered stiffness.

  10. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Leigh

    This study looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. As the use of composite materials in aircraft construction increases, the understanding of how macroscopic failure characteristics of composite materials may aid the field investigator is becoming of increasing importance.. The first phase of this research project was to explore how investigation practitioners conduct wreckage examinations. Four accident investigation case studies were examined. The analysis of the case studies provided a framework of the wreckage examination process. Subsequently, a literature survey was conducted to establish the current level of knowledge on the visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite failures. Relevant literature was identified and a compendium of visual and macroscopic characteristics was created. Two full-scale polymer composite wing structures were loaded statically, in an upward bending direction, until each wing structure fractured and separated. The wing structures were subsequently examined for the existence of failure characteristics. The examination revealed that whilst characteristics were present, the fragmentation of the structure destroyed valuable evidence. A hypothetical accident scenario utilising the fractured wing structures was developed, which UK government accident investigators subsequently investigated. This provided refinement to the investigative framework and suggested further guidance on the interpretation of polymer composite failures by accident investigators..

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  12. Organic ferroelectric memory devices with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes on flexible substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj

    2013-05-01

    Drop-on-demand piezoelectric inkjet-printing technique has been used to fabricate a functional cross-bar array of all-organic ferroelectric memory devices. The polymer-ferroelectric-polymer device consists of a ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) film sandwiched between inkjet-patterned, continuous, orthogonal lines of PEDOT:PSS polymer as the bottom and top electrodes. These devices exhibit well-saturated hysteresis curves with a maximum remnant polarization (Pr) = 6.7 μC/cm2, coercive field (E c) = 55 MV/m and a peak capacitance density of 45 nF/cm2. Our polarization fatigue measurements show that these devices retain ∼100% and 45% of their initial Pr values after 103 and 10 5 stress cycles, respectively. The overall performance and polarization retention characteristics of these ferroelectric capacitors with inkjet-printed polymer electrodes are comparable to metal and spin-cast polymer electrodes suggesting their potential use in large-area flexible electronics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Printing polymer optical waveguides on conditioned transparent flexible foils by using the aerosol jet technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitberger, Thomas; Hoffmann, Gerd-Albert; Wolfer, Tim; Overmeyer, Ludger; Franke, Joerg

    2016-09-01

    The optical data transfer is considered as the future of signal transfer due to its various advantages compared to conventional copper-based technologies. The Aerosol Jet Printing (AJP) technology offers the opportunity to print materials with high viscosities, such as liquid transparent polymer adhesives (epoxy resins), on almost any possible substrate material and even in third dimension. This paper introduces a new flexible and comparatively cost-effective way of generating polymer optical waveguides through AJP. Furthermore, the conditioning of the substrate material and the printing process of planar waveguides are presented. In the first step, two lines with hydrophobic behavior are applied on foil material (PMMA, PVC, PI) by using a flexographic printing machine. These silicone based patterns containing functional polymer form barriers for the core material due to their low surface energy after curing. In the second step, the core material (liquid polymer, varnish) is printed between the barrier lines. Because of the hydrophobic behavior of the lines, the contact angle between the substrate surface and the liquid core material is increased which yields to higher aspect ratio. The distance between the barrier lines is at least 100 μm, which defines the width of the waveguide. The minimum height of the core shall be 50 μm. After UV-curing of the core polymer, the cladding material is printed on the top. This is also applied by using the AJP technology. Various tests were performed to achieve the optimal surface properties for adequate adhesion and machine process parameters.

  14. Electrical, magnetic and physical properties of YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ superconductor/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, P.A.; Srinivasan, T.T.; Newnham, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    A polymer matrix provides a composite with flexibility and improved impact strength as well as protection against humidity and chemical attack. Superconductor/polymer 0-3 composites have been prepared by mixing YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ powder with silicone rubber, pressing and curing. The resistivities of these composites do not go to zero, however, the magnetic flux exclusion is maintained in the temperature range, T< T/sub c/(--91K). The composite resistivities show percolation behavior and diamagnetism increases with increasing volume fraction of the superconductor filler. The composites exhibit levitation and large diamagnetic susceptibilities

  15. Coating flexible probes with an ultra fast degrading polymer to aid in tissue insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Meng-chen; Wang, Shuwu; Singh, Sagar; Damodaran, Vinod B; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Shreiber, David I; Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2015-04-01

    We report a fabrication process for coating neural probes with an ultrafast degrading polymer to create consistent and reproducible devices for neural tissue insertion. The rigid polymer coating acts as a probe insertion aid, but resorbs within hours post-implantation. Despite the feasibility for short term neural recordings from currently available neural prosthetic devices, most of these devices suffer from long term gliosis, which isolates the probes from adjacent neurons, increasing the recording impedance and stimulation threshold. The size and stiffness of implanted probes have been identified as critical factors that lead to this long term gliosis. Smaller, more flexible probes that match the mechanical properties of brain tissue could allow better long term integration by limiting the mechanical disruption of the surrounding tissue during and after probe insertion, while being flexible enough to deform with the tissue during brain movement. However, these small flexible probes inherently lack the mechanical strength to penetrate the brain on their own. In this work, we have developed a micromolding method for coating a non-functional miniaturized SU-8 probe with an ultrafast degrading tyrosine-derived polycarbonate (E5005(2K)). Coated, non-functionalized probes of varying dimensions were reproducibly fabricated with high yields. The polymer erosion/degradation profiles of the probes were characterized in vitro. The probes were also mechanically characterized in ex vivo brain tissue models by measuring buckling and insertion forces during probe insertion. The results demonstrate the ability to produce polymer coated probes of consistent quality for future in vivo use, for example to study the effects of different design parameters that may affect tissue response during long term chronic intra-cortical microelectrode neural recordings.

  16. Progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive delamination in polymer matrix composite laminates. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the laminate behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach accounts for all types of composite behavior, laminate configuration, load conditions, and delamination processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation, and to laminate fracture. Results of laminate fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach.

  17. Nanocellulose based polymer composite for acoustical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohammad; Purniawan, Agung; Susanti, Diah; Priyono, Slamet; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Rahmasita, Mutia E.

    2018-04-01

    Natural fibers are biodegradable materials that are innovatively and widely used for composite reinforcement in automotive components. Nanocellulose derived from natural fibers oil palm empty bunches have properties that are remarkable for use as a composite reinforcement. However, there have not been many investigations related to the use of nanocellulose-based composites for wideband sound absorption materials. The specimens of nanocellulose-based polyester composite were prepared using a spray method. An impedance tube method was used to measure the sound absorption coefficient of this composite material. To reveal the characteristics of the nanocellulose-based polyester composite material, SEM (scanning electron microscope), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red), TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), and density tests were performed. Sound absorption test results showed the average value of sound absorption coefficient of 0.36 to 0,46 for frequency between 500 and 4000 Hz indicating that this nanocellulose-based polyester composite materials had a tendency to wideband sound absorption materials and potentially used as automotive interior materials.

  18. Properties of Polymer Composites Used in High-Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Pleşa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review article represents a comprehensive study on polymer micro/nanocomposites that are used in high-voltage applications. Particular focus is on the structure-property relationship of composite materials used in power engineering, by exploiting fundamental theory as well as numerical/analytical models and the influence of material design on electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. In addition to describing the scientific development of micro/nanocomposites electrical features desired in power engineering, the study is mainly focused on the electrical properties of insulating materials, particularly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE and epoxy resins, unfilled and filled with different types of filler. Polymer micro/nanocomposites based on XLPE and epoxy resins are usually used as insulating systems for high-voltage applications, such as: cables, generators, motors, cast resin dry-type transformers, etc. Furthermore, this paper includes ample discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages resulting in the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties by the addition of micro- and nanofillers into the base polymer. The study goals are to determine the impact of filler size, type and distribution of the particles into the polymer matrix on the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer micro/nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer and traditionally materials used as insulation systems in high-voltage engineering. Properties such as electrical conductivity, relative permittivity, dielectric losses, partial discharges, erosion resistance, space charge behavior, electric breakdown, tracking and electrical tree resistance, thermal conductivity, tensile strength and modulus, elongation at break of micro- and nanocomposites based on epoxy resin and XLPE are analyzed. Finally, it was concluded that the use of polymer micro/nanocomposites in electrical engineering is very promising and further research work

  19. Synthesis of Flexible Graphene/Polymer Composites for Supercapacitor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Himangshu; Bhubna, Shuvam; Kumar, Praduman; Mahapatra, Rajat; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the graphene was synthesized using biocompatible cellulosic component from onions. Onion epidermal cells were chosen as raw material. During heating at high temperature, the bonding among atoms in material was rearranged and forms two-dimensional hexagonal carbon layer (graphene). The characterization of synthesized graphene was done by x-ray diffractometer, Raman spectrometer and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. An attempt has been taken to form the capacitors with two different current collector electrodes, anticipating the performance of the supercapacitors. The observed capacitance values as-obtained for Al and Au current collector were 1.3 μF and 6.08 μF, respectively. However, when thermally exfoliated graphene was used as an electrode on Al and Au current collector, the capacitance value was drastically increased and found to be 1.6 and 41.25 μF, respectively.

  20. Gamma and electron beam curing of polymers and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.B.; Dickson, L.W.; Singh, A.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation polymerization has helped us understand polymer chemistry, and is also playing an increasing role in the field of practical applications. Radiation curing has a present market share of about 5% of the total market for curing of polymers and composites and the annual growth rate of the radiation curing market is ≥20% per year. Advantages of radiation curing over thermal or chemical curing methods include: improved control of the curing rate, reduced curing times, curing at ambient temperatures, curing without the need for chemical initiators, and complete (100%) curing with minimal toxic chemical emissions. Radiation treatment may also be used to effect crosslinking and grafting of polymer and composite materials. The major advantage in these cases is the ability to process products in their final shape. Cable insulation, automotive and aircraft components, and improved construction materials are some of the current and near-future industrial applications of radiation curing and crosslinking. 19 refs

  1. Fluorescent Pressure Response of Protein-Nanocluster Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    composites as pressure sensitive indicators of brain damage. The PNC composites are made up of protein coated gold nanoclusters and a styrene-ethylene...enhancement of the BSA- protected gold nanoclusters and the corresponding conformational changes of protein, J Phys Chem C. 2013;117:639–647...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This research focuses on the uses of polymer gold nanocluster (PNC

  2. Advanced moisture modeling of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Long term moisture exposure has been shown to affect the mechanical performance of polymeric composite structures. This reduction : in mechanical performance must be considered during product design in order to ensure long term structure survival. In...

  3. Self healing in polymers and polymer composites. Concepts, realization and outlook: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Formation of microcracks is a critical problem in polymers and polymer composites during their service in structural applications. Development and coalescence of microcracks would bring about catastrophic failure of the materials and then reduce their lifetimes. Therefore, early sensing, diagnosis and repair of microcracks become necessary for removing the latent perils. In this context, the materials possessing self-healing function are ideal for long-term operation. Self-repairing polymers and polymer composites have attracted increasing research interests. Attempts have been made to develop solutions in this field. The present article reviews state-of-art of the achievements on the topic. According to the ways of healing, the smart materials are classified into two categories: (i intrinsic self-healing ones that are able to heal cracks by the polymers themselves, and (ii extrinsic in which healing agent has to be pre-embedded. The advances in this field show that selection and optimization of proper repair mechanisms are prerequisites for high healing efficiency. It is a challenging job to either invent new polymers with inherent crack repair capability or integrate existing materials with novel healing system.

  4. Tribological performance of polymer composites used in electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    engineering applications. ZAFER DEMIR. Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey. MS received 28 December 2011; revised 13 March 2012. Abstract. Sliding wear performance of 20% mica-filled polyamide 6 (PA6 + 20% mica) and 20% short glass fibre- reinforced polysulphone (PSU + 20 GFR) polymer composites used in ...

  5. Large Dielectric Constant Enhancement in MXene Percolative Polymer Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Shao Bo; Jiang, Qiu; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2018-01-01

    near the percolation limit of about 15.0 wt % MXene loading, which surpasses all previously reported composites made of carbon-based fillers in the same polymer. With up to 10 wt % MXene loading, the dielectric loss of the MXene

  6. Modulatory effect of polymer type and composition on drug release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polymer type and composition on drug release from the matrix of diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets formulated using three different granulation methods. Ten (10) batches of diclofenac sodium tablets (F01 - F10) were prepared by melt granulation, ...

  7. Machining of Machine Elements Made of Polymer Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurova, N. I.; Makarov, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    The machining of the machine elements that are made of polymer composite materials (PCMs) or are repaired using them is considered. Turning, milling, and drilling are shown to be most widely used among all methods of cutting PCMs. Cutting conditions for the machining of PCMs are presented. The factors that most strongly affect the roughness parameters and the accuracy of cutting PCMs are considered.

  8. Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present communication, a study on the synthesis and mechanical properties of new series of green composites involving Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre as a reinforcing material in urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin based polymer matrix has been reported. Static mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed ...

  9. Flexible microstrip antenna based on carbon nanotubes/(ethylene-octene copolymer) thin composite layer deposited on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, J.; Olejnik, R.; Slobodian, P.

    2017-12-01

    A most of portable devices, such as mobile phones, tablets, uses antennas made of cupper. In this paper we demonstrate possible use of electrically conductive polymer composite material for such antenna application. Here we describe the method of preparation and properties of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/(ethylene-octene copolymer) as flexible microstrip antenna. Carbon nanotubes dispersion in (ethylene-octene copolymer) toluene solution was prepared by ultrasound finally coating PET substrate by method of dip-coating. Main advantages of PET substrate are low weight and also flexibility. The final size of flexible microstrip antenna was 5 x 50 mm with thickness of 0.48 mm (PET substrate 0.25 mm) with the weight of only 0.402 g. Antenna operates at three frequencies 1.66 GHz (-6.51 dB), 2.3 GHz (-13 dB) and 2.98 GHz (-33.59 dB).

  10. Extrudable polymer-polymer composites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Alexenko, V. O.; Buslovich, D. G.; Dontsov, Yu. V.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical characteristics of polymer-polymeric composites of UHMWPE are studied with the aim of developing extrudable, wear-resistant, self-lubricant polymer mixtures for Additive Manufacturing (AM). The motivation of the study is their further application as feedstocks for 3D printing. Blends of UHMWPE with graft- and block copolymers of low-density polyethylene (HDPE-g-VTMS, HDPE-g-SMA, HDPE-b-EVA), polypropylene (PP), block copolymers of polypropylene and polyamide with linear low density polyethylene (PP-b-LLDPE, PA-b-LLDPE), as well as cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-b), are examined. The choice of compatible polymer components for an ultra- high molecular weight matrix for increasing processability (extrudability) is motivated by the search for commercially available and efficient additives aimed at developing wear-resistant extrudable polymer composites for additive manufacturing. The extrudability, mechanical properties and wear resistance of UHMWPE-based polymer-polymeric composites under sliding friction with different velocities and loads are studied.

  11. Glass transition temperature of polymer nano-composites with polymer and filler interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Takano, Hiroshi; Doi, Masao; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied versatile coarse-grained model (bead spring model) to describe filled polymer nano-composites for coarse-grained (Kremer-Grest model) molecular dynamics simulations. This model consists of long polymers, crosslink, and fillers. We used the hollow structure as the filler to describe rigid spherical fillers with small computing costs. Our filler model consists of surface particles of icosahedra fullerene structure C320 and a repulsive force from the center of the filler is applied to the surface particles in order to make a sphere and rigid. The filler's diameter is 12 times of beads of the polymers. As the first test of our model, we study temperature dependence of volumes of periodic boundary conditions under constant pressures through NPT constant Andersen algorithm. It is found that Glass transition temperature (Tg) decrease with increasing filler's volume fraction for the case of repulsive interaction between polymer and fillers and Tg weakly increase for attractive interaction.

  12. Fabrication of flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caifeng; Hong, Daiwei; Wang, Andong; Ni, Chaoying

    2013-01-01

    Flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite material is pliable and tough in nature which is in a lack of traditional PZT patches. It has great application prospect in improving the sensitivity of sensor/actuator made by piezoelectric materials especially when they are used for curved surfaces or complicated conditions. In this paper, glass fiber cloth was adopted as carrier to grow PZT piezoelectric crystal particles by hydrothermal method, and the optimum conditions were studied. The results showed that the soft glass fiber cloth was an ideal kind of carrier. A large number of cubic-shaped PZT nanocrystallines grew firmly in the carrier with a dense and uniform distribution. The best hydrothermal condition was found to be pH 13, reaction time 24 h, and reaction temperature 200°C.

  13. Design, fabrication and performance tests for a polymer-based flexible flat heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Shou-Shing; Yang, Ya-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of a polymer-based flexible flat heat pipe. ► Bending angle of 15° will lead to a better thermal performance of the system. ► Powers higher than 12.67 W can be transferred/delivered. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the novel design, fabrication and performance tests for a polymer-based flexible flat heat pipe (FHP) with a bending angle in the range of 15–90°. Each heat pipe is 4 mm thick, 20 mm wide and 80 mm long, with two layers of No. 250 copper mesh as the wicking material. A copper/silicone rubber hybrid structure is designed and fabricated to achieve the flexibility of the heat pipe. Thermal characteristics are measured and studied for de-ionized water under different working conditions. Experimental results reveal that a bending angle of 15° on the vertical plane has a better thermal performance than those of heat pipes with/without bending. In addition, a higher power of 12.67 W can be transferred/delivered

  14. Self-Positioned Nanosized Mask for Transparent and Flexible Ferroelectric Polymer Nanodiodes Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung; Kwon, Owoong; Choi, Chungryong; Vincent Joseph, Kanniyambatti L; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jin Kon

    2016-10-12

    High density arrays of ferroelectric polymer nanodiodes have gained strong attention for next-generation transparent and flexible nonvolatile resistive memory. Here, we introduce a facile and innovative method to fabricate ferroelectric polymer nanodiode array on an ITO-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by using block copolymer self-assembly and oxygen plasma etching. First, polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) micelles were spin-coated on poly(vinylidene fluoride-ran-trifluoroethylene) copolymer (P(VDF-TrFE)) film/ITO-coated PET substrate. After the sample was immersed in a gold precursor (HAuCl 4 ) containing solution, which strongly coordinates with nitrogen group in P2VP, oxygen plasma etching was performed. During the plasma etching, coordinated gold precursors became gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which successfully acted as self-positioned etching mask to fabricate a high density array of P(VDF-TrFE)) nanoislands with GNP at the top. Each nanoisland shows clearly individual diode property, as confirmed by current-voltage (I-V) curve. Furthermore, due to the transparent and flexible nature of P(VDF-TrFE)) nanoisland as well as the substrate, the P(VDF-TrFE) nanodiode array was highly tranparent, and the diode property was maintained even after a large number of bendings (for instance, 1000 times). The array could be used as the next-generation tranparent and flexible nonvolatile memory device.

  15. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  16. Porous polymer networks and ion-exchange media and metal-polymer composites made therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Katsoulidis, Alexandros

    2016-10-18

    Porous polymeric networks and composite materials comprising metal nanoparticles distributed in the polymeric networks are provided. Also provided are methods for using the polymeric networks and the composite materials in liquid- and vapor-phase waste remediation applications. The porous polymeric networks, are highly porous, three-dimensional structures characterized by high surface areas. The polymeric networks comprise polymers polymerized from aldehydes and phenolic molecules.

  17. Properties of Plant Fiber Yarn Polymer Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    . The thesis presents experimental investigations and modelling of the properties of aligned plant fibre composites based on textile hemp yarn and thermoplastic matrices. The textile hemp yarn has been characterised. It is high in cellulose and with fibres well separated from each other; i.e. only few fibres...... are situated in bundles. The twisting angle is low; i.e. about 15 o for the outermost fibres in the yarn. The moisture sorption capacity of the yarn fibres is much lower than that of raw hemp fibres. Stiffness and strength of the fibres as calculated from composite data are in the ranges 50-65 GPa and 530......-650 MPa respectively. These properties show that textile hemp yarn is well suited as composite reinforcement. The relationship between fibre volume fraction and porosity has been studied. A model has been developed that predicts porosity from experimentally determined parameters such as fibre lumen...

  18. Electrochemical properties of polypyrrole/polyfuran polymer composite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seong Keuck

    1998-01-01

    Poly pyrrole polymer(ppy) has an excellent electrical conductivity and can be easily polymerized on anode to give various morphology according to doped anion on electroactive sites. To improve the properties of brittleness, ageing and hydrophobicity, poly furan polymer(pfu) having a high initiation potential was anodically implanted in this porous ppy film matrix to get the Pt/ppy/pfu(x)type of polymer campsite electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance methods were used to these electrode, where PF 6 - , BF 4 - , and ClO 4 - ions were employed as dopants. The composition of the pfu(x) at the electrode was changed from 0 to 1.10, but the range was useful only at 0.1 to 0.2 as the redox electrode. The polymer composite electrode doped with PF 6 - was better in charge transfer resistance by a factor of 40 times and in double layer capacitance by a factor of 20 times than others. The charge transfer in the polymer film of the electrode was influenced on frequency change and equivalent circuit of this electrode had Warburg impedance including mass transfer

  19. Cement-Polymer Composite Containers for Radioactive Wastes Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.; Bayoumi, T.A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Improving cement-composite containers using polymer as organic additives was studied extensively. Both unsaturated styrenated polyester (SPE) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used to fill the pores in cement containers that used for disposal of radioactive wastes. Two different techniques were adopted for the addition of organic polymers based on their viscosity. The low density PMMA was added using impregnation technique. On the other hand high density SPE was mixed with cement paste as a premix process. Predetermined weight of dried borate radioactive powder waste simulate was introduced into the Cement-polymer composite (CPC) container and then closed before subjecting it to leaching characterization. The effect of the organic polymers on the hydration of cement matrix and on the properties of the obtained CPC container has been studied using X-ray diffraction, IR-analysis, thermal effects and weight loss. Porosity, pore parameters and rate of release were also determined. The results obtained showed that for the candidate CPC container positive effect of polymer dominates and an improvement in the retardation rate of PMMA release radionuclides was observed

  20. Chemical composition dependence of exposure buildup factors for some polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tejbir [Department of Physics, S.D.D.I.E.T., Barwala, District Panchkula, Haryana 134 118 (India)], E-mail: tejbir.s@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Naresh [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 402 (India)], E-mail: naresh20dhiman@yahoo.com; Singh, Parjit S. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India)], E-mail: dr_parjit@hotmail.com

    2009-01-15

    Exposure buildup factors for some polymers such as poly-acrylo-nitrile (PAN), poly-methyl-acrylate (PMA), poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC), synthetic rubber (SR), tetra-fluro-ethylene (Teflon) have been computed using the G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015-15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free paths (mfp). The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected polymers with incident photon energy at the fixed penetration depths has been studied, mainly emphasizing on chemical composition (equivalent atomic number) of the selected polymers. It has been observed that for the lower penetration depths (below 10 mfp), the exposure buildup factor decreases with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers at all the incident photon energies. However, at the penetration depth of 10 mfp and incident photon energy above 3 MeV, the exposure buildup factor becomes almost independent of the equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers. Further, above the fixed penetration depth of 15 mfp of the selected polymers and above the incident photon energy of 3 MeV, reversal in the trend has been observed, i.e., the exposure buildup factor increases with the increase in equivalent atomic number.

  1. Chemical composition dependence of exposure buildup factors for some polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tejbir; Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Parjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure buildup factors for some polymers such as poly-acrylo-nitrile (PAN), poly-methyl-acrylate (PMA), poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC), synthetic rubber (SR), tetra-fluro-ethylene (Teflon) have been computed using the G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015-15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free paths (mfp). The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected polymers with incident photon energy at the fixed penetration depths has been studied, mainly emphasizing on chemical composition (equivalent atomic number) of the selected polymers. It has been observed that for the lower penetration depths (below 10 mfp), the exposure buildup factor decreases with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers at all the incident photon energies. However, at the penetration depth of 10 mfp and incident photon energy above 3 MeV, the exposure buildup factor becomes almost independent of the equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers. Further, above the fixed penetration depth of 15 mfp of the selected polymers and above the incident photon energy of 3 MeV, reversal in the trend has been observed, i.e., the exposure buildup factor increases with the increase in equivalent atomic number

  2. Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Nanoparticles Affect Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs can significantly improve the performance in electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries. This review summarizes property/performance relationships in the case where nanoparticles are introduced to polymer electrolytes. It is the aim of this review to provide a knowledge network that elucidates the role of nano-additives in the CPEs. Central to the discussion is the impact on the CPE performance of properties such as crystalline/amorphous structure, dielectric behavior, and interactions within the CPE. The amorphous domains of semi-crystalline polymer facilitate the ion transport, while an enhanced mobility of polymer chains contributes to high ionic conductivity. Dielectric properties reflect the relaxation behavior of polymer chains as an important factor in ion conduction. Further, the dielectric constant (ε determines the capability of the polymer to dissolve salt. The atom/ion/nanoparticle interactions within CPEs suggest ways to enhance the CPE conductivity by generating more free lithium ions. Certain properties can be improved simultaneously by nanoparticle addition in order to optimize the overall performance of the electrolyte. The effects of nano-additives on thermal and mechanical properties of CPEs are also presented in order to evaluate the electrolyte competence for lithium-ion battery applications.

  3. Sensing and Energy Harvesting Novel Polymer Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaag, S. van der; Ende, D.A. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the development and properties of novel functional composite materials consisting of aligned piezo-ceramic particles or fibers in a polymeric matrix, which can be fully integrated in thermoset or thermoplastic products. The materials have a low potential for applications

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  5. Advances and challenges of wood polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    Wood flour and fiber have been blended with thermoplastic such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polylactic acid and polyvinyl chloride to form wood plastic composites (WPC). WPCs have seen a large growth in the United States in recent years mainly in the residential decking market with the removal of CCA treated wood decking from residential markets. While there are...

  6. Graphene network organisation in conductive polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syurik, Y.V.; Ghislandi, M.G.; Tkalya, E.; Paterson, G.; McGrouther, D.; Ageev, O.A.; Loos, J.

    2012-01-01

    A latex technique is used to prepare graphene/polystyrene and graphene/poly(propylene) composites with varying GR loadings. Their electrical properties and the corresponding volume organisation of GR networks are studied. Percolation thresholds for conduction are found to be about 0.9 and 0.4 wt%

  7. Nanomodified polymer composites: Thermophysical and physico-mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchegolkov, Alexander; Shchegolkov, Alexey; Dyachkova, Tatyana; Borovskikh, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of thermophysical and physicomechanical properties of polymer-based composites modified with paraffin and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) mixture. Thermal conductivity of composites based on polyethylene, fluoroplastic, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is 0.48, 0.42 and 0.36 W/(m.°C), respectively, compared to thermal conductivity of pure paraffin - 0.25 W/(m.°C). It has been revealed that for materials heat capacity the polymer matrix determines the position of the maximum point on temperature dependence having extreme nature. Temperature changes in composites volume do not exceed 3% from the initial state to the phase transition, that allows them to be used in a combination with other materials.

  8. Improvement of acoustical characteristics : wideband bamboo based polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, M.; Purniawan, A.; Rasyida, A.; Ramadhani, M.; Komariyah, S.

    2017-07-01

    Environmental friendly and comfortable materials are desirable for applications in the automobile interior. The objective of this research was to examine and develop bamboo based polymer composites applied to the sound absorption materials of automobile door panels. Morphological analysis of the polyurethane/bamboo powder composite materials was carried out using scanning electron microscope to reveal the microscopic material behavior and followed by the FTIR and TGA testing. The finding demonstrated that this acoustical polymer composite materials provided a potential wideband sound absorption material. The range of frequency can be controlled between 500 and 4000 Hz with an average of sound absorption coefficient around 0.411 and it met to the door panels criteria.

  9. Thermoresistive mechanisms of carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen-Puc, M.; Oliva-Avilés, A. I.; Avilés, F.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms governing thermoresistivity of carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites are theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two modeling approaches are proposed to this aim considering a broad range of CNT concentrations (0.5-50 wt%). In the first model, thermal expansion of the polymer composite is predicted using a finite element model; the resulting CNT-to-CNT separation distance feeds a classical tunneling model to predict the dependence of the electrical resistance with temperature. The second approach uses the general effective medium considering the dilution of the CNT volume fraction due to the thermal expansion of the polymer. Both models predict that the electrical resistance increases with increased temperature (i.e. a positive temperature coefficient of resistance, TCR) for all investigated CNT concentrations, with higher TCRs for lower CNT concentrations. Comparison between modeling outcomes and experimental data suggests that polymer thermal expansion (and tunneling) play a dominant role for low CNT concentrations (≤ 10 wt%) heated above room temperature. On the other hand, for composites at high CNT concentrations (50 wt%) or for freezing temperatures (-110 °C), a negative TCR was experimentally obtained, suggesting that for those conditions the CNT intrinsic thermoresistivity and the electronic conduction between CNTs by thermal activation may play a paramount role.

  10. RF electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ferrite polymer composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosoudil, Rastislav; Usakova, Marianna; Franek, Jaroslav; Slama, Jozef; Olah, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The frequency dispersion of complex initial (relative) permeability (μ * =μ ' -jμ ' ') and the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of composite materials based on NiZn sintered ferrite and a polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer matrix have been studied in frequency range from 1MHz to 1GHz. The complex permeability of the composites was found to increase as the ferrite content increased, and was characterized by frequency dispersion localized above 50MHz. The variation of return loss (RL) of single-layer RF absorbers using the prepared composite materials has been investigated as a function of frequency, ferrite content and the thickness of the absorbers

  11. Tridimensional ionic polymer metal composites: optimization of the manufacturing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, C; Brunetto, P; Fortuna, L; Graziani, S; Bottino, M; Di Pasquale, G; Pollicino, A

    2010-01-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) belong to electroactive polymers (EAPs) and have been suggested for various applications due to their light weight and to the fact that they react mechanically when stimulated by an electrical signal and vice versa. Thick IPMCs (3D-IPMCs) have been fabricated by hot pressing several Nafion ® 117 films. Additional post-processes (more cycles of Pt electroless plating and dispersing agents) have been applied to improve the 3D-IPMC performance. The electromechanical response of 3D-IPMCs has been examined by applying electrical signals and measuring the displacement and blocking force produced

  12. Tuneable light-emitting carbon-dot/polymer flexible films prepared through one-pot synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Nandi, Sukhendu; Shikler, Rafi; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-02-01

    Development of efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally-friendly light emitters, particularly devices that produce white light, have drawn intense interest due to diverse applications in the lighting industry, photonics, solar energy, and others. We present a simple strategy for the fabrication of flexible transparent films exhibiting tuneable light emission through one-pot synthesis of polymer matrixes with embedded carbon dots assembled in situ. Importantly, different luminescence colours were produced simply by preparing C-dot/polymer films using carbon precursors that yielded C-dots exhibiting distinct fluorescence emission profiles. Furthermore, mixtures of C-dot precursors could be also employed for fabricating films exhibiting different colours. In particular, we successfully produced films emitting white light with attractive properties (i.e. ``warm'' white light with a high colour rendering index) - a highly sought after goal in optical technologies.Development of efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally-friendly light emitters, particularly devices that produce white light, have drawn intense interest due to diverse applications in the lighting industry, photonics, solar energy, and others. We present a simple strategy for the fabrication of flexible transparent films exhibiting tuneable light emission through one-pot synthesis of polymer matrixes with embedded carbon dots assembled in situ. Importantly, different luminescence colours were produced simply by preparing C-dot/polymer films using carbon precursors that yielded C-dots exhibiting distinct fluorescence emission profiles. Furthermore, mixtures of C-dot precursors could be also employed for fabricating films exhibiting different colours. In particular, we successfully produced films emitting white light with attractive properties (i.e. ``warm'' white light with a high colour rendering index) - a highly sought after goal in optical technologies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  13. Enabling Flexible Polymer Tandem Solar Cells by 3D Ptychographic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind

    2015-01-01

    one after the other by wet processing leaves plenty of room for error and the process development calls for an analytical technique that enables 3D reconstruction of the layer stack with the possibility to probe thickness, density, and chemistry of the individual layers in the stack. The use......The realization of a complete tandem polymer solar cell under ambient conditions using only printing and coating methods on a flexible substrate results in a fully scalable process but also requires accurate control during layer formation to succeed. The serial process where the layers are added...

  14. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) based antenna for flexible system on package (SoP) applications

    KAUST Repository

    Marnat, Loic; Shamim, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a bowtie antenna on a flexible Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate is reported in this paper. The antenna is fed by a balun transition which helps improve the gain up to 5.1 dB. The antenna performance is analyzed for both planar and curved substrates. The comparison between simulation and measurements shows a good agreement. This structure can either be used to sense the bending of the substrate or use the bending to tilt the beam. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Ultraviolet photodetection of flexible ZnO nanowire sheets in polydimethylsiloxane polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhang Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowires are normally exposed to an oxygen atmosphere to achieve high performance in UV photodetection. In this work we present results on a UV photodetector fabricated using a flexible ZnO nanowire sheet embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, a gas-permeable polymer, showing reproducible UV photoresponse and enhanced photoconduction. PDMS coating results in a reduced response speed compared to that of a ZnO nanowire film in air. The rising speed is slightly reduced, while the decay time is prolonged by about a factor of four. We conclude that oxygen molecules diffusing in PDMS are responsible for the UV photoresponse.

  16. Ultraviolet photodetection of flexible ZnO nanowire sheets in polydimethylsiloxane polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinzhang; Motta, Nunzio; Lee, Soonil

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanowires are normally exposed to an oxygen atmosphere to achieve high performance in UV photodetection. In this work we present results on a UV photodetector fabricated using a flexible ZnO nanowire sheet embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a gas-permeable polymer, showing reproducible UV photoresponse and enhanced photoconduction. PDMS coating results in a reduced response speed compared to that of a ZnO nanowire film in air. The rising speed is slightly reduced, while the decay time is prolonged by about a factor of four. We conclude that oxygen molecules diffusing in PDMS are responsible for the UV photoresponse.

  17. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) based antenna for flexible system on package (SoP) applications

    KAUST Repository

    Marnat, Loic

    2012-06-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a bowtie antenna on a flexible Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate is reported in this paper. The antenna is fed by a balun transition which helps improve the gain up to 5.1 dB. The antenna performance is analyzed for both planar and curved substrates. The comparison between simulation and measurements shows a good agreement. This structure can either be used to sense the bending of the substrate or use the bending to tilt the beam. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Polymer substrates for flexible photovoltaic cells application in personal electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znajdek, K.; Sibiński, M.; Strąkowska, A.; Lisik, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of polymeric materials for flexible substrates in photovoltaic (PV) structures that could be used as power supply in the personal electronic systems. Four types of polymers have been elected for testing. The first two are the most specialized and heat resistant polyimide films. The third material is transparent polyethylene terephthalate film from the group of polyesters which was proposed as a cheap and commercially available substrate for the technology of photovoltaic cells in a superstrate configuration. The last selected polymeric material is a polysiloxane, which meets the criteria of high elasticity, is temperature resistant and it is also characterized by relatively high transparency in the visible light range. For the most promising of these materials additional studies were performed in order to select those of them which represent the best optical, mechanical and temperature parameters according to their usage for flexible substrates in solar cells.

  19. Development of a polymer based fully flexible electrode tip for neuronal micro-stimulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Romain; Miki, Norihisa

    2017-06-01

    Neural stimulation systems design is highly impacted by the overall resolution and adaptability of the device to the targeted application and area to stimulate. In this paper, we report a novel design for neural micro-stimulation electrode presenting high resolution and adaptability to any targeted area via a high flexibility. We propose the use of liquid metal micro-channels encapsulated into a polymer volume, achieving micro-stimulation pads at the tip of the channels. It presents a high degree of patternability to match different possible targeted applications, and good flexibility and mechanic properties to make it insertable and adaptable into soft tissues. A stable fabrication process, including insertion of the liquid alloy into 50 µm half-channels, the necessity of the U-shape to produce functional conductive micro-channels and the mechanical integrity of the device are discussed.

  20. Thermal Conductivities of Some Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    conductivities (Kt) of epoxies, polyurethanes, and hydrocarbons of interest to the Army. The study explores the effects of different curing agents...obtained. 4.12 p-DCPD P-DCPD is currently of interest for composite armor applications because of its unusual ballistic properties and its high TG...the matrix, and recalling that Kt for the fiber does not dominate in the simple model above, a reasonable upper bound for Kt for a 50 volume

  1. Alumina nanoparticle/polymer nanocomposite dielectric for flexible amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors on plastic substrate with superior stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Hsin-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Pei, Zingway, E-mail: zingway@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Jian, Jyun-Ruri; Tzeng, Bo-Jie [Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-21

    In this study, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer as a nono-composite dielectric for used in a flexible amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate by solution process. The process temperature was well below 100 °C. The a-IGZO TFT exhibit a mobility of 5.13 cm{sup 2}/V s on the flexible substrate. After bending at a radius of 4 mm (strain = 1.56%) for more than 100 times, the performance of this a-IGZO TFT was nearly unchanged. In addition, the electrical characteristics are less altered after positive gate bias stress at 10 V for 1500 s. Thus, this technology is suitable for use in flexible displays.

  2. Driven translocation of Polymer through a nanopore: effect of heterogeneous flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Aniket

    2014-03-01

    We have studied translocation of a model bead-spring polymer through a nanopore whose building blocks consist of alternate stiff and flexible segments and variable elastic bond potentials. For the case of uniform spring potential translocation of a symmetric periodic stiff-flexible chain of contour length N and segment length m (mod(N,2m)=0), we find that the end-to-end distance and the mean first passage time (MFPT) have weak dependence on the length m. The characteristic periodic pattern of the waiting time distribution captures the stiff and flexible segments of the chain with stiff segments taking longer time to translocate. But when we vary both the elastic bond energy, and the bending energy, as well as the length of stiff/flexible segments, we discover novel patterns in the waiting time distribution which brings out structural information of the building blocks of the translocating chain. Partially supported by UCF Office of Research and Commercialization & College of Science SEED grant.

  3. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  4. Radiation chemical treatment of cement mortar - polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the hardened cement pastes,mortars and concretes which contain polymers has progressed rapidly in years. Developmental work has identified a number of applications where the high strength and excellent durability of the composite materials will provide definite advantages over conventional mortars and concretes. The first investigations of polymer - impregnated concrete tried mainly to increase the quantity of absorbed and polymerised monomer because this gave a greater decrease in the original of concrete and a subsequent improvement in physico - mechanical properties. However, the production costs which is due mainly to the organic polymer, becomes the most important item. In this respect recent research showed the possibility of obtaining with a very compact concrete, of relative low porosity, a compound material with high performances after impregnation 26 tabs.,28 figs.,109 refs

  5. Self-healing polymer cement composites for geothermal wellbore applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Fernandez, C.; Childers, I.; Koech, P.; Um, W.; Roosendaal, T.; Nguyen, M.; Huerta, N. J.; Chun, J.; Glezakou, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cement is vital for controlling leaks from wellbores employed in oil, gas, and geothermal operations by sealing the annulus between the wellbore casing and geologic formation. Wellbore cement failure due to physical and chemical stresses is common and can result in significant environmental consequences and ultimately significant financial costs due to remediation efforts. To date numerous alternative cement blends have been proposed for the oil and gas industry. Most of these possess poor mechanical properties, or are not designed to work in high temperature environments. This research investigates novel polymer-cement composites which could function at most geothermal temperatures. Thermal stability and mechanical strength of the polymer is attributed to the formation of a number of chemical interactions between the polymer and cement matrix including covalent bonds, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions. It has been demonstrated that the bonding between cement and casing is more predictable when polymer is added to cement and can even improve healing of adhesion break when subjected to stresses such as thermal shock. Fractures have also been healed, effectively reducing permeability with fractures up to 0.3-0.5mm apertures, which is two orders of magnitude larger than typical wellbore fractures. Additionally, tomography analysis was used to determine internal structure of the cement polymer composite and imaging reveals that polymers fill fractures in the cement and between the cement and casing. By plugging fractures that occur in wellbore cement, reducing permeability of fractures, both environmental safety and economics of subsurface operations will be improved for geothermal energy and oil and gas production.

  6. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites: Processing and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang

    A high efficiency rig was designed and built for in-plane permeability measurement of fabric materials. A new data derivation procedure to acquire the flow fluid pattern in the experiment was developed. The measurement results of the in-plane permeability for basalt twill 31 fabric material showed that a high correlation exists between the two principal permeability values for this fabric at 35% fiber volume fraction. This may be the most important scientific contribution made in this thesis. The results from radial measurements corresponded quite well with those from Unidirectional (UD) measurements, which is a well-established technique. No significant differences in mechanical properties were found between basalt fabric reinforced polymer composites and glass composites reinforced by a fabric of similar weave pattern. Aging results indicate that the interfacial region in basalt composites may be more vulnerable to environmental damage than that in glass composites. However, the basalt/epoxy interface may have been more durable than the glass/epoxy interface in tension-tension fatigue because the basalt composites have significantly longer fatigue life. In this thesis, chapter I reviews the literature on fiber reinforced polymer composites, with concentration on permeability measurement, mechanical properties and durability. Chapter II discusses the design of the new rig for in-plane permeability measurement, the new derivation procedure for monitoring of the fluid flow pattern, and the permeability measurement results. Chapter III compares the mechanical properties and durability between basalt fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Lastly, chapter IV gives some suggestions and recommendations for future work.

  7. Thermosetting Polymer-Matrix Composites for Strucutral Repair Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, William Kirby [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporate of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Conducting polymer/carbon nanocoil composite electrodes for efficient supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report for the first time, conducting polymer (polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY)) coated carbon nanocoils (CNCs) as efficient binder-free electrode materials for supercapacitors. CNCs act as a perfect backbone for the uniform distribution of the conducting polymers in the composites. In two electrode configuration, the samples exhibited high specific capacitance with the values reaching up to 360 and 202 F g -1 for PANI/CNCs and PPY/CNCs respectively. The values obtained for specific capacitance and maximum storage energy per unit mass of the composites were found to be comparable to one of the best reported values for polymer coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the fabricated PANI/CNC based supercapacitors exhibited a high value of 44.61 Wh kg -1 for maximum storage energy per unit mass. Although the devices exhibit an initial capacitance loss due to the instability of the polymer, the specific capacitance stabilizes at a fixed value after 500 charge-discharge cycles. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Nanocellulose in Polymer Composites and Biomedical: Research and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose materials are nano-sized cellulose fibers or crystals that are produced by bacteria or derived from plants. These materials exhibit exceptional strength characteristics, light weight, transparency, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared to some other nanomaterials, nanocellulose is renewable and less expensive to produce. As such, a wide range of applications for nanocellulose has been envisioned. Most extensively studied areas include polymer composites and biomedical applications. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have been used to reinforce both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. Given the hydrophilic nature of these materials, the interfacial properties with most polymers are often poor. Various surface modification procedures have thus been adopted to improve the interaction between polymer matrix and cellulose nanofibrils or nanocrystals. In addition, the applications of nanocellulose as biomaterials have been explored including wound dressing, tissue repair, and medical implants. Nanocellulose materials for wound healing and periodontal tissue recovery have become commercially available, demonstrating the great potential of nanocellulose as a new generation of biomaterials. In this review, we highlight the applications of nanocellulose as reinforcing fillers for composites and the effect of surface modification on the mechanical properties as well as the application as biomaterials.

  10. A flexible liquid crystal polymer MEMS pressure sensor array for fish-like underwater sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J M; Barbastathis, G; Triantafyllou, M S

    2012-01-01

    In order to perform underwater surveillance, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) require flexible, light-weight, reliable and robust sensing systems that are capable of flow sensing and detecting underwater objects. Underwater animals like fish perform a similar task using an efficient and ubiquitous sensory system called a lateral-line constituting of an array of pressure-gradient sensors. We demonstrate here the development of arrays of polymer microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors which are flexible and can be readily mounted on curved surfaces of AUV bodies. An array of ten sensors with a footprint of 60 (L) mm × 25 (W) mm × 0.4 (H) mm is fabricated using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) as the sensing membrane material. The flow sensing and object detection capabilities of the array are illustrated with proof-of-concept experiments conducted in a water tunnel. The sensors demonstrate a pressure sensitivity of 14.3 μV Pa −1 . A high resolution of 25 mm s −1 is achieved in water flow sensing. The sensors can passively sense underwater objects by transducing the pressure variations generated underwater by the movement of objects. The experimental results demonstrate the array’s ability to detect the velocity of underwater objects towed past by with high accuracy, and an average error of only 2.5%. (paper)

  11. An extension of the counterion condensation theory to conformational changes of flexible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benegas, J.C.; Cesaro, A.

    1988-01-01

    A full report on a statistical model is presented in which an ionic polymer is taken as an aggregate of linear flexible segments (similar to the spring-bead model). This model is thought to represent fairly well some flexible ionic polymers in solution. The model assumes two factorizable energy contributions, one purely conformational the other electrostatic. The first contribution is calculated from distribution function of the end-to-end distances and can be obtained from numerical Monte Carlo calculations of chain conformations. The second contribution is the excess thermodynamic property and is calculated, by using Manning's theory of linear polyelectrolytes, as a function of the degree of ionization and of a number of physical variables. Procedures to evaluate changes in the chain conformation of polysaccharides and polypeptides bearing ionizable charged groups are presented. The results show excellent quantitative agreement of averaged functions and experimental data. They also show that statistical average over the conformational states is not equivalent to the thermodynamic property of the averaged conformation. (author). 37 refs, 17 figs

  12. Polymer-Cement Composites Containing Waste Perlite Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Łukowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-cement composites (PCCs are materials in which the polymer and mineral binder create an interpenetrating network and co-operate, significantly improving the performance of the material. On the other hand, the need for the utilization of waste materials is a demand of sustainable construction. Various mineral powders, such as fly ash or blast-furnace slag, are successfully used for the production of cement and concrete. This paper deals with the use of perlite powder, which is a burdensome waste from the process of thermal expansion of the raw perlite, as a component of PCCs. The results of the testing of the mechanical properties of the composite and some microscopic observations are presented, indicating that there is a possibility to rationally and efficiently utilize waste perlite powder as a component of the PCC. This would lead to creating a new type of building material that successfully meets the requirements of sustainable construction.

  13. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Norris, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  14. Magnetoimpedance of cobalt-based amorphous ribbons/polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semirov, A.V., E-mail: semirov@mail.ru [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Derevyanko, M.S.; Bukreev, D.A.; Moiseev, A.A.; Kudryavtsev, V.O. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Safronov, A.P. [Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    The combined influence of the temperature, the elastic tensile stress and the external magnetic field on the total impedance and impedance components were studied for rapidly quenched amorphous Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 5}Si{sub 4}B{sub 16} ribbons. Both as-cast amorphous ribbons and Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 5}Si{sub 4}B{sub 16}/polymer amorphous ribbon based composites were considered. Following polymer coverings were studied: modified rubber solution in o-xylene, solution of butyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid copolymer in isopropanol and solution of polymethylphenylsiloxane resin in toluene. All selected composites showed very good adhesion of the coverings and allowed to provide temperature measurements from 163 K up to 383 K under the applied deforming tensile force up to 30 N. The dependence of the modulus of the impedance and its components on the external magnetic field was influenced by the elastic tensile stresses and was affected by the temperature of the samples. It was shown that maximal sensitivity of the impedance and its components to the external magnetic field was observed at minimal temperature and maximal deforming force depended on the frequency of an alternating current. - Highlights: • Impedance and its components of amorphous Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 5}Si{sub 4}B{sub 16} ribbons were studied. • MI sensitivity to the magnetic field depends on a temperature and a deforming force. • Polymer covering can affect the functional properties of the composite.

  15. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained

  16. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, J.; López, A.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.; Rodríguez, J.

    2007-10-01

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  17. Stainless and Galvanized Steel, Hydrophobic Admixture and Flexible Polymer-Cement Coating Compared in Increasing Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosuè, Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    The use of stainless or galvanized steel reinforcements, a hydrophobic admixture or a flexible polymer-cement coating were compared as methods to improve the corrosion resistance of sound or cracked reinforced concrete specimens exposed to chloride rich solutions. The results show that in full immersion condition, negligible corrosion rates were detected in all cracked specimens, except those treated with the flexible polymer-cement mortar as preventive method against corrosion and the hydrophobic concrete specimens. High corrosion rates were measured in all cracked specimens exposed to wet-dry cycles, except for those reinforced with stainless steel, those treated with the flexible polymer-cement coating as restorative method against reinforcement corrosion and for hydrophobic concrete specimens reinforced with galvanized steel reinforcements.

  18. Electro-mechanical properties of free standing micro- and nano-scale polymer-ceramic composites for energy density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Paritosh; Borkar, Hitesh [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL) Campus, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Singh, B.P.; Singh, V.N. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL) Campus, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110012 (India)

    2015-11-05

    The integration of inorganic fillers in polymer matrix is useful for superior mechanical strength and functional properties of polymer-ceramic composites. We report the fabrication and characterization of polyvinylidene fluoride-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (PVDF-CFO) (wt% 80:20, respectively) and PVDF-Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}–CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (PVDF-PZT-CFO) (wt% 80:10:10, respectively) free standing 50 μm thick ferroelectric-polymer-ceramic composites films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra revealed the presence of major semi-crystalline β-PVDF along with α-phase which is responsible for ferroelectric nature in both the composite systems. Ferroelectric, dielectric and mechanical strength measurements were performed in order to evaluate the effects of CFO and PZT inorganic fillers in PVDF matrix. The inclusion of CFO and PZT micro-/nano-particles in PVDF polymer matrix improved the polarization behavior, dielectric properties and mechanical strength. The energy density was calculated by polarization-electric field hysteresis loop and found in the range of 6–8 J/cm{sup 3} may be useful for microelectronics. - Graphical abstract: Large area PVDF-PZT-CFO nano- and micro-composite films have been fabricated for high energy density storage flexible capacitor. Presence of nanocrystalline PZT and CFO particles in polymer matrix significantly enhanced their energy density capacity. - Highlights: • Physical interaction of cobalt iron oxide with polymer matrix results β-PVDF phase. • Evidence of Micro and Nano crystalline CFO and PZT fillers in polymer matrix. • The CFO and PZT fillers provide better mechanical strength to composite films. • PVDF-ceramic nanocomposites show low leakage behavior for high electric field.

  19. Roll type conducting polymer legs for rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teahoon Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A roll-type conducting polymer film was explored as a flexible organic p-type thermoelectric leg using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT doped with tosylate. The PEDOT films were prepared through solution casting polymerization and rolled up for a roll-type leg. Due to the high flexibility, the roll-type PEDOT leg enabled easy contact to both top and bottom electrodes. Simulation on the dynamic heat transfer and convective cooling for a vertically roosted rod- and roll-type PEDOT leg showed that the temperature difference (ΔT between the hot and cold sides of the leg was much higher in the roll than that of the rod. The PEDOT legs were integrated with n-type Bi2Te3 blocks, to give a 36-couple rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator (RF-TEG. The maximum output voltage from the 36-couple RF-TEG under a ΔT of 7.9 K was determined as 36.7 mV along with a high output power of 115 nW. A wearable RF-TEG was prepared upon the combination of the 36-couple RF-TEG with an arm warmer, to afford an output voltage of 10.6 mV, which was generated constantly and steadily from human wrist heat.

  20. Organic against inorganic electrodes grown onto polymer substrates for flexible organic electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logothetidis, S.; Laskarakis, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging topics in the area of organic electronic devices is the growth of transparent electrodes onto flexible polymeric substrates that will be characterized by enhanced conductivity in combination with high optical transparency. An essential aspect for these materials is their synthesis and/or microstructure which define the transparency, the stability and the interfacial chemistry which in turn determine the performance and stability of the organic electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaics, etc. In this work, we will discuss the latest advances in the growth of organic (e.g. PEDOT:PSS) and inorganic (e.g. zinc oxide-ZnO, indium tin oxide-ITO) conductive materials and their deposition onto flexible polymeric substrates. We will compare the optical, structural, nano-mechanical and nano-topographical properties of the inorganic and organic materials and we investigate the effect of their structure on their properties and functionality. In the case of the organic conductive materials, we will discuss the effects of PEDOT:PSS weight ratios and the various spin speeds on their optical and electrical properties. Furthermore, in the case of ZnO the growth mechanisms, interface phenomena, crystallinity and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown onto polymer and hybrid (inorganic-organic) flexible substrates will be also discussed.

  1. Inorganic Polymer Matrix Composite Strength Related to Interface Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bridge

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding of an inorganic polymer binder was successfully demonstrated in the preparation of ceramic fiber reinforced engine exhaust valves. Unfortunately, in the preliminary processing trials, the resulting composite valves were too brittle for in-engine evaluation. To address this limited toughness, the effectiveness of a modified fiber-matrix interface is investigated through the use of carbon as a model material fiber coating. After sequential heat treatments composites molded from uncoated and carbon coated fibers are compared using room temperature 3-point bend testing. Carbon coated Nextel fiber reinforced geopolymer composites demonstrated a 50% improvement in strength, versus that of the uncoated fiber reinforced composites, after the 250 °C postcure.

  2. Progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the structural behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach account for all types of composite behavior, structures, load conditions, and fracture processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation and to global structural collapse. Results of structural fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach. Parameters and guidelines are identified which can be used as criteria for structural fracture, inspection intervals, and retirement for cause. Generalization to structures made of monolithic metallic materials are outlined and lessons learned in undertaking the development of new approaches, in general, are summarized.

  3. Nanocellulose coupled flexible polypyrrole@graphene oxide composite paper electrodes with high volumetric capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-02-01

    A robust and compact freestanding conducting polymer-based electrode material based on nanocellulose coupled polypyrrole@graphene oxide paper is straightforwardly prepared via in situ polymerization for use in high-performance paper-based charge storage devices, exhibiting stable cycling over 16 000 cycles at 5 A g-1 as well as the largest specific volumetric capacitance (198 F cm-3) so far reported for flexible polymer-based electrodes.A robust and compact freestanding conducting polymer-based electrode material based on nanocellulose coupled polypyrrole@graphene oxide paper is straightforwardly prepared via in situ polymerization for use in high-performance paper-based charge storage devices, exhibiting stable cycling over 16 000 cycles at 5 A g-1 as well as the largest specific volumetric capacitance (198 F cm-3) so far reported for flexible polymer-based electrodes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07251k

  4. Thermal conductivity of polymer composites with oriented boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hong Jun; Eoh, Young Jun; Park, Sung Dae; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity depended on the orientation of BN in the polymer matrices. • Hexagonal boron nitride (BN) particles were treated by C 27 H 27 N 3 O 2 and C 14 H 6 O 8 . • Amphiphilic-agent-treated BN particles are more easily oriented in the composite. • BN/PVA composites with C 14 H 6 O 8 -treated BN showed the highest thermal conductivity. • Thermal conductivity of the composites was compared with several theoretical models. - Abstract: Thermal conductivity of boron nitride (BN) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and/or polyvinyl butyral (PVB) was investigated as a function of the degree of BN orientation, the numbers of hydroxyl groups in the polymer matrices and the amphiphilic agents used. The composites with in-plane orientation of BN showed a higher thermal conductivity than the composites with out-of-plane orientation of BN due to the increase of thermal pathway. For a given BN content, the composites with in-plane orientation of BN/PVA showed higher thermal conductivity than the composites with in-plane orientation of BN/PVB. This result could be attributed to the improved degree of orientation of BN, caused by a larger number of hydroxyl groups being present. Those treated with C 14 H 6 O 8 amphiphilic agent demonstrated a higher thermal conductivity than those treated by C 27 H 27 N 3 O 2 . The measured thermal conductivity of the composites was compared with that predicted by the several theoretical models

  5. A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing-First public demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion

    2009-01-01

    , complete processing in air using commonly available screen printing, and finally, simple mechanical encapsulation using a flexible packaging material and electrical contacting post-production using crimped contacts. We detail the production of more than 2000 modules in one production run and show......A complete polymer solar cell module prepared in the ambient atmosphere under industrial conditions is presented. The versatility of the polymer solar cell technology is demonstrated through the use of abstract forms for the active area, a flexible substrate, processing entirely from solution...

  6. Tuning the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles by Varying the Grafted Chain Length and Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixuan Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By employing coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we simulate the spatial organization of the polymer-grafted nanoparticles (NPs in homopolymer matrix and the resulting mechanical performance, by particularly regulating the grafted chain length and flexibility. The morphologies ranging from the agglomerate, cylinder, sheet, and string to full dispersion are observed, by gradually increasing the grafted chain length. The radial distribution function and the total interaction energy between NPs are calculated. Meanwhile, the stress–strain behavior of each morphology and the morphological evolution during the uniaxial tension are simulated. In particular, the sheet structure exhibits the best mechanical reinforcement compared to other morphologies. In addition, the change of the grafted chain flexibility to semi-flexibility leads to the variation of the morphology. We also find that at long grafted chain length, the stress–strain behavior of the system with the semi-flexible grafted chain begins to exceed that of the system with the flexible grafted chain, attributed to the physical inter-locking interaction between the matrix and grafted polymer chains. A similar transition trend is as well found in the presence of the interfacial chemical couplings between grafted and matrix polymer chains. In general, this work is expected to help to design and fabricate high performance polymer nanocomposites filled with grafted NPs with excellent and controllable mechanical properties.

  7. On Healable Polymers and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Christian Eric

    Polymeric materials capable of healing damage would be valuable in structural applications where access for repair is limited. Approaches to creating such materials are reviewed, with the present work focusing on polymers with thermally reversible covalent cross-links. These special cross-links are Diels-Alder (DA) adducts, which can be separated and re-formed, enabling healing of mechanical damage at the molecular level. Several DA-based polymers, including 2MEP4FS, are mechanically and thermally characterized. The polymerization reaction of 2MEP4FS is modeled and the number of established DA adducts is associated with the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The models are applied to concentric cylinder rotational measurements of 2MEP4FS prepolymer at room and elevated temperatures to describe the viscosity as a function of time, temperature, and conversion. Mechanical damage including cracks and scratches are imparted in cured polymer samples and subsequently healed. Damage due to high temperature thermal degradation is observed to not be reversible. The ability to repair damage without flowing polymer chains makes DA-based healable polymers particularly well-suited for crack healing. The double cleavage drilled compression (DCDC) fracture test is investigated as a useful method of creating and incrementally growing cracks in a sample. The effect of sample geometry on the fracture behavior is experimentally and computationally studied. Computational and empirical models are developed to estimate critical stress intensity factors from DCDC results. Glass and carbon fiber-reinforced composites are fabricated with 2MEP4FS as the matrix material. A prepreg process is developed that uses temperature to control the polymerization rate of the monomers and produce homogeneous prepolymer for integration with a layer of unidirectional fiber. Multiple prepreg layers are laminated to form multi-layered cross-ply healable composites, which are characterized in

  8. Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed short-reach communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Shi, F.; Chu, D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    Multimode polymer waveguides have attracted great interest for use in high-speed short-reach communication links as they can be cost-effectively integrated onto standard PCBs using conventional methods of the electronics industry and provide low loss (30 GHz×m) interconnection. The formation of such waveguides on flexible substrates can further provide flexible low-weight low-thickness interconnects and offer additional freedom in the implementation of high-speed short-reach optical links. These attributes make these flexible waveguides particularly attractive for use in low-cost detachable chip-to-chip links and in environments where weight and shape conformity become important, such as in cars and aircraft. However, the highly-multimoded nature of these waveguides raises important questions about their performance under severe flex due to mode loss and mode coupling. In this work therefore, we investigate the loss, crosstalk and bandwidth performance of such waveguides under out-of plane bending and in-plane twisting under different launch conditions and carry out data transmission tests at 40 Gb/s on a 1 m long spiral flexible waveguide under flexure. Excellent optical transmission characteristics are obtained while robust loss, crosstalk and bandwidth performance are demonstrated under flexure. Error-free (BER<10-12) 40 Gb/s data transmission is achieved over the 1 m long spiral waveguide for a 180° bend with a 4 mm radius. The obtained results demonstrate the excellent optical and mechanical properties of this technology and highlight its potential for use in real-world systems.

  9. Thin and Flexible Fe-Si-B/Ni-Cu-P Metallic Glass Multilayer Composites for Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jijun; Li, Jiawei; Tan, Guoguo; Hu, Renchao; Wang, Junqiang; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin

    2017-12-06

    Thin and flexible materials that can provide efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding are urgently needed, especially if they can be easily processed and withstand harsh environments. Herein, layer-structured Fe-Si-B/Ni-Cu-P metallic glass composites have been developed by simple electroless plating Ni-Cu-P coating on commercial Fe-Si-B metallic glasses. The 0.1 mm-thick composite shows EMI shielding effectiveness of 40 dB over the X-band frequency range, which is higher than those of traditional metals, metal oxides, and their polymer composites of larger thickness. Most of the applied electromagnetic waves are proved to be absorbed rather than bounced back. This performance originates from the combination of a superior soft magnetic property, excellent electrical conductivity, and multiple internal reflections from multilayer composites. In addition, the flexible composites also exhibit good corrosion resistance, high thermal stability, and excellent tensile strength, making them suitable for EMI shielding in harsh chemical or thermal environments.

  10. Compositional and sensory characterization of red wine polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollmann, Nadine; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-03-06

    After isolation from red wine by means of ultrafiltration and gel adsorption chromatography, the composition of the highly astringent tasting high-molecular weight polymers was analyzed by means of HPLC-MS/MS, HPLC-UV/vis, and ion chromatography after thiolytic, alkaline, and acidic depolymerization and, on the basis of the quantitative data obtained as well as model incubation experiments, key structural features of the red wine polymers were proposed. The structural backbone of the polymers seems to be comprised of a procyanidin chain with (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate units as extension and terminal units as well as (-)-epigallocatechin as extension units. In addition, acetaldehyde was shown to link different procyanidins at the A-ring via an 1,1-ethylene bridge and anthocyanins and pyranoanthocyanins were found to be linked to the procyanidin backbone via a C-C-linkage at position C(6) or C(8), respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis demonstrated the polymeric procyanidins to be esterified with various organic acids and phenolic acids, respectively. In addition, the major part of the polysaccharides present in the red wine polymeric fraction were found not to be covalently linked to procyanidins. Interestingly, sensory evaluation of individual fractions of the red wine polymers did not show any significant difference in the astringent threshold concentrations, nor in the astringency intensity in supra-threshold concentrations and demonstrated the mean degree of polymerization as well as the galloylation degree not to have an significant influence on the astringency perception.

  11. Composition inversion in mixtures of binary colloids and polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Isla; Pinchaipat, Rattachai; Wilding, Nigel B.; Faers, Malcolm A.; Bartlett, Paul; Evans, Robert; Royall, C. Patrick

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the phase behaviour of mixtures continues to pose challenges, even for systems that might be considered "simple." Here, we consider a very simple mixture of two colloidal and one non-adsorbing polymer species, which can be simplified even further to a size-asymmetrical binary mixture, in which the effective colloid-colloid interactions depend on the polymer concentration. We show that this basic system exhibits surprisingly rich phase behaviour. In particular, we enquire whether such a system features only a liquid-vapor phase separation (as in one-component colloid-polymer mixtures) or whether, additionally, liquid-liquid demixing of two colloidal phases can occur. Particle-resolved experiments show demixing-like behaviour, but when combined with bespoke Monte Carlo simulations, this proves illusory, and we reveal that only a single liquid-vapor transition occurs. Progressive migration of the small particles to the liquid phase as the polymer concentration increases gives rise to composition inversion—a maximum in the large particle concentration in the liquid phase. Close to criticality, the density fluctuations are found to be dominated by the larger colloids.

  12. Physical, mechanical, and biodegradable properties of meranti wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamul Hoque, M.; Aminudin, M.A.M.; Jawaid, M.; Islam, M.S.; Saba, N.; Paridah, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ polymerization and solution casting method used to manufacture WPC. • In-situ WPC exhibited better properties compared to pure wood, 5% WPC and 20% WPC. • Lowest water absorption and least biodegradability shown by In-situ wood. - Abstract: In-situ polymerization and solution casting techniques are two effective methods to manufacture wood polymer composites (WPCs). In this study, wood polymer composites (WPCs) were manufactured from meranti sapwood by solution casting and in-situ polymerization process using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and epoxy matrix respectively. Physical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations of fabricated WPCs were then carried out to analyse their properties. Morphological properties of composites samples were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result reveals that in-situ wood composite exhibited better properties compared to pure wood, 5% WPC and 20% WPC. Moreover, in-situ WPC had lowest water absorption and least biodegraded. Conversely, pure wood shown moderate mechanical strength, high biodegradation and water absorption rate. In term of biodegradation, earth-medium brought more severe effect than water in deteriorating the properties of the specimens

  13. Fique Fabric: A Promising Reinforcement for Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A relatively unknown natural fiber extracted from the leaves of the fique plant, native of the South American Andes, has recently shown potential as reinforcement of polymer composites for engineering applications. Preliminary investigations indicated a promising substitute for synthetic fibers, competing with other well-known natural fibers. The fabric made from fique fibers have not yet been investigated as possible composite reinforcement. Therefore, in the present work a more thorough characterization of fique fabric as a reinforcement of composites with a polyester matrix was performed. Thermal mechanical properties of fique fabric composites were determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The ballistic performance of plain woven fique fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as a second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. The results revealed a sensible improvement in thermal dynamic mechanical behavior. Both viscoelastic stiffness and glass transition temperature were increased with the amount of incorporated fique fabric. In terms of ballistic results, the fique fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger KevlarTM as an MAS second layer with the same thickness. A cost analysis indicated that armor vests with fique fabric composites as an MAS second layer would be 13 times less expensive than a similar creation made with Kevlar™.

  14. Cellulose Nanocrystal/Poly(ethylene glycol) Composite as an Iridescent Coating on Polymer Substrates: Structure-Color and Interface Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue; Jiang, Chenyu; Liu, Dagang; Prempeh, Nana; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2016-11-30

    The broad utility as an environmentally friendly and colorful coating of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was limited by its instability of coloration, brittleness, and lack of adhesion to a hydrophobic surface. In the present work, a neutral polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was introduced into CNC coatings through evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) on polymer matrices. The structure-color and mechanical properties of the composite coating or coating film were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), and tensile tests. Results showed that the reflective wavelength of the iridescent CNCs could be finely tuned by incorporation of PEG with varied loadings from 2.5 to 50 wt %, although the high loading content of PEG would produce some side effects because of the severe microphase separation. Second, PEG played an effective plasticizer to improve the ductility or flexibility of the CNC coating or coating film. Furthermore, as a compatibilizer, PEG could effectively and tremendously enhance the adhesion strength between CNCs and neutral polymer matrices without destroying the chiral nematic mesophases of CNCs. Environmentally friendly CNC/PEG composites with tunable iridescence, good flexibility, and high bonding strength to hydrophobic polymer matrices are expected to be promising candidates in the modern green paint industry.

  15. Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.

  16. Long fiber polymer composite property calculation in injection molding simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jin; Han, Sejin

    2013-05-01

    Long fiber filled polymer composite materials have attracted a great attention and usage in recent years. However, the injection and compression molded long fiber composite materials possess complex microstructures that include spatial variations in fiber orientation and length. This paper presents the recent implemented anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation distribution[1] and a newly developed fiber breakage model[2] for predicting fiber length distribution in injection and compression molding simulation, and Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka model[3,4] with fiber-matrix de-bonding model[5] have been implemented to calculate the long fiber composite property distribution with predicted fiber orientation and fiber length distributions. A validation study on fiber orientation, fiber breakage and mechanical property distributions are given with injection molding process simulation.

  17. Charge Transport in Carbon Nanotubes-Polymer Composite Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ltaief, Adnen; Bouazizi, Abdelaziz; Davenas, Joel

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dark and illuminated current density-voltage (J/V) characteristics of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethylhexyloxy)1-4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV)/single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) composite photovoltaic cells. Using an exponential band tail model, the conduction mechanism has been analysed for polymer only devices and composite devices, in terms of space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction mechanism, where we determine the power parameters and the threshold voltages. Elaborated devices for MEH-PPV:SWNTs (1:1) composites showed a photoresponse with an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.4 V, a short-circuit current density JSC of 1 µA/cm² and a fill factor FF of 43%. We have modelised the organic photovoltaic devices with an equivalent circuit, where we calculated the series and shunt resistances.

  18. Building up Graphene-Based Conductive Polymer Composite Thin Films Using Reduced Graphene Oxide Prepared by γ-Ray Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reduced graphene oxide (RGO was prepared by means of γ-ray irradiation of graphene oxide (GO in a water/ethanol mix solution, and we investigated the influence of reaction parameters, including ethanol concentration, absorbed dose, and dose rate during the irradiation. Due to the good dispersibility of the RGO in the mix solution, we built up flexible and conductive composite films based on the RGO and polymeric matrix through facile vacuum filtration and polymer coating. The electrical and optical properties of the obtained composite films were tested, showing good electrical conductivity with visible transmittance but strong ultraviolet absorbance.

  19. Low temperature atmospheric microplasma jet array for uniform treatment of polymer surface for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng; Liu, Jingquan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the uniformity of polymer film etching by an atmospheric pressure He/O2 microplasma jet array (μPJA) is first investigated with different applied voltage. Plasma characteristics of μPJA were recorded by optical discharge images. Morphologies and chemical compositions of polymer film etched by μPJA were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). By increasing the applied voltage from 8.5 kV to 16.4 kV, the non-uniformity of the luminous intensity of the plasma jets increases. It is interesting that the plasma treated regions are actually composed of an etched region and modification region, with distinct morphologies and chemical compositions. The diameters of the etched parylene-C film show the increase of non-uniformity with higher applied voltage. SEM results show that the non-uniformity of surface morphologies of both the modification regions and etched regions increases with the increase of applied voltage. EDS and XPS results also present the significant effect of higher applied voltage on the non-uniformity of surface chemical compositions of both modification and etched regions. The Coulomb interaction of the streamer heads and the hydrodynamic interaction between the plasma jets and the surrounding air are considered to be responsible for this phenomenon. The results shown in this work can help improve the processing quality of polymer film etched by an atmospheric pressure microplasma jet array and two applications are demonstrated to illustrate the uniform downstream surface treatment.

  20. The dynamic response of carbon fiber-filled polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic (shock responses of two carbon fiber-filled polymer composites have been quantified using gas gun-driven plate impact experimentation. The first composite is a filament-wound, highly unidirectional carbon fiber-filled epoxy with a high degree of porosity. The second composite is a chopped carbon fiber- and graphite-filled phenolic resin with little-to-no porosity. Hugoniot data are presented for the carbon fiber-epoxy (CE composite to 18.6 GPa in the through-thickness direction, in which the shock propagates normal to the fibers. The data are best represented by a linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit: Us = 2.87 + 1.17 ×up(ρ0 = 1.536g/cm3. The shock wave structures were found to be highly heterogeneous, both due to the anisotropic nature of the fiber-epoxy microstructure, and the high degree of void volume. Plate impact experiments were also performed on a carbon fiber-filled phenolic (CP composite to much higher shock input pressures, exceeding the reactants-to-products transition common to polymers. The CP was found to be stiffer than the filament-wound CE in the unreacted Hugoniot regime, and transformed to products near the shock-driven reaction threshold on the principal Hugoniot previously shown for the phenolic binder itself. [19] On-going research is focused on interrogating the direction-dependent dyanamic response and dynamic failure strength (spall for the CE composite in the TT and 0∘ (fiber directions.

  1. Hierarchical porous graphene/polyaniline composite film with superior rate performance for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuena; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yajie; Wei, Zhixiang

    2013-12-23

    A highly flexible graphene free-standing film with hierarchical structure is prepared by a facile template method. With a porous structure, the film can be easily bent and cut, and forms a composite with another material as a scaffold. The 3D graphene film exhibits excellent rate capability and its capacitance is further improved by forming a composite with polyaniline nanowire arrays. The flexible hierarchical composite proves to be an excellent electrode material for flexible supercapacitors. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composite poypropilene-Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betha; Mashuri; Sudirman; Karo Karo, Aloma

    2001-01-01

    Thermal conductivity composite materials polypropylene (PP)-sand have been investigated. PP composite with sand to increase thermal conductivity from the polymer. The composite in this observation is done by mixing matrix (PP melt flow 2/10)and filler sand)by means tool labo plastomil. The result of thermal conductivity is composite of PP-sand which is obtained increase and followed by the raising of filler particle volume fraction. The analysis of thermal conductivity based on the model Cheng and Vachon, model Lewis and Nielsen where this model has the function to support experiment finding. It is proved that Lewis' and Nielsen's model almost approach experiment result. And then thermal conductivity raising will be analyzed by the model of pararel-series conductive with the two (2)phases system. It is showed that sand in PP MF 2 composite have the big role to increase the thermal conductivity than sand in PP MF 10 composition, but it is not easy to shape conductive medium

  3. Flexible aerogel composite for mechanical stability and process of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado, P.R.; Poco, J.F.

    1999-10-26

    A flexible aerogel and process of fabrication are disclosed. An aerogel solution is mixed with fibers in a mold and allowed to gel. The gel is then processed by supercritical extraction, or by air drying, to produce a flexible aerogel formed to the shape of the mold. The flexible aerogel has excellent thermal and acoustic properties, and can be utilized in numerous applications, such as for energy absorption, insulation (temperature and acoustic), to meet the contours of aircraft shapes, and where space is limited since an inch of aerogel is a 4--5 times better insulator than an inch of fiberglass. The flexible aerogel may be of an inorganic (silica) type or an organic (carbon) type, but containing fibers, such as glass or carbon fibers.

  4. Flexible aerogel composite for mechanical stability and process of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Poco, John F.

    1999-01-01

    A flexible aerogel and process of fabrication. An aerogel solution is mixed with fibers in a mold and allowed to gel. The gel is then processed by supercritical extraction, or by air drying, to produce a flexible aerogel formed to the shape of the mold. The flexible aerogel has excellent thermal and acoustic properties, and can be utilized in numerous applications, such as for energy absorption, insulation (temperature and acoustic), to meet the contours of aircraft shapes, and where space is limited since an inch of aerogel is a 4-5 times better insulator than an inch of fiberglass. The flexible aerogel may be of an inorganic (silica) type or an organic (carbon) type, but containing fibers, such as glass or carbon fibers.

  5. Flexible aerogel composite for mechanical stability and process of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado, P.R.; Poco, J.F.

    2000-07-11

    A flexible aerogel and process of fabrication are disclosed. An aerogel solution is mixed with fibers in a mold and allowed to gel. The gel is then processed by supercritical extraction, or by air drying, to produce a flexible aerogel formed to the shape of the mold. The flexible aerogel has excellent thermal and acoustic properties, and can be utilized in numerous applications, such as for energy absorption, insulation (temperature and acoustic), to meet the contours of aircraft shapes, and where space is limited since an inch of aerogel is a 4--5 times better insulator than an inch of fiberglass. The flexible aerogel may be of an inorganic (silica) type or an organic (carbon) type, but containing fibers, such as glass or carbon fibers.

  6. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren; Gholamkhass, Bobak

    2009-01-01

    A round robin for the performance of roll-to-roll coated flexible large-area polymer solar-cell modules involving 18 different laboratories in Northern America, Europe and Middle East is presented. The study involved the performance measurement of the devices at one location (Risø DTU) followed b...

  7. A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren

    2010-01-01

    by transportation to a participating laboratory for performance measurement and return to the starting location (Risø DTU) for re-measurement of the performance. It was found possible to package polymer solar-cell modules using a flexible plastic barrier material in such a manner that degradation of the devices...

  8. Conducting polymer micro-supercapacitors for flexible energy storage and Ac line-filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-04-01

    We propose a novel surfactant-mediated process to fabricate flexible microsupercapacitors (MSCs) combining conventional photolithography and electrochemical deposition. The anionic surfactant mediates the process of electropolymerisation at a lower anodic potential while causing template effects in producing porous conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) electrodes. Using this strategy, PEDOT MSCs with remarkable performance in terms of tunable frequency response and energy density are achieved. Specifically, ultrahigh scan rate capability up to 500V/s is achieved with a crossover frequency of 400Hz at a phase angle of -45°. This is the first polymer-based redox microsupercapacitor with excellent frequency characteristics other than carbonaceous-based electrochemical double layer capacitors reported so far in the literature. Thus, the micro-supercapacitors exhibit maximum areal cell capacitance of 9mF/cm2 with a volumetric stack capacitance of 50F/cm3 in 1M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The flexibility and stability of these PEDOT MSCs is tested in aqueous gel electrolyte which showed a capacitance retention up to 80% over 10,000 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 100%. The maximum energy density of solid state ion gel based PEDOT MSCs was found to be 7.7mWh/cm3, which is comparable to the lithium based thin film batteries and superior to the current state-of-the-art carbon and metal oxide based MSCs. Further, the tandem configuration of flexible solid state ion gel based PEDOT MSCs is employed to demonstrate it as a power source for glowing a red light emitting diode. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Strengthening of the Timber Members Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of structural wood products has become in the last decades an efficient method of improving structural capabilities of load carrying members made of this material. Some important steps in earlier stages of research were focused on using metallic reinforcement, including steel bars, prestressed stranded cables, and bonded steel and aluminum plates. A disadvantage of the metallic reinforcement was the poor compatibility between the wood and the reinforcing materials. In comparison with metallic reinforcement, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP composites are compatible with structural wood products leading to efficient hybrid members. Some interesting strengthening alternatives using FRP applied to wood beams and to wood columns are presented in this paper.

  10. Large area flexible polymer solar cells with high efficiency enabled by imprinted Ag grid and modified buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shudi; Lin, Jie; Liu, Kong; Yue, Shizhong; Ren, Kuankuan; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Jin, Peng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    To take a full advantage of polymer semiconductors on realization of large-area flexible photovoltaic devices, herein, we fabricate polymer solar cells on the basis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with imprinted Ag grid as transparent electrode. The key fabrication procedure is the adoption of a modified PEDOT:PSS (PH1000) solution for spin-coating the buffer layer to form a compact contact with the substrate. In comparison with the devices with intrinsic PEDOT:PSS buffer layer, the advanced devices present a much higher efficiency of 6.51%, even in a large device area of 2.25 cm"2. Subsequent characterizations reveal that such devices show an impressive performance stability as the bending angle is enlarged to 180° and bending time is up to 1000 cycles. Not only providing a general methodology to construct high efficient and flexible polymer solar cells, this paper also involves deep insights on device working mechanism in bending conditions.

  11. AC Electric Field Activated Shape Memory Polymer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Siochi, Emilie J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Turner, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory materials have drawn interest for applications like intelligent medical devices, deployable space structures and morphing structures. Compared to other shape memory materials like shape memory alloys (SMAs) or shape memory ceramics (SMCs), shape memory polymers (SMPs) have high elastic deformation that is amenable to tailored of mechanical properties, have lower density, and are easily processed. However, SMPs have low recovery stress and long response times. A new shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive fillers to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. A new composition of shape memory thermosetting polymer nanocomposite (LaRC-SMPC) was synthesized with conductive functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) to enhance its thermo-mechanical characteristics. The elastic modulus of LaRC-SMPC is approximately 2.7 GPa at room temperature and 4.3 MPa above its glass transition temperature. Conductive FGSs-doped LaRC-SMPC exhibited higher conductivity compared to pristine LaRC SMP. Applying an electric field at between 0.1 Hz and 1 kHz induced faster heating to activate the LaRC-SMPC s shape memory effect relative to applying DC electric field or AC electric field at frequencies exceeding1 kHz.

  12. Characterization of wood polymer composite and design of root trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K. N.; Abhilash, R. M.; Chauhan, Shakti Singh; Venkatesh, G. S.; Shivkumar, N. D.

    2018-04-01

    Biopolymers have received much attention of researchers due to concerns over disposal of plastics, greenhouse gas emission and environmental problems associated with it. Polylactic Acid (PLA) is one of the thermoplastic biopolymer made from lactic acid by using agricultural resources. PLA has received significant interest due to its competitive properties when compared to commodity plastics such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene and Polystyrene. PLA has interesting properties such as high stiffness, UV stability, clear and glossy finish. However, application of PLA is restricted due to its brittle nature. Engineering and thermal properties of PLA can be improved by reinforcing fibres and fillers. Lignocelluloses or natural fibres such as Jute, Hemp, Bamboo, Sisal and Wood fibres can be used as reinforcement. By using natural fibres, a very bio-compostable composite can be produced. In the present study, short fibres from Melia Dubia wood were extracted and used as reinforcement to PLA Bio-Polymer matrix. Characterization of developed composite was obtained using tensile and flexural tests. Tensile test simulation of composite was performed using Altair Hypermesh, a Finite Element (FE) preprocessor and LS-Dyna an explicit FE solver. MAT_01, an elastic material model in LS-Dyna was used to model the behaviour. Further, the design of Root Trainer using developed composite has been explored. A Root Trainer is an aid to the cultivation of seedlings in nurseries. Root Trainer made by using developed composite has advantage of biodegradability and eco-friendly nature.

  13. Computational modeling of biodegradable starch based polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sachin Sudhakar

    2007-12-01

    Purpose. The goal of this study is to improve the favorable molecular interactions between starch and PPC by addition of grafting monomers MA and ROM as compatibilizers, which would advance the mechanical properties of starch/PPC composites. Methodology. DFT and semi-empirical methods based calculations were performed on three systems: (a) starch/PPC, (b) starch/PPC-MA, and (c) starch-ROM/PPC. Theoretical computations involved the determination of optimal geometries, binding-energies and vibrational frequencies of the blended polymers. Findings. Calculations performed on five starch/PPC composites revealed hydrogen bond formation as the driving force behind stable composite formation, also confirmed by the negative relative energies of the composites indicating the existence of binding forces between the constituent co-polymers. The interaction between starch and PPC is also confirmed by the computed decrease in stretching CO and OH group frequencies participating in hydrogen bond formation, which agree qualitatively with the experimental values. A three-step mechanism of grafting MA on PPC was proposed to improve the compatibility of PPC with starch. Nine types of 'blends' produced by covalent bond formation between starch and MA-grafted PPC were found to be energetically stable, with blends involving MA grafted at the 'B' and 'C' positions of PPC indicating a binding-energy increase of 6.8 and 6.2 kcal/mol, respectively, as compared to the non-grafted starch/PPC composites. A similar increase in binding-energies was also observed for three types of 'composites' formed by hydrogen bond formation between starch and MA-grafted PPC. Next, grafting of ROM on starch and subsequent blend formation with PPC was studied. All four types of blends formed by the reaction of ROM-grafted starch with PPC were found to be more energetically stable as compared to the starch/PPC composite and starch/PPC-MA composites and blends. A blend of PPC and ROM grafted at the '

  14. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  15. Ionic polymer metal composites with polypyrrole-silver electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, F.; Grillo, A.; Porfiri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft active materials that are finding increasing application in robotics, environmental sensing, and energy harvesting. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of IPMCs via in-situ photoinduced polymerization of polypyrrole-silver electrodes on an ionomeric membrane. The composition, morphology, and sheet resistance of the electrodes are extensively characterized through a range of experimental techniques. We experimentally investigate IPMC electrochemistry through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and we propose a modified Randle's model to interpret the impedance spectrum. Finally, we demonstrate in-air dynamic actuation and sensing and assess IPMC performance against more established fabrication methods. Given the simplicity of the process and the short time required for the formation of the electrodes, we envision the application of our technique in the development of a rapid prototyping technology for IPMCs.

  16. New transparent conductive metal based on polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Jamali, Mohammad [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Strunkus, Thomas; Zaporochentko, Vladimir; Faupel, Franz [Multicomponent Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institute of Polymer Research, Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Currently great efforts are made to develop new kind of transparent conductors (TCs) to replace ITO. In this regard different materials and composites have been proposed and studied including conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal grids, and random networks of metallic nanowires. But so far none of them could be used as a replacing material, since either they are either fragile and brittle or their electrical conductivity is below the typical ITO. Thin metallic films due to their high electrical conductivity could be one of the best replacing materials for ITO, however their poor transparency makes their application as TCs limited. Here we design and fabricate a new polymeric composite coating which enhances the transparency of the thin metal film up to 100% relative to the initial value while having a high electrical conductivity of typical metals. Therefore our proposed device has a great potential to be used as new transparent conductor.

  17. Mechanical behavior of chemically treated Jute/Polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of jute , a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, jute composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Mechanical properties of jute/polymer and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that jute can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites.

  18. Composites of 3D-Printed Polymers and Textile Fabrics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Yasmin; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    3D printing belongs to the rapidly emerging technologies of our time. Due to its recent drawback - the technology is relatively slow compared with other primary shaping methods, such as injection molding -, 3D printing is often not used for creating complete large components but to add specific features to existing larger objects. One of the possibilities to create such composites with an additional value consists in combining 3D printed polymers with textile fabrics. Several attempts have been made to enhance the adhesion between both materials, a task which is still challenging for diverse material combinations. Our paper reports about new experiments combining 3D printed embossed designs, snap fasteners and zip fasteners with different textile base materials, showing the possibilities and technical limits of these novel composites.

  19. Electrostatically Induced Carbon Nanotube Alignment for Polymer Composite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapkin, Wesley Aaron

    We have developed a non-invasive technique utilizing polarized Raman spectroscopy to measure changes in carbon nanotube (CNT) alignment in situ and in real time in a polymer matrix. With this technique, we have confirmed the prediction of faster alignment for CNTs in higher electric fields. Real-time polarized Raman spectroscopy also allows us to demonstrate the loss of CNT alignment that occurs after the electric field is removed, which reveals the need for fast polymerization steps or the continued application of the aligning force during polymerization to lock in CNT alignment. Through a study on the effect of polymer viscosity on the rate of CNT alignment, we have determined that shear viscosity serves as the controlling mechanism for CNT rotation. This finding matches literature modeling of rigid rod mobility in a polymer melt and demonstrates that the rotational mobility of CNTs can be explained by a continuum model even though the diameters of single-walled CNTs are 1-2 nm. The viscosity dependence indicates that the manipulation of temperature (and indirectly viscosity) will have a direct effect on the rate of CNT alignment, which could prove useful in expediting the manufacturing of CNT-reinforced composites cured at elevated temperatures. Using real-time polarized Raman spectroscopy, we also demonstrate that electric fields of various strengths lead not only to different speeds of CNT rotation but also to different degrees of alignment. We hypothesize that this difference in achievable alignment results from discrete populations of nanotubes based on their length. The results are then explained by balancing the alignment energy for a given electric field strength with the randomizing thermal energy of the system. By studying the alignment dynamics of different CNT length distributions, we show that different degrees of alignment achieved as a function of the applied electric field strength are directly related to the square of the nanotube length. This

  20. Real-time detection of metal ions using conjugated polymer composite papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Kwon, Oh Seok; Huh, Yang-Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2014-09-21

    Cellulose, a natural polymeric material, has widespread technical applications because of its inherent structural rigidity and high surface area. As a conjugated polymer, polypyrrole shows practical potential for a diverse and promising range of future technologies. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for the real-time detection and removal of metal ions with polypyrrole/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers in solution. Simply, the conjugated polymer papers had different chemical/physical properties by applying different potentials to them, which resulted in differentiable response patterns and adsorption efficiencies for individual metal ions. First, large-area PPCL papers with a diameter of 5 cm were readily obtained via vapor deposition polymerization. The papers exhibited both mechanical flexibility and robustness, in which polypyrrole retained its redox property perfectly. The ability of the PPCL papers to recognize metal ions was examined in static and flow cells, in which real-time current change was monitored at five different applied potentials (+1, +0.5, 0, -0.5, and -1 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Distinguishable signals in the PPCL paper responses were observed for individual metal ions through principal component analysis. Particularly, the PPCL papers yielded unique signatures for three metal ions, Hg(ii), Ag(i), and Cr(iii), even in a real sample, groundwater. The sorption of metal ions by PPCL papers was examined in the flow system. The PPCL papers had a greatly superior adsorption efficiency for Hg(ii) compared to that of the other metal ions. With the strong demand for the development of inexpensive, flexible, light-weight, and environmentally friendly devices, the fascinating characteristics of these PPCL papers are likely to provide good opportunities for low-cost paper-based flexible or wearable devices.

  1. A strategy to synthesize graphene-incorporated lignin polymer composite materials with uniform graphene dispersion and covalently bonded interface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Duong, Le Dai; Ma, Yifei; Sun, Yan; Hong, Sung Yong; Kim, Ye Chan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-08-01

    Graphene-incorporated polymer composites have been demonstrated to have excellent mechanical and electrical properties. In the field of graphene-incorporated composite material synthesis, there are two main obstacles: Non-uniform dispersion of graphene filler in the matrix and weak interface bonding between the graphene filler and polymer matrix. To overcome these problems, we develop an in-situ polymerization strategy to synthesize uniformly dispersed and covalently bonded graphene/lignin composites. Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically modified by 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) to introduce isocyanate groups and form the urethane bonds with lignin macromonomers. Subsequential polycondensation reactions of lignin groups with caprolactone and sebacoyl chloride bring about a covalent network of modified GO and lignin-based polymers. The flexible and robust lignin polycaprolactone polycondensate/modified GO (Lig-GOm) composite membranes are achieved after vacuum filtration, which have tunable hydrophilicity and electrical resistance according to the contents of GOm. This research transforms lignin from an abundant biomass into film-state composite materials, paving a new way for the utilization of biomass wastes.

  2. Self Healing Fibre-reinforced Polymer Composites: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Ian P.; Trask, Richard S.; Williams, Hugo R.; Williams, Gareth J.

    Lightweight, high-strength, high-stiffness fibre-reinforced polymer composite materials are leading contenders as component materials to improve the efficiency and sustainability of many forms of transport. For example, their widespread use is critical to the success of advanced engineering applications, such as the Boeing 787 and Airbus A380. Such materials typically comprise complex architectures of fine fibrous reinforcement e.g. carbon or glass, dispersed within a bulk polymer matrix, e.g. epoxy. This can provide exceptionally strong, stiff, and lightweight materials which are inherently anisotropic, as the fibres are usually arranged at a multitude of predetermined angles within discrete stacked 2D layers. The direction orthogonal to the 2D layers is usually without reinforcement to avoid compromising in-plane performance, which results in a vulnerability to damage in the polymer matrix caused by out-of-plane loading, i.e. impact. Their inability to plastically deform leaves only energy absorption via damage creation. This damage often manifests itself internally within the material as intra-ply matrix cracks and inter-ply delaminations, and can thus be difficult to detect visually. Since relatively minor damage can lead to a significant reduction in strength, stiffness and stability, there has been some reticence by designers for their use in safety critical applications, and the adoption of a `no growth' approach (i.e. damage propagation from a defect constitutes failure) is now the mindset of the composites industry. This has led to excessively heavy components, shackling of innovative design, and a need for frequent inspection during service (Richardson 1996; Abrate 1998).

  3. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Kuczko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing – Fused Deposition Modeling out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling – patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with modeling studios, which produce patterns by conventional, subtractive manufacturing technologies. If patterns have complex shapes, this results in high manufacturing costs and significantly longer time of tooling preparation. The method proposed by the authors allows manufacturing functional prototypes in a short time thanks to utilizing capabilities of additive manufacturing (3D printing technology. Thanks to using two types of materials simultaneously (ABS combined with chemically hardened resins, the produced prototypes are capable of carrying increased loads. Moreover, the method developed by the authors is characterized by manufacturing costs lower than in the basic technology of Fused Deposition Modeling. During the presented studies, the pattern was produced as a polymer composite and it was used to prepare a mold and a set of metal castings.

  4. An all-polymer airflow sensor using a piezoresistive composite elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, Avishek R; Allen, Mark G; Song, Chao; Kim, Seong-Hyok

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an all-polymer flexible micromachined flow sensor using a carbon-black based conductive composite elastomer as a piezoresistor. The device is composed of an out-of-plane curved flow sensing element formed using a polyimide film. The conductive composite elastomer combines a low Young's modulus (∼1.72 MPa) and a high piezoresistive gage factor (∼7.3), making it an ideal material for the sensing application. Moreover, the use of the polyimide film, which can be easily laser micromachined, as the material for device fabrication enables the use of planar micromachining techniques, which minimizes process complexities. The proposed fabrication sequence combines the benefits of the polymeric materials used, while simultaneously enabling a backside interconnect scheme for an array of devices, without additional processing steps. The backside interconnect scheme allows for flow field mapping with minimum interference due to the sensing circuitry. Individual sensors as small as 1.5 mm in length and 0.4 mm in width, with 70 µm wide and 20–50 µm thick piezoresistor lines, have been fabricated. Wind tunnel testing demonstrated sensitivities as high as 66Ω/(m s −1 ). The integration of polyimide films and conductive elastomers into a flow sensing device using the simple planar fabrication technologies discussed is suitable for reduced cost, large area sensor array development, and can also leverage traditional flexible circuit fabrication

  5. Stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite for use in sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E; Read, Douglas H

    2013-10-22

    A method for making a composite polymeric material with electrical conductivity determined by stress-tuning of the conductor-polymer composite, and sensors made with the stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite made by this method. Stress tuning is achieved by mixing a miscible liquid into the polymer precursor solution or by absorbing into the precursor solution a soluble compound from vapor in contact with the polymer precursor solution. The conductor may or may not be ordered by application of a magnetic field. The composite is formed by polymerization with the stress-tuning agent in the polymer matrix. The stress-tuning agent is removed following polymerization to produce a conductor-polymer composite with a stress field that depends on the amount of stress-tuning agent employed.

  6. Effect of Polymer Matrix on the Structure and Electric Properties of Piezoelectric Lead Zirconatetitanate/Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric lead zirconatetitanate (PZT/polymer composites were prepared by two typical polymer matrixes using the hot-press method. The micromorphology, microstructure, dielectric properties, and piezoelectric properties of the PZT/polymer composites were characterized and investigated. The results showed that when the condition of frequency is 103 Hz, the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of PZT/poly(vinylidene fluoride were both better than that of PZT/polyvinyl chloride (PVC. When the volume fraction of PZT was 50%, PZT/PVDF prepared by the hot-press method had better comprehensive electric property.

  7. Development of Chitosan/Bacterial Cellulose Composite Films Containing Nanodiamonds as a Potential Flexible Platform for Wound Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ostadhossein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/bacterial cellulose composite films containing diamond nanoparticles (NDs with potential application as wound dressing are introduced. Microstructural studies show that NDs are uniformly dispersed in the matrix, although slight agglomeration at concentrations above 2 wt % is seen. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals formation of hydrogen bonds between NDs and the polymer matrix. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates reduced crystallinity of the polymer matrix in the presence of NDs. Approximately 3.5-fold increase in the elastic modulus of the composite film is obtained by the addition of 2 wt % NDs. The results of colorimetric analysis show that the composite films are transparent but turn to gray-like and semitransparent at high ND concentrations. Additionally, a decrease in highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO gap is also seen, which results in a red shift and higher absorption intensity towards the visible region. Mitochondrial activity assay using L929 fibroblast cells shows that the nanocomposite films are biocompatible (>90% after 24 h incubation. Multiple lamellapodia and cell-cell interaction are shown. The results suggest that the developed films can potentially be used as a flexible platform for wound dressing.

  8. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  9. Mechanical properties, microstructure and magnetic properties of composite magnet base on SrO.6Fe_2O_3 (SRM)-thermoplastic and thermoset polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace Tj Sulungbudi; Aloma Karo Karo; Mujamilah; Sudirman

    2010-01-01

    The use of magnets in industrial applications do not always require high magnetic properties. Therefore, the use of polymer as a matrix that serves as a binder can be applied to obtain lightweight, flexible and cheap composite magnet. This report discuss composite magnet base on SrO.6Fe_2O_3(SRM)-thermoplastic and thermoset polymer. Thermoplastic polymer consist of polypropylene (PP) type of PP2 and PP10 and polyethylene (PE) type of LDPE were used. For thermoset polymer, epoxy and polyester were used. Synthesis of composite magnet based on thermoplastic polymer (PP2, PP10, LDPE) were carried using the blending method, while the thermoset composites magnet using casting method. Thermoplastic composite magnets were prepared with compositions of 50, 41, 38, 33 and 29 % weight of SRM with the blending temperature of 160 °C for LDPE and 180 °C for PP2 and PP10. For thermoset composite magnets, the compositions were 30, 40, 50 and 60 % by weight of SRM. The mechanical test conducted include tensile strength and elongation at break. Microstructure on the surface of the composite materials were observed using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and the magnetic properties were measured using VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer). The SEM results showed the formation of flat shape powder particle with size of 1.6 µm. In general, the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymer composite magnet are better than that using polyethylene (LDPE) binder. For polypropylene binder PP10 is better than PP2. Magnetic properties are not significantly affected by the change of polymer or binder types. (author)

  10. Free energy landscape of siRNA-polycation complexation: Elucidating the effect of molecular geometry, polymer flexibility, and charge neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianvito Grasso

    Full Text Available The success of medical threatments with DNA and silencing interference RNA is strongly related to the design of efficient delivery technologies. Cationic polymers represent an attractive strategy to serve as nucleic-acid carriers with the envisioned advantages of efficient complexation, low cost, ease of production, well-defined size, and low polydispersity index. However, the balance between efficacy and toxicity (safety of these polymers is a challenge and in need of improvement. With the aim of designing more effective polycationic-based gene carriers, many parameters such as carrier morphology, size, molecular weight, surface chemistry, and flexibility/rigidity ratio need to be taken into consideration. In the present work, the binding mechanism of three cationic polymers (polyarginine, polylysine and polyethyleneimine to a model siRNA target is computationally investigated at the atomistic level. In order to better understand the polycationic carrier-siRNA interactions, replica exchange molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to provide an exhaustive exploration of all the possible binding sites, taking fully into account the siRNA flexibility together with the presence of explicit solvent and ions. Moreover, well-tempered metadynamics simulations were employed to elucidate how molecular geometry, polycation flexibility, and charge neutralization affect the siRNA-polycations free energy landscape in term of low-energy binding modes and unbinding free energy barriers. Significant differences among polymer binding modes have been detected, revealing the advantageous binding properties of polyarginine and polylysine compared to polyethyleneimine.

  11. Statistical model of a flexible inextensible polymer chain: The effect of kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamenshchik, V. M.; Vozniak, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the holonomic constraints, the kinetic energy contribution in the partition function of an inextensible polymer chain is difficult to find, and it has been systematically ignored. We present the first thermodynamic calculation incorporating the kinetic energy of an inextensible polymer chain with the bending energy. To explore the effect of the translation-rotation degrees of freedom, we propose and solve a statistical model of a fully flexible chain of N +1 linked beads which, in the limit of smooth bending, is equivalent to the well-known wormlike chain model. The partition function with the kinetic and bending energies and correlations between orientations of any pair of links and velocities of any pair of beads are found. This solution is precise in the limits of small and large rigidity-to-temperature ratio b /T . The last exact solution is essential as even very "harmless" approximation results in loss of the important effects when the chain is very rigid. For very high b /T , the orientations of different links become fully correlated. Nevertheless, the chain does not go over into a hard rod even in the limit b /T →∞ : While the velocity correlation length diverges, the correlations themselves remain weak and tend to the value ∝T /(N +1 ). The N dependence of the partition function is essentially determined by the kinetic energy contribution. We demonstrate that to obtain the correct energy and entropy in a constrained system, the T derivative of the partition function has to be applied before integration over the constraint-setting variable.

  12. Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Cellulose Gels as a Flexible Reinforcement Matrix for Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhuqun; Huang, Junchao; Liu, Chuanjun; Ding, Beibei; Kuga, Shigenori; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lina

    2015-10-21

    With the world's focus on utilization of sustainable natural resources, the conversion of wood and plant fibers into cellulose nanowhiskers/nanofibers is essential for application of cellulose in polymer nanocomposites. Here, we present a novel fabrication method of polymer nanocomposites by in-situ polymerization of monomers in three-dimensionally nanoporous cellulose gels (NCG) prepared from aqueous alkali hydroxide/urea solution. The NCG have interconnected nanofibrillar cellulose network structure, resulting in high mechanical strength and size stability. Polymerization of the monomer gave P(MMA/BMA)/NCG, P(MMA/BA)/NCG nanocomposites with a volume fraction of NCG ranging from 15% to 78%. SEM, TEM, and XRD analyses show that the NCG are finely distributed and preserved well in the nanocomposites after polymerization. DMA analysis demonstrates a significant improvement in tensile storage modulus E' above the glass transition temperature; for instance, at 95 °C, E' is increased by over 4 orders of magnitude from 0.03 MPa of the P(MMA/BMA) up to 350 MPa of nanocomposites containing 15% v/v NCG. This reinforcement effect can be explained by the percolation model. The nanocomposites also show remarkable improvement in solvent resistance (swelling ratio of 1.3-2.2 in chloroform, acetone, and toluene), thermal stability (do not melt or decompose up to 300 °C), and low coefficients of thermal expansion (in-plane CTE of 15 ppm·K(-1)). These nanocomposites will have great promising applications in flexible display, packing, biomedical implants, and many others.

  13. Competition between deformability and charge transport in semiconducting polymers for flexible and stretchable electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Printz, Adam D.; Lipomi, Darren J., E-mail: dlipomi@ucsd.edu [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0448, La Jolla, California 92093-0448 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The primary goal of the field concerned with organic semiconductors is to produce devices with performance approaching that of silicon electronics, but with the deformability—flexibility and stretchability—of conventional plastics. However, an inherent competition between deformability and charge transport has long been observed in these materials, and achieving the extreme (or even moderate) deformability implied by the word “plastic” concurrently with high charge transport may be elusive. This competition arises because the properties needed for high carrier mobilities—e.g., rigid chains in π-conjugated polymers and high degrees of crystallinity in the solid state—are antithetical to deformability. On the device scale, this competition can lead to low-performance yet mechanically robust devices, or high-performance devices that fail catastrophically (e.g., cracking, cohesive failure, and delamination) under strain. There are, however, some observations that contradict the notion of the mutual exclusivity of electronic and mechanical performances. These observations suggest that this problem may not be a fundamental trade-off, but rather an inconvenience that may be negotiated by a logical selection of materials and processing conditions. For example, the selection of the poly(3-alkylthiophene) with a critical side-chain length—poly(3-heptylthiophene) (n = 7)—marries the high deformability of poly(3-octylthiophene) (n = 8) with the high electronic performance (as manifested in photovoltaic efficiency) of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (n = 6). This review explores the relationship between deformability and charge transport in organic semiconductors. The principal conclusions are that reducing the competition between these two parameters is in fact possible, with two demonstrated routes being: (1) incorporation of softer, insulating material into a stiffer, semiconducting material and (2) increasing disorder in a highly ordered film, but not

  14. Competition between deformability and charge transport in semiconducting polymers for flexible and stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Printz, Adam D.; Lipomi, Darren J.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the field concerned with organic semiconductors is to produce devices with performance approaching that of silicon electronics, but with the deformability—flexibility and stretchability—of conventional plastics. However, an inherent competition between deformability and charge transport has long been observed in these materials, and achieving the extreme (or even moderate) deformability implied by the word “plastic” concurrently with high charge transport may be elusive. This competition arises because the properties needed for high carrier mobilities—e.g., rigid chains in π-conjugated polymers and high degrees of crystallinity in the solid state—are antithetical to deformability. On the device scale, this competition can lead to low-performance yet mechanically robust devices, or high-performance devices that fail catastrophically (e.g., cracking, cohesive failure, and delamination) under strain. There are, however, some observations that contradict the notion of the mutual exclusivity of electronic and mechanical performances. These observations suggest that this problem may not be a fundamental trade-off, but rather an inconvenience that may be negotiated by a logical selection of materials and processing conditions. For example, the selection of the poly(3-alkylthiophene) with a critical side-chain length—poly(3-heptylthiophene) (n = 7)—marries the high deformability of poly(3-octylthiophene) (n = 8) with the high electronic performance (as manifested in photovoltaic efficiency) of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (n = 6). This review explores the relationship between deformability and charge transport in organic semiconductors. The principal conclusions are that reducing the competition between these two parameters is in fact possible, with two demonstrated routes being: (1) incorporation of softer, insulating material into a stiffer, semiconducting material and (2) increasing disorder in a highly ordered film, but not

  15. On the mechanical behaviours of a craze in particulate-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, W. G.; Fan, M.; Xiao, Z. M.

    2018-05-01

    In polymeric composites, well-defined inclusions are incorporated into the polymer matrix to alleviate the brittleness of polymers. When a craze is initiated in such a composite, the interaction between the craze and the surrounding inclusions will greatly affect the composite's mechanical behaviours and toughness. To the best knowledge of the authors, only little research work has been found so far on the interaction between a craze and the near-by inclusions in particulate-polymer composites. In the current study, the first time, the influences of the surrounding inclusions on the craze are investigated in particulate-polymer composites. The three-phase model is adopted to study the fracture behaviours of the craze affected by multiple inclusions. An iterative procedure is proposed to solve the stress intensity factors. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the influences of the reinforcing particle volume fraction and the shear modulus ratio on fracture behaviours of particulate-polymer composites.

  16. Fabrication of flexible gold nanorods polymer metafilm via phase transfer method as SERS substrate for detecting food contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; You, Ting-Ting; Gao, Yu-Kun; Zhang, Chen-Meng; Yin, Penggang

    2018-06-08

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been widely used in detection of food safety due to the nondestructive examination property. Here, we reported a flexible SERS film based on polymer immobilized gold nanorods polymer metafilm. Polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene (SIS), a transparent and flexible along with excellent elasticity polymer was chosen as main support of gold nanorods. A simple phase transfer progress was adopted to mix the gold nanorods with polymer which can further used in most water-insoluble polymers. The SERS film performed satisfactorily while tested in a series of standard Raman probes like crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG). Moreover, the excellent reproducibility and elastic properties make the film promising substrates in practical detection. Hence, the MG detection on fish surface and trace thiram detection on orange pericarp were inspected with the detection result of 1 × 10-10 M and 1 × 10-6 M which below the demand of National standard of China, exactly matching the realistic application requirements.

  17. Self-Healing Composite of Thermoset Polymer and Programmed Super Contraction Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang (Inventor); Meng, Harper (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composition comprising thermoset polymer, shape memory polymer to facilitate macro scale damage closure, and a thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing is disclosed; the composition has the ability to resolve structural defects by a bio-mimetic close-then heal process. In use, the shape memory polymer serves to bring surfaces of a structural defect into approximation, whereafter use of the thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing allowed for movement of the thermoplastic polymer into the defect and thus obtain molecular scale healing. The thermoplastic can be fibers, particles or spheres which are used by heating to a level at or above the thermoplastic's melting point, then cooling of the composition below the melting temperature of the thermoplastic. Compositions of the invention have the ability to not only close macroscopic defects, but also to do so repeatedly even if another wound/damage occurs in a previously healed/repaired area.

  18. Deployment Testing of Flexible Composite Hinges in Bi-Material Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan F.; Trease, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Composites have excellent properties for strength, thermal stability, and weight. However, they are traditionally highly rigid, and when used in deployable structures require hinges bonded to the composite material, which increases complexity and opportunities for failure. Recent research in composites has found by adding an elastomeric soft matrix, often silicone instead of an epoxy, the composite becomes flexible. This work explores the deployment repeatability of silicone matrix composite hinges which join rigid composite beams. The hinges were found to have sub-millimeter linear deployment repeatability, and sub-degree angular deployment repeatability. Also, an interesting relaxation effect was discovered, as a hinges deployment error would decrease with time.

  19. Development of patterned carbon nanotubes on a 3D polymer substrate for the flexible tactile sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Fang, Weileun; Su, Wang-Shen

    2011-01-01

    This study reports an improved approach to implement a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible tactile sensor, which is integrated with a flexible print circuit (FPC) connector and is capable of detecting normal and shear forces. The merits of the presented tactile sensor by the integration process are as follows: (1) 3D polymer tactile bump structures are naturally formed by the use of an anisotropically etched silicon mold; (2) planar and 3D distributed CNTs are adopted as piezoresistive sensing elements to enable the detection of shear and normal forces; (3) the processes of patterning CNTs and metal routing can be easily batch fabricated on rigid silicon instead of flexible polymer; (4) robust electrical routing is realized using parylene encapsulation to avoid delamination; (5) patterned CNTs, electrical routing and FPC connector are integrated and transferred to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate by a molding process. In application, the CNT-based flexible tactile sensor and its integration with the FPC connector are implemented. Preliminary tests show the feasibility of detecting both normal and shear forces using the presented flexible sensor.

  20. Biomechanical evaluation of a corporectomy in porcine lumbar specimens using flexible polymer belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran-Fernandez, J A; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Ruiz-Munoz, E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Gonzalez-Rebattu, A; RodrIguez-Canizo, R G; Hernandez-Moreno, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of a biomechanical evaluation in lumbar porcine specimens (L2-L4), instrumented with flexible polymer belts, under fatigue and tensile loading. The clinical effect called facetary arthrosis is evaluated. An experimental analysis was carried on 3 lumbar porcine specimens. In two of them, polyamide belts are fixed on the interspinous ligament from L2 to L4. Specimens are taken from pigs which are 6 month old. For the present work, the stiffness reduction of the spine and the biomechanical behaviour of the belts in conjunction with the interspinous ligament are evaluated. The purpose is to determine the failure conditions for the elements of the specimen (vertebral disk, supra and intraspinous ligament and vertebral body). Under static loading, which is the base line case, the elements of the specimen failed as a typical healthy structure. While in the fatigue combined with static loading, the element failed in different order. Additionally, the stiffness changed in accordance with the fatigue loading conditions. Because of the simplicity of this alternative technique, a high level of the structural integrity is preserved, as no holes are made on the spinous process in order to insert the fixation screws. Furthermore, there is a cost reduction.

  1. Biomechanical evaluation of a corporectomy in porcine lumbar specimens using flexible polymer belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Fernández, J. A.; Hernández-Gómez, L. H.; Ruiz-Muñoz, E.; González-Rebattú, A.; Rodríguez-Cañizo, R. G.; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G.; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G.; Hernández-Moreno, H.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of a biomechanical evaluation in lumbar porcine specimens (L2-L4), instrumented with flexible polymer belts, under fatigue and tensile loading. The clinical effect called facetary arthrosis is evaluated. An experimental analysis was carried on 3 lumbar porcine specimens. In two of them, polyamide belts are fixed on the interspinous ligament from L2 to L4. Specimens are taken from pigs which are 6 month old. For the present work, the stiffness reduction of the spine and the biomechanical behaviour of the belts in conjunction with the interspinous ligament are evaluated. The purpose is to determine the failure conditions for the elements of the specimen (vertebral disk, supra and intraspinous ligament and vertebral body). Under static loading, which is the base line case, the elements of the specimen failed as a typical healthy structure. While in the fatigue combined with static loading, the element failed in different order. Additionally, the stiffness changed in accordance with the fatigue loading conditions. Because of the simplicity of this alternative technique, a high level of the structural integrity is preserved, as no holes are made on the spinous process in order to insert the fixation screws. Furthermore, there is a cost reduction.

  2. A comparison between integral equation theory and molecular dynamics simulations of dense, flexible polymer liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curro, J.G.; Schweizer, K.S.; Grest, G.S.; Kremer, K.; Corporate Research Science Laboratory, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey 08801; Institut fur Festkorperforschung der Kernforschungsanlage Julich, D-5170 Julich, Federal Republic of Germany)

    1989-01-01

    Recently we (J.G.C. and K.S.S.) formulated a tractable ''reference interaction site model'' (RISM) integral equation theory of flexible polymer liquids. The purpose of this paper is to compare the results of the theory with recent molecular dynamics simulations (G.S.G. and K.K.) on dense chain liquids of degree of polymerization N=50 and 200. Specific comparisons were made between theory and simulation for the intramolecular structure factor ω(k) and the intermolecular radial distribution function g(r) in the liquid. In particular it was possible to independently test the assumptions inherent in the RISM theory and the additional ideality approximation that was made in the initial application of the theory. This comparison was accomplished by calculating the intermolecular g(r) using the simulated intramolecular structure factor, as well as, ω(k) derived from a freely jointed chain model.The RISM theory results, using the simulated ω(k), were found to be in excellent agreement, over all length scales, with the g(r) from molecular dynamics simulations. The theoretical predictions using the ''ideal'' intramolecular structure factor tended to underestimate g(r) near contact, indicating local intramolecular expansion of the chains. This local expansion can be incorporated into the theory self consistently by including the effects of the ''medium induced'' potential on the intramolecular structure

  3. Structural design of flexible Au electrode to enable shape memory polymer for electrical actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haibao; Lei, Ming; Zhao, Chao; Xu, Ben; Leng, Jinsong; Fu, Y. Q.

    2015-04-01

    An effective resistive Joule heating approach was conducted to improve the electrical actuation and shape-recovery performance of a shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite. Two types of gold (Au) film patterns were deposited to be used as electrodes to drive thermal-responsive SMPs and achieve a uniform temperature distribution during electro-activated shape recovery. Furthermore, the sensing capability of the Au electrode to both mechanical and thermal stimuli applied to the SMP nanocomposite was experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed. It was found that the change in the electrical resistance of the Au electrode could be used as an indication of shape-recovery performance. The linear response of the electrical resistance to strain was identified mainly due to the opening/closing of microcracks and their propagations in the Au electrodes during out-of-plane deformations. With an increment of thermomechanical bending cycles, the electrical resistance was increased exponentially, but it returned back to the original reading when the SMP nanocomposite returned back to its permanent shape. Finally, the flexible Au electrode enabled the actuation of the SMP nanocomposite under an electric voltage of 13.4 V, with an improved shape-recovery performance and temperature distribution.

  4. Flexible, ferroelectric nanoparticle doped polymer dispersed liquid crystal devices for lower switching voltage and nanoenergy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmy John, V.; Varanakkottu, Subramanyan Namboodiri; Varghese, Soney

    2018-06-01

    Flexible polymer dispersed liquid crystal (F-PDLC) devices were fabricated using transparent conducting ITO/PET film. Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) method was used for pure and ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) and ZnO doped PDLC devices. The distribution of nanoparticles in the PDLC and the formation of micro cavities were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was observed that the addition of ferroelectric BTO nanoparticles has reduced the threshold voltage (Vth) and saturation voltage (Vsat) of FNP-PDLC by 85% and 41% respectively due to the spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric nanoparticles. The ferroelectric properties of BTO and ZnO in the fabricated devices were investigated using dynamic contact electrostatic force microscopy (DC EFM). Flexing the device can generate a potential due to the piezo-tribo electric effect of the ferroelectric nanomaterial doped in the PDLC matrix, which could be utilized as an energy generating system. The switching voltage after multiple flexing was also studied and found to be in par with non-flexing situations.

  5. Effect of Material Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Biodegradable Polymers/Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC) Nano Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yottha Srithep; Ronald Sabo; Craig Clemons; Lih-Sheng Turng; Srikanth Pilla; Jun Peng

    2012-01-01

    Using natural cellulosic fibers as fillers for biodegradable polymers can result in fully biodegradable composites. Biodegradable composites were prepared using nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as the reinforcement and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate, PHBV) as the polymer matrix. The objective of this study was to determine how various additives (i.e.,...

  6. ROMP-based polymer composites and biorenewable rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Wonje [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This research is divided into two related topics. In the first topic, the synthesis and characterization of novel composite materials reinforced with MWCNTs by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) is reported for two ROMP based monomers: dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB). Homogeneous dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer matrices is achieved by grafting norbornene moieties onto the nanotube surface. For the DCPD-based system, the investigation of mechanical properties of the composites shows a remarkable increase of tensile toughness with just 0.4 wt % of functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs). To our knowledge, this represents the highest toughness enhancement efficiency in thermosetting composites ever reported. DMA results show that there is a general increase of thermal stability (rg) with the addition of f-MWCNTs, which means that covalently bonded f-MWCNTs can reduce the local chain mobility of the matrix by interfacial interactions. The ENB system also shows significant enhancement of the toughness using just 0.8 wt % f-MWCNTs. These results indicate that the ROMP approach for polyENB is also very effective. The second topic is an investigation of the biorenewable rubbers synthesized by the tandem ROMP and cationic polymerization. The resin consists of a norbornenyl-modified linseed oil and a norbornene diester. Characterization of the bio-based rubbers includes dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, and thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental results show that there is a decrease in glass transition temperature and slight increase of elongation with increased diester loading.

  7. High actuation properties of shape memory polymer composite actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, A; L’Hostis, G; Durand, B

    2013-01-01

    The shape memory polymers (SMPs) possess two shapes: permanent shape and temporary shape. This property leads to replacement of shape memory alloys by SMPs in various applications. In this work, two properties, namely structure activeness and the shape memory property of ‘controlled behavior composite material (CBCM)’ plate and its comparison with the conventional symmetrical composite plate (SYM), are studied. The SMPC plates (CBCM and SYM) are manufactured using epoxy resin with a thermal glass transition temperature (T g ) of 130 °C. The shape memory properties of these composites are investigated (under three-point bending test) and compared by deforming them to the same displacement. Three types of recoveries are conducted: unconstrained recovery, constrained recovery, and partial recovery under load. It is found that by coupling the structure activeness (due to its asymmetry) and its shape memory property, higher activated displacement is obtained during the unconstrained recovery. Also, at a lower recovery temperature (90 °C) than the fixing temperature, a recovery close to 100% is obtained for CBCM, whereas for SYM it is only 25%. During constrained recovery, CBCM produces five times larger recovery force than SYM. In addition, higher actuation properties are demonstrated by calculating recovered work and recovery percentages during partial recovery under load. (paper)

  8. Soft and flexible conductive PDMS/MWCNT composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was used to pre-disperse MWCNT in a MWCNT/IL-gel that was used for preparation of MWCVNT/PDMS composites. The method was seen to be effective at low levels of MWCNT, but required combination with a roll mill to obtain a stable dispersion at 4 wt % MWCNT. With higher amounts of MWCNT a reduction...... for preparation of MWCNT/PDMS composites. Composites prepared by use of the IL dispersion method, use of a roll mill or by use of the f-MWCNT all had conductivities around 0.005–0.01 s/cm and retained conductivity upon extension....

  9. Healable thermoset polymer composite embedded with stimuli-responsive fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Meng, Harper; Hu, Jinlian

    2012-01-01

    Severe wounds in biological systems such as human skin cannot heal themselves, unless they are first stitched together. Healing of macroscopic damage in thermoset polymer composites faces a similar challenge. Stimuli-responsive shape-changing polymeric fibres with outstanding mechanical properties embedded in polymers may be able to close macro-cracks automatically upon stimulation such as heating. Here, a stimuli-responsive fibre (SRF) with outstanding mechanical properties and supercontraction capability was fabricated for the purpose of healing macroscopic damage. The SRFs and thermoplastic particles (TPs) were incorporated into regular thermosetting epoxy for repeatedly healing macroscopic damages. The system works by mimicking self-healing of biological systems such as human skin, close (stitch) then heal, i.e. close the macroscopic crack through the thermal-induced supercontraction of the SRFs, and bond the closed crack through melting and diffusing of TPs at the crack interface. The healing efficiency determined using tapered double-cantilever beam specimens was 94 per cent. The self-healing process was reasonably repeatable. PMID:22896563

  10. Mechanism Design and Testing of a Self-Deploying Structure Using Flexible Composite Tape Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footdale, Joseph N.; Murphey, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The detailed mechanical design of a novel deployable support structure that positions and tensions a membrane optic for space imagining applications is presented. This is a complex three-dimensional deployment using freely deploying rollable composite tape spring booms that become load bearing structural members at full deployment. The deployment tests successfully demonstrate a new architecture based on rolled and freely deployed composite tape spring members that achieve simultaneous deployment without mechanical synchronization. Proper design of the flexible component mounting interface and constraint systems, which were critical in achieving a functioning unit, are described. These flexible composite components have much potential for advancing the state of the art in deployable structures, but have yet to be widely adopted. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and advantages of implementing flexible composite components, including the design details on how to integrate with required traditional mechanisms.

  11. A resonant force sensor based on ionic polymer metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, Claudia; Fortuna, Luigi; Giannone, Pietro; Graziani, Salvatore; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel force sensor, based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), is presented. The system has DC sensing capabilities and is able to work in the range of a few millinewtons. IPMCs are emerging materials used to realize motion actuators and sensors. An IPMC strip is activated in a beam fixed/simply-supported configuration. The beam is tightened at the simply-supported end by a force. This influences the natural resonant frequency of the beam; the value of the resonant frequency is used in the proposed system to estimate the force applied in the axial direction. The performance of the system based on the IPMC material has proved to be comparable with that of sensors based on other sensing mechanisms. This suggests the possibility of using this class of polymeric devices to realize PMEMS (plastic micro electrical mechanical systems) sensors

  12. A model for ionic polymer metal composites as sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, C.; Fortuna, L.; Giannone, P.; Graziani, S.; Strazzeri, S.

    2006-06-01

    This paper introduces a comprehensive model of sensors based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) working in air. Significant quantities ruling the sensing properties of IPMC-based sensors are taken into account and the dynamics of the sensors are modelled. A large amount of experimental evidence is given for the excellent agreement between estimations obtained using the proposed model and the observed signals. Furthermore, the effect of sensor scaling is investigated, giving interesting support to the activities involved in the design of sensing devices based on these novel materials. We observed that the need for a wet environment is not a key issue for IPMC-based sensors to work well. This fact allows us to put IPMC-based sensors in a totally different light to the corresponding actuators, showing that sensors do not suffer from the same drawbacks.

  13. A resonant force sensor based on ionic polymer metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Claudia; Fortuna, Luigi; Giannone, Pietro; Graziani, Salvatore; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2008-02-01

    In this paper a novel force sensor, based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), is presented. The system has DC sensing capabilities and is able to work in the range of a few millinewtons. IPMCs are emerging materials used to realize motion actuators and sensors. An IPMC strip is activated in a beam fixed/simply-supported configuration. The beam is tightened at the simply-supported end by a force. This influences the natural resonant frequency of the beam; the value of the resonant frequency is used in the proposed system to estimate the force applied in the axial direction. The performance of the system based on the IPMC material has proved to be comparable with that of sensors based on other sensing mechanisms. This suggests the possibility of using this class of polymeric devices to realize PMEMS (plastic micro electrical mechanical systems) sensors.

  14. Polymer-SnO2 composite membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal; Skou, Eivind Morten

    . This work utilizes the latter approach and makes use of particles of tin dioxide (SnO2). Polymer-SnO2 composite membranes were successfully prepared using an ion-exchange method. SnO2 was incorporated into membranes by ion-exchange in solutions of SnCl2 ∙ 2 H2O in methanol, followed by oxidation to SnO2...... in air. The content of SnO2 proved controllable by adjusting the concentration of the ion-exchange solution. The prepared nanocomposite membranes were characterized by powder XRD, 119Sn MAS NMR, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water uptake and tensile stress-strain measurements. For Nafion 117...

  15. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun; Lee, Jaejin; Williams, John D.

    2014-07-01

    This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3-6 μm for coarse and 0.8-1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass) of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL) calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  16. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Sholiyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3–6 μm for coarse and 0.8–1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM. The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  17. Preparation of polymer composite nanomembranes with a conductivity asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, L.I.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Satulu, B.; Mitu, B.; Dinescu, G.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and charge transport properties of the poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membrane modified by a pyrrole plasma have been studied. It was found that polymer deposition on the surface of a track membrane via the plasma polymerization of pyrrole results in the creation of a composite nanomembrane that, in the case of the formation of a semipermeable layer covering the pores, possesses conductivity asymmetry in electrolyte solutions - a rectification effect similar to that of a p-n junction in semiconductors. It is caused by presence in the membrane of two layers with different functional groups and also by the pore geometry. Such a type of membranes can be used for creation of chemical and biochemical sensors

  18. Electromechanical modelling of tapered ionic polymer metal composites transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesha Chandra Dash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs are relatively new smart materials that exhibit a bidirectional electromechanical coupling. IPMCs have large number of important engineering applications such as micro robotics, biomedical devices, biomimetic robotics etc. This paper presents a comparison between tapered and uniform cantilevered Nafion based IPMCs transducer. Electromechanical modelling is done for the tapered beam. Thickness can be varied according to the requirement of force and deflection. Numerical results pertaining to the force and deflection characteristics of both type IPMCs transducer are obtained. It is shown that the desired amount of force and deflections for tapered IPMCs can be achieved for a given voltage. Different fixed end (t0 and free end (t1 thickness values have been taken to justify the results using MATLAB.

  19. Method of Making an Electroactive Sensing/Actuating Material for Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive sensing or actuating material comprises a composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation of the composite when such composite is affected by an external stimulus. In another embodiment, the composite comprises a, third component of micro -sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic that is also incorporated in the polymer matrix. The method for making the three-phase composite comprises either incorporating the carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix before incorporation of the particles of ceramic or mixing the carbon nanotubes and particles of ceramic together in a solution before incorporation in the polymer matrix.

  20. Highly ductile UV-shielding polymer composites with boron nitride nanospheres as fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuqiao; Huang, Yan; Meng, Wenjun; Wang, Zifeng; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Tang, Chengchun; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-03-20

    Polymer composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal or optical performance usually suffer from poor ductility induced by confined mobility of polymer chains. Herein, highly ductile UV-shielding polymer composites are successfully fabricated. Boron nitride (BN) materials, with a wide band gap of around ∼6.0 eV, are used as fillers to achieve the remarkably improved UV-shielding performance of a polymer matrix. In addition, it is found that spherical morphology BN as a filler can keep the excellent ductility of the composites. For a comparison, it is demonstrated that traditional fillers, including conventional BN powders can achieve the similar UV-shielding performance but dramatically decrease the composite ductility. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is believed to be lubricant effects of BN nanospheres for sliding of polymer chains, which is in consistent with the thermal analyses. This study provides a new design to fabricate UV-shielding composite films with well-preserved ductility.

  1. 2014 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The 2014 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM 2014) sponsored by Ningbo Adhesives and Products Industry Association, Shanghai Bonding Technology Association, Zhejiang Bonding Technology Association, Wuhan Bonding Technology Association, Hebei Bonding and Coatings Association and Polyurethane Industry Association was held from May 27 to May 29 2014 in Ningbo, China. The technical program consisted of 8 international keynote speakers, oral presentations, and a poster session. The conference also included an industrial exhibition where more than 50 companies displayed in their booths their most recent advanced products and services. The present issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) records the proceedings of PCM 2014 and contains 37 specially selected manuscripts submitted to PCM2014 conference. The electronic submission and handling of manuscripts via the conference website, including the selection of reviewers and evaluation of manuscripts, were identical to the procedures applied to manuscripts submitted as regular contributions for publication. The organization of this conference and the preparation of proceedings volumes would have been impossible without the tremendous efforts and dedication of many individuals, especially from Ms. Yin Pan, who oversaw the organization of the conference and the program; and a large team of reviewers with their timely submission of quality reports. We express our sincere thanks to all authors and presenters for their contributions. We also thank very much our sponsors for their generous support. The 2015 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM2015) will be held in Beijing, China on May 16-18, 2015. Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, will welcome to all participants for a renewed and vibrant conference. Prof. Dr. Esteban Broitman Linköping University, Sweden Editor in Chief — PCM2014

  2. 2014 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM 2014) sponsored by Ningbo Adhesives and Products Industry Association, Shanghai Bonding Technology Association, Zhejiang Bonding Technology Association, Wuhan Bonding Technology Association, Hebei Bonding and Coatings Association and Polyurethane Industry Association was held from May 27 to May 29 2014 in Ningbo, China. The technical program consisted of 8 international keynote speakers, oral presentations, and a poster session. The conference also included an industrial exhibition where more than 50 companies displayed in their booths their most recent advanced products and services. The present issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) records the proceedings of PCM 2014 and contains 37 specially selected manuscripts submitted to PCM2014 conference. The electronic submission and handling of manuscripts via the conference website, including the selection of reviewers and evaluation of manuscripts, were identical to the procedures applied to manuscripts submitted as regular contributions for publication. The organization of this conference and the preparation of proceedings volumes would have been impossible without the tremendous efforts and dedication of many individuals, especially from Ms. Yin Pan, who oversaw the organization of the conference and the program; and a large team of reviewers with their timely submission of quality reports. We express our sincere thanks to all authors and presenters for their contributions. We also thank very much our sponsors for their generous support. The 2015 Global Conference on Polymer and Composite Materials (PCM2015) will be held in Beijing, China on May 16–18, 2015. Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, will welcome to all participants for a renewed and vibrant conference. Prof. Dr. Esteban Broitman Linköping University, Sweden Editor in Chief — PCM

  3. Graphene-epoxy flexible transparent capacitor obtained by graphene-polymer transfer and UV-induced bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangermano, Marco; Chiolerio, Alessandro; Veronese, Giulio Paolo; Ortolani, Luca; Rizzoli, Rita; Mancarella, Fulvio; Morandi, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    A new approach is reported for the preparation of a graphene-epoxy flexible transparent capacitor obtained by graphene-polymer transfer and UV-induced bonding. SU8 resin is employed for realizing a well-adherent, transparent, and flexible supporting layer. The achieved transparent graphene/SU8 membrane presents two distinct surfaces: one homogeneous conductive surface containing a graphene layer and one dielectric surface typical of the epoxy polymer. Two graphene/SU8 layers are bonded together by using an epoxy photocurable formulation based on epoxy resin. The obtained material showed a stable and clear capacitive behavior. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Anchoring FRP Composite Armor in Flexible Offshore Riser Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei

    things, they serve for the transportation of hydrocarbons from the subsea facilities to the production and drilling equipment at the sea surface. Flexible risers are the prime choice for connecting floating production, storage and offloading facilities, because they are specially designed for dynamic...... counterpart. A new double grip design with flat faces is proposed, in which the loads are transferred through friction. The behavior of such grip is studied by means of experimental testing and finite element modeling. Several iterations of the grip system were evaluated over the course of the project...

  5. Studies on possibilities of polymer composites with conductive nanomaterials application in wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralczyk, Kinga; Janczak, D.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Ł.; Lepak, S.; Wróblewski, G.; Jakubowska, M.

    2017-08-01

    In the last few years there has been a growing interest in wearable electronic products, which are generating considerable interest especially in sport and medical industries. But rigid electronics is not comfortable to wear, so things like stretchable substrates, interconnects and electronic devices might help. Flexible electronics could adjust to the curves of a human body and allow the users to move freely. The objective of this paper is to study possibilities of polymer composites with conductive nanomaterials application in wearable electronics. Pastes with graphene, silver nanoplates and carbon nanotubes were manufactured and then interconnects were screen-printed on the surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and fabric. Afterwards, the resistance and mechanical properties of samples were examined, also after washing them in a washing machine. It has been found that the best material for the conductive phase is silver. Traces printed directly on the fabric using conductive composites with one functional phase (silver nanoplates or graphene or carbon nanotubes) are too fragile to use them as a common solution in wearable electronics. Mechanical properties can be improved not only by adding carbon nanotubes or graphene to the silver paste, but also by printing additional layer of graphene paste or carbon nanotube paste onto silver layer. In fact, these solutions are not sufficient enough to solve a problem of using these composites in wearable electronics.

  6. Effect of surface tension and coefficient of thermal expansion in 30 nm scale nanoimprinting with two flexible polymer molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kwan; Cho, Hye Sung; Jung, Ho-Sup; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Lim, Kipil; Kim, Ki-Bum; Choi, Dae-Geun; Jeong, Jun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    We report on nanoimprinting of polymer thin films at 30 nm scale resolution using two types of ultraviolet (UV)-curable, flexible polymer molds: perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and polyurethane acrylate (PUA). It was found that the quality of nanopatterning at the 30 nm scale is largely determined by the combined effects of surface tension and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the polymer mold. In particular, the polar component of surface tension may play a critical role in clean release of the mold, as evidenced by much reduced delamination or broken structures for the less polarized PFPE mold when patterning a relatively hydrophilic PMMA film. In contrast, such problems were not notably observed with a relatively hydrophobic PS film for both polymer molds. In addition, the demolding characteristic was also influenced by the coefficient of thermal expansion so that no delamination or uniformity problems were observed when patterning a UV-curable polymer film at room temperature. These results suggest that a proper polymeric mold material needs to be chosen for patterning polymer films under different surface properties and processing conditions, providing insights into how a clean demolding characteristic can be obtained at 30 nm scale nanopatterning. (paper)

  7. Cross-linking of polymer and ionic liquid as high-performance gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiongwei; Tang, Jun; Cao, Lujie; Kong, Weiguang; Sun, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui; Xu, Baomin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A facile method to prepare gel polymer electrolyte with high conductivity is proposed. •A flexible symmetric capacitor based on the prepared GPE shows ultra-flexibility. •The capacitor with high voltage can power up a 3.0 V LED even bended to a angle of 180°. -- Abstract: It is highly desirable to develop flexible solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with non-liquid electrolyte. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) possessing high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property. In this work, a simple and novel method to improve the conductivity and mechanical properties of GPE film for their applications as electrolyte and separator in EDLC is presented. The GPE film is prepared by cross-linking ionic liquid (IL) with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and benzophenone (Bp) followed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then, a non-woven cellulose separator (FPC) is used to absorb the GPE. By tuning the mass ratio (n) between IL and PEO, the flexible EDLC cooperated with low-cost active carbon and the electrolyte film with n = 10 has a high capacitance of 70.84 F∙g −1 , a wide and stable electrochemical window of 3.5 V, an energy density of 30.13 Wh∙kg −1 and a power density of 874.8 W∙kg −1 at a current density of 1 A∙g −1 , which can drive a 3.0 V light-emitting diode (LED). Importantly, the excellent performance of the flexible and low-cost EDLC can be maintained at a bending angle up to 180°, indicating the ultra-flexibility. It is expected that the IL-PEO-FPC electrolyte film is a promising candidate of GPE for flexible devices and energy storage systems.

  8. Composite gel polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Roya

    Composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) films, consisting of poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) as the membrane, DMF and PC as solvent and plasticizing agent, mixture of charge modified TiO2 and SiO 2 nano particles as ionic conductors, and LiClO4+LiPF 6 as lithium salts were fabricated. Following the work done by Li et al., CGPE was coated on an O2-plasma treated trilayer polypropylene-polyethylene-polypropylene membrane separator using solution casting technique in order to improve the adhesive properties of gel polymer electrolyte to the separator membrane and its respective ionic conductivity due to decreasing the bulk resistance. In acidic CGPE with, the mixture of acid treated TiO2 and neutral SiO2 nano particles played the role of the charge modified nano fillers with enhanced hydroxyl groups. Likely, the mixture of neutral TiO 2 nano particles with basic SiO2 prepared through the hydrolization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) provided a more basic environment due to the residues of NH4OH (Ammonium hydroxide) catalyst. The O2 plasma treated separator was coated with the solution of PVDF-HFP: modified nano fillers: Organic solvents with the mixture ratio of 0.1:0.01:1. After the evaporation of the organic solvents, the dried coated separator was soaked in PC-LiClO4+LiPF6 in EC: DMC:DEC (4:2:4 in volume) solution (300% wt. of PVDF-HFP) to form the final CGPE. Lim et al. has reported the enhanced ionic conductivity of 9.78*10-5 Scm-1 in an acidic composite polystyrene-Al2O3 solid electrolyte system with compared to that of basic and neutral in which the ionic conductivity undergoes an ion hopping process in solid interface rather than a segmental movement of ions through the plasticized polymer chain . Half-cells with graphite anode and Li metal as reference electrode were then assembled and the electrochemical measurements and morphology examinations were successfully carried out. Half cells demonstrated a considerable change in their

  9. Dielectric Property Enhancement in Polymer Composites with Engineered Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Timothy Michael

    This thesis reports studies into the dielectric behavior of polymer composites filled with silica nanoparticles. The permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength (DBS) of these materials are critical to their performance in insulating applications such as high voltage power transmission. Until now, the mechanisms which lead to improvements in DBS in these systems have been poorly understood, in part because the effects of dispersion of the filler and the filler's surface electronic characteristics have been confused. The new surface modifications created in this thesis permit these two parameters to be addressed independently, leading to the hypothesis that nanocomposite dielectric materials exhibit DBS enhancement when electron avalanches are prevented from proceeding to reach a critical size capable of causing failure. The same control of dispersion and surface properties also lead to changes in the permittivity of the composite based upon the polarizability and trapping behavior of the filler. In this work, the dispersion and surface states of silica nanoparticles were independently controlled with two separate populations of surface molecules. Two matrix materials were studied, and in each system, a different, matrix-compatible long chain polymer is required to control dispersion. Conversely, a second population of short molecules is shown to be capable of creating electronic traps associated with the silica nanoparticle surface which lead to DBS enhancements largely independent of the matrix, indicating that the same failure mechanism is operating in both epoxy and polypropylene. Progressive variation in dispersion quality is attained with this surface modification scheme. This creates progressively smaller volumes of matrix polymer unaffected by the filler. This work shows that when these volumes approach and become smaller than the same scale as predicted for electron avalanches, the greatest changes in DBS are seen. Likewise, the plateau behavior of this

  10. Photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials: Photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via the loading of PANI nanofibers on surface of coordination polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Lu; Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To enhance photocatalytic property of coordination polymer in visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst was synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on the surface of coordination polymer. The photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated. Compared with pure coordination polymer photocatalyst, which can decompose RhB merely under UV light irradiation, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst displays more excellent photocatalytic activity in visible light region. Furthermore, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst exhibits outstanding stability during the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material, which displays excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light was firstly synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on surface of coordination polymer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • This PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material represents the first conductive polymer loaded coordination polymer composite material. • PANI/coordination polymer composite material displays more excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO in visible light region. • The “combination” of coordination polymer and PANI will enable us to design high-activity, high-stability and visible light driven photocatalyst in the future

  11. Production of polymer-plaster composite by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, Maria Helena Paranhos; Santos, Valdemir Alexandre dos; Dantas, Carlos Costa

    2009-01-01

    The estimated amount of plaster wastes in the construction industry is 45%. The reduction of this waste is of concern, because the cost of lost material and the waste management can affect the competitiveness of the company. The mixture of plaster with a particular resin generates a composite, which gives the pre-molded obtained from this mixture, special properties. In this case, the plasticity of the plaster generates pre-molded products with wealth of details. Additionally, the use of nuclear techniques for the initiation of polymerization reaction for obtaining this type of composite can eliminate the need for a heat source which is the conventional way to obtain polymerization, considerably reducing the costs of the process. As a function of the availability and the cost of styrene monomer, in the initial phase of the research test samples were prepared from plaster composites with this type of material. The test samples, composed of plaster and styrene, were irradiated in the presence of a Cs-137 (662 keV) gamma source for a period of time of two days in an air pressurized chamber. Tests of resistance to compression, tensile strength in bending and water absorption, were based on a type of experimental design, CCRD (Central Composite Rotatable Design). The percent average weight of polymer by weight of the test sample was 14.0%. The presence of a polymerized resin gives the sample qualities such as being highly impervious to water and high mechanical strength, allowing its use in the manufacture of different types of materials. (author)

  12. Surface modified carbon nanoparticle papers and applications on polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xilian

    Free-standing paper like materials are usually employed as protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, and electronic or optoelectric components. Free-standing papers made from carbon nanoparticles have drawn increased interest because they have a variety of superior chemical and physical characteristics, such as light weight, high intrinsic mechanical properties, and extraordinary high electrical conductivity. Nanopapers fabricated from 1- D shape carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising reinforcing materials for polymer composites, because the highly porous CNF and CNT nanopapers (porosity ˜80% and ˜70% respectively) can be impregnated with matrix polymers. In the first part of this work, polyaniline (PANI) was used to functionalize the surface of CNFs, and the resultant carbon nanopapers presented impressive mechanical strength and electrical conductivity that it could be used in the in-mold coating (IMC)/ injection molding process to achieve high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness. Aniline modified (AF) CNT nanopapers were used as a 3D network in gas separation membranes. The resultant composite membranes demonstrated better and stable CO2 permeance and CO 2/H2 selectivity in a high temperature (107°C) and high pressure (15-30 atm) gas separation process, not achievable by conventional polymer membranes. In the second part, we demonstrated that 2-D graphene (GP) or graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could be tightly packed into a film which was impermeable to most gases and liquids. GP or GO nanopapers could be coated on polymer composites. In order to achieve well-dispersed single-layer graphene in aqueous medium, we developed a facile approach to synthesize functional GP bearing benzenesulfonic acid groups which allow the preparation of nanopapers by water based assembly. With the optimized processing conditions, our best GP nanopapers could reach

  13. Transparent and flexible electrodes and supercapacitors using polyaniline/single-walled carbon nanotube composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jun; Cheng, Guanghui; Chen, Liwei

    2011-08-01

    Large-scale transparent and flexible electronic devices have been pursued for potential applications such as those in touch sensors and display technologies. These applications require that the power source of these devices must also comply with transparent and flexible features. Here we present transparent and flexible supercapacitors assembled from polyaniline (PANI)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite thin film electrodes. The ultrathin, optically homogeneous and transparent, electrically conducting films of the PANI/SWNT composite show a large specific capacitance due to combined double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance mechanisms. A supercapacitor assembled using electrodes with a SWNT density of 10.0 µg cm-2 and 59 wt% PANI gives a specific capacitance of 55.0 F g-1 at a current density of 2.6 A g-1, showing its possibility for transparent and flexible energy storage.

  14. Realization of large area flexible fullerene - conjugated polymer photocells: a route to plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabec, C.J.; Padinger, F.; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Bulk donor — acceptor heterojunctions between conjugated polymers and fullerenes have been utilized for photovoltaic devices with quantum efficiencies of around 1%. These devices are based on the photoinduced, ultrafast electron transfer between non degenerate ground state conjugated polymers and

  15. Flexible poly(ethylene carbonate)/garnet composite solid electrolyte reinforced by poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zijian; Chen, Long; Zhang, Bochen; Liu, Yongchang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivities, great flexibility, and easy processability are needed for high-performance solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. In this work, we synthesize nanosized cubic Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) by solution combustion method and develop a flexible garnet-based composite solid electrolyte composed of LLZO, poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI)). In the flexible composite solid electrolytes, LLZO nanoparticles, as ceramic matrix, have a positive effect on ionic conductivities and lithium ion transference number (tLi+). PEC, as a fast ion-conducting polymer, possesses high tLi+ inherently. P(VdF-HFP), as a binder, can strengthen mechanical properties. Consequently, the as-prepared composite solid electrolyte demonstrates high tLi+ (0.82) and superb thermal stability (remaining LLZO matrix after burning). All-solid-state LiFePO4|Li cells assembled with the flexible composite solid electrolyte deliver a high initial discharge specific capacity of 121.4 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability at 55 °C.

  16. Composite Sliding Mode Control for a Free-Floating Space Rigid-Flexible Coupling Manipulator System

    OpenAIRE

    Congqing, Wang; Pengfei, Wu; Xin, Zhou; Xiwu, Pei

    2013-01-01

    The flexible space manipulator is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamic system. This paper proposes a novel composite sliding mode control to deal with the vibration suppression and trajectory tracking of a free-floating space rigid-flexible coupling manipulator with a rigid payload. First, the dynamic equations of this system are established by using Lagrange and assumed mode methods and in the meantime this dynamic modelling allows consideration of the modelling errors, the external distur...

  17. A flexible strain gauge exhibiting reversible piezoresistivity based on an anisotropic magnetorheological polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietta, José L; Martín Negri, R; Jorge, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    A flexible, anisotropic and portable stress sensor (logarithmic reversible response between 40–350 kPa) was fabricated, in which i) the sensing material, ii) the electrical contacts and iii) the encapsulating material, were based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. The sensing material is a slide of an anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), formed by dispersing silver-covered magnetite particles (Fe 3 O 4 @Ag) in PDMS and by curing in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Thus, the MRE is a structure of electrically conducting pseudo-chains (needles) aligned in a specific direction, in which electrical conductivity increases when stress is exclusively applied in the direction of the needles. Electrical conductivity appears only between contact points that face each other at both sides of the MRE slide. An array of electrical contacts was implemented based on PDMS-silver paint metallic composites. The array was encapsulated with PDMS. Using Fe 3 O 4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles also opens up possibilities for a magnetic field sensor, due to the magnetoresistance effects. (paper)

  18. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebenyi, G.; Romhany, G.; Czvikovszky, T.; Vajna, B.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A small amount - less than 0.5% - carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve significantly the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials. The basic technical problem is on one side the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin. Namely the fine, powder-like - less than 100 nanometer diameter - nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, - which is determining the success of the reinforcement, - requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. After an elaborate masterbatch mixing technology we applied Electron Beam treatment of epoxy-matrix polymer composites containing carbon nanotubes in presence of vinylester resins. The Raman spectra of vinylester-epoxy mixtures treated by an 8 MeV EB showed the advantage of the electron treatment. Even in the case of partially immiscible epoxy and vinylester resins, the anchorage of carbon nanotubes reflects improvement if a reasonable 25 kGy EB dose is applied. Atomic Force Microscopy as well as mechanical tests on flexural and impact properties confirm the benefits of EB treatment. Simultaneous application of multiwall carbon nanotubes and 'conventional' carbon fibers as reinforcement in vinylester modified epoxies results in new types of hybrid nanocomposites as engineering materials. The bending- and interlaminar properties of such hybrid systems showed the beneficial effect of the EB treatment. Acknowledgement: This work has been supported by the New Hungary Development Plan (Project ID: TAMOP-4.2.1/B-09/1/KMR-2010-0002).

  19. Laser-Assisted Simultaneous Transfer and Patterning of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays on Polymer Substrates for Flexible Devices

    KAUST Repository

    In, Jung Bin

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Laser-assisted simultaneous transfer and patterning of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on polymer substrates for flexible devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Jung Bin; Lee, Daeho; Fornasiero, Francesco; Noy, Aleksandr; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a laser-assisted dry transfer technique for assembling patterns of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on a flexible polymeric substrate. A laser beam is applied to the interface of a nanotube array and a polycarbonate sheet in contact with one another. The absorbed laser heat promotes nanotube adhesion to the polymer in the irradiated regions and enables selective pattern transfer. A combination of the thermal transfer mechanism with rapid direct writing capability of focused laser beam irradiation allows us to achieve simultaneous material transfer and direct micropatterning in a single processing step. Furthermore, we demonstrate that malleability of the nanotube arrays transferred onto a flexible substrate enables post-transfer tailoring of electric conductance by collapsing the aligned nanotubes in different directions. This work suggests that the laser-assisted transfer technique provides an efficient route to using vertically aligned nanotubes as conductive elements in flexible device applications.

  1. Using graphene/styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer composite thin film as a flexible microstrip antenna for the detection of heptane vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Robert; Matyas, Jiri; Slobodian, Petr; Riha, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    Most portable devices, such as mobile phones or tablets, use antennas made of copper. This paper demonstrates the possible use of antenna constructed from electrically conductive polymer composite materials for use in those applications. The method of preparation and the properties of the graphene/styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer as flexible microstrip antenna are described in this contribution. Graphene/styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer toluene solution was prepared by means of ultrasound and the PET substrate was dip coated to reach a fine thin film. The main advantages of using PET as a substrate are low weight and flexibility. The final size of the flexible microstrip antenna was 10 × 25 mm with thickness of 0.48 mm (PET substrate 0.25 mm) with a weight of 0.110 g. The resulting antenna operates at a frequency of 1.8 GHz and gain ‑40.02 dB.

  2. Conductive polymer and Si nanoparticles composite secondary particles and structured current collectors for high loading lithium ion negative electrode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao

    2017-07-11

    Embodiments of the present invention disclose a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses a method for preparing a composition of matter comprising a plurality of silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with a conductive polymer comprising providing Si nanoparticles, providing a conductive polymer, preparing a Si nanoparticle, conductive polymer, and solvent slurry, spraying the slurry into a liquid medium that is a non-solvent of the conductive polymer, and precipitating the silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with the conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses an anode comprising a current collector, and a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer.

  3. Fundamental studies of low velocity impact resistance of graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to relate the impact resistance of graphite fiber reinforced composites with matrix properties through gaining an understanding of the basic mechanics involved in the deformation and fracture process, and the effect of the polymer matrix structure on these mechanisms. It was found that the resin matrix structure influences the composite impact resistance in at least two ways. The integration of flexibilizers into the polymer chain structure tends to reduce the T/sub G/ and the mechanical properties of the polymer. The reduction in the mechanical properties of the matrix does not enhance the composite impact resistance because it allows matrix controlled failure to initiate impact damage. Linear polymers, which contain no active groups for cross-linking, do not toughen composites because the fiber-matrix interfacial bond is not of sufficient strength to prevent interfacial failure from occurring. Toughness must be built into the basic polymer backbone and cross-linking structure

  4. Microbuckling compression failure of a radiation-induced wood/polymer composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boey, F.Y.C.

    1990-01-01

    A wood/polymer composite was produced by impregnating Ramin wood with methyl methacrylate monomer and subsequently polymerizing it by gamma irradiation. To assess the improvement in compression strength of the wood caused by the polymer impregnation, a microbuckling compression failure mechanism was used to model the compression failure of the composite. Such a mechanism was found to predict a linear relationship between the compression strength and the percentage polymer impregnation (by weight). Uniaxial compression test results at 45(±5)% and 90(±5)% relative humidity levels, after being statistically analysed, showed that such a linear relationship was valid for up to 100% polymer impregnation. (author)

  5. Characteristics of porous polymer composite columns prepared by radiation cast-polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao; Asami, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Shuichi

    1989-01-01

    Porous polymer composite columns having porous structure were prepared by radiation cast-polymerization of hydrophilic monomers at low temperature and their characteristics were studied. The porosity of the polymer increased with decreasing monomer concentration. The elution time of water in the polymer column increased with increasing monomer concentration and with decreasing irradiation temperature. The elution time was dependent on the degree of hydration of the polymer. The polymer with a degree of hydration of 0.2 to 0.4 gave the minimum elution time. The elution time decreased with the addition of porous inorganic substances. (author)

  6. Carbon/Sulfur Composite Cathodes for Flexible Lithium/Sulfur Batteries: Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Bakenova, Zagipa; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2015-01-01

    High specific energy and low cost flexible lithium/sulfur batteries have attracted significant attention as a promising power source to enable future flexible and wearable electronic devices. Here, we review recent progress in the development of free-standing sulfur composite cathodes, with special emphasis on electrode material selectivity and battery structural design. The mini-review is organized based on the dimensionality of different scaffold materials, namely one-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT), two-dimensional graphene, and three-dimensional CNT/graphene composite, respectively. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives of the future research directions are discussed.

  7. Performance enhancement of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on polymer nano-composite catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Gopi, Chandu V.V.M.; Kim, Hee-Je; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •We studied polymer nano-composite containing TiO 2 nano-particles as a catalyst. •Polymer nano-composite was applied for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. •Polymer nano-composite catalyst was considerably improved with TiO 2 nano-particles. •Polymer nano-composite showed higher photovoltaic performance than conventional Au. -- Abstract: Polymer nano-composite composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) and TiO 2 nano-particles was deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate and applied as an alternative to Au counter electrode of quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC). It became surface-richer with the increase in nano-particle amount so that catalytic reaction was increased by widened catalytic interface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry clearly demonstrated the enhancement of polymer nano-composite counter electrode. A QDSC based on polymer nano-composite counter electrode showed 0.56 V of V OC , 12.24 mA cm −2 of J SC , 0.57 of FF, and 3.87% of efficiency and this photovoltaic performance was higher than that of QDSC based on Au counter electrode (3.75%).

  8. Effect of Biomass Waste Filler on the Dielectric Properties of Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Been Seok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biomass waste fillers, namely coconut shell (CS and sugarcane bagasse (SCB on the dielectric properties of polymer composite was investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of CS and SCB to be used as conductive filler (natural source of carbon in the polymer composite. The purpose of the conductive filler is to increase the dielectric properties of the polymer composite. The carbon composition the CS and SCB was determine through carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur (CHNS elemental analysis whereas the structural morphology of CS and SCB particles was examined by using scanning electron microscope. Room temperature open-ended coaxial line method was used to determine the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor over broad band frequency range of 200 MHz-20 GHz. Based on this study, the results found that CS and SCB contain 48% and 44% of carbon, which is potentially useful to be used as conductive elements in the polymer composite. From SEM morphology, presence of irregular shape particles (size ≈ 200 μm and macroporous structure (size ≈ 2.5 μm were detected on CS and SCB. For dielectric properties measurement, it was measured that the average dielectric constant (ε' is 3.062 and 3.007 whereas the average dielectric loss factor (ε" is 0.282 and 0.273 respectively for CS/polymer and SCB/polymer composites. The presence of the biomass waste fillers have improved the dielectric properties of the polymer based composite (ε' = 2.920, ε" = 0.231. However, the increased in the dielectric properties is not highly significant, i.e. up to 4.86 % increase in ε' and 20% increase in ε". The biomass waste filler reinforced polymer composites show typical dielectric relaxation characteristic at frequency of 10 GHz - 20 GHz and could be used as conducting polymer composite for suppressing EMI at high frequency range.

  9. Investigation of P(VDF-TrFE)/ZrO{sub 2}-MMA polymer composites applied to radiation shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontainha, C.C.P. [Depto. de Engenharia Nuclear - UFMG, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Baptista Neto, A.T.; Santos, A.P.; Faria, L.O. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, C.P. 941, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to high radiation dose in medical diagnostic imaging procedures can lead patients to suffer tissue damaging. However, there are several studies that identify significant dose reduction with the use of radiation protective attenuators, minimizing the delivered dose in the region that covers the main beam, while preserving the diagnostic quality of the generated image. Most radiation attenuator materials are produced from shielding metal containing composites, whose efficiency is the goal of investigations around the world. In this context, polymeric materials were chosen for this investigation in order to provide light-weighted and flexible protective composites, a must in personal protective shielding. Therefore, this work is concerned to the investigation of poly(vinylidene fluoride - try-fluor-ethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymers mixed with zirconia nanoparticles. The resulting polymer composites, prepared with 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 at.% of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles, were investigated for application as protective shielding in some interventional radiology procedures. Two variety of composites were produced, one using pure ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the other using sol-gel route with zirconium butoxide as the precursor for zirconium oxide nano-clusters. The P(VDFTrFE)/ ZrO2-MMA polymer composites produced by sol-gel route have provided a much better dispersion of the pure ZrO{sub 2} material into the P(VDF-TrFE) host matrix. UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the composite samples. FTIR data reveal a possible link between the MMA monomers with the P(VDF-TrFE) chain through shared C=O bonds. The radiation shielding characterization was conducted by using a 70 kV x-rays beam which is applicable, for instances, in catheter angiography. The results demonstrate that composites with 10% of ZrO{sub 2}, and only 1.0 mm thick, can attenuate 60% of the x-rays beam. The composite density was evaluated to be

  10. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Dahlang, E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Bakri, Fahrul [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia); Liong, Syarifuddin [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH{sub 3}) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO{sub 3}, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  11. Fabrication of submicron structures in nanoparticle/polymer composite by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. Ping; He, Sailing; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Burzynski, Ryszard; Samoc, Marek; Prasad, Paras N.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of nanoparticle/polymer submicron structures by combining holographic lithography and reactive ion etching. Silica nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in a (SU8) polymer matrix at a high concentration, and in situ polymerization (cross-linking) is used to form a nanoparticle/polymer composite. Another photosensitive SU8 layer cast upon the nanoparticle/SU8 composite layer is structured through holographic lithography, whose pattern is finally transferred to the nanoparticle/SU8 layer by the reactive ion etching process. Honeycomb structures in a submicron scale are experimentally realized in the nanoparticle/SU8 composite.

  12. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppmann, T., E-mail: teresa.huppmann@tum.de; Leonhardt, S., E-mail: stefan.leonhardt@mytum.de, E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Krampe, E., E-mail: stefan.leonhardt@mytum.de, E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Wintermantel, E., E-mail: wintermantel@tum.de [Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Technische Universität München (Germany); Yatsenko, S., E-mail: s.yatsenko@skz.de; Radovanovic, I., E-mail: i.radovanovic@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: i.radovanovic@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de [SKZ- German Plastics Center, Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO{sub 2} for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO{sub 2} coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO{sub 2} particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO{sub 2} P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO{sub 2}-PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result.

  13. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppmann, T.; Leonhardt, S.; Krampe, E.; Wintermantel, E.; Yatsenko, S.; Radovanovic, I.; Bastian, M.

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO 2 for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO 2 coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO 2 particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO 2 P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO 2 -PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result

  14. The conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte upon addition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Farzana Abd.; Salleh, Fauzani Md.; Mohamed, Nor Sabirin

    2017-12-01

    The effect of graphene composition on the conductivity and stability of polymer composite solid electrolyte was studied. These polymer composite solid electrolytes were synthesized by sol gel method and prepared via the solution-casting technique. The compositions of graphene were varied between 10 wt% to 70 wt%. The changes in the functional group of polymer composite after the addition of graphene were characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted at ambient temperature in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz to study the conductivity of the polymer composite. The highest conductivity was obtained at 60 wt% graphene with the value of 2.85×10-4 Scm-1. Sample without the addition of graphene showed the lowest conductivity value of 1.77×10-7 Scm-1 and acts as an insulator. The high conductivity at 60 wt% graphene loading is related to dehydration of cellulose. This is supported by the FTIR spectrum where the absorption peaks of C-O stretching vibrations of polymer composite is weakened and the hydroxyl group is slightly shifted compared to the FTIR spectrum without the addition of graphene. Linear sweep voltammetry results demonstrated that the polymer composite solid electrolyte exhibited electrochemical stability up to 3.2 V.

  15. A review of mechanical and tribological behaviour of polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, K.; Debnath, S.; Ganesan, R.; Palanikumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    Composite materials are finding increased applications in many industrial applications. A nano-composite is a matrix to which nanosized particles have been incorporated to drastically improve the mechanical performance of the original material. The structural components produced using nano-composites will exhibit a high strength-to-weight ratio. The properties of nano-composites have caused researchers and industries to consider using this material in several fields. Polymer nanocomposites consists of a polymer material having nano-particles or nano-fillers dispersed in the polymer matrix which may be of different shapes with at least one of the dimensions less than 100nm. In this paper, comprehensive review of polymer nanocomposites was done majorly in three different areas. First, mechanical behaviour of polymer nanocomposites which focuses on the mechanical property evaluation such as tensile strength, impact strength and modulus of elasticity based on the different combination of filler materials and nanoparticle inclusion. Second, wear behavior of Polymer composite materials with respect to different impingement angles and variation of filler composition using different processing techniques. Third, tribological (Friction and Wear) behaviour of nanocomposites using various combination of nanoparticle inclusion and time. Finally, it summarized the challenges and prospects of polymer nanocomposites.

  16. Highly-wrinkled reduced graphene oxide-conductive polymer fibers for flexible fiber-shaped and interdigital-designed supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cheng, Jianli; Wang, Zhuanpei; Li, Yinchuan; Ni, Wei; Wang, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Flexible supercapacitors have attracted great interest due to outstanding flexibility and light weight. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) fibers have the great potential in using as electrodes for flexible supercapacitors due to the good flexibility. However, the reported conductivity and specific capacitance of these PEDOT: PSS fibers are not very high, which limit their electrochemical performances. In this work, composite fibers of reduced graphene oxide(rGO)-PEDOT: PSS with a highly-wrinkled structure on the surface and pores inside are prepared by wet spinning. The fibers with different ratios of graphene to PEDOT:PSS show a distinctly enhanced conductivity up to ca. 590 S·cm-1 and high strength up to ca. 18.4 MPa. Meanwhile, the composite fibers show an improved electrochemical performances, including a high specific areal capacitance of 131 mF cm-2 and high specific areal energy density of 4.55 μWh·cm-2. The flexible supercapacitors including fiber-shaped supercapacitors and interdigital designed supercapacitors not only could work in different bending states without obvious capacitance decay, but also have small leakage current. The interdigital design can further improve the performances of composite fibers with high capacitance and high utilization compared with traditional parallel connected structure.

  17. Manufacturing Technology of Composite Materials-Principles of Modification of Polymer Composite Materials Technology Based on Polytetrafluoroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Anton; Dyadyura, Kostiantyn; Valíček, Jan; Harničárová, Marta; Zajac, Jozef; Modrák, Vladimír; Pandová, Iveta; Vrábel, Peter; Nováková-Marcinčínová, Ema; Pavelek, Zdeněk

    2017-03-31

    The results of the investigations into the technological formation of new wear-resistant polymer composites based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filled with disperse synthetic and natural compounds are presented. The efficiency of using PTFE composites reinforced with carbon fibers depends on many factors, which influence the significant improvement of physicomechanical characteristics. The results of this research allow stating that interfacial and surface phenomena of the polymer-solid interface and composition play a decisive role in PTFE composites properties. Fillers hinder the relative movement of the PTFE molecules past one another and, in this way, reduce creep or deformation of the parts, reducing the wear rate of parts used in dynamic applications as well as the coefficient of thermal expansion. The necessary structural parameters of such polymer composites are provided by regimes of process equipment.

  18. Rapid Stencil Mask Fabrication Enabled One-Step Polymer-Free Graphene Patterning and Direct Transfer for Flexible Graphene Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Keong; Ashraf, Ali; Kang, Pilgyu; Nam, SungWoo

    2016-04-27

    We report a one-step polymer-free approach to patterning graphene using a stencil mask and oxygen plasma reactive-ion etching, with a subsequent polymer-free direct transfer for flexible graphene devices. Our stencil mask is fabricated via a subtractive, laser cutting manufacturing technique, followed by lamination of stencil mask onto graphene grown on Cu foil for patterning. Subsequently, micro-sized graphene features of various shapes are patterned via reactive-ion etching. The integrity of our graphene after patterning is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. We further demonstrate the rapid prototyping capability of a stretchable, crumpled graphene strain sensor and patterned graphene condensation channels for potential applications in sensing and heat transfer, respectively. We further demonstrate that the polymer-free approach for both patterning and transfer to flexible substrates allows the realization of cleaner graphene features as confirmed by water contact angle measurements. We believe that our new method promotes rapid, facile fabrication of cleaner graphene devices, and can be extended to other two dimensional materials in the future.

  19. Nanothorn electrodes for ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J; Leang, Kam K; Asaka, Kinji; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-08-22

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have recently received tremendous interest as soft biomimetic actuators and sensors in various bioengineering and human affinity applications, such as artificial muscles and actuators, aquatic propulsors, robotic end-effectors, and active catheters. Main challenges in developing biomimetic actuators are the attainment of high strain and actuation force at low operating voltage. Here we first report a nanostructured electrode surface design for IPMC comprising platinum nanothorn assemblies with multiple sharp tips. The newly developed actuator with the nanostructured electrodes shows a new way to achieve highly enhanced electromechanical performance over existing flat-surfaced electrodes. We demonstrate that the formation and growth of the nanothorn assemblies at the electrode interface lead to a dramatic improvement (3- to 5-fold increase) in both actuation range and blocking force at low driving voltage (1-3 V). These advances are related to the highly capacitive properties of nanothorn assemblies, increasing significantly the charge transport during the actuation process.

  20. Ionic polymer-metal composite enabled robotic manta ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Um, Tae I.; Bart-Smith, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The manta ray, Manta birostris, demonstrates excellent swimming capabilities; generating highly efficient thrust via flapping of dorsally flattened pectoral fins. In this paper, we present an underwater robot that mimics the swimming behavior of the manta ray. An assembly-based fabrication method is developed to create the artificial pectoral fins, which are capable of generating oscillatory with a large twisting angle between leading and trailing edges. Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators are used as artificial muscles in the fin. Each fin consists of four IPMC beams bonded with a compliant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane. By controlling each individual IPMC strips, we are able to generate complex flapping motions. The fin is characterized in terms of tip deflection, tip blocking force, twist angle, and power consumption. Based on the characteristics of the artificial pectoral fin, a small size and free-swimming robotic manta ray is developed. The robot consists of two artificial pectoral fins, a rigid body, and an on-board control unit with a lithium ion rechargeable battery. Experimental results show that the robot swam at a speed of up to 0.055 body length per second (BL/sec).

  1. Bio-applications of ionic polymer metal composite transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aw, K C; McDaid, A J

    2014-01-01

    Traditional robotic actuators have advanced performance which in some aspects can surpass that of humans, however they are lacking when it comes to developing devices which are capable of operating together with humans. Bio-inspired transducers, for example ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC), which have similar properties to human tissue and muscle, demonstrate much future promise as candidates for replacing traditional robotic actuators in medical robotics applications. This paper outlines four biomedical robotics applications, an IPMC stepper motor, an assistive glove exoskeleton/prosthetic hand, a surgical robotic tool and a micromanipulation system. These applications have been developed using mechanical design/modelling techniques with IPMC ‘artificial muscle’ as the actuation system. The systems are designed by first simulating the performance using an IPMC model and dynamic models of the mechanical system; the appropriate advanced adaptive control schemes are then implemented to ensure that the IPMCs operate in the correct manner, robustly over time. This paper serves as an overview of the applications and concludes with some discussion on the future challenges of developing real-world IPMC applications

  2. A nonlinear model for ionic polymer metal composites as actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, C.; Fortuna, L.; Giannone, P.; Graziani, S.; Strazzeri, S.

    2007-02-01

    This paper introduces a comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of motion actuators based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) working in air. Significant quantities ruling the acting properties of IPMC-based actuators are taken into account. The model is organized as follows. As a first step, the dependence of the IPMC absorbed current on the voltage applied across its thickness is taken into account; a nonlinear circuit model is proposed to describe this relationship. In a second step the transduction of the absorbed current into the IPMC mechanical reaction is modelled. The model resulting from the cascade of both the electrical and the electromechanical stages represents a novel contribution in the field of IPMCs, capable of describing the electromechanical behaviour of these materials and predicting relevant quantities in a large range of applied signals. The effect of actuator scaling is also investigated, giving interesting support to the activities involved in the design of actuating devices based on these novel materials. Evidence of the excellent agreement between the estimations obtained by using the proposed model and experimental signals is given.

  3. Bio-applications of ionic polymer metal composite transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, K. C.; McDaid, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Traditional robotic actuators have advanced performance which in some aspects can surpass that of humans, however they are lacking when it comes to developing devices which are capable of operating together with humans. Bio-inspired transducers, for example ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC), which have similar properties to human tissue and muscle, demonstrate much future promise as candidates for replacing traditional robotic actuators in medical robotics applications. This paper outlines four biomedical robotics applications, an IPMC stepper motor, an assistive glove exoskeleton/prosthetic hand, a surgical robotic tool and a micromanipulation system. These applications have been developed using mechanical design/modelling techniques with IPMC ‘artificial muscle’ as the actuation system. The systems are designed by first simulating the performance using an IPMC model and dynamic models of the mechanical system; the appropriate advanced adaptive control schemes are then implemented to ensure that the IPMCs operate in the correct manner, robustly over time. This paper serves as an overview of the applications and concludes with some discussion on the future challenges of developing real-world IPMC applications.

  4. Polymer nanocomposites for high-temperature composite repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Xia [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A novel repair agent for resin-injection repair of advanced high temperature composites was developed and characterized. The repair agent was based on bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles. To ensure good dispersion and compatibility with the BECy matrix in nanocomposites, the alumina nanoparticles were functionalized with silanes. The BECy nanocomposites, containing bare and functionalized alumina nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, rheological, and viscoelastic properties. The monomer of BECy has an extremely low viscosity at ambient temperature, which is good for processability. The cured BECy polymer is a highly cross-linked network with excellent thermal mechanical properties, with a high glass transition temperature (Tg) of 270 C and decomposition temperature above 350 C. The incorporation of alumina nanoparticles enhances the mechanical and rheological properties of the BECy nanocomposites. Additionally, the alumina nanoparticles are shown to catalyze the cure of BECy. Characterization of the nanocomposites included dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the BECy nanocomposite is a good candidate as repair agent for resin-injection repair applications.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of a multidirectional-sensitive contact-enhanced inertial microswitch with a electrophoretic flexible composite fixed electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhuoqing; Zhu, Bin; Chen, Wenguo; Ding, Guifu; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    A multidirectional-sensitive inertial microswitch with a polymer–metal composite fixed electrode has been designed and fabricated based on surface micromachining in this work. The microswitch mainly consists of a suspended proof mass as a movable electrode and a T-shaped structure on the substrate with maple leaf-like top and cantilevers around the central cylinder as vertical and lateral fixed electrodes. It can sense the applied shock accelerations from any radial direction in the xoy plane and z-axis. The new vertical composite fixed electrode of the switch is completed by electroplating and electrophoretic deposition, which can realize a flexible contact between the electrodes and reduce the bounces and prolong the contact time. As a result, the stability and reliability of the inertial switch could be greatly improved. The fabricated microswitches have been tested and characterized by a standard dropping hammer system. It is shown that the threshold acceleration of the prototype is generally uniform in different sensitive directions in the xoy plane and z-axis, which is about 70 g. The contact time of the microswitch with the composite fixed electrode is ∼110 µs in the vertical direction, which is longer than that (∼65 µs) without a polymer. The test data are in agreement with dynamic finite-element simulation results. (paper)

  6. Sensing of environmental pollutant by conductive composite from prepared from hyperbranched polymer-grafted carbon black and crystalline polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Chen, J.; Ogawa, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Shimizu, H.; Tsubokawa, N.; Maekawa, Y.; Yoshida, M.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The hyperbranched (HB) polymer-grafted (PG) carbon blacks (CB) have the possibility of utilizing as a support of catalyst and enzyme, and a curing agent of epoxy resin, because they have much terminal amino or hydroxyl groups. The postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB PG CB and the sensing of environmental pollutant by the conductive composite prepared from the polymer-postgrafted CB was discussed. The grafting of poly(amidoamide) onto CB surface was achieved by repeating either Michael addition of methyl acrylate to amino group on the surface or the amidation of the resulting terminal methyl ester group with ethylene diamine. HB polyester onto CB surface was grafted by stepwise growth of 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA) from surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on CB as a core in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The one-pot grafting of HB polyester onto CB as core was also achieved by the polycondensation of bis-MPA in the presence of p-TSA. Postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB polymer-grafted CB was achieved by the reaction of terminal amino or hydroxyl groups of grafted chain with COCl-terminated crystalline polymer. The electric resistance of the composite prepared from crystalline polymer-postgrafted CB was found to increase drastically in hexane, containing environmental pollutant, such as chloroform and trichloroethane, and returned immediately to the initial resistance when it was transferred into pure hexane. Based on the above results, it is concluded that the composite can be used as a novel sensor for environmental pollutant in solution

  7. Numerical Modeling of Macroscopic Behavior of Particulate Composite with Crosslinked Polymer Matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Máša, B.; Hutař, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 465, - (2011), s. 129-132 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Particle reinforced composites * polymer matrix composite * mechanical response Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  8. Piezoelectric Lead Zirconium Titanate Composite Touch Sensors for Integration with Flexible OLED Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Tempelman, E.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    To enable the design of more intuitive product user interfaces, the prospects of matching piezoelectric touch sensors with flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology are investigated. Low stiffness piezoelectric composite sensors, combining piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 powder with a

  9. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  10. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error. The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the “safety factor”, as it indicated the degree to which the coating

  11. The effect of coumaryl alcohol incorporation on the structure and composition of lignin dehydrogenation polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E; Happs, Renee M; Davison, Brian H; Davis, Mark F

    2017-01-01

    Lignin dehydrogenation polymers (DHPs) are polymers generated from phenolic precursors for the purpose of studying lignin structure and polymerization processes. Here, DHPs were synthesized using a Zutropfverfahren method with horseradish peroxidase and three lignin monomers, sinapyl (S), coumaryl (H), and coniferyl (G) alcohols, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The H monomer was reacted with G and a 1:1 molar mixture of S:G monomers at H molar compositions of 0, 5, 10, and 20 mol% to study how the presence of the H monomer affected the structure and composition of the recovered polymers. At low H concentrations, solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the H and G monomers interact to form G:H polymers that have a lower average molecular weight than the solely G-based polymer or the G:H polymer produced at higher H concentrations. Solid-state NMR and pyrolysis-MBMS analyses suggest that at higher H concentrations, the H monomer primarily self-polymerizes to produce clusters of H-based polymer that are segregated from clusters of G- or S:G-based polymers. Thioacidolysis generally showed higher recoveries of thioethylated products from S:G or S:G:H polymers made with higher H content, indicating an increase in the linear ether linkages. Overall, the experimental results support theoretical predictions for the reactivity and structural influences of the H monomer on the formation of lignin-like polymers.

  12. Polymer Composite Rebars under Moisture and Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed Ibrahim

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly used by the civil engineering construction industry in the past few years. Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) is one of the most commonly used FRP materials in applications such as a profile member or reinforcing rebars. Lightweight, high strength and excellent corrosion resistance are just a few among the many appealing properties of GFRP rebars. Use of GFRP has been focused on extending the service life of civil engineering structures acting as reinforcement instead of steel. FRP composites also provide opportunities for repair and retrofit of existing structures to extend their service life or to increase their load bearing capacity. However, the higher initial cost of GFRP rebar compared to steel is a current barrier in their widespread usage. Recent advancements in processes such as pultrusion have helped in reducing the cost of the FRP rebar. In addition, a higher initial raw material cost can be offset by the lower lifecycle cost of GFRP rebar compared to steel rebar. These factors are helping in increasing the acceptance of GFRP rebars in construction industry. Availability of technical data on GFRP, especially for long-term performance and under practical loading conditions faced in a real-life application, can help in increasing their acceptance. Although there have been numerous studies to characterize the properties of GFRP in terms of strength, corrosion, fatigue, chemical and physical aging, and natural weathering, most of these studies were limited to material characterization and were not intended for civil engineering applications. For this reason, and to encourage the increased use of GFRP rebars in concrete structures, GFRP rebar has been an important research topic in recent years. Of particular interest are their long-term durability and their susceptibility to degradation that might be initiated by moisture, temperature, and corrosive chemical environments. This is because

  13. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C

    2011-05-03

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8 mm, P engineering potential.

  14. Self-healing in single and multiple fiber(s reinforced polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woldesenbet E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available You Polymer composites have been attractive medium to introduce the autonomic healing concept into modern day engineering materials. To date, there has been significant research in self-healing polymeric materials including several studies specifically in fiber reinforced polymers. Even though several methods have been suggested in autonomic healing materials, the concept of repair by bleeding of enclosed functional agents has garnered wide attention by the scientific community. A self-healing fiber reinforced polymer composite has been developed. Tensile tests are carried out on specimens that are fabricated by using the following components: hollow and solid glass fibers, healing agent, catalysts, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and a polymer resin matrix. The test results have demonstrated that single fiber polymer composites and multiple fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites with healing agents and catalysts have provided 90.7% and 76.55% restoration of the original tensile strength, respectively. Incorporation of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the healing medium of the single fiber polymer composite has provided additional efficiency. Healing is found to be localized, allowing multiple healing in the presence of several cracks.

  15. Facile and Reliable in Situ Polymerization of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate)-Based Polymer Electrolytes toward Flexible Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Du, Huiping; Duan, Yulong; Xie, Guangwen; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-03-15

    Polycyanoacrylate is a very promising matrix for polymer electrolyte, which possesses advantages of strong binding and high electrochemical stability owing to the functional nitrile groups. Herein, a facile and reliable in situ polymerization strategy of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) (PECA) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) via a high efficient anionic polymerization was introduced consisting of PECA and 4 M LiClO 4 in carbonate solvents. The in situ polymerized PECA gel polymer electrolyte achieved an excellent ionic conductivity (2.7 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) at room temperature, and exhibited a considerable electrochemical stability window up to 4.8 V vs Li/Li + . The LiFePO 4 /PECA-GPE/Li and LiNi 1.5 Mn 0.5 O 4 /PECA-GPE/Li batteries using this in-situ-polymerized GPE delivered stable charge/discharge profiles, considerable rate capability, and excellent cycling performance. These results demonstrated this reliable in situ polymerization process is a very promising strategy to prepare high performance polymer electrolytes for flexible thin-film batteries, micropower lithium batteries, and deformable lithium batteries for special purpose.

  16. A Review on Artificial Aging Behaviors of Fiber Reinforced Polymer-matrix Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Jiangyan; Wang Yunying

    2016-01-01

    As is known, factors in climate environment such as hygrothermal effect and UV may have a negative effect on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites, resulting in their strength and stiffness degraded. In this review, we summarize all the recent studies on the artificial climate aging, hygrothermal aging, and thermal-oxidation aging of fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites, as well as their artificial accelerated aging and natural aging. In addition, studi...

  17. Development of radiation processes wood-polymer composites based on tropical hardwoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iya, V.K.; Majali, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    The wood-polymer composites based on tropical hardwoods were prepared with three monomer systems. Use of chlorinated paraffin oil as an additive imparted fire resistance to the composites and also brought down the gamma dose requirement for total polymerisation. A number of tropical hardwoods can be upgraded by radiation curing, but for cost optimisation, hardwoods with high improvement per unit polymer should be selected. (author)

  18. Partial-impregnation techniques in the production of wood-polymer composites through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Du Toit, G.S.; Jurriaanse, A.

    1977-04-01

    Radiation-processed wood-polymer composites produced from various partially impregnated Pinus species grown in South Africa were investigated and compared to a number of locally available noble hardwoods in respect of dimensional stability, hardness, homogeneity and weathering properties. This investigation clearly demonstrates that, through partial-impregnation techniques, wood-polymer composites can be formed from the locally grown Pinus species with a considerable saving in monomer costs without sacrificing most of the important physical properties of these materials [af

  19. Polymer-inorganic composite resins for recovery of radioactive cesium from acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.I.; Kim, J.S.; Jo, A.; Jang, E.; Park, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, our objectives are as follow: i) the development of a method to produce polymer-ammonium molybdophosphate composite resins with the size range ideal for column operations, ii) the preparation of a different type of polymer-AMP granules, other than polyacrylonitrile, with good physical and chemical stability, and iii) the investigation of sorption and recovery properties of the composite potentially useful for radioactive cesium. (author)

  20. Transparent Nanoporous Glass-Polymer Composite for U.S. Army Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    material is created by infiltrating nanoporous glass (Vycor, Corning Inc.) with different polymers. The Vycor pores (4–6 nm) are much smaller than the...glass-polymer composite to a carbon-silica composite through pyrolysis . Sotomayor et al. (12) used polyanaline-infused Vycor to produce a pH sensor...Vycor is a registered trademark of Corning , Inc., Corning , NY. 3 In this report, we will explore the processing and mechanical behavior of

  1. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats reve...

  2. PEO + PVP blended polymer composite films for multifunctional

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has been noticed from PEO + PVP : Ni2+ polymer film at 373 K. Emission analysis of Co2+: ... suggested that these TM ions doped PEO + PVP polymer films are found to be potential ... by undertaking some nanoparticles for obtaining the sev-.

  3. Solution electrospinning of particle-polymer composite fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Fojan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -scale, is produced. The maximum polymer-silica weight-ratio yielding stable fibres has also been determined. The morphology of the fibres at different weight ratios has been investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Low aerogel concentrations yield few particles located in polymer...

  4. Thinking Outside the 'Block': Alternative Polymer Compositions for Micellar Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    With a number of formulations currently in clinical trials, the interest in polymer micelles as drug carriers in unlikely to subside. Historically, linear diblock copolymers have been used as the building blocks for micelle preparation. Yet, recent advances in polymer chemistry have meant that a wider variety of polymer architectures and compositions have become available and been trialed for pharmaceutical applications. This mini-review aims to provide an overview of recent, exciting developments in triblock, graft and hyperbranched polymer chemistries that may change the way polymeric micelles drug formulations are prepared.

  5. Studies on conducting polymer and conducting polymerinorganic composite electrodes prepared via a new cathodic polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhilendra

    A novel approach for the electrodeposition of conducting polymers and conducting polymer-inorganic composite materials is presented. The approach shows that conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be electrodeposited by the application of a cathodic bias that generates an oxidizing agent, NO+, via the in-situ reduction of nitrate anions. This new cathodic polymerization method allows for the deposition of PPy and PEDOT as three dimensional, porous films composed of spherical polymer particles. The method is also suitable for the co-deposition of inorganic species producing conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. Such composites are used as high surface area electrodes in Li-ion batteries, electrochemical hydrogen evolution and in the development of various other conducting polymer-inorganic composite electrodes. New Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes where Sn and Sb nanoparticles are well dispersed among the PPy framework are reported. These structures allow for decreased stress during expansion and contraction of the active material (Sn, Sb) during the alloying and de-alloying processes of a Li-ion battery anode, significantly alleviating the loss of active material due to pulverization processes. The new electrochemical synthesis mechanism allows for the fabrication of Sn-PPy and Sb-PPy composite electrodes directly from a conducting substrate and eliminates the use of binding materials and conducting carbon used in modern battery anodes, which significantly simplifies their fabrication procedures. Platinum (Pt) has long been identified as the most efficient catalyst for electrochemical water splitting, while nickel (Ni) is a cheaper, though less efficient alternative to Pt. A new morphology of PPy attained via the aforementioned cathodic deposition method allows for the use of minimal quantities of Pt and Ni dispersed over a very high surface area PPy substrate. These composite electrodes

  6. Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Homer, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic nose that uses an array of 32 polymer-carbon black composite sensors has been developed, trained, and tested. By selecting a variety of chemical functionalities in the polymers used to make sensors, it is possible to construct an array capable of identifying and quantifying a broad range of target compounds, such as alcohols and aromatics, and distinguishing isomers and enantiomers (mirror-image isomers). A model of the interaction between target molecules and the polymer-carbon black composite sensors is under development to aid in selecting the array members and to enable identification of compounds with responses not stored in the analysis library.

  7. Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis in Manufacturing Metal/Polymer Macro-Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baesso, R.; Lucchetta, G.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer Injection Forming (PIF) is a new manufacturing technology for sheet metal-polymer macro-composites, which results from the combination of injection moulding and sheet metal forming. This process consists on forming the sheet metal according to the boundary of the mould cavity by means of the injected polymer. After cooling, the polymer bonds permanently to the metal resulting in a sheet metal-polymer macro-composite product. Comparing this process to traditional ones (where the polymeric and metal parts are joined together after separate forming) the main advantages are both reduction of production costs and increase of part quality. This paper presents a multi-physics numerical simulation of the process performed in the Ansys/CFX environment

  8. High Temperature Degradation Mechanisms in Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ronan A.

    1996-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in demanding structural applications in which they may be exposed to harsh environments. The durability of such materials is a major concern, potentially limiting both the integrity of the structures and their useful lifetimes. The goal of the current investigation is to develop a mechanism-based model of the chemical degradation which occurs, such that given the external chemical environment and temperatures throughout the laminate, laminate geometry, and ply and/or constituent material properties, we can calculate the concentration of diffusing substances and extent of chemical degradation as functions of time and position throughout the laminate. This objective is met through the development and use of analytical models, coupled to an analysis-driven experimental program which offers both quantitative and qualitative information on the degradation mechanism. Preliminary analyses using a coupled diffusion/reaction model are used to gain insight into the physics of the degradation mechanisms and to identify crucial material parameters. An experimental program is defined based on the results of the preliminary analysis which allows the determination of the necessary material coefficients. Thermogravimetric analyses are carried out in nitrogen, air, and oxygen to provide quantitative information on thermal and oxidative reactions. Powdered samples are used to eliminate diffusion effects. Tests in both inert and oxidative environments allow the separation of thermal and oxidative contributions to specimen mass loss. The concentration dependency of the oxidative reactions is determined from the tests in pure oxygen. Short term isothermal tests at different temperatures are carried out on neat resin and unidirectional macroscopic specimens to identify diffusion effects. Mass loss, specimen shrinkage, the formation of degraded surface layers and surface cracking are recorded as functions of exposure time. Geometry effects

  9. Mechanical Property Evaluation of Palm/Glass Sandwiched Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite in Comparison with few natural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Dhas, J. Edwin; Pradeep, P.

    2017-10-01

    Natural fibers available plenty can be used as reinforcements in development of eco friendly polymer composites. The less utilized palm leaf stalk fibers sandwiched with artificial glass fibers was researched in this work to have a better reinforcement in preparing a green composite. The commercially available polyester resin blend with coconut shell filler in nano form was used as matrix to sandwich these composites. Naturally available Fibers of palm leaf stalk, coconut leaf stalk, raffia and oil palm were extracted and treated with potassium permanganate solution which enhances the properties. For experimentation four different plates were fabricated using these fibers adopting hand lay-up method. These sandwiched composite plates are further machined to obtain ASTM standards Specimens which are mechanically tested as per standards. Experimental results reveal that the alkali treated palm leaf stalk fiber based polymer composite shows appreciable results than the others. Hence the developed composite can be recommended for fabrication of automobile parts.

  10. Effect of fabric structure and polymer matrix on flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress, and energy dissipation of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the effect of glass fiber structure and the epoxy polymer system on the flexural strength, interlaminar shear stress (ILSS), and energy absorption properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. Four different GFRP composites were fabricated from two glass fiber textiles of...

  11. Polymer-Oxide Nanolayer/Al Composite Cathode for Efficient Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin

    2007-01-01

    ...). The author proposed to place a salt-free, polymer-oxide nanolayer at the interface between the light-emissive polymer layer with Al as the device cathode instead of using low work function metals, such as Ca or LiF/Al...

  12. Hybrid and hierarchical nanoreinforced polymer composites: Computational modelling of structure–properties relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Dai, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    by using computational micromechanical models. It is shown that while glass/carbon fibers hybrid composites clearly demonstrate higher stiffness and lower weight with increasing the carbon content, they can have lower strength as compared with usual glass fiber polymer composites. Secondary...... nanoreinforcement can drastically increase the fatigue lifetime of composites. Especially, composites with the nanoplatelets localized in the fiber/matrix interface layer (fiber sizing) ensure much higher fatigue lifetime than those with the nanoplatelets in the matrix....

  13. Comparison of Properties of Polymer Composite Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygoń P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes because of their high mechanical, optical or electrical properties, have found use as semiconducting materials constituting the reinforcing phase in composite materials. The paper presents the results of the studies on the mechanical properties of polymer composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT. Three-point bending tests were carried out on the composites. The density of each obtained composite was determined as well as the surface roughness and the resistivity at room temperature.

  14. A Flexible Multifunctional Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Polyurethane Composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Benlikaya, R.; Svoboda, P.; Petráš, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2013), s. 4045-4048 ISSN 1530-437X Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0111; UTB Zlín(CZ) iga/ft/2012/022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * chemical vapor sensing * deformation sensing * polymer composite Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.852, year: 2013

  15. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa(-1), a fast response time of 15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  17. 3D optical printing of piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kanguk; Zhu, Wei; Qu, Xin; Aaronson, Chase; McCall, William R; Chen, Shaochen; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    Here we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be optically printed into three-dimensional (3D) microstructures using digital projection printing. Piezoelectric polymers were fabricated by incorporating barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO) nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate and exposing to digital optical masks that could be dynamically altered to generate user-defined 3D microstructures. To enhance the mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the composites, the BTO nanoparticles were chemically modified with acrylate surface groups, which formed direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. The composites with a 10% mass loading of the chemically modified BTO nanoparticles showed piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)) of ∼ 40 pC/N, which were over 10 times larger than composites synthesized with unmodified BTO nanoparticles and over 2 times larger than composites containing unmodified BTO nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes to boost mechanical stress transfer efficiencies. These results not only provide a tool for fabricating 3D piezoelectric polymers but lay the groundwork for creating highly efficient piezoelectric polymer materials via nanointerfacial tuning.

  18. The Usage Of Nutshell In The Production of Polypropylene Based on Polymer Composite Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akbaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been commonly utilized to reinforced materials for many years. Recently due to advantages of natural fibers such as low cost, high physical and mechanical resistance are produced plastic-composite materials by mixing various proportions. In addition, plastic composites are used natural fibers include agricultural wastes (wheat straw, rice straw, hemp fiber, shells of various dry fruits, etc.. In this study, polymer composites were manufactured using waste nutshell flour as filler and polypropylene (PP as polymer matrix. The nutshell-PP composites were manufactured via extrusion and compression methods. The final product tested to determine their tensile, flexural, impact strength properties as well as some physical features such as thickness swelling and water absorptions. The best results were obtained composites containing 30% nutshell flour. In addition, composites which were produced nutshell provided the values of ASTM D6662 standard. The data collected in our country which waste a large portion of nutshell allows for the evaluation of the production polymer composites. The incorporation of nutshell flour feasible to produce plastic composites when appropriate formulations were used. As a result hazelnut shell which was considered agricultural waste can be utilized in polymer composite production.

  19. Fabrication of carbon-polymer composite bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by compression moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M.A.; Ahmed, R.; Saleem, A.; Din, R.U.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are considered as one of the most important technologies to address the future energy and environmental pollution problems. These are the most promising power sources for road transportation and portable devices. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. A fuel cell stack consists of bipolar plates and membrane electrode assemblies (MEA). The bipolar plate is by weight, volume and cost one of the most significant components of a fuel cell stack. Major functions of bipolar plates are to separate oxidant and fuel gas, provide flow channels, conduct electricity and provide heat transfer. Bipolar plates can be made from various materials including graphite, metals, carbon / carbon and carbon/ polymer composites. Materials for carbon-polymer composites are relatively inexpensive, less corrosive, strong and channels can be formed by means of a moulding process. Carbon-polymer composites are of two type i.e; thermosetting and thermoplastic. For thermosetting composite a bulk molding compound (BMC) was prepared by adding graphite, vinyl ester resin, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and cobalt naphthalate. The BMC was thoroughly mixed, poured into a die mould of a bipolar plate with channels and hot pressed at a specific temperature and pressure. A bipolar plate was formed according to the die mould. Design of the mould is also discussed. Conducting polymers were also added to BMC to increase the conductivity of bipolar plates. Particle size of the graphite has also a significant effect on the conductivity of the bipolar plates. Thermoplastic composites were also prepared using polypropylene and graphite.

  20. Piezoelectric Flexible LCP-PZT Composites for Sensor Applications at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Jarkko; Hannu, Jari; Juuti, Jari; Jantunen, Heli

    2018-03-01

    In this paper fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites is demonstrated via filament extrusion enabling cost-efficient large-scale production of highly bendable pressure sensors feasible for elevated temperatures. These composites are fabricated by utilizing environmentally resistant and stable liquid crystal polymer matrix with addition of lead zirconate titanate at loading levels of 30 vol%. These composites, of approximately 0.99 mm thick and length of > 50 cm, achieved excellent bendability with minimum bending radius of 6.6 cm. The maximum piezoelectric coefficients d33 and g33 of the composites were > 14 pC/N and > 108 mVm/N at pressure < 10 kPa. In all cases, the piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) of the composites decreased as a function of pressure. Also, piezoelectric coefficient (d33) further decreased in the case of increased frequency press-release cycle sand pre-stress levels by approximately 37-50%. However, the obtained results provide tools for fabricating novel piezoelectric sensors in highly efficient way for environments with elevated temperatures.

  1. Culvert rehabilitation & invert lining using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    As part of the state of Maine bridge funding initiative, MaineDOT has partnered with the University of : Maines AEWC Advanced Structures and Composite Center and the Maine composites industry to : incorporate composite technologies into bridge con...

  2. Influence of iron substitution by selected rare-earth ions on the properties of NiZn ferrite fillers and PVC magneto-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ušák, Elemír; Ušáková, Mariana; Dosoudil, Rastislav; Šoka, Martin; Dobročka, Edmund

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-zinc ferrites are very important soft magnetic materials from the point of view of diverse technical applications (such as, e.g., various electronic devices and components) for their high magnetic permeability and permittivity, low core loss, high resistivity, high Curie temperature as well as mechanical strength and chemical stability. Due to their good absorbing properties, they can be used as microwave absorbing and shielding materials with the aim of decreasing the environmental pollution caused by non-ionizing microwave radiation. The ferrite material incorporated into the polymer matrix creates qualitatively new magneto-polymer composite material taking benefits from both components. The properties typical for polymers (elasticity, mouldability, etc.) are combined with good high-frequency magnetic parameters, thus allowing to utilize these materials, e.g., in high-frequency applications where especially flexibility of composite materials plays a key role. Small amounts of selected rare-earth (RE) ions, in particular Y3+, La3+, Eu3+ and Gd3+ have been embedded into the nickel-zinc ferrite that has been used as the magnetic filler in magnetic polymer composites with polyvinylchloride (PVC) acting as the polymeric matrix. The effect of various types of rare-earth ions on the structural as well as quasi-static and dynamic (electro)magnetic properties of the ferrite fillers as well as ferrite/PVC composites, in particular the frequency dispersion of the complex permeability, has been studied.

  3. Manufacturing of polymer optical waveguides using self-assembly effect on pre-conditioned 3D-thermoformed flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gerd-Albert; Wolfer, Tim; Zeitler, Jochen; Franke, Jörg; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2017-02-01

    Optical data communication is increasingly interesting for many applications in industrial processes. Therefore mass production is required to meet the requested price and lot sizes. Polymer optical waveguides show great promises to comply with price requirements while providing sufficient optical quality for short range data transmission. A high efficient fabrication technology using polymer materials could be able to create the essential backbone for 3D-optical data transmission in the future. The approach for high efficient fabrication technology of micro optics described in this paper is based on a self-assembly effect of fluids on preconditioned 3D-thermoformed polymer foils. Adjusting the surface energy on certain areas on the flexible substrate by flexographic printing mechanism is presented in this paper. With this technique conditioning lines made of silicone containing UV-varnish are printed on top of the foils and create gaps with the exposed substrate material in between. Subsequent fabrication processes are selected whether the preconditioned foil is coated with acrylate containing waveguide material prior or after the thermoforming process. Due to the different surface energy this material tends to dewet from the conditioning lines. It acts like regional barriers and sets the width of the arising waveguides. With this fabrication technology it is possible to produce multiple waveguides with a single coating process. The relevant printing process parameters that affect the quality of the generated waveguides are discussed and results of the produced waveguides with width ranging from 10 to 300 μm are shown.

  4. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, M.; Deraman, M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Omar, R.; Hashim, M. A.; Basri, N. H.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Jasni, M. R. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ~ 1700 m2g-1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (~3.6×10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (~270 F g-1), specific energy (~ 36 Wh kg-1), and power density (~ 33 kW kg-1).

  5. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, M; Deraman, M; Othman, M A R; Omar, R; Basri, N H; Nor, N S M; Dolah, B N M; Hanappi, M F Y M; Hamdan, E; Sazali, N E S; Tajuddin, N S M; Jasni, M R M; Hashim, M A

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ∼ 1700 m 2 g -1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (∼3.6×10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (∼270 F g -1 ), specific energy (∼ 36 Wh kg -1 ), and power density (∼ 33 kW kg -1 ). (paper)

  6. Polymer composite adsorbents using particles of molecularly imprinted polymers or aluminium oxide nanoparticles for treatment of arsenic contaminated waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önnby, L; Pakade, V; Mattiasson, B; Kirsebom, H

    2012-09-01

    Removal of As(V) by adsorption from water solutions was studied using three different synthetic adsorbents. The adsorbents, (a) aluminium nanoparticles (Alu-NPs, polymers (polymer backbones of pure polyacrylamide (MIP-cryo) were of better stability than the amine containing polymer backbone (Alu-cryo). Both composites worked well in the studied pH range of pH 2-8. Adsorption tested in real wastewater spiked with arsenic showed that co-ions (nitrate, sulphate and phosphate) affected arsenic removal for Alu-cryo more than for MIP-cryo. Both composites still adsorbed well in the presence of counter-ions (copper and zinc) present at low concentrations (μg/l). The unchanged and selective adsorption in realistic water observed for MIP-cryo was concluded to be due to a successful imprinting, here controlled using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). A development of MIP-cryo is needed, considering its low adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Manufacturing Technology of Composite Materials—Principles of Modification of Polymer Composite Materials Technology Based on Polytetrafluoroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Panda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigations into the technological formation of new wear-resistant polymer composites based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filled with disperse synthetic and natural compounds are presented. The efficiency of using PTFE composites reinforced with carbon fibers depends on many factors, which influence the significant improvement of physicomechanical characteristics. The results of this research allow stating that interfacial and surface phenomena of the polymer–solid interface and composition play a decisive role in PTFE composites properties. Fillers hinder the relative movement of the PTFE molecules past one another and, in this way, reduce creep or deformation of the parts, reducing the wear rate of parts used in dynamic applications as well as the coefficient of thermal expansion. The necessary structural parameters of such polymer composites are provided by regimes of process equipment.

  8. Nanoparticle and gelation stabilized functional composites of an ionic salt in a hydrophobic polymer matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Kanyas

    Full Text Available Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite.

  9. Addition of magnetic markers for non-destructive evaluation of polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pereira Fulco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composite pipes are an appealing option as a substitute for conventional steel pipes, particularly due to their inherent corrosion resistance. However, the composite pipes currently used do not allow non-destructive evaluation (NDE using instrumented devices which operate with magnetic sensors. The present work aims at the development of polymer composites with the addition magnetic markers to allow the application non-destructive evaluation techniques which use magnetic sensors. Glass-polyester composite flat, circular plates were fabricated with the addition of ferrite particles (barium ferrite and strontium ferrite and four types of notches were introduced on the plates' surfaces. The influence of these notches on the measured magnetic properties of each material was measured. X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET nitrogen adsorption were used for the characterization of the ferrite particles. Particle dispersion in the polymer matrix was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. According to the results, a particular variation in magnetic field was detected over the region surrounding each type of notch. The results suggest that the proposed technique has great potential for damage detection in polymer composites using magnetic sensors and thus constitute a valuable contribution which may ultimately lead to the development of non-destructive evaluation techniques for assessing the structural integrity polymer composite pipes.

  10. Composite hydrogels of bio-inspired protein polymers : mechanical and structural characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we presented various combinations of custom-designed protein polymers that formed composite hydrogels. In chapter 2, composite hydrogels were prepared by mixing silk-like block copolymers (CP2SE48CP2) with collagen-like block copolymers (T9CR4T9). We found that by

  11. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ende, D A; Van de Wiel, H J; Groen, W A; Van der Zwaag, S

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical failure or depolarization, especially at elevated temperatures. In this work, three kinds of ceramic–polymer composite piezoelectric materials were evaluated and compared against state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials. The new composites are unstructured and structured composites containing granular lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles or PZT fibers in a polyurethane matrix. The composites were used to build energy harvesting patches which were attached to a tire and tested under simulated rolling conditions. The energy density of the piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composite materials is initially not as high as that of the reference materials (a macro-fiber composite and a polyvinylidene fluoride polymer). However, the area normalized power output of the composites after temperature and strain cycling is comparable to that of the reference devices because the piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composites did not degrade during operation. (paper)

  12. Silver-containing polymer composition used in spacecraft and semiconductor optoelectronics control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A. A., E-mail: alexchemtsu@rambler.ru; Tuev, V. I., E-mail: tvi-retem@main.tusur.ru [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The copolymer of the vinyl chloride-maleic anhydride and silver nano- and microparticle (70 wt %) composition is offered as a conductive adhesive for fixing various chips on the dielectric substrate. The wiring volume resistivity is up to 3.1×10{sup −8} Ohm×m. The adhesive strength of the silver-containing polymer composition (70% of Ag) applied under a shear on the dielectric substrate is 106 N/mm{sup 2}. Adhesive layers obtained from these substances have a high thermal conductivity up to λ = 199.93 W/m×K that depends on the amount of Ag in the polymer composition.

  13. Electrosynthesis and catalytic activity of polymer-nickel particles composite electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, Tahar; Zouaoui, Ahmed; Bendemagh, Barkahoum; Oliveira, Ione M.F. de; Oliveira, Gilver F. de; Lepretre, Jean-Claude; Bucher, Christophe; Mou tet, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Nickel-polymer composite electrode materials have been synthesized using various strategies, all comprising the electrochemical reduction of nickel(II) cations or complexes, incorporated by either ion-exchange or complexation into various poly(pyrrole-carboxylate) thin films coated by oxidative electropolymerization onto carbon electrodes. The electrocatalytic activity and the stability of the different composites have been then evaluated in the course of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of ketones and enones in aqueous electrolytes. The best results were obtained using nickel-polymer composites synthesized by electroreduction of nickel(II) ions complexed into polycarboxylate films, which are characterized by a high catalytic activity and a good operational stability. (author)

  14. Electrosynthesis and catalytic activity of polymer-nickel particles composite electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melki, Tahar; Zouaoui, Ahmed; Bendemagh, Barkahoum [Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif (Algeria). Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur. Dept. du Tronc Commun; Oliveira, Ione M.F. de; Oliveira, Gilver F. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lepretre, Jean-Claude [UMR-5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France). Lab. d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et Interfaces; Bucher, Christophe; Mou tet, Jean-Claude [Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1 (France). Dept. de Chimie Moleculaire], e-mail: Jean-Claude.Moutet@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2009-07-01

    Nickel-polymer composite electrode materials have been synthesized using various strategies, all comprising the electrochemical reduction of nickel(II) cations or complexes, incorporated by either ion-exchange or complexation into various poly(pyrrole-carboxylate) thin films coated by oxidative electropolymerization onto carbon electrodes. The electrocatalytic activity and the stability of the different composites have been then evaluated in the course of the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of ketones and enones in aqueous electrolytes. The best results were obtained using nickel-polymer composites synthesized by electroreduction of nickel(II) ions complexed into polycarboxylate films, which are characterized by a high catalytic activity and a good operational stability. (author)

  15. Polymer electrolytes: an investigation of some poly (N-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, K R; Golder, A J; Knight, J

    1984-04-01

    Poly (N-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions were synthesized and their electrical conductivities were measured to assess their suitability as electrolytes in safe, leakproof, high energy-density lithium batteries operating at ambient temperature. The effects on conductivity of temperature, and the nature and concentration of the salt were studied. The salts markedly improve conductivity of the compositions over that of the undoped polymer but they are insufficiently conducting to be considered as battery electrolytes, due possibly to ion pairing. Their creep resistance is also low. Less fluid compositions containing higher molecular weight polymers better able to promote ion separation are more suitable. (ESA)

  16. A possible recycling method for high grade steels EAFD in polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niubó, M; Fernández, A I; Chimenos, J M; Haurie, L

    2009-11-15

    This work evaluates the feasibility of incorporating electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), as filler in a polymer matrix, to obtain a moldable heavyweight sheet, useful for acoustic insulation in automotive industry. For this purpose EAFD from a steel factory that manufactures high quality steels, was characterized and different formulations of composites were prepared. Physical and mechanical properties, as well as fire behaviour were tested and compared with a polymer composite compounded with common mineral fillers. Optimum formulation with 25% EAFD fulfils the RoHs Directive used by automotive industry to regulate heavy metals content. Leaching test was also performed on prepared composites to classify the material after use.

  17. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushama, D., E-mail: sushasukumar@gmail.com [Research Awardee, LAMP, Dept. of Physics, Nit, Calicut, India and Dept. of Physics, M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped TeO{sub 2}‐WO{sub 3}‐La{sub 2}O{sub 3} Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption.

  18. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushama, D.

    2014-01-01

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er 2 O 3 doped TeO 2 ‐WO 3 ‐La 2 O 3 Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption

  19. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushama, D.

    2014-10-01

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er2O3 doped TeO2-WO3-La2O3 Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption.

  20. 25th Anniversary Article: Polymer-Particle Composites: Phase Stability and Applications in Electrochemical Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya

    2013-12-09

    Polymer-particle composites are used in virtually every field of technology. When the particles approach nanometer dimensions, large interfacial regions are created. In favorable situations, the spatial distribution of these interfaces can be controlled to create new hybrid materials with physical and transport properties inaccessible in their constituents or poorly prepared mixtures. This review surveys progress in the last decade in understanding phase behavior, structure, and properties of nanoparticle-polymer composites. The review takes a decidedly polymers perspective and explores how physical and chemical approaches may be employed to create hybrids with controlled distribution of particles. Applications are studied in two contexts of contemporary interest: battery electrolytes and electrodes. In the former, the role of dispersed and aggregated particles on ion-transport is considered. In the latter, the polymer is employed in such small quantities that it has been historically given titles such as binder and carbon precursor that underscore its perceived secondary role. Considering the myriad functions the binder plays in an electrode, it is surprising that highly filled composites have not received more attention. Opportunities in this and related areas are highlighted where recent advances in synthesis and polymer science are inspiring new approaches, and where newcomers to the field could make important contributions. Polymer-particle composites are used in virtually every field of technology. When the particles approach nanometer dimensions, large interfacial regions are created that can be exploited for applications. The fundamental approaches and bottom-up synthesis strategies for understanding and controlling nanoparticle dispersion in polymers are reviewed. Applications of these approaches for creating polymer-particle composite electrolytes and electrodes for energy storage are also considered. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Assessment of nanoparticle release and associated health effect of polymer-silicon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H; Irfan, A; Sachse, S; Njuguna, J

    2012-01-01

    Little information is currently available on possible release of nanomaterials or/and nanoparticles (NP) from conventional and novel products and associated health effect. This study aimed to assess the possible release of NP during the application stage of conventional and nanoproducts. NP release was monitored during physical processing of polymer-silicon composites, and the toxicity of both the released NP and the raw silica nanomaterials that were used as fillers in the nanocomposites was assessed in vitro using human lung epithelial A549 cells. This study suggests that 1) NP can be released from the conventional and novel polymer-silicon composites under certain application scenario; 2) the level of NP release from polymer composites could be altered by different reinforcement materials; e.g. nanostructured MMT could reduce the release while SiO2 NP could increase the release; 3) working with polymer composites under certain conditions could risk inhalation of high level of polymer NP; 4) raw nanomaterials appeared to be toxic in the chosen in vitro system. Further study of the effect of novel filler materials on NP release from final polymer products and the effect of released NP on environment and human health will inform design of safe materials and minimization of negative impact on the environment and human health.

  2. Polymer-Derived In- Situ Metal Matrix Composites Created by Direct Injection of a Liquid Polymer into Molten Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan; Terauds, Kalvis; Anilchandra, A. R.; Raj, Rishi

    2014-02-01

    We show that a liquid organic precursor can be injected directly into molten magnesium to produce nanoscale ceramic dispersions within the melt. The castings made in this way possess good resistance to tensile deformation at 673 K (400 °C), confirming the non-coarsening nature of these dispersions. Direct liquid injection into molten metals is a significant step toward inserting different chemistries of liquid precursors to generate a variety of polymer-derived metal matrix composites.

  3. Bioinspired Flexible and Highly Responsive Dual-Mode Strain/Magnetism Composite Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei; Li, Yuan-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Guang; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Nie, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jin-Rui; Hu, Ning; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2018-04-04

    The mimicry of human skin to detect both oncoming and physical-contacting object is of great importance in the fields of manufacturing, artificial robots and vehicles, etc. Herein, a novel bioinspired flexible and highly responsive dual-mode strain/magnetism composite sensor, which works via both contact and contactless modes, is first fabricated by incorporating Fe 3 O 4 /silicone system into a carbon fiber aerogel (CFA). The distance dependence of magnetic field endorses the CFA/Fe 3 O 4 /silicone composite possible for spatial sensing due to the introduction of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles. As a result, the as-prepared flexible sensor exhibits precise and real-time response not only to direct-contact compression as usual but also to contactless magnetic field in a wide frequency range from 0.1 to 10 Hz, achieving the maximum variance of 68% and 86% in relative electrical resistance, respectively. The contact and contactless sensing modes of the strain/magnetism sensor are clearly demonstrated by recording the speeds of bicycle riding and walking, respectively. Interestingly, this dual-mode composite sensor exhibits the capacity of identifying the contact and contactless state, which is the first report for flexible sensors. The current protocol is eco-friendly, facile, and thought-provoking for the fabrication of multifunctional sensors.

  4. Adsorption of flexible polymer chains on a surface: Effects of different solvent conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, P. H. L.; Plascak, J. A.; Bachmann, M.

    2018-05-01

    Polymer chains undergoing a continuous adsorption-desorption transition are studied through extensive computer simulations. A three-dimensional self-avoiding walk lattice model of a polymer chain grafted onto a surface has been treated for different solvent conditions. We have used an advanced contact-density chain-growth algorithm, in which the density of contacts can be directly obtained. From this quantity, the order parameter and its fourth-order Binder cumulant are computed, as well as the corresponding critical exponents and the adsorption-desorption transition temperature. As the number of configurations with a given number of surface contacts and monomer-monomer contacts is independent of the temperature and solvent conditions, it can be easily applied to get results for different solvent parameter values without the need of any extra simulations. In analogy to continuous magnetic phase transitions, finite-size-scaling methods have been employed. Quite good results for the critical properties and phase diagram of very long single polymer chains have been obtained by properly taking into account the effects of corrections to scaling. The study covers all solvent effects, going from the limit of super-self-avoiding walks, characterized by effective monomer-monomer repulsion, to poor solvent conditions that enable the formation of compact polymer structures.

  5. Structure and dynamics of confined flexible and unentangled polymer melts in highly adsorbing cylindrical pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2014-01-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are used to probe the dynamic phenomena of polymer melts confined in nanopores. The simulation results show excellent agreement in the values obtained for the normalized coherent single chain dynamic structure factor, (S(Q,Δt))/(S(Q,0)) . In the bulk configuration, both simulations and experiments confirm that the polymer chains follow Rouse dynamics. However, under confinement, the Rouse modes are suppressed. The mean-square radius of gyration 〈R g 2 〉 and the average relative shape anisotropy 〈κ 2 〉 of the conformation of the polymer chains indicate a pancake-like conformation near the surface and a bulk-like conformation near the center of the confining cylinder. This was confirmed by direct visualization of the polymer chains. Despite the presence of these different conformations, the average form factor of the confined chains still follows the Debye function which describes linear ideal chains, which is in agreement with small angle neutron scattering experiments (SANS). The experimentally inaccessible mean-square displacement (MSD) of the confined monomers, calculated as a function of radial distance from the pore surface, was obtained in the simulations. The simulations show a gradual increase of the MSD from the adsorbed, but mobile layer, to that similar to the bulk far away from the surface

  6. Corrosive effect of environmental change on selected properties of polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovičová, L.; Zatkalíková, V.

    2017-11-01

    The development of composite materials and the related design and manufacturing technologies is one of the most important advances in the history of materials. Composites are multifunctional materials having unprecedented mechanical and physical properties that can be tailored to meet the requirements of a particular application. Ageing is also important and it is defined as the process of deterioration of engineering materials resulting from the combined effects of atmospheric radiation, heat, oxygen, water, micro-organisms and other atmospheric factors. The present article deals with monitoring the changes in the mechanical properties of composites with polymer matrix. The composite was formed from the PA matrix and glass fibers (GF). The composite contains 10, 20 and 30 % of glass fibers. The mechanical properties were evaluated on samples of the composite before and after UV radiation on the sample. Light microscopy was evaluated distribution of glass fibers in the polymer matrix and the presence of cracks caused by UV radiation.

  7. Molecular modeling of polymer composite-analyte interactions in electronic nose sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL electronic nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereoisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings with no hydrogens. The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer, solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4-vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic and organic compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quickly Updatable Hologram Images Using Poly(N-vinyl Carbazole (PVCz Photorefractive Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sakai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quickly updatable hologram images using photorefractive (PR polymer composite based on poly(N-vinyl carbazole (PVCz is presented. PVCz is one of the pioneer materials of photoconductive polymers. PR polymer composite consists of 44 wt % of PVCz, 35 wt % of 4-azacycloheptylbenzylidene-malonitrile (7-DCST as a nonlinear optical dye, 20 wt % of carbazolylethylpropionate (CzEPA as a photoconductive plasticizer and 1 wt % of 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF as a sensitizer. PR composite gives high diffraction efficiency of 68% at E = 45 V μm−1. Response speed of optical diffraction is the key parameter for real-time 3D holographic display. The key parameter for obtaining quickly updatable holographic images is to control the glass transition temperature lower enough to enhance chromophore orientation. Object image of the reflected coin surface recorded with reference beam at 532 nm (green beam in the PR polymer composite is simultaneously reconstructed using a red probe beam at 642 nm. Instead of using a coin object, an object image produced by a computer was displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM and used for the hologram. The reflected object beam from an SLM was interfered with a reference beam on PR polymer composite to record a hologram and simultaneously reconstructed by a red probe beam.

  9. Effect of the type of radiation on the degradation behavior of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusa, Shigenori

    1992-01-01

    Four kinds of polymer matrix composites (filler: E-glass or carbon fiber cloth; matrix; epoxy or polyimide resin) were irradiated with neutrons and 60 Co γ-rays at room temperature or at 5 K. Three-point bend tests were then carried out at 77 K. Comparison of the neutron and γ-ray irradiation effects shows that the radiation sensitivity of the glass/epoxy and glass/polyimide composites is 1.8-2.6 times higher to neutrons than to γ-rays, indicating a higher sensitivity of the epoxy and polyimide matrix resins to recoil protons than to γ-rays. Absorbed dose calculations, on the other hand, show that the spatial distribution of the microscopic energy deposition in polymer matrix composites is inhomogeneous for neutrons, although almost homogeneous for γ-rays. In addition, the neutron irradiation of boron-containing E-glass fiber composites produces additional radiation damage due to a 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction in the glass fibers, thus significantly enhancing a decrease in the composite strength. These facts indicate that as far as polymer matrix composites are concerned, the irradiation effects of neutrons will be rather difficult to simulate with different types of radiation such as protons and carbon ions from an ion accelerator. Thus, it may be prudent that such simulation irradiation be carried out mainly for pure resins to be used as matrix in polymer matrix composites. (author)

  10. Brownian dynamics simulations of a flexible polymer chain which includes continuous resistance and multibody hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason E.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2005-01-01

    Using methods adapted from the simulation of suspension dynamics, we have developed a Brownian dynamics algorithm with multibody hydrodynamic interactions for simulating the dynamics of polymer molecules. The polymer molecule is modeled as a chain composed of a series of inextensible, rigid rods with constraints at each joint to ensure continuity of the chain. The linear and rotational velocities of each segment of the polymer chain are described by the slender-body theory of Batchelor [J. Fluid Mech. 44, 419 (1970)]. To include hydrodynamic interactions between the segments of the chain, the line distribution of forces on each segment is approximated by making a Legendre polynomial expansion of the disturbance velocity on the segment, where the first two terms of the expansion are retained in the calculation. Thus, the resulting linear force distribution is specified by a center of mass force, couple, and stresslet on each segment. This method for calculating the hydrodynamic interactions has been successfully used to simulate the dynamics of noncolloidal suspensions of rigid fibers [O. G. Harlen, R. R. Sundararajakumar, and D. L. Koch, J. Fluid Mech. 388, 355 (1999); J. E. Butler and E. S. G. Shaqfeh, J. Fluid Mech. 468, 204 (2002)]. The longest relaxation time and center of mass diffusivity are among the quantities calculated with the simulation technique. Comparisons are made for different levels of approximation of the hydrodynamic interactions, including multibody interactions, two-body interactions, and the "freely draining" case with no interactions. For the short polymer chains studied in this paper, the results indicate a difference in the apparent scaling of diffusivity with polymer length for the multibody versus two-body level of approximation for the hydrodynamic interactions.

  11. Characteristic of Polymer-Impregnated Cement Mortar: Composites: Bulk Density and Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.M.; Abo-El-Enein, S.A.; El-Saft, M.M.; Sadek, M.A.; Zohdy, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of radiation initiated polymerization of some monomers on the physical properties of polymer-incorporated mortar was studied. The monomers used were: castor oil (C.O.), 4, 4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and methyl methacrylate (MMA). Polymerization was carried out by subjecting the monomer-impregnated mortar specimens to different doses of gamma radiation. Where polyurethane (pu) and polyurethane -methyl methacrylate copolymers were formed within the pore system. The influence of polymer impregnation on the various physico-mechanical characteristics of the resulting composites was studied with respect to bulk density and polymer loading. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study the micro-structural characteristics of the neat hardened Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mortar pastes and their polymer-impregnated composites

  12. Characterization of polymer composites during autoclave manufacturing by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Smith, Wayne W.; Rigas, Elias J.; Granville, Dana

    2001-02-01

    12 The superior engineering properties of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, primarily the high strength-to- weight ratio, make them suitable to applications ranging from sporting goods to aircraft components (e.g. helicopter blades). Unfortunately, consistent fabrication of components with desired mechanical properties has proven difficult, and has led to high production costs. This is largely due to the inability to monitor and control polymer cure, loosely defined as the process of polymer chain extension and cross- linking. Even with stringent process control, slight variations in the pre-polymer formulations (e.g. prepreg) can influence reaction rates, reaction mechanisms, and ultimately, product properties. In an effort to optimize the performance of thermoset composite, we have integrated fiber optic probes between the plies of laminates and monitored cure by Raman spectroscopy, with the eventual goal of process control. Here we present real-time measurements of two high performance aerospace companies cured within an industrial autoclave.

  13. Enhanced thermal conductance of polymer composites through embeddingaligned carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale K. Hensley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this work is to find a more efficient method of enhancing the thermal conductance of polymer thin films. This work compares polymer thin films embedded with randomly oriented carbon nanotubes to those with vertically aligned carbon nanofibers. Thin films embedded with carbon nanofibers demonstrated a similar thermal conductance between 40–60 μm and a higher thermal conductance between 25–40 μm than films embedded with carbon nanotubes with similar volume fractions even though carbon nanotubes have a higher thermal conductivity than carbon nanofibers.

  14. Magnetoelectric polymer-based composites fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The first book on this topic provides a comprehensive and well-structured overview of the fundamentals, synthesis and emerging applications of magnetoelectric polymer materials. Following an introduction to the basic aspects of polymer based magnetoelectric materials and recent developments, subsequent chapters discuss the various types as well as their synthesis and characterization. There then follows a review of the latest applications, such as memories, sensors and actuators. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances. An essential reference for entrants to the field as well as for experienced researchers.

  15. Analytical Modeling of the High Strain Rate Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The results presented here are part of an ongoing research program to develop strain rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composites subject to high strain rate impact loads. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric matrix materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical 5 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective plastic strain are modified by applying variations of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of a representative toughened epoxy is analyzed across a wide range of strain rates (from quasi-static to high strain rates) and the results are compared to experimentally obtained values. For the analyzed polymers, both the tensile and shear stress-strain curves computed using the analytical model correlate well with values obtained through experimental tests. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. In the micromechanics, the unit cell is divided up into a number of independently analyzed slices, and laminate theory is then applied to obtain the effective deformation of the unit cell. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite (composed using the representative polymer analyzed for the correlation of the polymer constitutive equations) for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare favorably to experimentally obtained results.

  16. Enhanced non-volatile and updatable holography using a polymer composite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengfei; Sun, Sam Q; Baig, Sarfaraz; Wang, Michael R

    2012-03-12

    Updatable holography is considered as the ultimate technique for true 3D information recording and display. However, there is no practical solution to preserve the required features of both non-volatility and reversibility which conflict with each other when the reading has the same wavelength as the recording. We demonstrate a non-volatile and updatable holographic approach by exploiting new features of molecular transformations in a polymer recording system. In addition, by using a new composite recording film containing photo-reconfigurable liquid-crystal (LC) polymer, the holographic recording is enhanced due to the collective reorientation of LC molecules around the reconfigured polymer chains.

  17. Electrochromic artificial muscles based on nanoporous metal-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows that a nano-coating of electrochromic polymer grown onto the ligaments of nanoporous gold causes reversible dimensional and color changes during electrochemical actuation. This combination of electromechanical and optical properties opens additional avenues for the applications of

  18. Patterns of efficiency and degradation of composite polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeranko, T; Tributsch, H; Sariciftci, NS; Hummelen, JC

    2004-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction plastic solar cells (PSC) produced from a conjugated polymer, poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyl-oxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV), and a methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated using photocurrent imaging techniques to

  19. Nano-scaled carbon fillers and their functional polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes Ghislandi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing of low density conductive plastics, that could replace metals in many applications, is a challenging target that has been pursued by several technological segments. The incorporation of carbon nanofillers, namely carbon nanotubes and graphene, into a polymer matrix is a recent and

  20. Performance of polymer compositions as carrier to cowpea rhizobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was to evaluate inoculant formulations to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) containing polymers as carrier materials and rhizobial strains. To assess the efficiency of the new inoculants formulations, the rhizobial survival in inoculated and stored seeds and the field performance of a selected formulation were evaluated.