WorldWideScience

Sample records for flexible piping design

  1. Piping Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  2. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  3. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  4. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  5. Analytical and Numerical Modeling for Flexible Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; CHEN Geng

    2011-01-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers,in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties,has been analyzed.Specifically,the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics.The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness.With consideration of the effective elastic moduli,the structure can be properly analyzed.Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated.A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque.Further,the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered.Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed,which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  6. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  7. Overall Thermal Performance of Flexible Piping Under Simulated Bending Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Flexible, vacuum-insulated transfer lines for low-temperature applications have higher thermal losses than comparable rigid lines. Typical flexible piping construction uses corrugated tubes, inner and outer, with a multilayer insulation (MLI) system in the annular space. Experiments on vacuum insulation systems in a flexible geometry were conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The effects of bending were simulated by causing the inner tube to be eccentric with the outer tube. The effects of spacers were simulated in a controlled way by inserting spacer tubes for the length of the cylindrical test articles. Two material systems, standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI), were tested under the full range of vacuum levels using a liquid nitrogen boiloff calorimeter to determine the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The results indicate that the flexible piping under simulated bending conditions significantly degrades the thermal performance of the insulation system. These data are compared to standard MLI for both straight and flexible piping configurations. The definition of an overall k-value for actual field installations (k(sub oafi)) is described for use in design and analysis of cryogenic piping systems.

  8. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    on reels. Flexible pipes are constructed in a layer structure in which each layer adds specific properties to the pipe such as; collapse strength, fluid integrity, bursting strength, tensile strength etc. The inner-most layer of a flexible pipe is the carcass; a flexible interlocking stainless steel......Un-bonded flexible pipes are used in the offshore oil and gas industry worldwide transporting hydrocarbons from seafloor to floating production vessels topside. Flexible pipes are advantageous over rigid pipelines in dynamic applications and during installation as they are delivered in full length...... structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...

  9. 压力管道的柔性设计及弹簧支吊架选用%The Flexible Design of Pressure Piping and Application of Spring Supports and Hangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘龙

    2015-01-01

    概述了压力管道柔性设计的目的与方法。重点介绍弹簧支吊架的选用,及安装中需注意的问题。%The purposes and methods of pressure piping flexible design are intruduced .focusing on the selection of spring supports and hangers, and the matters need to be payed attention in the installation .

  10. Flexible pipe crawling device having articulated two axis coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, William T.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for moving through the linear and non-linear segments of piping systems. The apparatus comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a mechanism for extension and retraction of the front and rear leg assembles with respect to each other, such as an air cylinder, and a pivoting joint. One end of the flexible joint attaches to the front leg assembly and the other end to the air cylinder, which is also connected to the rear leg assembly. The air cylinder allows the front and rear leg assemblies to progress through a pipe in "inchworm" fashion, while the joint provides the flexibility necessary for the pipe crawler to negotiate non-linear piping segments. The flexible connecting joint is coupled with a spring-force suspension system that urges alignment of the front and rear leg assemblies with respect to each other. The joint and suspension system cooperate to provide a firm yet flexible connection between the front and rear leg assemblies to allow the pivoting of one with respect to the other while moving around a non-linear pipe segment, but restoring proper alignment coming out of the pipe bend.

  11. On the integrity of flexible pipes for subsea applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Marcos C. de; Brack, Marcelo; Lontra Filho, Lauro L.; Jorge, Nilo de M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Most of PETROBRAS offshore oil and gas production is conveyed through Flexible Pipes (FPs) used for gathering, exporting and importing functions. PETROBRAS is the greatest user of FPs worldwide and, due to the complexity of the FP, a composite structure having many steel and polymeric layers and end fittings, it implies a huge number of possible failure mechanisms, much more than those expected for steel pipes. The use of FP demands a special approach over all life cycle phases, from the basic engineering up to the operation/reuse/decommission, by evaluating the application feasibility together with potential failures. This paper accounts some of PETROBRAS experience on FPs, mainly a current approach on their integrity and planned measures in order to assure production and prevent accidents, based on the most relevant failure mechanisms. The preventive actions includes review on failures and their causes and, consequently, improvement on specifications, FP design verification, prototype qualification, inspection and monitoring of integrity key parameters during installation and operation, as well as, maintenance. A FPs Company Integrity Directives and Database will allow a continuous improvement of field systems reliability through to a periodic assessment of performances and feedback to activities for the whole FP life cycle. (author)

  12. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  13. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  14. The development of studying flexible pipe bend reinforced by Kevlar fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Chang-geng; HE Lin; LU Zhi-qiang

    2003-01-01

    The flexible pipe bend can not only reduce the structural vibration and fluid noise in pipeline, but also realize the flexible connection of a horizontal line and a vertical line and compensate the displacement of three dimensions produced by the shock or vibration of pipeline in the special situations. Up to now, little attention has been paid to study the flexible pipe bend applied in the pipeline of medium or high pressure, because no appropriate framework materials can be used to reinforce it which must endure the burst pressure higher than 10 MPa. The investigation shows that it is possible to produce the flexible pipe bend of medium or high pressure if such fibers with high performance as Kevlar fibers are used to be its reinforced materials. However, its structural designing theory, manufacturing technology and measuring techniques aren't yet perfect and systematic, which leads to the instability of the performance of products. Furthermore, few references about its research can be seen. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically and thoroughly develop the structural designing theory, manufacture technology and measuring techniques of flexible pipe bend.

  15. A methodology to evaluate the fatigue life of flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Fernando J.M. de; Sousa, Jose Renato M. de; Siqueira, Marcos Q. de; Sagrilo, Luis V.S. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lemos, Carlos Alberto D. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper focus on a methodology to perform the fatigue analysis of flexible pipes. This methodology employs functions that convert forces and moments obtained in global analyses into stresses. The stresses are then processed by well-known cycle counting methods, and S-N curves evaluate the damage at several points in the pipe cross-section. Palmgren-Miner linear damage hypothesis is assumed in order to calculate the accumulated fatigue damage. A parametric study on the fatigue life of a flexible pipe employing this methodology is presented. The main points addressed in the study are the influence of friction between layers in the results, the importance of evaluating the fatigue life in various points of the pipe cross-section and the effect of different mean stress levels. The obtained results suggest that the consideration of friction effects strongly influences the fatigue life of flexible risers and these effects have to be accounted both in the global and local analyses of the riser. Moreover, mean stress effects are also significant and at least 8 equally spaced wires in each analyzed section of the riser must be considered in fatigue analyses. (author)

  16. Piping structural design for the ITER thermal shield manifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Chang Hyun, E-mail: chnoh@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Wooho, E-mail: whchung@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kwanwoo; Kang, Kyoung-O. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jing Do; Cha, Jong Kook [Korea Marine Equipment Research Institute, Busan 606-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Kyu [Mecha T& S, Jinju-si 660-843 (Korea, Republic of); Hamlyn-Harris, Craig; Hicks, Robby; Her, Namil; Jun, Chang-Hoon [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We finalized piping design of ITER thermal shield manifold for procurement. • Support span is determined by stress and deflection limitation. • SQP, which is design optimization method, is used for the pipe design. • Benchmark analysis is performed to verify the analysis software. • Pipe design is verified by structural analyses. - Abstract: The thermal shield (TS) provides the thermal barrier in the ITER tokamak to minimize heat load transferred by thermal radiation from the hot components to the superconducting magnets operating at 4.2 K. The TS is actively cooled by 80 K pressurized helium gas which flows from the cold valve box to the cooling tubes on the TS panels via manifold piping. This paper describes the manifold piping design and analysis for the ITER thermal shield. First, maximum allowable span for the manifold support is calculated based on the simple beam theory. In order to accommodate the thermal contraction in the manifold feeder, a contraction loop is designed and applied. Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method is used to determine the optimized dimensions of the contraction loop to ensure adequate flexibility of manifold pipe. Global structural behavior of the manifold is investigated when the thermal movement of the redundant (un-cooled) pipe is large.

  17. Preliminary Design of IHTS Piping Support for PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Hyun; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A pipe support is a designed element that transfer the load from pipe to the supporting structures. Providing sufficient pipe wall thickness and installing proper supports are most important elements for structural integrity of the piping system. Piping supports are generally referred to as device used in supporting the weight of the piping. The weight includes that of the pipe proper, the content the pipe carries, and the pipe converting, such as insulation. A FE analysis was performed to select variable spring hanger of IHTS hot-leg piping for PGSFR. The calculated values will be used to design variable spring hanger.

  18. Piping Flexibility Analysis of the Primary Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Bandung Reactor due to Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Rahardjo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes in a nuclear installation can overload a piping system which is not flexible enough. These loads can be forces, moments and stresses working on the pipes or equipments. If the load is too large and exceed the allowable limits, the piping and equipment can be damaged and lead to overall system operation failure. The load received by piping systems can be reduced by making adequate piping flexibility, so all the loads can be transmitted homogenously throughout the pipe without load concentration at certain point. In this research the analysis of piping stress has been conducted to determine the size of loads that occured in the piping of primary cooling system of TRIGA 2000 Reactor, Bandung if an earthquake happened in the reactor site. The analysis was performed using Caesar II software-based finite element method. The ASME code B31.1 arranging the design of piping systems for power generating system (Power Piping Code was used as reference analysis method. Modeling of piping systems was based on the cooling piping that has already been installed and the existing data reported in Safety Analysis Reports (SARs of TRIGA 2000 reactor, Bandung. The quake considered in this analysis is the earthquake that occurred due to the Lembang fault, since it has the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA in the Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor site. The analysis results showed that in the static condition for sustain and expansion loads, the stress fraction in all piping lines does not exceed the allowable limit. However, during operation moment, in dynamic condition, the primary cooling system is less flexible at sustain load, ekspansi load, and combination load and the stress fraction have reached 95,5%. Therefore a pipeline modification (rerouting is needed to make pipe stress does not exceed the allowable stress. The pipeline modification was carried out by applied a gap of 3 mm in the X direction of the support at node 25 and eliminate the support at the node

  19. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus on structural flexibility due to scarcity of previous research in that area. The purpose of the research is to answer a question: how can companies design structural supply chain flexibility? In a...

  20. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  1. 46 CFR 56.30-40 - Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or slip-on type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or slip-on... Flexible pipe couplings of the compression or slip-on type. (a) Flexible pipe couplings of the compression... and frequency should not exceed that recommended by the coupling manufacturer. (e) Flexible...

  2. 大型催化裂化装置反应油气管道的柔性设计%Piping flexibility design for oil vapor line of large FCC unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾比伦

    2011-01-01

    The critical difficult problem resulted from the unit's large-scalization in the design of FCC oil vapor transfer line is presented, i.e. the excessive thermal expansion force of oil vapor line on the fractionator oil vapor inlet. The limitation of conventional solution in large-scalization is analyzed and effective practical solutions are described. The new unique solution is recommended, in which fold type standpipe is installed to absorb the vertical thermal expansion, the rigid supports are provided at upper and lower parts of standpipe,spring hanger is supplied for middle fold pipe and flexible hangers are installed for lower horizontal pipe. The calculation shows that the new thermal expansion compensation design is obviously superior to the conventional design in thermal expansion compensation performance.%指出了催化裂化装置由于大型化引发的反应油气管道设计难以解决的关键性问题,即油气管道易对分馏塔油气入口产生过大的热膨胀作用力.分析传统解决方案应对装置大型化的局限性,阐述适用的解决途径,提出新颖独特的解决方案:立管呈折线形状,用以吸收竖直方向的热膨胀;立管上、下部分别设刚性支撑,中部斜管上设置弹簧吊架,下部水平管上设若干弹性吊架.计算结果表明,新方案的热膨胀补偿效能明显优于传统方案.

  3. 49 CFR 192.121 - Design of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of plastic pipe. 192.121 Section 192.121... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.121 Design of plastic pipe. Subject to the limitations of § 192.123, the design pressure for plastic pipe is determined by either of...

  4. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following...

  5. On modelling of lateral buckling failure in flexible pipe tensile armour layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model which is capable of representing the physics of lateral buckling failure in the tensile armour layers of flexible pipes is introduced. Flexible pipes are unbounded composite steel–polymer structures, which are known to be prone to lateral wire buckling...

  6. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    structure that provides mechanical and collapse strength for the flexible pipe. The manufacturing process of carcass is a combination of roll forming stainless steel strips and helical winding the profiles around a mandrel interlocking the profiles with themselves. The focus of the present project...... is the analysis and optimisation of the carcass manufacturing process by means of a fundamental investigation in the fields of formability, failure modes / mechanisms, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), simulative testing and tribology. A study of failure mechanisms in carcass production is performed by being present...... strip thickness deep. Simulative tribo-testing in the strip-reduction-test showed that biodegradable rapeseed oil is an acceptable lubricant for the carcass process. Testing of two lean duplex stainless steel surfaces showed that a EN 2E brushed surface had better lubricant entrapment capabilities than...

  7. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must...

  8. 49 CFR 192.125 - Design of copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of copper pipe. 192.125 Section 192.125... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.125 Design of copper pipe. (a) Copper pipe used in mains must have a minimum wall thickness of 0.065 inches (1.65 millimeters) and must be...

  9. Imperfection analysis of flexible pipe armor wires in compression and bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by a specific failure mode known as lateral wire buckling occurring in the tensile armor layers of flexible pipes. The tensile armor is usually constituted by two layers of initially helically wound steel wires with opposite lay directions. During pipe...... laying in ultra deep waters, a flexible pipe experiences repeated bending cycles and longitudinal compression. These loading conditions are known to impose a danger to the structural integrity of the armoring layers, if the compressive load on the pipe exceeds the total maximum compressive load carrying...

  10. Mechanical Response of Steel Wire Wound Reinforced Rubber Flexible Pipe under Internal Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Fan; HUANG Cheng-kui; ZHOU Jing; LI Lin-pu

    2009-01-01

    Steel wire wound reinforced flexible pipe in this study mainly consists of multiple anisotropic steel wire wound reinforcement layers and multiple isotropic rubber layers. Based on 3D anisotropic elastic theory, the analytic solutions of stresses and elastic deformations of steel wire wound reinforced rubber flexible pipe under internal pressure are presented. As the adjacent reinforcement layers with wound angle have different radii, the single reinforcement layer shows the effect of tensile-shear coupling. Moreover, the static loading test results of steel wire wound reinforced rubber flexible pipe under internal pressure are basically coincided with the calculated values by present method.

  11. ArrayPipe: a flexible processing pipeline for microarray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokamp, Karsten; Roche, Fiona M.; Acab, Michael; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Kuo, Byron; Goode, David; Aeschliman, Dana; Bryan, Jenny; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.

    2004-01-01

    A number of microarray analysis software packages exist already; however, none combines the user-friendly features of a web-based interface with potential ability to analyse multiple arrays at once using flexible analysis steps. The ArrayPipe web server (freely available at www.pathogenomics.ca/arraypipe) allows the automated application of complex analyses to microarray data which can range from single slides to large data sets including replicates and dye-swaps. It handles output from most commonly used quantification software packages for dual-labelled arrays. Application features range from quality assessment of slides through various data visualizations to multi-step analyses including normalization, detection of differentially expressed genes, andcomparison and highlighting of gene lists. A highly customizable action set-up facilitates unrestricted arrangement of functions, which can be stored as action profiles. A unique combination of web-based and command-line functionality enables comfortable configuration of processes that can be repeatedly applied to large data sets in high throughput. The output consists of reports formatted as standard web pages and tab-delimited lists of calculated values that can be inserted into other analysis programs. Additional features, such as web-based spreadsheet functionality, auto-parallelization and password protection make this a powerful tool in microarray research for individuals and large groups alike. PMID:15215429

  12. A novel numerical model for estimating the collapse pressure of flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Victor P.P.; Antoun Netto, Theodoro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia], e-mail: victor@lts.coppe.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    As the worldwide oil and gas industry operational environments move to ultra-deep waters, failure mechanisms in flexible pipes such as instability of the armor layers under compression and hydrostatic collapse are more likely to occur. Therefore, it is important to develop reliable numerical tools to reproduce the failure mechanisms that may occur in flexible pipes. This work presents a representative finite element model of flexible pipe capable to reproduce its pre and post-collapse behavior under hydrostatic pressure. The model, developed in the scope of this work, uses beam elements and includes nonlinear kinematics and material behavior influences. The dependability of the numerical results is assessed in light of experimental tests on flexible pipes with 4 inches and 8 inches nominal diameter available in the literature (Souza, 2002). The applied methodology provided coherent values regarding the estimation of the collapse pressures and results have shown that the proposed model is capable to reproduce experimental results. (author)

  13. 49 CFR 192.123 - Design limitations for plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design limitations for plastic pipe. 192.123... Design limitations for plastic pipe. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) and paragraph (f) of this section, the design pressure may not exceed a gauge pressure of 100 psig (689 kPa) for plastic pipe...

  14. Flexible mobile robot system for smart optical pipe inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampfer, Wolfram; Bartzke, Ralf; Ziehl, Wolfgang

    1998-03-01

    Damages of pipes can be inspected and graded by TV technology available on the market. Remotely controlled vehicles carry a TV-camera through pipes. Thus, depending on the experience and the capability of the operator, diagnosis failures can not be avoided. The classification of damages requires the knowledge of the exact geometrical dimensions of the damages such as width and depth of cracks, fractures and defect connections. Within the framework of a joint R&D project a sensor based pipe inspection system named RODIAS has been developed with two partners from industry and research institute. It consists of a remotely controlled mobile robot which carries intelligent sensors for on-line sewerage inspection purpose. The sensor is based on a 3D-optical sensor and a laser distance sensor. The laser distance sensor is integrated in the optical system of the camera and can measure the distance between camera and object. The angle of view can be determined from the position of the pan and tilt unit. With coordinate transformations it is possible to calculate the spatial coordinates for every point of the video image. So the geometry of an object can be described exactly. The company Optimess has developed TriScan32, a special software for pipe condition classification. The user can start complex measurements of profiles, pipe displacements or crack widths simply by pressing a push-button. The measuring results are stored together with other data like verbal damage descriptions and digitized images in a data base.

  15. Optimization Design and Application of Underground Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe is an important part of conveyance structure. During construction, the workload of excavation and concrete pouring can be significantly decreased according to optimized pipe structure, and the engineering quality can be improved. This paper presents an optimization mathematical model of underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe structure according to real working status of several common pipe structures from real cases. Then, an optimization design system was developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Furthermore, take the bifurcation pipe of one hydropower station as an example: optimization analysis was conducted, and accuracy and stability of the optimization design system were verified successfully.

  16. Thermal Insulation Performance of Flexible Piping for Use in HTS Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables that typically operate at temperatures below 80 K are being developed for power transmission. The practical application of HTS power cables will require the use of flexible piping to contain the cable and the liquid nitrogen coolant. A study of thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) was conducted in geometries representing both rigid and flexible piping. This experimental study performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center provides a framework for the development of cost-effective, efficient thermal insulation systems that will support these long-distance flexible lines containing HTS power cables. The overall thermal performance of the insulation system for a rigid configuration and for a flexible configuration, simulating a flexible HTS power cable, was determined by the steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff method under the full range of vacuum levels. Two different cylindrically rolled material systems were tested: a standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI). Comparisons of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping are presented.

  17. STRUCTURE DESIGN OF THE BEIJING SPECTROMETER Ⅲ BEAM PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lifang; JI Quan; WANG Li; LI Xunfeng; XU Shaowang; DONG Sujun; ZHAO Libin; LIU Jianping

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing spectrometer Ⅲ (BESⅢ) beam pipe is in the center of the BESⅢ, which is the detector of the upgrade project of Beijing electron and positron collider (BEPCⅡ). Electrons and positrons collide in the BESⅢ beam pipe. According to the demands of the BEPCⅡ, a key program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the BESⅢ beam pipe is designed based on the finite elements analysis. The BESⅢ beam pipe is installed in the inner cylinder of the BESⅢ drift chamber. As a vacuum tube, the BESⅢ beam pipe is designed as 1 000 mm in length, 63 mm in inner diameter and 114 mm in outer diameter, respectively. The BESⅢ beam pipe consists of a central beryllium pipe cooled by EDM-1, the oil No.1 for electric discharge machining, and two extended copper pipes cooled by deionized water (DW). The three parts are jointed by vacuum welding. Factors taken into account in the design are as follows. ① The wall thickness of the central beryllium pipe should be designed as small as possible to reduce the multi-scattering and improve the particle momentum resolution. And the wall thickness of the extended copper pipe should be designed as large as possible to protect the detectors from the backgrounds. ② The BESⅢ beam pipe must be sufficiently cooled to avoid the damage and prevents its influence to the BESⅢ drift chamber (DC) operation. The inner surface temperature of the DC inner cylinder must be maintained at 293±2 K. ③ The magnetic permeability of the materials used in the BESⅢ beam pipe must be less than 1.05 H/m to avoid large magnetic field distortions. ④ The static pressure of the vacuum chamber of the BESⅢ beam pipe must be less than 800 (Pa. The simulating results show that the designed structure of the BESⅢ beam pipe satisfies the requirements mentioned above. The structure design scheme is evaluated and adopted by the headquarters of BEPCⅡ.

  18. Test of Seal System for Flexible Pipe End Fitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars; Jensen, Thomas Gregers

    1999-01-01

    by compression of the gaskets, thus using the geometry to establish a seal towards the inner liner of the pipe and the steel sleeve of the end fitting. This paper describes how the seal system of an end fitting can be tested using an autoclave. By regulating temperature and pressure, the seal system can...

  19. Piping Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  20. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  1. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  2. Design and Experimental Research on a New Pipe Rupture Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-liang; XU Bing; YANG Hua-yong; ZHANG Yi-ding

    2006-01-01

    A new pipe rupture valve for hydraulic elevator is designed.Mathematical models established for the hydraulic elevator system are used in numefical simulations on the Simulink environment of Matlab kits.The effects of different viscous damping diameters.inlet pressures of pipe rupture valve.and elevator loads on the hydraulic elevator system's dynamic performance are analyzed.Expefimenml research is also carried out using a hydraulic elevator experiment rig.The numerical simulations accord with experimental results in general.Dynamic performance indexes are assessed by the EN812 standard.The results show that the newly designed pipe rupture valve meets the designing requirement for hydraulic elevators.

  3. Flexibility Analysis In Industrial Piping Through The Finite Elements And Photoelasticity Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Dutra Baptista Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The industry needs predictability to work on a large scale without complications, only this way you can ensure your productivity. The piping flexibility analysis provides a prediction of future problems and proposes applicable solutions, with the objective of preventing pipes to suffer collapses, that can impact the production process and costs, and provide safety to workers and the environment, while avoid leaks and possible contamination. The aim of this study is analyse the flexibility of industrial piping through the finite elements and photoelasticity methods. For stresses analysis, using a computerized body of proof, it`s possible to find, through finite elements and photoelasticity`s practical project, the values of the stresses and the places where they are being applied. To guarantee that the computerized and practical models are consistent with reality, a mathematical model, already tested and proved, will also be implemented and compared to the others, so there are evidences that all models used are really reliable and can be used in large-scale industrial projects, with complex studies. A comparison of a mathematical model through balanced guided beam, a finite elements model using the software ANSYS® and a photoelasticity of a resin pipe will show that the method with better applicability in industries is the computational, showing trustable stress, reaction and deformation values as well as a detailed visualization of them distribution along the object of study.

  4. Study on design pressure of in-service welding pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Xiaolong; ZHU Jiagui; SANG Zhifu

    2006-01-01

    A method of predicting design pressure and burn-through of in-service welding pipes was established. Temperature distributions of in-service welding under variable parameters were simulated by FEM. The effect of flowing of internal media was regarded as forced convection. Based on the numerical results, design pressure of the pipe can be obtained and burn-through can be predicted. It can be concluded that the design pressure decreases with the increasing of heat input. RSF and design pressure of the pipe increase with the increasing of flow rate. There is a range in which the increase changes greatly. For in-service welding, the range should be considered adequately to determine operating condition optimally. RSF increases with the increasing of pipe wall thickness. While the thickness increases to an extent, RSF shows little increase. According to the curves of design pressure versus different parameters, safe working pressure can be achieved.

  5. Method to calculate failure rate of submarine flexible pipes; Metodo para calculo da taxa de falha de dutos flexiveis submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes Filho, Salvador [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This report presents calculation method for failure rate of submarine flexible pipes in PETROBRAS using the distribution of Weibull in comparison with the traditional method of PARLOC that uses the exponential distribution. PARLOC - Pipeline and Riser Loss of Containment Study - Pipeline Offshore Reliability Data - database of pipes of the North Sea. (author)

  6. Design and evaluation of a heat pipe exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.H.; Zeigler, E.

    1982-06-01

    A promising approach to energy conservation is the use of heat pipes to recover heat now lost in effluent processing wastewater streams. At Radford Army Ammunition Plant a prototype water-to-water heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) was evaluated. Heat was extracted from wastewater and recovered heat then used to preheat incoming fresh water. The heat pipe is schematicized. Design objectives--access to wasterwater section, provision for periodic inspection--are specified. Based on these objectives the HPHX design is shown. A performance analysis is carried out by means of equations. Based on mobilization rates at Radford, a savings of significant amount will be realized.

  7. Method for optimal design of pipes for low-energy district heating, with focus on heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The synergy between highly energy-efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy-saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Network transmission and distribution heat loss is one of the key...... factors in the optimal design of low-energy DH systems. Various pipe configurations are considered in this paper: flexible pre-insulated twin pipes with symmetrical or asymmetrical insulation, double pipes, and triple pipes. These technologies represent potential energy-efficient and cost...... showed the influence of the soil temperature throughout the year. Finally, the article describes proposals for the optimal design of pipes for low-energy applications and presents methods for decreasing heat losses....

  8. Design and cooling of BESIII beryllium beam pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xunfeng; Ji, Quan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Lifang

    2008-01-01

    The beryllium beam pipe was restructured according to the requirements of the upgraded BESIII (Beijing Spectrometer) experiment. SMO-1 (sparking machining oil no. 1) was selected as the coolant for the central beryllium beam pipe. The cooling gap width of the beryllium beam pipe was calculated, the influence of concentrated heat load on the wall temperature of the beryllium beam pipe was studied, and the optimal velocity of the SMO-1 in the gap was determined at the maximum heat load. A cooling system for the beam pipe was developed to control the outer wall temperature of the beam pipe. The cooling system is reported in this paper with regard to the following two aspects: the layouts and the automation. The performance of the cooling system was tested on the beam pipe model with trim size. The test results show that the design of the beryllium beam pipe is reasonable and that the cooling system achieves the BESIII experimental aim. The cooling system has already passed the acceptance test and has been installed in position. It will be put into practice for the BESIII experiment in 2008.

  9. Designing for Flexibility in the Traditional University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Collis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Instructors in traditional universities are expected to respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse student body by making more flexibility available in their courses. Based on a systematic analysis of flexibility options, various tools to help instructors in the design of their course Web environments for more flexibility have been built into the CMS (Course Management System used at the University of Twente since 1997. It is our experience that instructors use the tools to increase course flexibility with regard to the efficiency and logistics of participation but do relatively less with respect to increasing course flexibility when this involves new pedagogies.

  10. Optimal design of the separate type heat pipe heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zi-tao; HU Ya-cai; CEN Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    Separate type heat pipe heat exchangers are often used for large-scale heat exchanging. The arrangement of such a heat exchanger conveniently allows heat input to and output from the heat exchanger at remote locations. The traditional method of designing an ordinary HPHE (heat pipe heat exchanger) is commonly applied in the separate type exchanger design, but the calculations have to be carried out separately, which makes it very complicated. In this work, the ε-NTU (effectiveness-Number of Transfer Units) method was applied for optimization analysis of single- or multi-level separate type heat pipe heat exchangers. An optimizing formula for single-level separate type heat pipe heat exchangers was obtained. The optimizing principles of effectiveness-NTU and heat transfer rate by the equal distribution method for multi-level separate type heat pipe heat exchanger are presented. The design of separate type heat pipe heat exchangers by the optimizing method is more convenient and faster than by the traditional method.

  11. Rapidly design safety relief valve inlet piping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, M.A.

    1997-03-01

    Safety relief valves (SRVs) used to protect against overpressure require well-designed inlet piping for proper operation. The engineer`s job is to produce these designs from a thorough understanding of the inlet piping as a key component in the safety relief system and the correct application of the governing fluid dynamics principles. This article will present a technique for analysis and design using classical ideal-gas adiabatic fluid flow principles. Also, it will discuss the advantages of using the personal computer (PC) to quickly arrive at accurate designs. This work applies to SRVs in which relief flows are limited by sonic conditions at their nozzles.

  12. Design of shape memory alloy pipe couplers: modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Majid; Atli, Kadri C.; Rohmer, John; Franco, Brian E.; Karaman, Ibrahim; Boyd, James G.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2012-04-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) pipe couplers use the shape memory effect to apply a contact pressure onto the surface of the pipes to be coupled. In the current research, a SMA pipe coupler is designed, fabricated and tested. The thermally induced contact pressure depends on several factors such as the dimensions and properties of the coupler-pipe system. Two alloy systems are considered: commercially-available NiTiNb couplers and in-house developed NiTi couplers. The coupling pressure is measured using strain gages mounted on the internal surface of an elastic ring. An axisymmetric finite element model including SMA constitutive equations is also developed, and the finite element results are compared with the experimental results.

  13. A Novel Crawling In-pipe Robot Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Kejie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel crawling in-pipe robot was designed to improve the adaptive ability with self-locking principle applied. In the moving, the robot was adaptable to horizontal, vertical and bending pipes with different diameters and sections without exerting additional pressure to the shell. The robot used a telescopic umbrella stand as a basic structure. The force of telescopic mechanism, self-locking principle of supporting mechani sm and shell were deduced from design requirements. The design of supporting and coupling mechanism was completed. The relationship between screw rod thrust and parallelogram driving force was established. A prototype was made and tested according to the suggested design methods. The results show that the robot with powerful traction, good self-locking performance and smooth passage through curve can move forward in the pipe with 90~150 mm inner diameter.

  14. Design of satellite flexibility experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. H.; Hillard, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to begin development of a flight experiment to measure spacecraft control/flexible structure interaction. The work reported consists of two phases: identification of appropriate structural parameters which can be associated with flexibility phenomena, and suggestions for the development of an experiment for a satellite configuration typical of near-future vehicles which are sensitive to such effects. Recommendations are made with respect to the type of data to be collected and instrumentation associated with these data. The approach consists of developing the equations of motion for a vehicle possessing a flexible solar array, then linearizing about some nominal motion of the craft. A set of solutions are assumed for array deflection using a continuous normal mode method and important parameters are exposed. Inflight and ground based measurements are distinguished. Interrelationships between these parameters, measurement techniques, and input requirements are discussed which assure minimization of special vehicle maneuvers and optimization of data to be obtained during the normal flight sequence.

  15. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  16. Piping and pipeline calculations manual construction, design fabrication and examination

    CERN Document Server

    Ellenberger, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The lack of commentary, or historical perspective, regarding the codes and standards requirements for piping design and construction is an obstacle to the designer, manufacturer, fabricator, supplier, erector, examiner, inspector, and owner who want to provide a safe and economical piping system. An intensive manual, this book will utilize hundreds of calculation and examples based on of 40 years of personal experiences of the author as both an engineer and instructor. Each example demonstrates how the code and standard has been correctly and incorrectly applied. This book is a ?no non

  17. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-06-13

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  18. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  19. Design Space of Flexible Multigigabit LDPC Decoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schläfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multigigabit LDPC decoders are demanded by standards like IEEE 802.15.3c and IEEE 802.11ad. To achieve the high throughput while supporting the needed flexibility, sophisticated architectures are mandatory. This paper comprehensively presents the design space for flexible multigigabit LDPC applications for the first time. The influence of various design parameters on the hardware is investigated in depth. Two new decoder architectures in a 65 nm CMOS technology are presented to further explore the design space. In the past, the memory domination was the bottleneck for throughputs of up to 1 Gbit/s. Our systematic investigation of column- versus row-based partially parallel decoders shows that this is no more a bottleneck for multigigabit architectures. The evolutionary progress in flexible multigigabit LDPC decoder design is highlighted in an extensive comparison of state-of-the-art decoders.

  20. Evaluation of aluminum drill-pipe material and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Joao C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lourenco, Marcelo I.; Netto, Theodoro Antoun [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Experimental program and numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes designed and manufactured in compliance with ISO 15546. The main objective is to improve the fatigue performance of these components by selecting the appropriate aluminum alloy and by enhancing the mechanical design of the threaded steel connector. This paper presents the experimental test program and numerical analyses conducted on a drill-pipe of different materials (Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg system aluminum alloys) and geometry. Material mechanical properties, including S-N curve, were determined through small-scale tests on specimens cut from actual drill pipes. Full-scale experiments were also performed in laboratory. A finite element model of the drill pipe, including the tool-joint region, was developed. The model simulates, through different load steps, the tool-joint hot assembly, and then reproduces the physical experiments numerically in order to obtain the actual stress distribution. Good correlation between full-scale and small-scale fatigue tests was obtained by adjusting the strain/stress levels monitored in the full-scale tests in light of the numerical simulations and performing fatigue life calculations via multiaxial fatigue models. The weak points of the current practice design are highlighted for further development. (author)

  1. 49 CFR 192.111 - Design factor (F) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design factor (F) for steel pipe. 192.111 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.111 Design factor (F) for steel pipe. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, the...

  2. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  3. Assessment of LWR piping design loading based on plant operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, P. O.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of this study has been to: (1) identify current Light Water Reactor (LWR) piping design load parameters, (2) identify significant actual LWR piping loads from plant operating experience, (3) perform a comparison of these two sets of data and determine the significance of any differences, and (4) make an evaluation of the load representation in current LWR piping design practice, in view of plant operating experience with respect to piping behavior and response to loading.

  4. Decision models in designing flexible production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florescu Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible production system is a complex whole that raise some issues in terms of its design and in relation to the conditions for implementing it. To implement a flexible production system configuration must be found that satisfies both economic and system performance requirements. The configuration which best meet the objectives of introducing a flexible production system must be sought in the set of alternatives defined and evaluated. In this paper we present a methodology of realising the configuration and complex evaluation of the analyzed system. It will be developed models which generate new alternative configurations, optimization and evaluation models of the performance of the flexible production system. This will create a framework for interactive decision support, user-oriented that can be used by management to solve this selection problem. The applicative character of the study consist in tracking of the technological process in real time using the developed software package on the designed system, based on mathematical models for configuration and optimization of the system.

  5. Statics and Dynamics of Offshore Cable and Flexible Pipe Systems Statique et dynamique des câbles flexibles en mer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyrot A. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the static and dynamic analysis of offshore cable structures is presented. These structures may consist of floating platform, buoys, weights, anchors, etc. interconnected by arbitrary arrangements of cables and flexible pipes. Displacements or forces can be specified at any number of nodal points and wave or current interaction be simulated. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by several applications: dynamic response of deep-water oil production platform, anchor drop, sonar towing, dynamic stiffness of mooring lines, tanker loading systems with flexible pipes, etc. Cet article présente une méthode de calcul pour les structures marines comportant des câbles et des tuyaux flexibles. La méthode est applicable à des réseaux de câbles ou de flexibles reliant des plates-formes flottantes, des bouées, des ancrages, etc. Des déplacements ou des forces peuvent être imposés en un nombre quelconque de nSuds. L'action du courant et de la houle est prise en compte. La méthode a été utilisée pour l'étude de nombreux systèmes de câbles et de flexibles. Les résultats indiquent une excellente performance des calculs proposés.

  6. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  7. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  8. Influence of structural design condensing part of NH3 heat pipe to heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantúch Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes influence design heat exchangers to efficiency condensation liquid ammonia in the gravitational heat pipe. Analyse adverse factors in the operation and flow of ammonia in heat pipe. Also describes heat transfer characteristics of heat pipe in low-potential geothermal heat transport simulations.

  9. Designing Flexible E-Business Workflow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Silvestru

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment organizations must cope with complex interactions between actors adapt fast to frequent market changes and be innovative. In this context, integrating knowledge with processes and Business Intelligenceis a major step towards improving organization agility. Therefore, traditional environments for workflow design have been adapted to answer the new business models and current requirements in the field of collaborative processes. This paper approaches the design of flexible and dynamic workflow management systems for electronic businesses that can lead to agility.

  10. Evaluation of Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Armour Wires in Flexible Pipes, Power Cables and Umbilicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of armour wires in flexible pipes, power cables and umbilicals is a major concern with the development of oil and gas fields and wind farms in harsh environments. Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of steel armour wires used in deep-water and ultra-deep-water has been evaluated. Simulated tests have been carried out in simulated sea water, under conditions where the susceptibility is the highest, i.e. at room temperature, at the maximum negative cathodic potential and at the maximum stress level expected in service for 150 hours. Examinations of the tested specimens have not revealed cracking or blistering, and measurement of hydrogen content has confirmed hydrogen charging. In addition, sulphide stress cracking (SSC) and chloride stress cracking (CSC) of nickel-based alloy armour wires used in harsh down-hole environments has been evaluated. Simulated tests have been carried out in simulated solution containing high concentration of chloride, with high hydrogen sulphide partial pressure, at high stress level and at 120 °C for 720 hours. Examinations of the tested specimens have not revealed cracking or blistering. Subsequent tensile tests of the tested specimens at ambient pressure and temperature have revealed properties similar to the as-received specimens.

  11. Design guidelines for PWR pressurizer safety and relief valve discharge piping to minimize potential operating and piping qualification problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.M.; Chang, K.C.; Campbell, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    General system design considerations such as functional requirements, valve types and operation, and various loading conditions are discussed. General guidelines for the piping layout, support design, and embedment selection are presented and discussed. Also presented and discussed are potential system operating problems which can arise from an improper design. 3 refs.

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Novel Hybrid-Structure Heat Pipe for a Concentrator Photovoltaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiu-Jou Shaw

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a design method to fabricate a novel hybrid-structure flat plate heat pipe (NHSP heat pipe for a concentrator photovoltaic. The NHSP heat pipe is composed of a flattened copper pipe and a sintered wick structure, and a coronary-stent-like rhombic copper mesh supports the structure. The coronary-stent-like supporting structure enhances the mechanical strength and shortens the reflux path of the working fluid. Experiments demonstrate that the sintered capillary heat pipe reduces the thermal resistance by approximately 72%, compared to a traditional copper mesh-screen heat pipe. Furthermore, it can reduce thermal resistance by 65% after a supporting structure is added to the heat pipe. The results show that the NHSP heat pipe provided the best performance for the concentrator photovoltaic, which can increase photoelectric conversion efficiency by approximately 3.1%, compared to an aluminum substrate.

  13. Design of deepwater HP/HT pipe-in-pipe flowlines crossing mega-furrows in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Tianxi Andy; Chacko, Jacob; Zhou, Mengjuan Jane; Omonoji, Gabriel O. [TECHNIP USA, Houston, TX (United States); Eigbe, Uwa [INTECSEA, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Two 12-mile long pipe-in-pipe (PIP) with HT/HP flow lines were recently designed for the Chinook offshore oil field in the Gulf of Mexico. The routes of the flow line of the Chinook crosses continuous mega-furrows at the water depth ranging from 8200 ft to 8800 ft. The design of the temperature and pressure of the flow lines were 250 deg F and 12,684 psi, respectively. The detailed finite element analysis was performed to predict flow line in-place behavior. The strain-based criterion of API RP 1111 was used where stresses were greater than allowable limits of the ASME B31.8 and found to be satisfactory. The fatigue analysis of the spans pipe subjected to Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) showed the need for VIV mitigation measures. It was decided that the entire length of the flow lines crossing the mega-furrows should be stake. The analysis of the stake fatigue life of the flow lines resulted greater than the required 25 years service life. Further analysis was performed on the PIP system to optimize the centralizer spacing to sufficiently limit the buckling of inner pipe under operation conditions and prevent crushing of the insulation in the annulus. J-lay analysis of the installation determining the amount of the inner pipe pre-tensioning that was required to eliminate locked-in stresses in the inner and outer pipes. (author)

  14. Organizing for Flexibility: Addressing Dynamic Capabilities and Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Weerdt, Niels; Volberda, Henk; Verwaal, Ernst; Stienstra, Marten

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly dynamic nature of organizational environments has led the research community to study organizational flexibility. Although the research literature stresses the complexity of the organizational flexibility construct, it lacks a comprehensive empirical study addressing the relationships among various dimensions of organizational flexibility. This chapter develops a theoretical framework specifying the linkages between types of flexibility and organization design characteristics...

  15. Judgement of Design Scheme Based on Flexible Constraint in ICAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The conception of flexible constraint is proposed in the paper. The solution of flexible constraint is in special range, and maybe different in different instances of same design scheme. The paper emphasis on how to evaluate and optimize a design scheme with flexible constraints based on the satisfaction degree function defined on flexible constraints. The conception of flexible constraint is used to solve constraint conflict and design optimization in complicated constraint-based assembly design by the PFM parametrization assembly design system. An instance of gear-box design is used for verifying optimization method.

  16. The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

    2010-11-01

    Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

  17. Design of macro-synthetic fibre reinforced concrete pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente, Albert de la; Escariz, Renata Campos; Figueiredo,Antonio Domingues de; Aguado, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental campaign in which concrete pipes were manufactured using plastic fibres as the sole reinforcement material. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that the use of plastic fibres is compatible with pipe production systems, and that, when subjected to the crushing test (CT), plastic fibre reinforced pipes yield strength classes that are attractive in terms of the growth of this material in the concrete pipe industry. Moreover, the results obtained from b...

  18. 适用于浅海小口径复合软管的接头形式研究%Research for End Fitting of Small-bore Composite Flexible Pipes in Shallow Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建华; 王琳; 曲杰

    2012-01-01

    Design a type of the flexible pipe end fitting, which can have enough strength and leak tightness under certain pressure and can release the accumulated gas in the armor layers, and this type of end fitting have successfully achieved the connection and protection request of the flexible pipes. A major advantage of using the flexible pipes is their ability to work under extreme dynamic conditions and their relatively seabed adaptability and chemical compatibility properties and installation convenience compared with rigid carbon steel pipes.%设计了一种适用于软管结构的接头形式,在一定压力作用下保证软管的强度和密封性,同时能够释放金属铠装层中累积的渗透气体,成功实现复合软管的连接和保护.因其在动力特性、地形适应性、抗腐蚀性、安装等多方面的优势,越来越多的油田开发考虑采用软管采代替钢管,具有很大的发展前景.

  19. Ship Pipe Routing Design Using NSGA-II and Coevolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentie Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipe route design plays a prominent role in ship design. Due to the complex configuration in layout space with numerous pipelines, diverse design constraints, and obstacles, it is a complicated and time-consuming process to obtain the optimal route of ship pipes. In this article, an optimized design method for branch pipe routing is proposed to improve design efficiency and to reduce human errors. By simplifying equipment and ship hull models and dividing workspace into three-dimensional grid cells, the mathematic model of layout space is constructed. Based on the proposed concept of pipe grading method, the optimization model of pipe routing is established. Then an optimization procedure is presented to deal with pipe route planning problem by combining maze algorithm (MA, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II, and cooperative coevolutionary nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (CCNSGA-II. To improve the performance in genetic algorithm procedure, a fixed-length encoding method is presented based on improved maze algorithm and adaptive region strategy. Fuzzy set theory is employed to extract the best compromise pipeline from Pareto optimal solutions. Simulation test of branch pipe and design optimization of a fuel piping system were carried out to illustrate the design optimization procedure in detail and to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  20. Exploiting protein intrinsic flexibility in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Suryani; Verma, Chandra S; Fuentes, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Molecular recognition in biological systems relies on the existence of specific attractive interactions between two partner molecules. Structure-based drug design seeks to identify and optimize such interactions between ligands and their protein targets. The approach followed in medicinal chemistry follows a combination of careful analysis of structural data together with experimental and/or theoretical studies on the system. This chapter focuses on the fact that a protein is not fully characterized by a single structure, but by an ensemble of states, some of them represent "hidden conformations" with cryptic binding sites. We highlight case studies where both experimental and computational methods have been used to mutually drive each other in an attempt to improve the success of the drug design approaches.Advances in both experimental techniques and computational methods have greatly improved our physico-chemical understanding of the functional mechanisms in biomolecules and opened a debate about the interplay between molecular structure and biomolecular function. The beautiful static pictures of protein structures may have led to neglecting the intrinsic protein flexibility, however we are entering a new era where more sophisticated methods are used to exploit this ability of macromolecules, and this will definitely lead to the inclusion of the notion in the pharmaceutical field of drug design.

  1. Design of a robot for in-pipe inspection using omnidirectional wheels and active stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin; Mozaffari Foumashi, Mohammad; Pulles, Kees; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a vehicle for in-pipe inspection using omnidirectional wheels and active stabilizing control. A novel propulsion mechanism is discussed using omnidirectional wheels (or omni-wheels) is presented which allows direct control of the orientation in the pipe. This paper

  2. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...

  3. Designing Flexible Software for the "Electronic Board."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira

    1984-01-01

    Argues that software for electronic boards should address a variety of teaching styles, student abilities and ages, class textbooks, teaching objectives, and learning environments for flexibility of use. The software features that contribute to flexibility include frequent stops, options for going backwards, inter- and intra-unit jumps, and…

  4. Comparison Between Stress Obtained by Numerical Analysis and In-Situ Measurements on a Flexible Pipe Subjected to In-Plane Bending Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Lukassen, Troels; Glejbøl, Kristian; Lyckegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    variations will allow for performance optimization of the armour layers. To study the detailed stress variations in flexible pipes during dynamic loading, a comprehensive three-dimensional implicit nonlinear finite element model has been developed. The predicted numerical stress variations will be compared......To predict the lifetime and long-term properties of tensile armour wires in a dynamically loaded pipe, it is essential to have a tool which allows detailed prediction of the stress variations in the tensile armour wires during global pipe loading. Furthermore, detailed understanding of the stress...

  5. Increasing importance of protein flexibility in designing biocatalytic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes require some flexibility for catalysis. Biotechnologists prefer stable enzymes but often this stabilization comes at the cost of reduced efficiency. Enzymes from thermophiles have low flexibility but poor catalytic rates. Enzymes from psychrophiles are less stable but show good catalytic rates at low temperature. In organic solvents enzymes perform poorly as the prior drying makes the enzyme molecules very rigid. Adding water or increasing reaction temperature improves flexibility and catalytic rates. In case of hydrolases, flexibility and enantioselectivity have interdependence. Understanding the complex role of protein flexibility in biocatalysis can help in designing biotechnological processes.

  6. Spectral Design Flexibility of LED Brings Better life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis Dan; Ou, Yiyu

    2012-01-01

    white light using different color mixing schemes. The spectral design flexibility of white LED light sources will promote them for novel applications to improve the life quality of human beings. As an initial exploration to make use of the spectral design flexibility, we present an example: 'no blue...

  7. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  8. INVESTIGATIONS ON DESIGN OF HEAT STORAGE PIPE CONNECTIONS FOR SOLAR COMBISYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how different designed pipe connections on a tank for solar combisystems were evaluated based on experimental tests and theoretical investigations with the simulation tool TRNSYS. Measurement results from laboratory measurements were used to calibrate a TRNSYS model...

  9. INVESTIGATIONS ON DESIGN OF HEAT STORAGE PIPE CONNECTIONS FOR SOLAR COMBISYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how different designed pipe connections on a tank for solar combisystems were evaluated based on experimental tests and theoretical investigations with the simulation tool TRNSYS. Measurement results from laboratory measurements were used to calibrate a TRNSYS model...

  10. Computational simulations of frictional losses in pipe networks confirmed in experimental apparatusses designed by honors students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas A.; Hynes, Eric; Kutz, April

    2015-11-01

    Lectures in introductory fluid mechanics at NIU are a combination of students with standard enrollment and students seeking honors credit for an enriching experience. Most honors students dread the additional homework problems or an extra paper assigned by the instructor. During the past three years, honors students of my class have instead collaborated to design wet-lab experiments for their peers to predict variable volume flow rates of open reservoirs driven by gravity. Rather than learn extra, the honors students learn the Bernoulli head-loss equation earlier to design appropriate systems for an experimental wet lab. Prior designs incorporated minor loss features such as sudden contraction or multiple unions and valves. The honors students from Spring 2015 expanded the repertoire of available options by developing large scale set-ups with multiple pipe networks that could be combined together to test the flexibility of the student team's computational programs. The engagement of bridging the theory with practice was appreciated by all of the students such that multiple teams were able to predict performance within 4% accuracy. The challenges, schedules, and cost estimates of incorporating the experimental lab into an introductory fluid mechanics course will be reported.

  11. Passivity Motivated Controller Design for Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-18

    theoretical approach to the control of systems containing lumped joint flexibility is based on the exact linearization method. for a summary see [4...feedforward compensation (for the exact linearization ) and the feedback stabilization are intertwined and errors in the feedforward may affect the closed loop

  12. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...... coating on both sides. The input to the models is thus not a simple collector efficiency expression but the actual collector geometry. In this study, the TRNSYS models are validated with measurements for four differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors. The collectors are produced...... cases, a good degree of similarity between measured and calculated results is found. With these validated models detailed parameter analyses and collector design optimization are now possible. Key words: Evacuated tubular collector, Heat pipe, Thermal performance, TRNSYS simulation....

  13. Component-based Control Software Design for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炳海; 奚立峰; 曹永上

    2003-01-01

    A new method that designs and implements the component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control software is described with a component concept in this paper. The proposed method takes aim at improving the flexibility and reliability of the control system. On the basis of describing the concepts of component-based software and the distributed object technology, the architecture of the component-based software of the control system is suggested with the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). And then, we propose a design method for component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control system. Finally, to verify the software design method, a prototype flexible manufacturing control system software has been implemented in Orbix 2. 3c, VC++6.0 and has been tested in connection with the physical flexible ranufacturing shop at the WuXi Professional Institute.

  14. Rehabilitation design of flexible pavements in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a set of practical course notes on the Rehabilitation Design of flexible pavements in southern Africa based on extensive research by various researchers and / or practitioners in South Africa. The course is intended...

  15. Truck fleet model for design and assessment of flexible pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Belay, Abraham; O'Brien, Eugene J.; Kroese, Dirk P.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanistic empirical method of flexible pavement design/assessment uses a large number of numerical truck model runs to predict a history of dynamic load. The pattern of dynamic load distribution along the pavement is a key factor in the design/ assessment of flexible pavement. While this can be measured in particular cases, there are no reliable methods of predicting the mean pattern for typical traffic conditions. A simple linear quarter car model is developed here which aims to reprod...

  16. 新型切管机的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of New Pipe-cutting Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴全

    2012-01-01

    A pipe-cutting machine to cut fixed length pipe was designed. The machine was electromechanical equipment. Servo technique was adopted to feed pipe in order to get fix length pipe. With double saw, circle cutting method was used to cut the pipe quickly and smoothly. The control software design was motion and function oriented to make the machine operate easily and flexibly.%主要讨论了用于定长切管的切管机的设计及实现方案.切管机为机电一体化设备,根据定长切管的功能要求,采用伺服技术进行定长送料;采取双锯片实现环切,以快速平整好将管切断,并将切断的管料送往下一环节;在程序设计方面,采用面向功能动作的方法进行编程,使得机床的操作更加灵活方便.

  17. Flexibility and Control : An empirical study relating production flexibility to the design of performance management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen-Dirks, P.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    A critical challenge facing organizations is the design of management control systems, which play a key role in evaluating the achievement of organizational and individual objectives. This thesis addresses the design of management control (performance management) systems in the current flexible busi

  18. Flexibility and Control : An empirical study relating production flexibility to the design of performance management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen-Dirks, P.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    A critical challenge facing organizations is the design of management control systems, which play a key role in evaluating the achievement of organizational and individual objectives. This thesis addresses the design of management control (performance management) systems in the current flexible busi

  19. Design and Experiment for Exhaust Pipes of Pressure Wave Supercharged Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chang-wei; ZHAO Yong; MA Hui; HAN Ai-min; LI Chao

    2007-01-01

    NOx and soot emissions from diesel engines can be greatly reduced by pressure wave supercharging (PWS). The diesel engine matched with PWS needs redesigning its exhaust pipes. Except for meeting the installation requirements, the exhaust gas must be stable in pressure before rushing into PWS. In this paper the lateral and center ported divergent exhaust pipes are designed, modeled geometrically and analyzed structurally based on a 3-D design software-CATIA to determine the structure of two exhaust pipes having the required inner volume. Then flow analysis for two exhaust pipes is done using a flow analysis software-ANASYS. Moreover, the optimal exhaust pipes are determined comprehensively and cast for engine test. Engine test results show that PWS is superior to turbocharging at low engine speeds and inferior to turbocharging in power and emissions at medium-to-high engine speeds. The performance of PWS engine under high speed operating conditions can be improved by contriving larger surge volume intake and exhaust pipes.

  20. Pipe stress analysis on HCCR-TBS ancillary systems in conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Mu-Young, E-mail: myahn74@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eo Hwak [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Pipe stress is performed on Korean HCCR-TBS for the load combinations including seismic events. • The resultant stress meets the requirement of the design code & standard except one position where modification is needed. • The results gives useful information for the design evolution in the next desgin phase. - Abstract: Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket System (TBS) will be tested in ITER to demonstrate feasibility of the breeding blanket concept. The HCCR-TBS comprises Test Blanket Module (TBM) with associated shield, and ancillary systems located in various positions of ITER building. Currently, conceptual design for the HCCR-TBS is in progress. This paper presents pipe stress analysis results for the HCCR-TBS ancillary systems. The pipe stress analysis was performed in accordance with ASME B31.3 for major pipes of the Helium Cooling System (HCS) and the Coolant Purification System (CPS), which are operated in high pressure and temperature. The pipe stress for various load cases and load combinations were calculated. Operational pressure and temperature during plasma operation are applied as pressure load and thermal load, respectively. In addition seismic events were combined to investigate the code compliance for sustained load case and occasional load case. It was confirmed that the resultant stress meets the requirements of ASME B31.3 except one position in which it needs modification. These results give useful information for the next design phase, for example, nozzle loads for the component selection, the support design parameters, etc.

  1. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Razali, Ramdan; Ali, Kharudin; Faraj, Moneer A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of the eddy current technique (ECT) for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT) use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM). The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient. PMID:28335399

  2. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N; Razali, Ramdan; Ali, Kharudin; Faraj, Moneer A

    2017-03-13

    The use of the eddy current technique (ECT) for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT) use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM). The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient.

  3. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhuji Rifai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the eddy current technique (ECT for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM. The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient.

  4. At-sea test system point design for a one-third scale cold water pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, W.H. (ed.)

    1979-12-01

    One step in the development of the technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing of a fiberglass reinforced plastic nominal 10-foot diameter pipe. A design procedure and criteria for developing test hardware by scaling down a 30-foot diameter OTEC 10/40 MW Pilot Plant CWP design are presented. An example point design for the pipe, instrumentation to be used during the at-sea tests, and methods for selecting the support platform and mooring are described. The design considered starts with a scale model of a larger prototype, and then is modified to address the problems of fabrication and of survivability and handling during the 1/3rd scale model tests.

  5. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  6. Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

    2013-12-15

    Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project.

  7. Flexible Everything: Getting Responsive with Web Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This article covers the basic principles of responsive web design for those interested in creating their own responsive sites from scratch, as well as noting a few frameworks that can be used to speed up development time. The author favors the Foundation CSS framework for responsive development because of its syntax, diverse selection of…

  8. Flexible design should be primary goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    At "Rebuilding the NHS", a recent Health Service Journal conference in London, Daryl Murphy, a partner at leading architect and health planning specialist for the primary and community care sectors Murphy Philipps, explained how the Department of Health's (DH's) forthcoming HBN 11-01 Health Building Note sets out a "less prescriptive approach" to the design of new primary care and community healthcare facilities.

  9. Flexible Everything: Getting Responsive with Web Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This article covers the basic principles of responsive web design for those interested in creating their own responsive sites from scratch, as well as noting a few frameworks that can be used to speed up development time. The author favors the Foundation CSS framework for responsive development because of its syntax, diverse selection of…

  10. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  11. Energy-based robust controller design for flexible spacecraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuzhi Sam GE; Tong Heng LEE; Fan HONG; Cher Hiang GOH

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a class of non-model-based position controllers for a kind of flexible spacecraft. With the controllers, one can achieve not only the closed-loop stability of the original distributed parameter system, but also the asymptotic stability of the truncated system, which is obtained through representing the deflection of the appendage by an arbitrary finite number of flexible modes. The system dynamics are not explicitly involved in the controller design and stability proof. Instead, only a very basic system energy relationship of the flexible spacecraft is utilized. The controllers possess several remarkable advantages over the traditional model-based ones. Numerical simulations are carded out on a kind of spacecraft with one flexible appendage and satisfactory results are obtained.

  12. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  13. Study on rubber gas actuators driven by the Hydrogen Storage Alloy for in-pipe inspection mobile robots with flexible structure and on an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Hosokai, Hidemi (Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Uemura, Masahiro

    1989-06-01

    This paper deals with rubber actuators using Hydrogen Storage Alloy for an in-pipe inspection robot, which has the capability of moving inside pipelines with two inches diameter. Since in-pipe inspection robots require flexible mechanisms for going through complicated construction of pipeline networks, the actuators which are light in weight and flexible must first be developed rather than using conventional actuators. For this purpose, rubber actuators with both stretching and shrinking characteristics are shown here for the application of such a robot. The proposed robot uses these actuators with six degrees of freedom, so that it has more flexibility and adaptability in motion: it can move in the inch worm mode through pipelines and has adaptability to the change of pipe diameters and also of passing over the L-joints and T-joints of pipelines. The method of activating the robot is proposed as the robot dock method, thus the robot actuators can initially be activated by hydrogen gas. The control method is also shown with an example of the T-joint movement. (author).

  14. Design Flexibility for Uncertain Distributed Generation from Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmintier, Bryan; Krishnamurthy, Dheepak; Wu, Hongyu

    2016-12-12

    Uncertainty in the future adoption patterns for distributed energy resources (DERs) introduces a challenge for electric distribution system planning. This paper explores the potential for flexibility in design - also known as real options - to identify design solutions that may never emerge when future DER patterns are treated as deterministic. A test case for storage system design with uncertain distributed generation for solar photovoltaics (DGPV) demonstrates this approach and is used to study sensitivities to a range of techno-economic assumptions.

  15. Design and optimization of flexible multi-generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst

    term energy system development; biomass supply chains and local resource availability; combined with global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The methodology includes a novel method for aggregating external operating condition datasets, named the CHOP method. In addition, three case studies...... of variable renewable energy sources in a cost-effective way by linking the different sectors in the energy system with local energy supply systems. A key challenge faced in the development of flexible multi-generation system is the knowledge gap between process design practices, which simplify energy system...... of flexible multi-generation system. In addition, the case study results emphasize the importance of considering flexible operation, systematic process integration, and systematic assessment of uncertainties in the design optimization. It is recommended that future research focus on assessing system impacts...

  16. PROSPECTS OF DESIGNING FLEXIBLE BUSINESS MODEL IN TURBULENT TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia DUTU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the current global context to capture the characteristics of the new type of volatile and turbulent business environment in which companies must operate nowdays and to bring some propositions in order to guide managers in designing or redesigning business models to achieve flexibility. The central message of this paper, that is a point of view one, is that, nowdays but also in the future, business models that are based on strategic, organizational and operational flexibility and on reaction speed will be those who will provide the greatest capacity to respond to change. Even if the international theory provides a multiple perspective analysis of business model concept, still how it can be achieved such flexibility remains an open issue in the academic debate, but also in the practice of companies. Thus, the paper contains some propositions in order to guide managers in the process of designing or redesigning the business model.

  17. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) of this section, additional design features, such as mechanical or composite crack arrestors and/or... surface of the plate/coil or pipe to identify imperfections that impair serviceability such as laminations... must be a hardness test, using Vickers (Hv10) hardness test method or equivalent test method, to...

  18. Optimal pipe size design for looped irrigation water supply system using harmony search: Saemangeum project area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Do Guen; Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  19. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6. The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  20. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review.

  1. Design, fabrication and test of liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiulis, A.; Camarda, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat-pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich panel construction, were fabricated and tested. The designs utilize two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and potassium or sodium as the working fluid. Panels were tested by radiant heating, and the results indicate successful heat pipe operation at temperatures of approximately 922K (1200F). These panels, in addition to solving potential thermal stress problems in an Airframe-Integrated Scramjet Engine, have potential applications as cold plates for electronic component cooling, as radiators for space platforms, and as low distortion, large area structures.

  2. Seismic design of equipment and piping systems for nuclear power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minematsu, Akiyoshi [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The philosophy of seismic design for nuclear power plant facilities in Japan is based on `Examination Guide for Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities: Nuclear Power Safety Committee, July 20, 1981` (referred to as `Examination Guide` hereinafter) and the present design criteria have been established based on the survey of governmental improvement and standardization program. The detailed design implementation procedure is further described in `Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants, JEAG4601-1987: Japan Electric Association`. This report describes the principles and design procedure of the seismic design of equipment/piping systems for nuclear power plant in Japan. (J.P.N.)

  3. Design and Evaluation of Robotic Steering of a Flexible Endoscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, J.G.; Rozeboom, E.D.; Voort, van der M.C.; Bonnema, G.M.; Broeders, I.A.M.J.; Misra, P.; Taffoni, F.; Ricci, L.

    2012-01-01

    In current flexible endoscopy the physician faces problems in manipulating the endoscope. A lot of experience is required to master the procedure. This paper describes the design of an add-on robotic module that improves the user interface of traditional endoscopes and allows a single physician to o

  4. Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis; Ou, Yiyu; Poulsen, Peter B.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are penetrating into the huge market of general lighting because they are energy saving and environmentally friendly. The big advantage of LED light sources, compared to traditional incandescent lamps and fluorescent light tubes, is the flexible spectral design to make white light using different color mixing schemes. The spectral design flexibility of white LED light sources will promote them for novel applications to improve the life quality of human beings. As an initial exploration to make use of the spectral design flexibility, we present an example: 'no blue' white LED light source for sufferers of disease Porphyria. An LED light source prototype, made of high brightness commercial LEDs applying an optical filter, was tested by a patient suffering from Porphyria. Preliminary results have shown that the sufferer could withstand the light source for much longer time than the standard light source. At last future perspectives on spectral design flexibility of LED light sources improving human being's life will be discussed, with focus on the light and health. The good health is ensured by the spectrum optimized so that vital hormones (melatonin and serotonin) are produced during times when they support human daily rhythm.

  5. Vapor-modulated heat pipe report. Flight data analysis and further development of variable-conductance heat pipes. [design analysis and performance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and testing of a heat pipe for spacecraft application is presented. The application in mind calls for heat loads up to 20 watts, a set-point temperature of 294K, and a sink that varies from -220K to nearly as high as the set-point. The overall heat pipe length is 137 cm. Two basically different mechanisms of achieving variable conductance in the pipe by vapor-flow throttling were studied. In one, the thermal resistance between the heat source and sink is due to a saturation-temperature drop corresponding to the vapor-pressure drop developed across the valve. In the other, the pressure difference across the valve induces capillary groove and wick dry out in an evaporation region, and thus results in an increased thermal resistance. This mechanism was selected for fabrication and testing. The pipe is a stainless-steel/methanol two-heat-pipe system. Results are presented and discussed. Engineering drawings and specifications of the pipe are shown.

  6. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  7. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Appendices to final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-20

    NOAA/DOE has selected three concepts for a baseline design of the cold water pipe (CWP) for OTEC plants: (1) a FRP CWP of sandwich wall construction suspended from the Applied Physical Laboratory/John Hopkins University (APL/JHU) barge at a site 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil using a horizontal deployment scheme; (2) an elastomer CWP suspended from the APL/JHU barge off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico using either a horizontal or vertical deployment scheme; and (3) a polyethylene CWP (single or multiple pipe) suspended from the Gibbs and Cox spar at the Puerto Rico site using a horizontal deployment scheme. TRW has developed a baseline design for each of these configurations. This volume of the report includes the following appendices: (A) fiberglass reinforced plastic cold water pipe (specification and drawingss); (B) specification for polyethylene CWP; (C) elastomer pipe drawings; (D) drawings for OTEC 10/40 hull/CWP transitions; (E) structural design of OTEC 10/40 CWP support and CWP transitions; (F) universal transition joint for CWP; (G) dynamic spherical seal of CWP; (H) at-sea deployment loads - surface towing loads; (I) OTEC 10/40 CWP deployment up-ending loads; (J) cost estimates for OTEC 10/40 hull/CWP transitions; and (K) OTEC 10/40 CWP deployment scenario and cost estimate. (WHK)

  8. Design Evaluation of a Piping System in the SELFA Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seok-Kwon; Jo, Young-Chul; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, design evaluations on the SELFA piping system has been conducted according to the ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RD-3600. The conservatism of the two codes was quantified based on the evaluation results. It was shown that B31.1 was more conservative for the sustained loads while less conservative for thermal expansion loads when compare with those of RD-3600. However, all the evaluation results according to the two codes were within the code allowables. There are two main piping systems in the SELFA test loop. In this study, the integrity of the SELFA piping system has been evaluated according to the two design-by-rule (DBR) codes of ASME B31.1 and RCC-MRx RD-3600. B31.1 is an industry design code for power piping while RD-3600 is a class 3 nuclear DBR code. The conservatism of the two codes was quantified based on the evaluation results as per the two DBR codes. The sodium test facility of the SELFA is under construction at KAERI for the investigation of thermo-hydraulic behavior of finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger.

  9. A flexible layout design method for passive micromixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yongshun; Gao, Qingyong; Wu, Yihui

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses a flexible layout design method of passive micromixers based on the topology optimization of fluidic flows. Being different from the trial and error method, this method obtains the detailed layout of a passive micromixer according to the desired mixing performance by solving a topology optimization problem. Therefore, the dependence on the experience of the designer is weaken, when this method is used to design a passive micromixer with acceptable mixing performance. Several design disciplines for the passive micromixers are considered to demonstrate the flexibility of the layout design method for passive micromixers. These design disciplines include the approximation of the real 3D micromixer, the manufacturing feasibility, the spacial periodic design, and effects of the Péclet number and Reynolds number on the designs obtained by this layout design method. The capability of this design method is validated by several comparisons performed between the obtained layouts and the optimized designs in the recently published literatures, where the values of the mixing measurement is improved up to 40.4% for one cycle of the micromixer.

  10. A methodology for designing flexible multi-generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Viana Ensinas, Adriano; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    An FMG (flexible multi-generation system) consists of integrated and flexibly operated facilities that provide multiple links between the various layers of the energy system. FMGs may facilitate integration and balancing of fluctuating renewable energy sources in the energy system in a cost...... is based on consideration of the following points: Selection, location and dimensioning of processes; systematic heat and mass integration; flexible operation optimization with respect to both short-term market fluctuations and long-term energy system development; global sensitivity and uncertainty...... analysis; biomass supply chains; variable part-load performance; and multi-objective optimization considering economic and environmental performance. Tested in a case study, the methodology is proved effective in screening the solution space for efficient FMG designs, in assessing the importance...

  11. Study on the Un-bond Flexible Pipe in Subsea%海底非粘结性柔性管道技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 尉晓妮

    2016-01-01

    在深海和边际油田开发的过程中,非粘结性柔性管的应用大大降低了工程建设的综合运营成本。国内生产制造工艺、铺设安装以及铺管设备等技术水平,与世界先进技术水平还有很大差距。重点介绍了非粘结性柔性管的结构、铺设设备的选择及安装铺设方法。%In the process of developing the deep sea and the marginal oilfield, application of the un-bond flexible pipe greatly reduces the cost of the construction of the project. There is a big gap between domestic technical level of manufacturing, laying and installation, pipe laying equipments and the world's advanced technology level. In this paper, the structure of the un-bond flexible pipe was introduced as well as choice of laying equipment and the method of installation and laying.

  12. A Detailed Study of Cbr Method for Flexible Pavement Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Devendra Kumar Choudhary

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As per IRC recommendation, California Bearing Ratio (CBR value of subgrade is used for design of flexible pavements. California Bearing Ratio (CBR value is an important soil parameter for design of flexible pavements and runway of air fields. It can also be used for determination of sub grade reaction of soil by using correlation. It is one of the most important engineering properties of soil for design of sub grade of roads. CBR value of soil may depends on many factors like maximum dry density (MDD, optimum moisture content (OMC, liquid limit (LL, plastic limit (PL, plasticity index (PI, type of soil, permeability of soil etc. Besides, soaked or unsoaked condition of soil also affects the value. These tests can easily be performed in the laboratory. the estimation of the CBR could be done on the basis of these tests which are quick to perform, less time consuming and cheap, then it will be easy to get the information about the strength of subgrade over the length of roads, By considering this aspect, a number of investigators in the past made their investigations in this field and designed different pavements by determining the CBR value on the basis of results of low cost, less time consuming and easy to perform tests. In this study, attempts have been made to seek the values of CBR of different soil samples and correlate their CBR values for the design purpose of flexible pavement as per guidelines of IRC: SP: 37-2001.

  13. Relationships of loudness, level, and time structure in pipe organ registrations and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Wade

    2004-05-01

    Time-dependent loudnesses and sound pressure levels were measured binaurally from a variety of individual stops and multi-stop registrations of several classical and theater pipe organs covering a wide range of sizes, tonal designs, pipe scalings, wind pressures, and spatial relationships. Studies were also made of modulation in individual low-frequency notes, and in notes and chords affected by the presence or absence of tremulants. Timbres of certain solo stops were assessed in terms of the relationship of specific loudness and sound pressure spectra to their importance in creating subjective timbre. In addition to loudness and sound pressure measurement, advanced analysis by a hearing model (Sottek) and a temporal/tonal pattern-measurement algorithm (``relative approach'') were employed. Significant differences in the relationship of loudness and level were found depending principally on tonal design, pipe scaling and wind pressures on one hand, and octave-related tonal centers and timbral characteristics of individual stops on the other hand. Consideration was also given to the subjective spatial soundscape resulting from different pipe organ physical layouts and from simultaneous registrations between or among physically-separated speaking divisions.

  14. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Appendices to Task 2. Analysis for concept selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    Appendices include (A) TRW CWP/hull dynamics computer model (HULPIPE); (B) environmental data; (C) structural analysis methods; (D) work breakdown structure; (E) costing worksheets; (F) thermal design of the cold water pipe; (G) CWP/Platform transition ROM costs; (H) installation scenarios and costs; (I) cost uncertainty assessment; (J) risk assessment; and (K) OTEC cold water pipe concept catalog. (WHK)

  15. Matrix Transfer Function Design for Flexible Structures: An Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T. J.; Compito, A. V.; Doran, A. L.; Gustafson, C. L.; Wong, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    The application of matrix transfer function design techniques to the problem of disturbance rejection on a flexible space structure is demonstrated. The design approach is based on parameterizing a class of stabilizing compensators for the plant and formulating the design specifications as a constrained minimization problem in terms of these parameters. The solution yields a matrix transfer function representation of the compensator. A state space realization of the compensator is constructed to investigate performance and stability on the nominal and perturbed models. The application is made to the ACOSSA (Active Control of Space Structures) optical structure.

  16. Development of a cryogenic flexible pipe for the transfer of liquefied natural gas; Mise au point d'un flexible cryogenique pour le transfert du gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, J.; Gerez, J.M.; Dieumegard, C. [Coflexip Stena Offshore, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    For historical reasons, the liquefaction of natural gas is performed with onshore equipments and LNG tanker-ships are loaded and unloaded using rigid articulated arms. When these operations are performed in harbors, the movement of the ship with respect to the pier are relatively limited. Today, several companies aim at liquefying natural gas using floating facilities. The loading of tanker-ships is performed offshore, and thus movements between the ship and the floating facility are enhanced. The use of a flexible pipe can be an interesting alternative solution to the articulated arm. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the LNG flexible technology developed by Coflexip Stena Offshore and the progress of the program of development of a cryogenic flexible: structure, fittings, safety (leaks detection), thermal calculations, optimization of the corrugated hose profile, pressure drops, fatigue tests and service life, materials development, prototype and real tests. (J.S.)

  17. Constructal Theory and Aeroelastic Design of Flexible Flying Wing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Mardanpour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aeroelastic behavior of high-aspect-ratio very flexible flying wing is highly affected by the geometric nonlinearities of the aircraft structure. This paper reviews the findings on how these nonlinearities influence the structural and flight dynamics, and it shows that the aeroelastic flight envelope could significantly be extended with proper choices of design parameters such as engine placement. Moreover, in order to investigate the physics behind the effects of design parameters, constructal theory of design is reviewed. The constructal theory advances the philosophy of design as science, it states that the better structural design emerges when stress flow strangulation is avoided. Furthermore, it shows that airplanes, through their evolution, have obeyed theoretical allometric rules that unite their designs.

  18. Some considerations for establishing seismic design criteria for nuclear plant piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.P. [Energy Technology Engineering Center, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Chokshi, N.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) is providing assistance to the U.S. NRC in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analysis of piping. As part of this effort, ETEC previously performed reviews of the ASME Code, Section III piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda. These revised criteria were based on evaluations by the ASME Special Task Group on Integrated Piping Criteria (STGIPC) and the Technical Core Group (TCG) of the Advanced Reactor Corporation (ARC) of the earlier joint Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping & Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) program. Previous ETEC evaluations reported at the 23rd WRSM of seismic margins associated with the revised criteria are reviewed. These evaluations had concluded, in part, that although margins for the timed PFDR tests appeared acceptable (>2), margins in detuned tests could be unacceptable (<1). This conclusion was based primarily on margin reduction factors (MRFs) developed by the ASME STGIPC and ARC/TCG from realistic analyses of PFDR test 36. This paper reports more recent results including: (1) an approach developed for establishing appropriate seismic margins based on PRA considerations, (2) independent assessments of frequency effects on margins, (3) the development of margins based on failure mode considerations, and (4) the implications of Code Section III rules for Section XI.

  19. Heating coil welding technique for connection of large-diameter PE pipes using universally applicable, flexible taped joints; Heizwendelschweissverfahren fuer die Verbindung von PE-Grossrohren mittels universal anwendbarer, flexibler Wickelmuffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudrit, Benjamin; Kraus, Eduard; Heidemeyer, Peter; Bastian, Martin [Sueddeutsche Kunststoff-Zentrum, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kern, Juergen; Neufeld, Wjatscheslaw [Frank und Krah Wickelrohr GmbH, Woelfersheim (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This research project (Heating coil welding technique for connection of large-diameter PE pipes using universally applicable, flexible taped joints) was carried out by SKZ (Sueddeutsches Kunststoff-Zentrum) in close coopearation with Messrs. Frank and Krah Wickelrohr GmbH with the intention to develop a high-quality, economically efficient joining process for large-diameter pipes. The technique is based on the new technology of heating coil joints which permits the use of any desired joint geometries at acceptable cost. The new technique was validated for joints up to a diameter of 1,000 mm. With the welding parameters calculated in the project, even larger diameter joints are possible in theory.

  20. Design and Inspection of Liquid Cargo Piping of Chemical Tanker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Sheng; Jiang Chengsong

    2012-01-01

    There is a great variety of liquid chemicals, and many shipowners are not clear about the cargos their ships will carry at the early stage of the design and construction of chemical tankers. In addition, because of the inclination to choose low cost construction material due to cost concern, the sources of cargos that ships can carry are greatly limited and the operation efficiency will be influenced. What should we do to avoid such situations?

  1. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  2. Thermal design heat sinks, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, compact heat exchangers, and solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H S

    2010-01-01

    The proposed is written as a senior undergraduate or the first-year graduate textbook,covering modern thermal devices such as heat sinks, thermoelectric generators and coolers, heat pipes, and heat exchangers as design components in larger systems. These devices are becoming increasingly important and fundamental in thermal design across such diverse areas as microelectronic cooling, green or thermal energy conversion, and thermal control and management in space, etc. However, there is no textbook available covering this range of topics. The proposed book may be used as a capstone design cours

  3. Thermal design of spiral heat exchangers and heat pipes through global best algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Oğuz Emrah; Çoban, Mustafa Turhan

    2017-03-01

    This study deals with global best algorithm based thermal design of spiral heat exchangers and heat pipes. Spiral heat exchangers are devices which are highly efficient in extremely dirty and fouling process duties. Spirals inherent in design maintain high heat transfer coefficients while avoiding hazardous effects of fouling and uneven fluid distribution in the channels. Heat pipes have wide usage in industry. Thanks to the two phase cycle which takes part in operation, they can transfer high amount of heat with a negligible temperature gradient. In this work, a new stochastic based optimization method global best algorithm is applied for multi objective optimization of spiral heat exchangers as well as single objective optimization for heat pipes. Global best algorithm is easy-to-implement, free of derivatives and it can be reliably applied to any optimization problem. Case studies taken from the literature approaches are solved by the proposed algorithm and results obtained from the literature approaches are compared with thosed acquired by GBA. Comparisons reveal that GBA attains better results than literature studies in terms of solution accuracy and efficiency.

  4. Design of Heat Pipe Type Adsorption Ice Maker for Fishing Boats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽伟; 王如竹; 夏再忠; 吴静怡

    2005-01-01

    A heat pipe type adsorption ice maker with two adsorbers for fishing boats is designed by using ammonia as refrigerant and compound of activated carbon-GaG12 as adsorbent. This type of heat pipe adsorber can solve the problem of incompatibility between ammonia, copper, seawater and steel. The working process of the ice maker with 8.7kg adsorbent per bed is simulated. The results show that the optimal semi-cycle time is about 9min at the evaporating temperature of -15℃, where the corresponding cooling power, specific cooling power per kilogram adsorbent SCP and coefficient of refrigerant performance COP are respectively 3.6 kW, 217 W·kg-1 and 0.404.

  5. Design, development and test of a capillary pump loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroliczek, E. J.; Ku, J.; Ollendorf, S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a capillary pump loop (CPL) heat pipe, including computer modeling and breadboard testing, is presented. The computer model is a SINDA-type thermal analyzer, combined with a pressure analyzer, which predicts the transients of the CPL heat pipe during operation. The breadboard is an aluminum/ammonia transport system which contains multiple parallel evaporator and condenser zones within a single loop. Test results have demonstrated the practicality and reliability of such a design, including heat load sharing among evaporators, liquid inventory/temperature control feature, and priming under load. Transport capability for this system is 65 KW-M with individual evaporator pumps managing up to 1.7 KW at a heat flux of 15 W/sq cm. The prediction of the computer model for heat transport capabilities is in good agreement with experimental results.

  6. Design and Operation of a Cryogenic Nitrogen Pulsating Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Fonseca, Luis; Miller, Franklin; Pfotenhauer, John

    2015-12-01

    We report the design, experimental setup and successful test results using an innovative passive cooling system called a “Pulsating Heat Pipe” (PHP) operating at temperatures ranging from 77 K to 80 K and using nitrogen as the working fluid. PHPs, which transfer heat by two phase flow mechanisms through a closed loop tubing have the advantage that no electrical pumps are needed to drive the fluid flow. In addition, PHPs have an advantage over copper straps and thermal conductors since they are lighter in weight, exhibit lower temperature gradients and have higher heat transfer rates. PHPs consist of an evaporator section, thermally anchored to a solid, where heat is received at the saturation temperature where the liquid portion of the two-phase flow evaporates, and a condenser where heat is rejected at the saturation temperature where the vapor is condensed. The condenser section in our experiment has been thermally interfaced to a CT cryocooler from SunPower that has a cooling capacity of 10 W at 77 K. Alternating regions of liquid slugs and small vapor plugs fill the capillary tubing, with the vapor regions contracting in the condenser section and expanding in the evaporator section due to an electric heater that will generate heat loads up to 10 W. This volumetric expansion and contraction provides the oscillatory flow of the fluid throughout the capillary tubing thereby transferring heat from one end to the other. The thermal performance and temperature characteristics of the PHP will be correlated as a function of average condenser temperature, PHP fill liquid ratio, and evaporator heat load. The experimental data show that the heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections can produce an effective thermal conductivity up to 35000 W/m-K at a 3.5 W heat load.

  7. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  8. Modeling, design, and control of flexible manipulator arms: Status and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for higher performance manipulators has lead to dynamic behavior in which the flexibility is an essential aspect. The mathematical representations commonly used in modeling flexible arms and arms with flexible drives are examined first. Then design considerations directly arising from the flexible nature of the arm are discussed. Finally, controls of joints for general and tip motion are discussed.

  9. Application of FPGA's in Flexible Analogue Electronic Image Generator Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kulla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on usage of the FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays Xilinx as a part of our more complex workdedicated to design of flexible analogue electronic images generator for application in TV measurement technique or/and TV servicetechnique or/and education process. The FPGAs performs here the role of component colour R, G, B, synchronization and blanking signals source. These signals are next processed and amplified in other parts of the generator as NTSC/PAL source encoder and RF modulator. The main aim of this paper is to show the possibilities how with suitable development software use a FPGAs in analog TV technology.

  10. Review of application code and standards for mechanical and piping design of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the propriety of application code and standards for mechanical and piping of HANARO fuel test loop and to decide the technical specification of FTL systems. (author). 18 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-07-18

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process.

  12. 弯曲特性对非粘合挠性管深水安装的影响%Impact of Bending Properties on Deepwater Installation of Unbonded Flexible Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓贤; 崔维成

    2015-01-01

    acceptable for a Flexible riser design. However, the over-estimates of Flexible bending curvature might not be a conservative solution to Flexible offshore installation. It is because Flexible installation configuration is required to be well controlled to protect the pipe from over-bending and over-rotation. Flexible minimum bend radius and tie-in angle are the governing criteria during its offshore installation. This paper presented the impact of bending properties on predicting the configuration of deepwater Flexible during its installation. Hysteresis curve and other selected constant bend stiffness values were applied to defining Flexible bending properties in simulating Flexible 2nd end installation under both static and dynamic conditions. The recorded offshore observation of Flexible I nstallation configuration has been numerically reproduced well by employing Flexible hysteresis bend behavior. Hysteresis curve is found to be more applicable and precise in numerically predicting the Flexible configuration during offshore installation.

  13. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of A Highly Flexible Aeroservoelastic Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Sohrab

    A multidisciplinary design optimization framework is developed that integrates control system design with aerostructural design for a highly-deformable wing. The objective of this framework is to surpass the existing aircraft endurance limits through the use of an active load alleviation system designed concurrently with the rest of the aircraft. The novelty of this work is two fold. First, a unified dynamics framework is developed to represent the full six-degree-of-freedom rigid-body along with the structural dynamics. It allows for an integrated control design to account for both manoeuvrability (flying quality) and aeroelasticity criteria simultaneously. Secondly, by synthesizing the aircraft control system along with the structural sizing and aerodynamic shape design, the final design has the potential to exploit synergies among the three disciplines and yield higher performing aircraft. A co-rotational structural framework featuring Euler--Bernoulli beam elements is developed to capture the wing's nonlinear deformations under the effect of aerodynamic and inertial loadings. In this work, a three-dimensional aerodynamic panel code, capable of calculating both steady and unsteady loadings is used. Two different control methods, a model predictive controller (MPC) and a 2-DOF mixed-norm robust controller, are considered in this work to control a highly flexible aircraft. Both control techniques offer unique advantages that make them promising for controlling a highly flexible aircraft. The control system works towards executing time-dependent manoeuvres along with performing gust/manoeuvre load alleviation. The developed framework is investigated for demonstration in two design cases: one in which the control system simply worked towards achieving or maintaining a target altitude, and another where the control system is also performing load alleviation. The use of the active load alleviation system results in a significant improvement in the aircraft performance

  14. Global Analysis of Flexible Risers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    and thus resists the loading from the environment in a more suitable way.A flexible pipe is a composite structure, built up of several layers each having a specific function. Due to the flexibility, the response of the pipe in wave induced motions are governed by a complex hydroelastic set of differential...... parameters.The idea is to divide the riser system of riser and end fitting system into a global system including the riser and a local system of the bending stiffener and the end fitting. The forces at top of the riser shall be used as input for the design of the local system.This report introduces a non...

  15. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-20

    As part of a DOE goal to develop one or more OTEC Modular Experiment Plants, TRW performed designs, analyses, and evaluations of cold water pipe (CWP) concepts for NOAA. After reviewing the results of the CWP concept selection phase NOAA/DOE selected three concepts for a baseline design: (1) a FRP CWP of sandwich wall construction suspended from the Applied Physics Laboratory/John Hopkins University (APL/JHU) barge at a site 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil using a horizontal deployment scheme (this is TRW's preferred approach); (2) an elastomer CWP suspended from the APL/JHU barge off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico using either a horizontal or vertical deployment scheme; and (3) a polyethylene CWP (single or multiple pipe) suspended from the Gibbs and Cox spar at the Puerto Rico site using a horizontal deployment scheme. TRW has developed a baseline design for each of these configurations. Detailed designs and analyses for the FRP, polyethylene, and elastomer concepts, respectively, are described. A discussion of fabrication plans and processes, schedules for mobilization of facilities and equipment, installation plans, and cost breakdown are given for each concept. (WHK)

  16. A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-09-05

    The present study focuses on the thermoelectric generator (TEG) using loop heat pipe (LHP) and design match for maximum-power generation. The TEG uses loop heat pipe, a passive cooling device, to dissipate heat without consuming power and free of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free. The TEG design match for maximum-power generation, called “near maximum-power point operation (nMPPO)”, is studied to eliminate the MPPT (maximum-power point tracking controller). nMPPO is simply a system design which properly matches the output voltage of TEG with the battery. It is experimentally shown that TEG using design match for maximum-power generation (nMPPO) performs better than TEG with MPPT.

  17. Flexible work designs and employee well-being: examining the effects of resources and demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hoeven, C.L.; van Zoonen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in communication technology continue to expand the possibilities for redesigning work environments to allow for temporal and spatial flexibility. Although flexible work designs (FWDs) are typically launched with high expectations, recent research shows that FWDs also pose challenges to

  18. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  19. Innovative modular system for plant engineering. Bolted support system with variable pipe supports enhances plant engineering flexibility; Innovativer Systembaukasten fuer den Anlagenbau. Geschraubtes Traegersystem mit variablen Rohrhalterungen erhoeht die Flexibilitaet im Anlagenbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, U. [Sikla, Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Simotec

    2000-05-01

    Time pressure, cost reduction and a high level of flexibility are challenges which now also continuously confront the traditional plant-engineering sector. New products must be launched in the shortest possible time. For planning and construction of production facilities, this means that the production processes continue to be optimized in parallel to pipe design for as long as possible and that deadline pressure is correspondingly high. The modular system discussed here for support structures achieves a high level of flexibility in the design and construction of plants, also making it possible to respond quickly and with only little trouble and expense to changes as they occur. (orig.) [German] Zeitdruck, Kostenreduzierung und ein hohes Mass an Felxibilitaet sind Anforderungen mit denen auch der traditionelle Anlagenbau in der heutigen Zeit staendig konfrontiert wird. Neue Produkte sollen in moeglichst kurzer Zeit auf dem Markt erscheinen. Fuer die Planung und Erstellung von Produktionsanlagen bedeutet dies, dass das Herstellungsverfahren solange wie moeglich parallel zur Rohrplanung optimiert wird und der Termindruck entsprechend hoch ist. Mit dem vorgestellten Systembaukasten fuer Unterstuetzungskonstruktionen wird eine hohe Flexibilitaet bei der Planung und Erstellung von Anlagen erreicht, die es auch ermoeglicht auf kurzfristige Aenderungen schnell und mit wenig Aufwand reagieren zu koennen. (orig.)

  20. 大口径复合材料管水下铺设的安全性评估%Safety assessment on big flexible pipe installation under sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇; 刘紫嫣

    2015-01-01

    With the fiber‐reinforced thermoplastic flexible pipe (RTP) used in underwater pipe‐lay as the object of the research ,considering the effects of wind ,wave and current load and the motion of pipe‐lay platforms as well as the axial tension and bending shear of RTP ,a safety assessment method on the underwater pipe‐lay design of the big RTP installation was given by using the catenary theory and hydrodynamic calculation method .The critical parameters of the RTP including material property ,laid angle ,pipeline shape ,top tension ,buoyant weight and laid depth were analyzed ,the nonlinear problems of RTP and pipe‐lay platform under the dynamic action of environmental loads were studied ,and the failure modes of axial tension and bending shear of the big RTP were mastered .The results show that the theoretical guidance and failure analysis method can be used to assess the safety of RT P during the installation procedure under sea effectively and truly .Finally some reference advises of engineering practice for safety assessment were proposed .%以用于水下铺设的纤维缠绕增强复合管(RTP)为主要研究对象,考虑风浪流环境力作用及铺管平台运动等动态环境的影响,以及管道自身轴向拉力和弯曲的作用,采用悬链线理论方法及数值软件模拟计算方法,提出一套对大口径RT P的水下铺设设计的安全评估方法。对铺设的关键参数———材料属性、铺设角度、管线形态、端部张力、浮块重量、铺设深度等进行分析,研究RT P与浮式平台在环境力作用下运动及受力的非线性问题,以及大口径RT P轴向拉伸和弯曲剪切失效模式。结果表明:所提出的安全评估方法能够有效、真实地评估水下铺设过程中RT P的安全性能,能够为RT P安全评估提供符合工程实际的参考建议。

  1. Control system design for flexible structures using data models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R. Dennis; Frazier, W. Garth; Mitchell, Jerrel R.; Medina, Enrique A.; Bukley, Angelia P.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics and control of flexible aerospace structures exercises many of the engineering disciplines. In recent years there has been considerable research in the developing and tailoring of control system design techniques for these structures. This problem involves designing a control system for a multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) system that satisfies various performance criteria, such as vibration suppression, disturbance and noise rejection, attitude control and slewing control. Considerable progress has been made and demonstrated in control system design techniques for these structures. The key to designing control systems for these structures that meet stringent performance requirements is an accurate model. It has become apparent that theoretically and finite-element generated models do not provide the needed accuracy; almost all successful demonstrations of control system design techniques have involved using test results for fine-tuning a model or for extracting a model using system ID techniques. This paper describes past and ongoing efforts at Ohio University and NASA MSFC to design controllers using 'data models.' The basic philosophy of this approach is to start with a stabilizing controller and frequency response data that describes the plant; then, iteratively vary the free parameters of the controller so that performance measures become closer to satisfying design specifications. The frequency response data can be either experimentally derived or analytically derived. One 'design-with-data' algorithm presented in this paper is called the Compensator Improvement Program (CIP). The current CIP designs controllers for MIMO systems so that classical gain, phase, and attenuation margins are achieved. The center-piece of the CIP algorithm is the constraint improvement technique which is used to calculate a parameter change vector that guarantees an improvement in all unsatisfied, feasible performance metrics from iteration to iteration. The paper also

  2. Research Activities on Development of Piping Design Methodology of High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Nam-Su [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Won, Min-Gu [Sungkyukwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyeog-Yeon; Kim, Yoo-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A SFR is operated at high temperature and low pressure compared with commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), and such an operating condition leads to time-dependent damages such as creep rupture, excessive creep deformation, creep-fatigue interaction and creep crack growth. Thus, high temperature design and structural integrity assessment methodology should be developed considering such failure mechanisms. In terms of design of mechanical components of SFR, ASME B and PV Code, Sec. III, Div. 5 and RCC-MRx provide high temperature design and assessment procedures for nuclear structural components operated at high temperature, and a Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment procedure for high temperature piping is also provided in RCC-MRx, A16. Three web-based evaluation programs based on the current high temperature codes were developed for structural components of high temperature reactors. Moreover, for the detailed LBB analyses of high temperature piping, new engineering methods for predicting creep C*-integral and creep COD rate based either on GE/EPRI or on reference stress concepts were proposed. Finally, the numerical methods based on Garofalo's model and RCC-MRx have been developed, and they have been implemented into ABAQUS. The predictions based on both models were compared with the experimental results, and it has been revealed that the predictions from Garafalo's model gave somewhat successful results to describe the deformation behavior of Gr. 91 at elevated temperatures.

  3. Sustainable green inner-wall design for flexible floor plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawil, N. M.; Husaini, H. A.; Ani, A. I.; Basri, H.; Saleh, R. M.

    2013-06-01

    The rises of house price in the market is so drastic that it effects the younger generation nowadays especially young executives and young couples who could not afford to buy their first home. The factors that determine the house price presumably are the interior and exterior structural of the house itself. So to lessen the house price, we have to minimize the usage of wet construction thus the idea of having a sustainable green inner-wall implemented into the house with a flexible floor plan. This concept is user-friendly as it is built on needs and the ownership's affordability. They can design the interior of the house however they want with using minimal cost because it does not involve wet construction.

  4. Evaluating the Design and Construction Flexibility of Traditional Malay House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nangkula Utaberta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous terrace house is undeniably the most popular and affordable tihousing type in Malaysia. It has long been considered as one of the densest forms of property development and has become the common typology of accommodating the masses for this country. However, in Malaysia (like other third world countries, the design of a house has never grow from novelistic idea of style and revivalism. As stated by Tajuddin Rasdi (2003, housing in Malaysia has been plague with various issues for decades. We are currently living separate and individual lives in the sea of congested modern housing and we will be forever plagued by the mercy of crime, climate, cultural tensions and threats from accidents. For the last 50 years it has never grown to create the idea of community and fulfill the true need of a family with its culture and context called 'Malaysia'. Based on our paper N. Utaberta (2009 'Growing House: Lesson from Mathematical flexibility of Traditional Malay House', there at least six (6 problems in Modern Malaysia housing which are; safety especially in the high rise and terrace housing, criminal issue in the housing complexes, problem of privacy and cultural tension, thermal comfort and its ability to grow based on the need of the owners and community while from the family perspective there are at least four (4 main problem of our current modern housing which are the need of one family to grow or reduced based on the grow of the family members, cultural gap between old people with the youngster, the increase of family members as a result of marriage and family bond and the need of one family to move from one place to another. We have identified the ability of traditional Malay house to grow and transform based on the need and interest of one family. This paper tries to study and evaluate the flexibility of a low rise house in Malaysia. It will explore some design and construction framework based on the flexibility of our traditional

  5. Design Of A Laboratory Set-up For Evaluating Structural Strength Of Deteriorated Concrete Sewer Pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Salet, T.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The principle of structural behaviour of buried concrete pipes is fairly understood, except for how material deterioration affects structural behaviour and performance. Consequently, information on the structural behaviour of deteriorated sewer pipes will contribute to better understanding of the ch

  6. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The study on submarine flexible pipe installation process in Jinzhou 9-3 West oilfield%JZ9-3W油田海底柔性管道铺设方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓灵; 梁国庆; 赵敬考; 孔瑞林; 韩雪艳

    2012-01-01

    柔性管道作为新型海底油气输送设备逐步应用于海洋油田开发领域,尤其是使用国产柔性管道可以有效降低开发成本。本文结合中海踟Z9—3w油田国产柔性管道的铺设,对其铺设稳定性、张力以及入水角等进行了分析研究,希望能为今后浅海铺设柔性管道提供参考。%Flexible pipe is phased in off-shore oilfield development as a new type of oil&gas transportation facility,especially homegrown flexible pipe can reduce the oilfield exploration cost effficiently.The paper does some research on the stability,tension and degree of entry in the process of homegrown flexible pipe installation in Jinzhou 9-3 West oilfield.May the result offer some references for later installation of flexible pipe in hollow water.

  8. Design, fabrication and test of a hydrogen heat pipe. [extruding and grooving 6063-T6 aluminum tubes for cryogenic heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    Re-entrant groove technology was extended to hydrogen heat pipes. Parametric analyses are presented which optimize the theoretical design while considering the limitations of state-of-the-art extrusion technology. The 6063-T6 aluminum extrusion is 14.6 mm OD with a wall thickness of 1.66 mm and contains 20 axial grooves which surround a central 9.3 mm diameter vapor core. Each axial groove is 0.775 mm diameter with a 0.33 mm opening. An excess vapor reservoir is provided at the evaporator to minimize the pressure containment hazard during ambient storage. Modifications to the basic re-entrant groove profile resulted in improved overall performance. While the maximum heat transport capacity decreased slightly to 103 w-m the static wicking height increased markedly to 4.5 cm. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated: (1) maximum heat transport capacity of 5.4 w-m; (2) static wicking height of 1.42 cm; and (3) overall heat pipe conductance of 1.7 watts/deg C.

  9. INVESTIGATIONS ON DESIGN OF HEAT STORAGE PIPE CONNECTIONS FOR SOLAR COMBISYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    for simulations with parameter analysis. The possibility to connect pipes at the bottom and use internal PEX pipes to reach the inlet/outlet level in the tank was compared with the possibility to connect the pipe at the side of the tank and pass to the bottom level of the tank inside the tank insulation...

  10. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 4. Special topics in piping and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This volume is divided into five chapters: experimental verification of piping systems, analytical verification of piping restraint systems, seismic analysis techniques for piping systems with multisupport input, development of floor spectra from input response spectra, and seismic analysis procedures for in-core components. (DLC)

  11. Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 4. Special topics in piping and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This volume is divided into five chapters: experimental verification of piping systems, analytical verification of piping restraint systems, seismic analysis techniques for piping systems with multisupport input, development of floor spectra from input response spectra, and seismic analysis procedures for in-core components. (DLC)

  12. Design of touch screen and irregular pipe saw pipe bender controlled by PLC%触摸屏与PLC控制的异型管锯管机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玲; 张超

    2012-01-01

    介绍了异型管锯管机的设计,通过异型管锯管机的结构与工作原理分析,设计了气动系统和以FX1N-40 MT为控制器、proface触摸屏为人机界面的PLC控制系统.该设备工作性能稳定、操作方便、经济适用,能够较好地完成异型管的切割.%This article describes the design process of the irregular pipe saw pipe bender. Through analysis of the irregular pipe saw pipe bender structure and working principle, pneumatic system and PLC control system with FX1N-40 MT for controller, proface touch screen for human-computer interface are designed, the equipment is stable performance, convenient operation, economy applicable, to better finish irregular pipe cutting.

  13. Pipe Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Buddy

    This teacher's guide contains nine units of instruction for a course on computer-assisted pipe drafting. The course covers the following topics: introduction to pipe drafting with CAD (computer-assisted design); flow diagrams; pipe and pipe components; valves; piping plans and elevations; isometrics; equipment fabrication drawings; piping design…

  14. Leatherback sea turtle shell: A tough and flexible biological design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irene H; Yang, Wen; Meyers, Marc A

    2015-12-01

    The leatherback sea turtle is unique among chelonians for having a soft skin which covers its osteoderms. The osteoderm is composed of bony plates that are interconnected with collagen fibers in a structure called suture. The soft dermis and suture geometry enable a significant amount of flexing of the junction between adjacent osteoderms. This design allows the body to contract better than a hard-shelled sea turtle as it dives to depths of over 1,000 m. The leatherback turtle has ridges along the carapace to enhance the hydrodynamic flow and provide a tailored stiffness. The osteoderms are of two types: flat and ridged. The structure of the two types of osteoderms is characterized and their mechanical properties are investigated with particular attention to the failure mechanisms. They both are bony structures with a porous core sandwiched between compact layers that form the outside and inside surfaces. The compressive strength is highly anisotropic by virtue of the interaction between loading orientation and arrangement of porous and compact components of osteoderms. The angle of interpenetration at the suture of osteoderms is analyzed and compared with analytical predictions. The sutures have a triangular shape with an angle of ∼30° which provides a balance between the tensile strength of the osteoderms and shear strength of the collagen fiber layer and is verified by Li-Ortiz-Boyce in a previous study. This is confirmed by an FEM analysis. A calculation is developed to quantify the flexibility of the carapace and plastron as a function of the angular displacement at the sutures, predicting the interdependence between geometrical parameters and flexibility. The leatherback turtle is a magnificent chelonian whose decreasing numbers have brought it to the brink of extinction in the Pacific Ocean. This first study of the structure of its shell provides important new insights that explain its amazing capacity for diving: depths of over 1,000 m have been recorded

  15. 大型压缩机组柔性结构应力管道安装%Installation of stress piping with flexible construction for large compressor train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈忠明

    2011-01-01

    To realize a safe reliable operation of petrochemical process units, the installation quality of large compressor trains must be ensured. The critical aspect is to solve the stress problems in installation of piping system of compressors and ensure the concentricity of compressor train and shaft system. In the fabrication of the flexible thermal power piping system of a large GB-201 compressor train, the materials are precisely cut and mechanically processed after strictly measurement at the site. In assembling process, the turbine base is examined by dial indicator for displacement. After assembly, difference in concentricity of flanges is measured with feeler and micrometer and the height of spring support and piping position are adjusted to meet difference requirement. At the same time, monitoring is greatly enhanced to eliminate the stress on the compressor train in installation. The practice of the above measures has ensured the preciseness of installation dimensions of piping system and stressless installation of flexible thermal piping system of compressor train. The large compressor train is successfully commissioned at the first try and ethylene cracking unit is operating smoothly.%为实现石油化工装置安全、平稳运行,必须确保其核心部位大型压缩机组的安装质量,其关键是懈决大型压缩机组管道安装的应力问题,确保机组同心度及轴系同心度.针对GB-201大型压缩机组双进汽设计的柔性热力管道系统,预制过程中需在严格现场实测后进行精确下料和机械加工,组装过程中在透平基座布置百分表进行位移监测,组装完成后利用塞尺和千分尺对法兰同心度进行偏差测量并通过调整弹簧支架高度和管道位置保证偏差符合要求,并通过安装过程中加大监控力度消除对机组产生的应力.结果表明:以上方法的实施确保了管道系统安装尺寸的精确,有效保证了压缩机组柔性热力管道系统无应力安

  16. Design and optimization of a flexible arrayed eddy current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Zou, Cheng; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The inspection of the hollow axle inner surfaces is a key process to guarantee the safety of high-speed trains. A novel flexible arrayed eddy current sensor was developed to improve the reliability of the non-destructive testing of the hollow axle inner surfaces, whose main innovative aspect was the new design of excitation/sensing traces to achieve a differential and arrayed configuration. Only two independent excitation traces were used in the sensor to induce eddy currents, which can be detected by 16 differential sensing elements. The lift-off effects and the influence of the excitation frequency and geometrical parameters of the proposed sensor was investigated and presented in this paper. Finite element models were built to analyze the effects of each parameter on the sensor response amplitude. Experimental validations were conducted using a representative set of sensors. Results from experiments and simulations were consistent with each other, which showed that the sensor design can substantially suppress the lift-off effects and modifications of the studied parameters can substantially improve the sensor performance.

  17. The design of a multimegawatt heat pipe radiator for an inertial fusion rocket powered manned Mars mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system of heat pipe radiators has been designed to provide waste heat rejection for an inertial fusion powered spacecraft capable of manned missions to other planets. The radiators are arrays of unfinned, arterial heat pipes operating at 1500 and 900 K. Liquid metal coolant carries up to 8000 MW of waste heat through feed pipes from on-board components (laser drivers and coil shield). The radiators do not rely on armor for protection from micrometeoroid penetration. An armored radiator design for this application with a 99 percent survivability would have a specific mass of 0.06 to 0.11 kg/kW at 1500 K. Instead, a segmentation of heat pipes is used, and bumpers are utilized to protect the feed pipes. This design reduces the specific mass to 0.015 to 0.04 kg/kW for the coil shield radiator (1500 K) and 0.06 to 0.12 kg/kW for the laser driver radiator (900 K).

  18. Design and development of a shape memory alloy activated heat pipe-based thermal switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, O.; Notardonato, W. U.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2013-10-01

    This work reports on the design, fabrication and testing of a thermal switch wherein the open and closed states were actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA) elements while heat was transferred by a two-phase heat pipe. The motivation for such a switch comes from NASA’s need for thermal management in advanced spaceport applications associated with future lunar and Mars missions. As the temperature can approximately vary between -233 and 127 ° C during lunar day/night cycles, the switch was designed to reject heat from a cryogen tank into space during the night cycle while providing thermal isolation during the day cycle. A Ni47.1Ti49.6Fe3.3 (at.%) alloy that exhibited a reversible phase transformation between a trigonal R-phase and a cubic austenite phase was used as the sensing and actuating elements. Thermomechanical actuation, accomplished through an antagonistic spring system, resulted in strokes up to 7 mm against bias forces of up to 45 N. The actuation system was tested for more than thirty cycles, equivalent to one year of operation. The thermal performance, accomplished via a variable length, closed two-phase heat pipe, was evaluated, resulting in heat transfer rates of 13 W using pentane and 10 W using R-134a as working fluids. Experimental data were also compared to theoretical predictions where possible. Direct comparisons between different design approaches of SMA helical actuators, highlighting the effects of the helix angle, were carried out to give a layout of more accurate design methodologies.

  19. New design solutions for low-power energy production in water pipe systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. RAMOS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of ongoing research for a European Union 7th Framework Program Project regarding energy converters for very low heads, and aims to analyze optimization of new cost-effective hydraulic turbine designs for possible implementation in water supply systems (WSSs or in other pressurized water pipe infrastructures, such as irrigation, wastewater, or drainage systems. A new methodology is presented based on a theoretical, technical and economic analysis. Viability studies focused on small power values for different pipe systems were investigated. Detailed analyses of alternative typical volumetric energy converters were conducted on the basis of mathematical and physical fundamentals as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD associated with the interaction between the flow conditions and the system operation. Important constraints (e.g., size, stability, efficiency, and continuous steady flow conditions can be identified and a search for alternative rotary volumetric converters is being conducted. As promising cost-effective solutions for the coming years, adapted rotor-dynamic turbomachines and non-conventional axial propeller devices were analyzed based on the basic principles of pumps operating as turbines, as well as through an extensive comparison between simulations and experimental tests.

  20. The monster sound pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  1. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Task 2. Analysis for concept selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-01

    The successful performance of the CWP is of crucial importance to the overall OTEC system; the pipe itself is considered the most critical part of the entire operation. Because of the importance the CWP, a project for the analysis and design of CWP's was begun in the fall of 1978. The goals of this project were to study a variety of concepts for delivering cold water to an OTEC plant, to analyze and rank these concepts based on their relative cost and risk, and to develop preliminary design for those concepts which seemed most promising. Two representative platforms and sites were chosen: a spar buoy of a Gibbs and Cox design to be moored at a site off Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico, and a barge designed by APL/Johns Hopkins University, grazing about a site approximately 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil. The approach was to concentrate on the most promising concepts and on those which were either of general interest or espoused by others (e.g., steel and concrete concepts). Much of the overall attention, therefore, focused on analyzing rigid and compliant wall design, while stockade (except for the special case of the FRP stockade) and bottom-mounted concepts received less attention. A total of 67 CWP concepts were initially generated and subjected to a screening process. Of these, 16 were carried through design analysis, costing, and ranking. Study results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Prahl, D.; Lange, R.

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  3. Rational Design of Coordination Polymers with Flexible Oxyethylene Side Chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Young; Gao, Chunji; Lee, Suck Hyun; Kwon, O Pil [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    We rationally designed and synthesized metallopolymers with organic 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) linkers with different lengths of oxyethylene side chains in order to examine the influence of side chains on the coordination characteristics. While in a previous report the BDC linkers with alkyl side chains were found to form three-dimensional (3D) isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) structures or one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymeric structures with short -O(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}CH{sub 3} or long -O(CH{sub 2}){sub 9}CH{sub 3} side chains, respectively, new BDC linkers with oxyethylene side chains of the same lengths, -(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 3} and -(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}CH{sub 3}, form only 3D IRMOF structures. This result is attributed to the higher flexibility and smaller volume of oxyethylene side chains compared to alkyl side chains

  4. Piping Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In Stennis Space Center's Component Test Facility, piping lines carry rocket propellants and high pressure cryogenic fuels. When the lines are chilled to a pretest temperature of 400 degrees below zero, ordinary piping connectors can leak. Under contract to Stennis, Reflange, Inc. developed the T-Con connector, which included a secondary seal that tolerates severe temperature change. Because of the limited need for the large and expensive T-Con product, Reflange also developed the less costly E-Con, a smaller more compact design with the same technical advantages as the T-Con.

  5. Pigging ends freezeups in caustic piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, R.; Gaines, A.

    1985-03-01

    Convent Chemical Corporation in Convent, LA produces and ships bulk quantities of chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH). The caustic soda is available in various grades, including a 50% aqueous solution that freezes at 56/sup 0/F. An extensive network of chemical-resistant polypropylene-lined steel pipe (without heat tracing) is used to transfer the caustic soda from the production area to storage tanks and to the loading facilities for tank trucks, rail tank cars and barges. A sudden drop in ambient temperature can cause freezeup of the caustic transfer pipes which may result in downtime of as much as a week. Convent plant engineers designed a pigging system for the outdoor caustic transfer lines in the tank farm and to the loading stations. The patented design pig, (internal pipeline cleaner) consists of a flexible, bullet-shaped cylinder of chemical-resistant polyurethane foam with strips of urethane rubber on the surface, or with a solid coating of the tough material. Fluid or gas pressure on the sealed concave base propels the flexible pig through the pipe, valves, elbows, and other fittings, and material ahead of the pig is discharged into an appropriate receiver. The pigging system has eliminated the caustic freezing and plugging problems since it was installed in the summer of 1981. The flexible pig, propelled by 80 psi air, is used to clear the pipelines whenever caustic is transferred during the winter months. The air-propelled pig is designed and sized to easily pass through restrictions in the piping system, such as reduced port plug valves, but was once stuck when it reached a section of pipe that had collapsed. A pig containing the Cobalt 60 nuclear element was inserted into the line to quickly locate the stuck pig with the Geiger counter. The faulty section of pipe was replaced with a new polypropylene lined spool piece.

  6. Computer program grade 2 for the design and analysis of heat-pipe wicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.; Edwards, D. K.

    1976-01-01

    This user's manual describes the revised version of the computer program GRADE(1), which designs and analyzes heat pipes with graded porosity fibrous slab wicks. The revisions are: (1) automatic calculation of the minimum condenser-end stress that will not result in an excess-liquid puddle or a liquid slug in the vapor space; (2) numerical solution of the equations describing flow in the circumferential grooves to assess the burnout criterion; (3) calculation of the contribution of excess liquid in fillets and puddles to the heat-transport; (4) calculation of the effect of partial saturation on the wick performance; and (5) calculation of the effect of vapor flow, which includes viscousinertial interactions.

  7. Optimum Evaluation of Thermal Performance Characteristics of Micro Heat Pipe using the Hadamard Matrix Design Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achebo, J.I

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro heat pipes are on increasing demand as a result of current advances in technology consequently leading to a concomitant demand for continued research on how their thermal performance could be optimized; hence this study. The Hadamard matrix design approach was used to optimize the input parameters which generated an optimum combination of a 90o inclination angle, 8.70W heat input, and a 0.3 l/min coolant flow rate, these values match with the combination in sample trial 2. Further investigation revealed that sample trial 2 has a thermal resistance of 3.8oC/W with a threshold overall heat transfer coefficient of 750W/m2 oC

  8. Design and construction of an in-pipe robot for inspection and maintenance

    KAUST Repository

    Sibai, Fadi N.

    2012-12-01

    Inspection and maintenance of aging pipelines is crucial to the reliable and continued distribution of hydrocarbons. In this paper, we describe the design and construction of a robotic platform for inspection and minor maintenance of pipelines. The 7.5 kg robotic platform was demonstrated to move straight inside 12″ to 16″ diameter pipes in a forward or backward direction, and either horizontally or vertically. The experimental robotic platform has three sets of two wheels, and three driving motors. The equations governing the mechanical frame\\'s component sizes are presented and the robotic frame component dimensions derived. The paper also discusses the construction and testing of the robot. Future work includes adding sensors, controls for turning, a microcontroller board, and a robotic arm for performing maintenance tasks. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Layout design optimization of dynamic environment flexible manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Abu Qudeiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The proper positioning of machine tools in flexible manufacturing system is one of the factors that lead to increase in production efficiency. Choosing the optimum position of machine tools curtails the total part handling cost between machine tools within the flexible manufacturing system. In this article, a two-stage approach is presented to investigate the best locations of the machine tools in flexible manufacturing system. The location of each machine tool is selected from the available specific and fixed locations in such a way that it will result in best throughput of the flexible manufacturing system. In the first stage of the two-stage approach, the throughput of randomly selected locations of the machine tool in flexible manufacturing system is computed by proposing a production simulation system. The production simulation system utilizes genetic algorithms to find the locations of the machine tools in flexible manufacturing system that achieve the maximum throughput of the flexible manufacturing system. In the second stage, the generated locations are fed into artificial neural network to find a relation between a machine tool’s location and the throughput that can be used to predict the throughput for any other set of locations. Artificial neural network will result in mitigating the computational time.

  10. Comportement comparé de conduites rigides et flexibles ensouillées au voisinage de sols gelés Comparative Behavior of Rigid and Flexible Pipes Buried in the Vicinity of Frozen Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putot C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des dernières années, les activités pétrolières à terre comme en mer, tant en Alaska qu'au Canada, se sont maintenues à un niveau raisonnable. En octobre 1987, le premier champ pétrolier offshore a été mis en exploitation en mer de Beaufort (Endicott. Bien que l'industrie soit principalement dans une phase d'exploration, des besoins vont progressivement se manifester en matière de lignes de collecte et d'injection. La détermination du tracé de conduites en offshore arctique ainsi que leur dimensionnement nécessite la prise en compte de facteurs très spécifiques : le raclage des glaces dérivantes impose une profondeur minimum d'ensouillage, ce qui accroît, malgré l'isolation des conduites, la proportion de chaleur communiquée au pergélisol (ou permafrost en dégel : les tassements différentiels résultant de la variabilité de composition des sols peuvent provoquer des déformations, voire des instabilités des conduites tout à fait inacceptables. Il est assez intuitif de penser que les conduites flexibles accommoderont plus facilement les mouvements de sol que les rigides. L'objet de cet article est de proposer une méthode d'analyse assez souple permettant de jauger facilement cet avantage. In recent years, onshore and offshore petroleum activities, in both Alaska and Canada, have continued on a reasonable level. In October 1987 the first offshore oil field began production in the Beaufort Sea (Endicott. Although the industry is mainly in an exploration phase, needs will steadily appear with regard to gathering and injection line. . The determination to lay flowlines in offshore arctic areas as well as their sizing require that very specific factors be taken into consideration. Scouring by drifting ice requires a minimum depth of burial. Despite the insulation of pipes, this burial increases the proportion of heat communicated to melting permafrost. The differential compaction resulting from the variability of

  11. Design and Application Research for GRP Well Pipe%玻璃钢井管的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田超凯; 徐建英

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduce in detail the design of material selection,joint type,manufacturing process,etc for GR well pipe along with series of advantages and actual project requirement, it is beneficial to application and promotion for well pipe.%本文结合玻璃钢井管的诸多优点及实际项目情况,较为详细地介绍了玻璃钢井管的设计、材料选择、接头方式、制作工艺等,有益于玻璃钢井管的应用推广。

  12. Discussion on direct connection of pipe fittings in pipeline design%管道设计中管件直联问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶仕通

    2016-01-01

    管道设计过程中经常会遇到管件直联。管件直联需要考虑什么因素是值得探讨的问题。%The engineers often encountered pipe fittings connected directly in the piping design process .If we can make the pipe fittings connected directly and what need us to consider,is good questions need us to discuss.

  13. Optimal design of district heating and cooling pipe network of seawater-source heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang-li; Duanmu, Lin; Shu, Hai-wen [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning Province 116024 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The district heating and cooling (DHC) system of a seawater-source heat pump is large system engineering. The investments and the operational cost of DHC pipe network are higher than a tradition system. Traditional design methods only satisfy the needs of the technology but dissatisfy the needs of the economy, which not only waste a mass of money but also bring problems to the operation, the maintenance and the management. So we build a least-annualized-cost global optimal mathematic model that comprises all constrict conditions. Furthermore, this model considers the variety of heating load and cooling load, the operational adjustment in different periods of the year. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to obtain the optimal combinations of discrete diameters. Some operators of GA are selected to reduce the calculation time and obtain good calculation accuracy. This optimal method is used to the design of the DHC network of Xinghai Bay commercial district which is a real engineering. The design optimization can avoid the matter of the hydraulic unbalance of the system, enhance the running efficiency and greatly reduce the annualized-cost comparing with the traditional design method. (author)

  14. Numerical simulation of the radial compression of carcass layers of unbonded flexible pipes%海洋柔性管道骨架层径向压缩行为的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩山; 汤明刚; 阎军; 张文首; 岳前进; 张雷

    2015-01-01

    为防止铺设或储运过程中出现径向压缩失效,海洋柔性管道内层设计采用互锁型骨架层。基于有限元数值分析方法,建立骨架层三维有限元模型,研究径向压缩载荷作用下骨架层的力学行为。同时将骨架层简化为圆环,推导了圆环对径向压缩刚度的解析公式。搭建了柔性软管径向压缩性能的实验测试装置,通过骨架层试件的径向压缩测试,验证了有限元模型的正确性;发现传统理论模型的误差较大。数值研究还发现,随着钢带厚度与内径比的增加,骨架层径向压缩刚度会显著增大。建立的有限元数值模型及其分析技术为柔性管道受径向压缩分析和设计提供了有效的技术手段。%The interlocked carcass layers of unbonded flexible pipes are designed to resist the radial compression failure due to installation, storage and transportation. A three dimensional finite element model is developed to sim⁃ulate the radial compression behavior of the carcass under radial forces. At the same time, by simplifying the car⁃cass into a ring, an analytic formula of the radial compression stiffness of a ring under radial force is deduced for the carcass. A testing rig is also established for the radial compression of the carcass. Through the radial compres⁃sion test of carcass specimens, the correctness of the finite element model is verified. At the same time, it is found that the traditional theoretical model has a relatively larger error. Numerical study also shows that the carcass radial compression stiffness obviously increases with the increase of the ratio of its thickness over its diameter. The numeri⁃cal model and analysis technology presented in this paper provide an efficient method for the design and analysis of radial compression property of the unbonded flexible pipe radial compression in industry.

  15. Numerical simulation of the radial compression of carcass layers of unbonded flexible pipes%海洋柔性管道骨架层径向压缩行为的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩山; 汤明刚; 阎军; 张文首; 岳前进; 张雷

    2015-01-01

    为防止铺设或储运过程中出现径向压缩失效,海洋柔性管道内层设计采用互锁型骨架层. 基于有限元数值分析方法,建立骨架层三维有限元模型,研究径向压缩载荷作用下骨架层的力学行为. 同时将骨架层简化为圆环,推导了圆环对径向压缩刚度的解析公式. 搭建了柔性软管径向压缩性能的实验测试装置,通过骨架层试件的径向压缩测试,验证了有限元模型的正确性;发现传统理论模型的误差较大. 数值研究还发现,随着钢带厚度与内径比的增加,骨架层径向压缩刚度会显著增大. 建立的有限元数值模型及其分析技术为柔性管道受径向压缩分析和设计提供了有效的技术手段.%The interlocked carcass layers of unbonded flexible pipes are designed to resist the radial compression failure due to installation, storage and transportation.A three dimensional finite element model is developed to sim-ulate the radial compression behavior of the carcass under radial forces.At the same time, by simplifying the car-cass into a ring, an analytic formula of the radial compression stiffness of a ring under radial force is deduced for the carcass.A testing rig is also established for the radial compression of the carcass.Through the radial compres-sion test of carcass specimens, the correctness of the finite element model is verified.At the same time, it is found that the traditional theoretical model has a relatively larger error.Numerical study also shows that the carcass radial compression stiffness obviously increases with the increase of the ratio of its thickness over its diameter.The numeri-cal model and analysis technology presented in this paper provide an efficient method for the design and analysis of radial compression property of the unbonded flexible pipe radial compression in industry.

  16. Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

  17. Computer program grade for design and analysis of graded-porosity heat-pipe wicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program for numerical solution of differential equations that describe heat pipes with graded-porosity fibrous wicks is discussed. A mathematical problem is provided with a summary of the input and output steps used to solve it. The program is also applied to the analysis of a typical heat pipe.

  18. Flexible design in water and wastewater engineering--definitions, literature and decision guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Marc; Vreeburg, Jan H G; Leusbrock, Ingo; Zeeman, Grietje

    2015-02-01

    Urban water and wastewater systems face uncertain developments including technological progress, climate change and urban development. To ensure the sustainability of these systems under dynamic conditions it has been proposed that technologies and infrastructure should be flexible, adaptive and robust. However, in literature it is often unclear what these technologies and infrastructure are. Furthermore, the terms flexible, adaptive and robust are often used interchangeably, despite important differences. In this paper we will i) define the terminology, ii) provide an overview of the status of flexible infrastructure design alternatives for water and wastewater networks and treatment, and iii) develop guidelines for the selection of flexible design alternatives. Results indicate that, with the exception of Net Present Valuation methods, there is little research available on the design and evaluation of technologies that can enable flexibility. Flexible design alternatives reviewed include robust design, phased design, modular design, modular/component platform design and design for remanufacturing. As developments in the water sector are driven by slow variables (climate change, urban development), rather than market forces, it is suggested that phased design or component platform designs are suitable for responding to change, while robust design is an option when operations face highly dynamic variability.

  19. Heat Pipe with Axial Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jay H. (Inventor); Holmes, Rolland (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A heat pipe has an evaporator portion, a condenser portion, and at least one flexible portion that is sealingly coupled between the evaporator portion and the condenser portion. The flexible portion has a flexible tube and a flexible separator plate held in place within the flexible tube so as to divide the flexible tube into a gas-phase passage and a liquid-phase artery. The separator plate and flexible tube are configured such that the flexible portion is flexible in a plane that is perpendicular to the separator plate.

  20. A Flex-market Design for Flexibility Services through DERs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    in this paper. With the brand new notion of Flexibility Clearing House (FLECH), the proposed Flex-market has the ability to promote small scale DERs (up to 5MW) to participate in flexibility services trading. Accordingly, efforts to relieve the congestions in local grid areas, the contractual flexibility...... services of DERs are stipulated accommodating the various requirements of DSOs. The trading setups and processes are illustrated in details as well. Additionally, the demonstration diagram of Flex-market is also introduced in this paper. The diagram is utilized to test the feasibility and robustness......The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) will significantly challenge the power system operation due to their intermittent characteristic. In order to utilize the DERs as economically efficient as possible in the distribution grid, an Aggregator-based Flex-market is proposed...

  1. Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation: Incentivizing Flexibility in System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, Erik; Milligan, Michael; Bloom, Aaron; Botterud, Audun; Townsend, Aaron; Levin, Todd; Frew, Bethany A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the importance and challenges of incentivizing flexibility during short-term operations of the bulk power system due to the increasing variability and uncertainty from growing penetrations of variable generation (VG). Operational flexibility can refer to many aspects of a resource's capability to support the power system, such as the speed, range, and duration of power output, as well as the ability to autonomously respond to frequency or voltage changes. Inefficient utilization of existing flexibility, or unwillingness of resources to provide flexibility, can compromise system reliability by not meeting the changing net load, and it can also lead to higher costs when an inefficient use of flexibility resources occurs. There are many existing characteristics of market design that incentivize flexibility in some manner. How they incentivize the provision of flexibility as well as the level of flexibility is still debated. We explore some of these existing market designs, as well as new market mechanisms, such as pay-for-performance regulating reserve and flexible ramping products, that aim to explicitly incentivize the provision of more flexibility to the system, particularly as a result of increasing VG penetration levels.

  2. A Sensitivity Analysis of a Pipe Break Accident in a Preliminary Specific Design of the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae Ho; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is a pool type sodium cooled fast reactor with a thermal power of 392.1 MW which has been developed in accord with an enhanced safety, an efficient utilization of uranium resources and a reduction of a high level waste volume in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 2012 under a National Nuclear R and D Program. The PGSFR has an inherent safety characteristic owing to the design to have a negative power reactivity coefficient during all operation modes and it has a passive safety characteristic due to the design of a passive decay heat removal circuit. In order to assess the inherent safety features of the PGSFR, a safety analysis was performed for a pipe break accident with MARS-LMR. And, the sensitivity studies were also performed to find the most conservative condition. As a result, the PGSFR was appropriately tripped by a high power to PHTS flow ratio using the method of extracting the PHTS flow rate from the pressure drop. The air flow rate was the most sensitive variable in the sensitivity analysis. Therefore, it is important to know the accurate uncertainty of the air flow rate in the AHX.

  3. Module and System Design in Flexible Automated Assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.A.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    There is an ongoing trend of increasing variety of products and a decreasing time-to-market of new products. These trends require flexibility in the production and extensive control of the production processes. This is especially true for the assembly: the joining of parts to form a product. These

  4. Management Education Benchmarking Designing Customized and Flexible MBA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Owen P., Jr.; Young, Terry W.

    2007-01-01

    To meet the challenges of the 21st century B-schools are revising curriculum, delivery and outcome assessment modalities. Today, the proportion of electives and other specialty offerings in many MBA programs now constitutes more than 50% of the total curriculum. However, this focus on customization, integration and flexibility is not without its…

  5. Is the structural damping of flexible pipes important for its strength against armor lateral buckling?; O amortecimento estrutural de dutos flexiveis e importante para sua resistencia contra flambagem lateral de armaduras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Mauro Pastor [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents conclusions and results of a project conducted by the PETROBRAS Research Center in 1998. 163 laboratory tests were obtained under the Research Project. The purpose of the Research Project was to determine mechanical properties to be used in the global flexible riser analysis of the ultra deep water Roncador Field. Although the Research Project reached its objective, it had more success than the expected. That is statistics of the results of the Research Project lead to the theoretical background for the behavior of empty flexible pipes operating in ultra deep water. Other research project, finished 5 years later, fully proved this theoretical background. (author)

  6. Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Kuyper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

  7. The Monster Sound Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-01-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which…

  8. Flexible work designs and employee well-being: examining the effects of resources and demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. ter Hoeven; W. van Zoonen

    2015-01-01

    Advances in communication technology continue to expand the possibilities for redesigning work environments to allow for temporal and spatial flexibility. Although flexible work designs (FWDs) are typically launched with high expectations, recent research shows that FWDs also pose challenges to empl

  9. The design and synthesis of hard and impermeable, yet flexible, conformal organic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Asatekin, Ayse; Gleason, Karen K

    2012-07-17

    A new design paradigm for conformal, all-organic coatings that retain their flexibility and chemical functionality while displaying exceptional mechanical hardness and barrier properties is presented. Initiated chemical vapor deposition is used to synthesize a novel alternating copolymer thin film. Upon annealing, films display elastic moduli exceeding 20 GPa, excellent scratch resistance and flexibility, and very low oxygen permeability.

  10. 46 CFR 119.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... flame arresters. The flame screens must consist of a single screen of corrosion resistant wire of at least 30×30 mesh. The flame screens or flame arresters must be of such size and design as to prevent... screens or arrester elements. (e) Where a flexible vent pipe section is necessary, suitable...

  11. Colloidal joints with designed motion range and tunable joint flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Indrani; Meester, Vera; van der Wel, Casper; Kraft, Daniela J

    2017-06-14

    The miniaturization of machines towards the micron and nanoscale requires the development of joint-like elements that enable and constrain motion. We present a facile method to create colloidal joints, that is, anisotropic colloidal particles functionalized with surface mobile DNA linkers that control the motion range of bonded particles. We demonstrate quantitatively that we can control the flexibility of these colloidal joints by tuning the DNA linker concentration in the bond area. We show that the shape of the colloidal joint controls the range of motion of bonded particles through a maximisation of the bond area. Using spheres, cubes, and dumbbells, we experimentally realize spherical joints, planar sliders, and hinges, respectively. Finally we demonstrate the potential of the colloidal joints for programmable bottom-up self-assembly by creating flexible colloidal molecules and colloidal polymers. The reconfigurability and motion constraint offered by our colloidal joints make them promising building blocks for the development of switchable materials and nanorobots.

  12. Design considerations for a thermophotovoltaic energy converter using heat pipe radiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcroft, J.; DePoy, D. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss concepts for using high temperature heat pipes to transport energy from a heat source to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converter. Within the converter, the condenser portion of each heat pipe acts as a photon radiator, providing a radiant flux to adjacent TPV cells, which in turn create electricity. Using heat pipes in this way could help to increase the power output and the power density of TPV systems. TPV systems with radiator temperatures in the range of 1,500 K are expected to produce as much as 3.6 W/cm{sup 3} of heat exchanger volume at an efficiency of 20% or greater. Four different arrangements of heat pipe-TPV energy converters are considered. Performance and sizing calculations for each of the concepts are presented. Finally, concerns with this concept and issues which remain to be considered are discussed.

  13. Design and experimental analysis of a screened heat pipe for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, D.; Filippeschi, S.; Franco, A.; Di Marco, P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, the construction and the preliminary results of a transient and steady state investigation of the heat transfer mechanisms of a horizontal heat pipe (HP). The experiments are performed using a custom-made HP constituted by copper tube with outer diameter and length as 35 mm and 510 mm, respectively, with the inner surface covered by three layers stainless steel mesh wick (100 mesh/inch). Water is used as a working fluid. The evaporator section is heated by electrical resistances wrapped around the tube and the cooling system consists of an insulated water manifold with inner diameter of 39 mm, connected to chilled water bath to maintain the inlet temperature of the circulating cooling water at 25 °C for various heat loads (30-100 W). The aims of this activity is to obtain data to verify the steady state HP analytical model already presented by authors at a fixed filling volume and to determine the effect of the heat transfer load on the heat transfer performance of screen mesh HPs. The heat transfer coefficients are determined using thermocouples on the outer wall and within the core of the HP. The agreement between the analytical results and the preliminary experimental data appears to be very good.

  14. Application of formal optimization techniques in thermal/structural design of a heat-pipe-cooled panel for a hypersonic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Riley, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear mathematical programming methods are used to design a radiantly cooled and heat-pipe-cooled panel for a Mach 6.7 transport. The cooled portion of the panel is a hybrid heat-pipe/actively cooled design which uses heat pipes to transport the absorbed heat to the ends of the panel where it is removed by active cooling. The panels are optimized for minimum mass and to satisfy a set of heat-pipe, structural, geometric, and minimum-gage constraints. Two panel concepts are investigated: cylindrical heat pipes embedded in a honeycomb core and an integrated design which uses a web-core heat-pipe sandwich concept. The latter was lighter and resulted in a design which was less than 10 percent heavier than an all actively cooled concept. The heat-pipe concept, however, is redundant and can sustain a single-point failure, whereas the actively cooled concept cannot. An additional study was performed to determine the optimum number of coolant manifolds per panel for a minimum-mass design.

  15. Stress Analysis of the Subsea Dynamic Riser BaseProcess Piping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuanze Ju; Wei Fang; Hanjun Yin; Ying Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Thesubsea dynamic riser base(SDRB)is an important piece of equipment for the floating production platform mooring system.One end is connected to the rigid pipeline, carrying a rigid pipeline thermal expansion load and the other end is connected to a flexible riser, carrying the dynamic load of the flexible riser, so its function is a transition connection between the flexible riser and the rigid pipeline which fixes the flexible riser on the seabed. On the other hand , as a typical subsea product, the design will satisfythe requirements of the standards for subsea products. By studying the stress analysisphilosophy of the topside piping and subsea pipeline, a physical model and procedure for piping stress analysis of the SDRB have been established.The conditions of the adverse design load have been considered, and a combination of the static load from the rigid pipeline and the dynamic load flexibility has also been optimized. And a comparative analysis between the AMSE, DNV and API standards for piping stress with the checking rules has been done.Because theSDRB belongs to the subsea pipeline terminal product, the use of DNV standards to check its process piping stress is recommended. Finally, the process piping stress of the SDRB has been calculated, and the results show that the jacket pipe and the carrier pipe stress of the SDRB process piping satisfy the DNV standards as a whole.The bulkhead cannot be accurately simulated by the AutoPIPE software which uses the FEA software ANSYS inthe detailed analysis, but the checking results will still meet the requirements of the DNV standards.

  16. High Accuracy Attitude Control System Design for Satellite with Flexible Appendages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the high accuracy attitude control of satellite with flexible appendages, attitude control system consisting of the controller and structural filter was designed. When the low order vibration frequency of flexible appendages is approximating the bandwidth of attitude control system, the vibration signal will enter the control system through measurement device to bring impact on the accuracy or even the stability. In order to reduce the impact of vibration of appendages on the attitude control system, the structural filter is designed in terms of rejecting the vibration of flexible appendages. Considering the potential problem of in-orbit frequency variation of the flexible appendages, the design method for the adaptive notch filter is proposed based on the in-orbit identification technology. Finally, the simulation results are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design techniques.

  17. Short course on: Rehabilitation design of flexible pavements in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a set of practical course notes on the Rehabilitation Design of flexible pavements in southern Africa based on extensive research by various researchers and / or practitioners in South Africa. The course is intended...

  18. RESEARCH ON THE GENERALIZED MODULAR DESIGN METHOD WITH FLEXIBLE MODULES OF PRODUCT STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yanshen; Xu Qianli; Chen Yongliang; Hou Liang

    2004-01-01

    A new generalized modular design (GMD) method is proposed based on design practice of frame structure of hydraulic press machines. By building a series of flexible modules (FMs), design knowledge and structure features are integrated into parametric models. Then, parametric design and variational analysis methods for GMD are presented according to user defined design objectives and customized product characteristics. A FM-centered GMD system is developed and successfully used in the rapid design of relevant products.

  19. Designing Capital-Intensive Systems with Architectural and Operational Flexibility Using a Screening Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jijun; de Weck, Olivier; de Neufville, Richard; Robinson, Bob; MacGowan, David

    Development of capital intensive systems, such as offshore oil platforms or other industrial infrastructure, generally requires a significant amount of capital investment under various resource, technical, and market uncertainties. It is a very challenging task for development co-owners or joint ventures because important decisions, such as system architectures, have to be made while uncertainty remains high. This paper develops a screening model and a simulation framework to quickly explore the design space for complex engineering systems under uncertainty allowing promising strategies or architectures to be identified. Flexibility in systems’ design and operation is proposed as a proactive means to enable systems to adapt to future uncertainty. Architectural and operational flexibility can improve systems’ lifecycle value by mitigating downside risks and capturing upside opportunities. In order to effectively explore different flexible strategies addressing a view of uncertainty which changes with time, a computational framework based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed in this paper. This framework is applied to study flexible development strategies for a representative offshore petroleum project. The complexity of this problem comes from multi-domain uncertainties, large architectural design space, and structure of flexibility decision rules. The results demonstrate that architectural and operational flexibility can significantly improve projects’ Expected Net Present Value (ENPV), reduce downside risks, and improve upside gains, compared to adopting an inflexible strategy appropriate to the view of uncertainty at the start of the project. In this particular case study, the most flexible strategy improves ENPV by 85% over an inflexible base case.

  20. A homotopy algorithm for synthesizing robust controllers for flexible structures via the maximum entropy design equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    One well known deficiency of LQG compensators is that they do not guarantee any measure of robustness. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control design for complex systems such as flexible structures. There has thus been a need to generalize LQG theory to incorporate robustness constraints. Here we describe the maximum entropy approach to robust control design for flexible structures, a generalization of LQG theory, pioneered by Hyland, which has proved useful in practice. The design equations consist of a set of coupled Riccati and Lyapunov equations. A homotopy algorithm that is used to solve these design equations is presented.

  1. Design and Testing of Metal and Silicon Heat Spreaders with Embedded Micromachined Heat Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.A.; Robino, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    The authors have developed a new type of heat spreader based on the integration of heat pipes directly within a thin planar structure suitable for use as a heat spreader or as the base layer in a substrate. The process uses micromachining methods to produce micron scale patterns that act as a wick in these small scale heat pipes. By using silicon or a low expansion metal as the wall material of these spreaders, they achieve a good match to the thermal coefficient of expansion of the die. The match allows the use of a thin high performance die attachment even on large size die. The embedded heat pipes result in high effective thermal conductivity for the new spreader technology.

  2. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  3. Flexibility in design of large-scale methanol plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esben Lauge Sφrensen; Helge Holm-Larsen; Haldor Topsφe A/S

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a cost effective design for large-scale methanol production. It is demonstrated how recent technological progress can be utilised to design a methanol plant,which is inexpensive and easy to operate, while at the same time very robust towards variations in feed-stock composition and product specifications.

  4. Research on Flexible Transfer Line Schematic Design Using Hierarchical Process Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Flexible transfer line(FTL)is now widely used in ma ny manufacturing domains to realize efficiently,high quantity and economic prod uction.These manufacturing domains include automobile,tractor,internal-combu stion engine,and so on.In today's competitive business environment,it is vit ally important for machine tool manufacturers to design flexible transfer line m ore effectively and efficiently according to a wider variety of customer demand s.This paper proposes an approach to a bidding-based flexible tra...

  5. Applications and Technical Characteristics of Thermal Pipe Subgrade in Qinghai-Tibet Railway Design%青藏铁路设计中热棒路基的应用及其技术指标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉里; 薛新功; 包黎明

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with the application of thermal pipe in the Qinghai-Tibet Railway subgrade project and the research data made on the Qingshuihe experimental field, this paper makes an attempt to illustrate the design principles, basis and technical characteristics, puts forward the problems needing further study, and pipe the reason and tendency of the longitudinal crack in the subgrade applied with thermal pipe.

  6. Design Considerations for a Flexible Multigrid Preconditioning Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Gaidamour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MueLu is a library within the Trilinos software project [An overview of Trilinos, Technical Report SAND2003-2927, Sandia National Laboratories, 2003] and provides a framework for parallel multigrid preconditioning methods for large sparse linear systems. While providing efficient implementations of modern multigrid methods based on smoothed aggregation and energy minimization concepts, MueLu is designed to be customized and extended. This article gives an overview of design considerations for the MueLu package: user interfaces, internal design, data management, usage of modern software constructs, leveraging Trilinos capabilities, linear algebra operations and advanced application.

  7. The Design of a Novel Flexible Tactile Sensor Based on Pressure-conductive Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible tactile sensor using conductive rubber with electrical-wires knitted method is presented. The sensor’s design is based on rubber’s pressure-sensitive property. It is flexible and can be mounted on any object to measure tactile information. The mathematic piezoresistivity model of the rubber is described, and we also discuss the sensor’s structure and scanning method. The simulation results show that the sensor can detect pressure accurately.

  8. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Drent, J

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists often use phenotypic differences between species and between individuals to gain an understanding of organismal design. The focus of much recent attention has been on developmental plasticity - the environmentally induced variability during development within a single genotyp

  9. A flexible electro-mechanical design information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basson, Anton H.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Liu, Y.; Liu, Yang; Horvath, Imre; Xirouchakis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Design information systems are of increasing importance due to globalization of product development, increasing complexity of products (in terms of product variants and range of technologies employed) and increasing emphasis on improving product development efficiency (shortening times, reducing

  10. Piping: Over 100 years of experience: From empiricism towards reliability-based design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beek, V.M.; Knoeff, H.G.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2011-01-01

    Backward piping is the process of channel formation in a sandy aquifer under river dikes. During high water periods this process manifests itself by the formation of sand boils. A long history of cases and experiments has contributed to the insights into this phenomenon and has improved the ability

  11. Piping: Over 100 years of experience: From empiricism towards reliability-based design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beek, V.M.; Knoeff, H.G.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2011-01-01

    Backward piping is the process of channel formation in a sandy aquifer under river dikes. During high water periods this process manifests itself by the formation of sand boils. A long history of cases and experiments has contributed to the insights into this phenomenon and has improved the ability

  12. RosettaRemodel: a generalized framework for flexible backbone protein design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ssu Huang

    Full Text Available We describe RosettaRemodel, a generalized framework for flexible protein design that provides a versatile and convenient interface to the Rosetta modeling suite. RosettaRemodel employs a unified interface, called a blueprint, which allows detailed control over many aspects of flexible backbone protein design calculations. RosettaRemodel allows the construction and elaboration of customized protocols for a wide range of design problems ranging from loop insertion and deletion, disulfide engineering, domain assembly, loop remodeling, motif grafting, symmetrical units, to de novo structure modeling.

  13. Animation of multi-flexible body systems and its use in control system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengst, Carl; Stahlberg, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Animation can greatly assist the structural dynamicist and control system analyst with better understanding of how multi-flexible body systems behave. For multi-flexible body systems, the structural characteristics (mode frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) change, sometimes dramatically with large angles of rotation between bodies. With computer animation, the analyst can visualize these changes and how the system responds to active control forces and torques. A characterization of the type of system we wish to animate is presented. The lack of clear understanding of the above effects was a key element leading to the development of a multi-flexible body animation software package. The resulting animation software is described in some detail here, followed by its application to the control system analyst. Other applications of this software can be determined on an individual need basis. A number of software products are currently available that make the high-speed rendering of rigid body mechanical system simulation possible. However, such options are not available for use in rendering flexible body mechanical system simulations. The desire for a high-speed flexible body visualization tool led to the development of the Flexible Or Rigid Mechanical System (FORMS) software. This software was developed at the Center for Simulation and Design Optimization of Mechanical Systems at the University of Iowa. FORMS provides interactive high-speed rendering of flexible and/or rigid body mechanical system simulations, and combines geometry and motion information to produce animated output. FORMS is designed to be both portable and flexible, and supports a number of different user interfaces and graphical display devices. Additional features have been added to FORMS that allow special visualization results related to the nature of the flexible body geometric representations.

  14. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  15. Optimal adaptive group sequential design with flexible timing of sample size determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lu; Zhang, Lanju; Yang, Bo

    2017-04-26

    Flexible sample size designs, including group sequential and sample size re-estimation designs, have been used as alternatives to fixed sample size designs to achieve more robust statistical power and better trial efficiency. In this work, a new representation of sample size re-estimation design suggested by Cui et al. [5,6] is introduced as an adaptive group sequential design with flexible timing of sample size determination. This generalized adaptive group sequential design allows one time sample size determination either before the start of or in the mid-course of a clinical study. The new approach leads to possible design optimization on an expanded space of design parameters. Its equivalence to sample size re-estimation design proposed by Cui et al. provides further insight on re-estimation design and helps to address common confusions and misunderstanding. Issues in designing flexible sample size trial, including design objective, performance evaluation and implementation are touched upon with an example to illustrate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Possible Designs for Flexible Distribution System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jeremy; Knezovic, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    A massive amount of distributed energy resources will be connected to the distribution system in the near future. This emerging phenomenon will pose significant challenges to the traditional operation of distribution systems. This clearly calls for a growing need to develop novel grid designs...

  17. 连接管在空调器降成本机型中的灵活运用%Flexible application of connecting pipe into the cost reduction machine type of air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼志健; 梁勤奋

    2012-01-01

    在原有空调器配置不变的前提下,空调器连接管的灵活搭配应用,不但可以改善空调器制冷效果,而且能够降低空调器整机成本,提高其市场竞争力.%Under the original air conditioner configuration unchanged, the application of flexible collocation into air conditioner's connecting pipe,not only can improve the refrigeration effect of air conditioner,but also can reduce the cost of air conditioner and improve their market competitiveness.

  18. Piping design, analysis and support in an integrated data system; Diseno, analisis y soprotado de tuberias en un entorno de informacion integrada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnicero Iniguez, E. [Empresarios Agrupados, A. I. E. Madrid (Spain); Fujikawa, K.; Herzog, M.

    2000-07-01

    In a nuclear power plant, the area of piping design, analysis and support represents a massive volume of information necessary to the proper execution of the different engineering and design tasks carried out in said area. Such information includes input data that must be made available regarding process engineering and plant design (civil, mechanical, electrical, others), as well as data generated from the activities that are specific to the area of piping and piping support design, analysis and calculation. A significant part of the aforementioned information is shared by different organisations, each responsible for different tasks within the area, and must be made available for use by other areas, in addition to constituting the basis for piping and pipping supports fabrication and erection. The progresses achieved in information technologies, applied to the area of piping design, analysis and support of General Electric's advanced reactors, has led to designing an integrated data system in combination with the development of a now proven and mature work methodology. This system is satisfactorily used today in the advanced reactor project for Taipower (lungmen NPP. General Electric, 1300 MWe). The paper details the different technical and organisational aspects of the solution adopted, and defines integrated and distributed databases; it also describes the various design, analysis and calculation processes from the standpoint of the integration, computerization and control of the different processes, and established the solutions chosen to document them. (Author)

  19. Design of Rigid and Flexible Pavements by Various Methods & Their Cost Analysis of Each Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Jain

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Highway and pavement design plays an important role in the DPR projects. The satisfactory performance of the pavement will result in higher savings in terms of vehicle operating costs and travel time, which has a bearing on the overall economic feasibility of the project. This paper discusses about the design methods that are traditionally being followed and examines the “Design of rigid and flexible pavements by various methods & their cost analysis by each method”. Flexible pavement are preferred over cement concrete roads as they have a great advantage that these can be strengthened and improved in stages with the growth of traffic and also their surfaces can be milled and recycled for rehabilitation. The flexible pavements are less expensive also with regard to initial investment and maintenance. Although Rigid pavement is expensive but have less maintenance and having good design period. The economic part are carried out for the design pavement of a section by using the result obtain by design method and their corresponding component layer thickness. It can be done by drawing comparisons with the standard way and practical way. This total work includes collection of data analysis various flexible and rigid pavement designs and their estimation procedure are very much useful to engineer who deals with highways.

  20. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning Impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmintier, Bryan S.

    This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or strict carbon policies. Operational flexibility describes a power system's ability to respond to predictable and unexpected changes in generation or demand. Planning and policy models have traditionally not directly captured the technical operating constraints that determine operational flexibility. However, as demonstrated in this dissertation, this capability becomes increasingly important with the greater flexibility required by significant renewables (>= 20%) and the decreased flexibility inherent in some low-carbon generation technologies. Incorporating flexibility can significantly change optimal generation and energy mixes, lower system costs, improve policy impact estimates, and enable system designs capable of meeting strict regulatory targets. Methodologically, this work presents a new clustered formulation that tractably combines a range of normally distinct power system models, from hourly unit-commitment operations to long-term generation planning. This formulation groups similar generators into clusters to reduce problem size, while still retaining the individual unit constraints required to accurately capture operating reserves and other flexibility drivers. In comparisons against traditional unit commitment formulations, errors were generally less than 1% while run times decreased by several orders of magnitude (e.g., 5000x). Extensive numerical simulations, using a realistic Texas-based power system show that ignoring flexibility can underestimate carbon emissions by 50% or result in significant load and wind shedding to meet environmental regulations. Contributions of this dissertation include: 1. Demonstrating that operational flexibility can have an important impact on power system planning, and describing when and how these

  1. Design Methodology And Performance Studies Of A Flexible Electrotextile Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayacan Ozan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘The smart textiles’ concept has to develop products based not only on design, fashion and comfort but also in terms of functions. The novel electro-textiles in the market open up new trends in smart and interactive gadgets. ‘Easy to care and durability’ properties are among the most important features of these products. On the other hand, wearable electronic knitwear has been gaining the attention of both researchers and industrial sectors. Combining knitting technology with electronics may become a dominant trend in the future because of the wide application possibilities. This research is concerned primarily with the design methodology of knitted fabrics containing electrically conductive textiles and especially in-use performance studies. The structural characteristics of the fabrics have been evaluated to enhance the performance properties.

  2. Predicting evolutionary site variability from structure in viral proteins: buriedness, flexibility, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Spielman, Stephanie J; Jackson, Eleisha L; Dawson, Eric T; Meyer, Austin G; Wilke, Claus O

    2014-01-01

    Several recent works have shown that protein structure can predict site-specific evolutionary sequence variation. In particular, sites that are buried and/or have many contacts with other sites in a structure have been shown to evolve more slowly, on average, than surface sites with few contacts. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the extent to which numerous structural properties can predict sequence variation. The structural properties we considered include buriedness (relative solvent accessibility and contact number), structural flexibility (B factors, root-mean-square fluctuations, and variation in dihedral angles), and variability in designed structures. We obtained structural flexibility measures both from molecular dynamics simulations performed on 9 non-homologous viral protein structures and from variation in homologous variants of those proteins, where available. We obtained measures of variability in designed structures from flexible-backbone design in the Rosetta software. We found that mo...

  3. Mechanism Design and Testing of a Self-Deploying Structure Using Flexible Composite Tape Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footdale, Joseph N.; Murphey, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The detailed mechanical design of a novel deployable support structure that positions and tensions a membrane optic for space imagining applications is presented. This is a complex three-dimensional deployment using freely deploying rollable composite tape spring booms that become load bearing structural members at full deployment. The deployment tests successfully demonstrate a new architecture based on rolled and freely deployed composite tape spring members that achieve simultaneous deployment without mechanical synchronization. Proper design of the flexible component mounting interface and constraint systems, which were critical in achieving a functioning unit, are described. These flexible composite components have much potential for advancing the state of the art in deployable structures, but have yet to be widely adopted. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and advantages of implementing flexible composite components, including the design details on how to integrate with required traditional mechanisms.

  4. Lyapunov-based control designs for flexible-link manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1989-01-01

    A feedback controller for the stabilization of closed-loop systems is proposed which is based on the Liapunov stability criterion. A feedback control law is first generated for the linear portion of the system equation using linear control theory. A feedback control is then designed for the nonlinear portion of the system equation by making negative the time derivative of a positive definite Liapunov function.

  5. Lyapunov-based control designs for flexible-link manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1989-01-01

    A feedback controller for the stabilization of closed-loop systems is proposed which is based on the Liapunov stability criterion. A feedback control law is first generated for the linear portion of the system equation using linear control theory. A feedback control is then designed for the nonlinear portion of the system equation by making negative the time derivative of a positive definite Liapunov function.

  6. Design and Nonlinear Control of a 2-DOF Flexible Parallel Humanoid Arm Joint Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leijie Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the design and nonlinear control of the humanoid wrist/shoulder joint based on the cable-driven parallel mechanism which can realize roll and pitch movement. In view of the existence of the flexible parts in the mechanism, it is necessary to solve the vibration control of the flexible wrist/shoulder joint. In this paper, a cable-driven parallel robot platform is developed for the experiment study of the humanoid wrist/shoulder joint. And the dynamic model of the mechanism is formulated by using the coupling theory of the flexible body’s large global motion and small flexible deformation. Based on derived dynamics, antivibration control of the joint robot is studied with a nonlinear control method. Finally, simulations and experiments were performed to validate the feasibility of the developed parallel robot prototype and the proposed control scheme.

  7. Design and Development of Vision Based Blockage Clearance Robot for Sewer Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Nesaian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology is one of the advanced technologies, which is capable of completing tasks at situations where humans are unable to reach, see or survive. The underground sewer pipelines are the major tools for the transportation of effluent water. A lot of troubles caused by blockage in sewer pipe will lead to overflow of effluent water, sanitation problems. So robotic vehicle that is capable of traveling at underneath effluent water determining blockage using ultrasonic sensors and clearing by means of drilling mechanism is done. In addition to that wireless camera is fixed which acts as a robot vision by which we can monitor video and capture images using MATLAB tool. Thus in this project a prototype model of underground sewer pipe blockage clearance robot with drilling type will be developed

  8. Designed patterns: flexible control of precipitation through electric currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, I; Droz, M; Lagzi, I; Martens, K; Rácz, Z; Volford, A

    2008-08-15

    Understanding and controlling precipitation patterns formed in reaction-diffusion processes is of fundamental importance with high potential for technical applications. Here we present a theory showing that precipitation resulting from reactions among charged agents can be controlled by an appropriately designed, time-dependent electric current. Examples of current dynamics yielding periodic bands of prescribed wavelength, as well as more complicated structures are given. The pattern control is demonstrated experimentally using the reaction-diffusion process 2AgNO3 + K2Cr2O7-->under Ag2Cr2O7 + 2KNO3.

  9. Analysis, Verification, and Application of Equations and Procedures for Design of Exhaust-Pipe Shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-12-01

    exhaust fromthe mhmst frcunthe exhaust fromthe exhaust *8 to theeklxmstpipe gasto theexhmst pipe p@e to thecoolingaiz l)y w w yipeto theshroudby thermal...thesimplificationf thefinalresults. Equations for designtemperatures.- hot gasto a cold@s canbe re~esented where ii mean ;-mean heat~tranefer Q . b“S... gasto theexhaustpipebyIthermalrqdlation.If flapsor “ ejectorpumpsqreused,andthe pooling-airexitpressureis thw decreasedfromatmospheti.c,theapplicationof

  10. Interim report on containment design basis accidents: pipe rupture events in PHTS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsberg, T; Gasser, R; Tsai, S S

    1976-12-01

    A preliminary analysis of pressure-temperature transients in CRBR primary heat transport system (PHTS) equipment cells, resulting from postulated breaks of primary system piping, has been performed. The combined effects of sodium spray fires and interactions arising from cell liner failure were considered in the analysis. No vent paths out of the PHTS cell were assumed. Results are presented and preliminary conclusions are discussed.

  11. Strengthened design of economical flexible pipeline in shallow water%浅水经济性柔性管道加强设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢青针; 岳前进; 汤明刚; 郑杰馨

    2011-01-01

    柔性海洋管道需要针对使用要求进行结构加强设计.对于浅水海域,柔性管道拉伸和外压较小,如果通过合理简化结构的加强设计,可降低大量应用于海底管道的造价.根据渤海浅水海底管道铺设荷载,设计经济型非粘结构柔性管的结构形式,建立拉伸刚度分析模型,提出抗拉加强没计方法,并对加强设计制造的柔性管道进行了实验测试,结果表明能够满足渤海海底管道使用要求,为我国浅水边际油田开发提供新的管道选择.%Subsea flexible pipeline should be designed against their application conditions. For deep water, the pipeline resists rather large tension force and external pressure. So it need to be reinforced by complex construction. Because of high price it is usually used for riser only.But for shallow water, due to the lower tension force and external pressure the pipe can be designed reasonably by simplified construction.Therefore the price of pipeline will be decreased and it can be widely used for flowline. This paper presents a design of economical structure of flexible pipe according te installation load for Bohai Sea. Tension stiffness analysis model is provided and a tension reinforced design method is introduced. Tests have been carried out to verify the design of reinforced pipe. The results indicate that it can satisfy the apphcation requirements of Bohai Sea flowline. It provides a new choice of the subsea pipeline application for marginal oil development in shallow water.

  12. Adaptive High Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Hypersonic Vehicle with Flexible Body Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bailing Tian; Wenru Fan; Qun Zong; Jie Wang; Fang Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a nonlinear robust adaptive controller for a flexible hypersonic vehicle model which is nonlinear, multivariable, and unstable, and includes uncertain parameters. Firstly, a control-oriented model is derived for controller design. Then, the model analysis is conducted for this model via input-output (I/O) linearized technique. Secondly, the sliding mode manifold is designed based on the homogeneity theory. Then, the adaptive high order sliding mode controlle...

  13. Design of a flexible and low-power ionospheric sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alex

    Characterizing the structure of the ionosphere has practical applications for telecommunications and scientific applications for studies of the near-Earth space environment. Among several methods for measuring parameters of the ionosphere is ionospheric sounding, a radar technique that determines the electron content of the ionosphere as a function of height. Various research, military, and commercial institutions operate hundreds of ground-based ionosondes throughout the globe, and new ionosondes continue to be deployed in increasingly remote and distant locations. This thesis presents the design of an ionospheric sounder that reduces the power, size, and cost compared to existing systems. Key improvements include the use of an open-source software-defined radio platform and channel-aware dynamic sounding scheduling.

  14. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  15. 大型油品储罐进出口管线柔性设计%Flexible Design in the Inlet and Outlet Pipeline of Large Storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋义伟; 郭慧军; 张永东; 田鹤; 杨振东; 安宗旺

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of flexible design in the inlet and outlet pipeline of large storage tank was analyzed. The structure, function and selection of equipment of metal hose and corrugatedpipe compensator were presented. The matters that needed attention about installation of metal hose and corrugated-pipe compensator were also introduced simply.%分析了大型储罐进出口管线柔性设计的必要性,介绍了金属软管和波纹补偿器的结构形式、作用及设备选型需考虑的因素,提出了在进行储罐罐前柔性安装时应注意的问题.

  16. New ytterbium-doped apatite crystals for flexible laser design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.A.; DeLoach, L.D.; Smith, L.K.; Krupke, W.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chai, B.H.T.; Loutts, G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers

    1994-03-01

    A new class of Yb-lasers is summarized in this article. The apatite family of crystals has been found to impose favorable spectroscopic and laser properties on the Yb{sup 3+} activator ion. Crystals of Yb-doped Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F, Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F, Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 5{minus}x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F, and Sr{sub 5}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}F have been grown and investigated. Several useful laser crystals have been identified which offer a variety of fundamental laser parameters for designing diode-pumped systems. In general, this class of materials is characterized by high emission cross sections (3.6--13.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2}), useful emission lifetimes (0.59--1.26 msec), a strong pump band ({sigma}{sub abs} = 2.0--10.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2}) and pump and extraction wavelengths near 900 and 1,045 nm, respectively. Efficient lasing has been demonstrated for several of the members of this class of materials, and high optical quality crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method.

  17. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet...

  18. 49 CFR 195.114 - Used pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Used pipe. 195.114 Section 195.114 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.114 Used pipe. Any used pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with § 195.112 (a) and (b) and the following: (a) The pipe must be of a known specification and the...

  19. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New pipe. 195.112 Section 195.112 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.112 New pipe. Any new pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or alloy...

  20. Design and Testing of a Flexible Solar Generator for On-Orbit Verification Misison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendorf, Sven; Brunner, Sebastian; Zajac, Kai

    2014-06-01

    Novel flexible, lightweight and highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells on polyimide (PI) foil substrate were the starting point for the development of a flexible solar generator.The presented solar generator consists of an aluminium support structure and a drum on which the CIGSe thin film solar cells are rolled up. When releasing the mechanism a flexible solar array of 128 mm x 344 mm will be self-deployed, without requiring any electric power. When deployed the solar array is self-locked. This paper presents a short overview of the baseline design requirements for a potential On-Orbit verification mission, the developed design, results of the first verification tests and an outlook on a possible scalability.

  1. The Design and Characterization of a Flexible Tactile Sensing Array for Robot Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangping Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a flexible tactile sensing array based on a capacitive mechanism was designed, fabricated, and characterized for sensitive robot skin. A device with 8 × 8 sensing units was composed of top and bottom flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET substrates with copper (Cu electrodes, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS dielectric layer, and a bump contact layer. Four types of microstructures (i.e., pyramids and V-shape grooves atop a PDMS dielectric layer were well-designed and fabricated to enhance tactile sensitivity. The optimal sensing unit achieved a high sensitivity of 35.9%/N in a force range of 0–1 N. By incorporating a tactile feedback control system, the flexible sensing array as the sensitive skin of a robotic manipulator demonstrated a potential capability of robotic obstacle avoidance.

  2. Towards prioritizing flexibility in the design and construction of concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topel, Monika; Lundqvist, Mårten; Haglind, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    In the operation and maintenance of concentrating solar power plants, high operational flexibility is required in order to withstand the variability from the inherent solar fluctuations. However, during the development phases of a solar thermal plant, this important objective is overlooked...... as a relevant factor for cost reduction in the long term. This paper will show the value of including flexibility aspects in the design of a concentrating solar power plant by breaking down their potential favorable impact on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) calculations. For this, three scenarios...... to include flexibility as a design objective are analyzed and their potential impact on the LCOE is quantified. The scenarios were modeled and analyzed using a techno-economic model of a direct steam generation solar tower power plant. Sensitivity studies were carried out for each scenario, in which...

  3. The Design and Characterization of a Flexible Tactile Sensing Array for Robot Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhangping; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Huicong; Liu, Nan; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Lining

    2016-11-25

    In this study, a flexible tactile sensing array based on a capacitive mechanism was designed, fabricated, and characterized for sensitive robot skin. A device with 8 × 8 sensing units was composed of top and bottom flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates with copper (Cu) electrodes, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) dielectric layer, and a bump contact layer. Four types of microstructures (i.e., pyramids and V-shape grooves) atop a PDMS dielectric layer were well-designed and fabricated to enhance tactile sensitivity. The optimal sensing unit achieved a high sensitivity of 35.9%/N in a force range of 0-1 N. By incorporating a tactile feedback control system, the flexible sensing array as the sensitive skin of a robotic manipulator demonstrated a potential capability of robotic obstacle avoidance.

  4. The Design and Characterization of a Flexible Tactile Sensing Array for Robot Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhangping; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Huicong; Liu, Nan; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Lining

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a flexible tactile sensing array based on a capacitive mechanism was designed, fabricated, and characterized for sensitive robot skin. A device with 8 × 8 sensing units was composed of top and bottom flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrates with copper (Cu) electrodes, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) dielectric layer, and a bump contact layer. Four types of microstructures (i.e., pyramids and V-shape grooves) atop a PDMS dielectric layer were well-designed and fabricated to enhance tactile sensitivity. The optimal sensing unit achieved a high sensitivity of 35.9%/N in a force range of 0–1 N. By incorporating a tactile feedback control system, the flexible sensing array as the sensitive skin of a robotic manipulator demonstrated a potential capability of robotic obstacle avoidance. PMID:27897993

  5. The Logistic Principles for Fast Flexible Strategy Design of the Company in Crisis Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Malindžák

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with design of the logistic principles enabling an enterpriseto create a strategy flexible in terms of business and marketingand stable and steady in terms of manufacturing. In order to create astrategy model the following principles can be applied: shortening theperiod of capacity planning combined with flexible planning, syncro– MRP (Material Required Planning principle, the application of forecastingin capacity planning, creation with partners of one of the cooperationforms such as supply chain, demand chain, lean supply chain,agile supply chain, leagile supply chain, and using the dbr (Drum BufferRope, APS(Advanced Planning System and SCP (Supply ChainPlanning systems. The article describes application of this principlefor model design of the flexible strategy for Chemosvit fólie a. s. company,and the results of this application in the crisis time 2009–2011.

  6. Modeling and Design of a New Flexible Graphene-on-Silicon Schottky Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dell’Olio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new graphene-based flexible solar cell with a power conversion efficiency >10% has been designed. The environmental stability and the low complexity of the fabrication process are the two main advantages of the proposed device with respect to other flexible solar cells. The designed solar cell is a graphene/silicon Schottky junction whose performance has been enhanced by a graphene oxide layer deposited on the graphene sheet. The effect of the graphene oxide is to dope the graphene and to act as anti-reflection coating. A silicon dioxide ultrathin layer interposed between the n-Si and the graphene increases the open-circuit voltage of the cell. The solar cell optimization has been achieved through a mathematical model, which has been validated by using experimental data reported in literature. The new flexible photovoltaic device can be integrated in a wide range of microsystems powered by solar energy.

  7. Design, Prototyping and Control of a Flexible Cystoscope for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozer, Canberk; Ghorbani, Morteza; Alcan, Gokhan; Uvet, Huseyin; Unel, Mustafa; Kosar, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Kidney stone and prostate hyperplasia are very common urogenital diseases all over the world. To treat these diseases, one of the ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy), PCNL (Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy), cystoscopes or open surgery techniques can be used. Cystoscopes named devices are used for in-vivo intervention. A flexible or rigid cystoscope device is inserted into human body and operates on interested area. In this study, a flexible cystoscope prototype has been developed. The prototype is able to bend up to ±40°in X and Y axes, has a hydrodynamic cavitation probe for rounding sharp edges of kidney stone or resection of the filled prostate with hydrodynamic cavitation method and contains a waterproof medical camera to give visual feedback to the operator. The operator steers the flexible end-effector via joystick toward target region. This paper presents design, manufacturing, control and experimental setup of the tendon driven flexible cystoscope prototype. The prototype is 10 mm in outer diameter, 70 mm in flexible part only and 120 mm in total length with flexible part and rigid tube. The experimental results show that the prototype bending mechanism, control system, manufactured prototype parts and experimental setup function properly. A small piece of real kidney stone was broken in targeted area.

  8. Basic studies on computer aided concurrent engineering for hull structure design and piping design; Kakugi ittai wo koryoshita doji heikotekina sekkei no shien ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, K.; Sawada, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Considering integrated hull and piping design in shipbuilding industry as a good example for concurrent engineering (CE), discussions were given on a computer aided method to perform integrated hull and piping design smoothly. When CE aiding by means of a computer is considered, it is important to discuss a method for information management not only for `utilization of product models`, but also for `maintaining consistency between items of product information` and `concurrent utilization and production of product information` in concurrent designs. For the CE aided information management, utilization and production of the product information is effective if restrictive relationship between items of product information, and design functions are made clear. Definitions were given on the restrictive relationship between items of product information and `restrictive relationship information` that has `decision/provisional decision`, `date and time`, `designer` and `design functions`. Furthermore, `comprehensive relationship between items of product information` that can be produced from the restrictive relationship information was defined as a `restrictive network`. Utilizing the restrictive relationship between items of product information for CE aiding is effective. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  9. A Flexible 5G Frame Structure Design for Frequency-Division Duplex Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Frederiksen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 5G frame structure designed for efficient support of users with highly diverse service requirements is proposed. It includes support for mobile broadband data, mission-critical communication, and massive machine communication. The solution encompasses flexible multiplexing of users on a shared ...

  10. Flexibility in the light of emerging technologies in office interior designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Zeynep Kayan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Offices are spaces that provide the environment for different sizes of hierarchial structures and these spaces are formed according to the type of work done by the workers. Flexible offices, which are designed according to requirements of user, economy, system organization and technology factors are dynamic environments which constantly change, renew and host interaction, under influence of technology. Designers have been working on making the spaces flexible enough to meet the changes the job needs from spacial planning to operating systems and furniture systems. A stable solution may cause adaptation problems against changing conditions. New approaches and concepts are being produced with this purpose under influence of technology.e concept of flexibility provides facilitative results not only for working space, but also for relations and the time spent. Priorities are sharing, sociability, speed, information flow, efficiency, home comfort for today’s office designs. In this study, offices in ‹stanbul were examined, focusing on how emerging technologies affect the notion of flexibility in design.

  11. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached

  12. Optimized Design of the Mould for Steel Pipe Reshaping & Straightening Machine%钢管整径矫直机模具的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚华; 李翠艳; 边城; 王庆雷

    2015-01-01

    In this article, it explored the current status and existing problems of reshaping& straightening technology for steel pipe. Combined with reshaping&straightening technology and equipment characteristics, the optimized design was carried out on the mould of steel pipe reshaping & straightening machine, it realized the objective of reshaping & straightening for the steel pipe which pipe diameter is not more than φ762 mm. For the steel pipe with diameter more than φ762 mm, during straightening process, the pipe wall is easily flattened, so the reshaping & straightening technology for straightness exceeding standard will be continuously researched.%探讨了当前钢管整径矫直技术的现状和存在的问题,并对钢管整径矫直工艺进行了介绍,结合钢管整径矫直工艺和设备特点对钢管整径矫直机模具进行了优化设计。研究结果表明,对于管径不大于762 mm的钢管,整径矫直效果良好,满足标准要求;对于管径大于762 mm的钢管,矫直过程中容易出现管壁压扁的问题,该问题还将继续进行深入研究。

  13. Design and performance of an ultra-flexible two-photon microscope for in vivo research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Johannes M.; Haiss, Florent; Haenni, Dominik; Weber, Stefan; Zuend, Marc; Barrett, Matthew J. P.; Ferrari, Kim David; Maechler, Philipp; Saab, Aiman S.; Stobart, Jillian L.; Wyss, Matthias T.; Johannssen, Helge; Osswald, Harald; Palmer, Lucy M.; Revol, Vincent; Schuh, Claus-Dieter; Urban, Claus; Hall, Andrew; Larkum, Matthew E.; Rutz-Innerhofer, Edith; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Ziegler, Urs; Weber, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We present a cost-effective in vivo two-photon microscope with a highly flexible frontend for in vivo research. Our design ensures fast and reproducible access to the area of interest, including rotation of imaging plane, and maximizes space for auxiliary experimental equipment in the vicinity of the animal. Mechanical flexibility is achieved with large motorized linear stages that move the objective in the X, Y, and Z directions up to 130 mm. 360° rotation of the frontend (rotational freedom for one axis) is achieved with the combination of a motorized high precision bearing and gearing. Additionally, the modular design of the frontend, based on commercially available optomechanical parts, allows straightforward updates to future scanning technologies. The design exceeds the mobility of previous movable microscope designs while maintaining high optical performance. PMID:26600989

  14. Design of Manufacturing Cells for Uncertain Production Requirements with Presence of Routing Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eski, Ozgur; Ozkarahan, Irem

    Cellular manufacturing has been seen as an effective strategy to the changing worldwide competition. Most of the existing cell design methods ignore the existence of stochastic production requirements and routing flexibility. In this study, a simulation based Fuzzy Goal Programming model is proposed for solving cell formation problems considering stochastic production requirements and routing flexibility. The model covers the objectives of minimizing inter-cell movements, maximizing system utilization, minimizing mean tardiness and minimizing the percentage of tardy jobs. The simple additive method and max-min method are used to handle fuzzy goals. A tabu search based solution methodology is used for solution of the proposed models and the results are presented.

  15. Note: Design considerations and characterization of a flexible snapshot hyperspectral probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2017-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a combination of imaging and spectroscopy to give detailed spectral information for each spatial point in the imaged scene. Using the concept of integral field spectroscopy, a custom fabricated two-dimensional to one-dimensional fiber bundle has recently been reported. It is used as a flexible snapshot hyperspectral probe, which can be used as an endoscope for biomedical applications. This paper reports on the design considerations of the fiber bundle as the flexible probe in the snapshot hyperspectral imaging system. The physical characterization of the custom fabricated fiber bundle and lateral resolution of the developed hyperspectral imaging system are also analyzed and described.

  16. Prepare to be Wrong: Assessing and Designing for Adaptability, Flexibility, and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Astronautica 53, Issue 12 (December 2003): 927–944. 15 Richard de Neufville and Stefan Scholtes, Flexibility in Engineering Design (Cambridge: MIT Press...for Aerospace Systems,” Acta Astronautica 53, Issue 12 (December 2003), 938. Figure 1. Types of System Design A. Framework for Assessment and...Implications for Aerospace Systems.” Acta Astronautica 53, Issue 12 (December 2003): 927–944. B-3 Suh, Eun Suk, Olivier de Weck, Il Yong Kim, and David

  17. Flexibility in Flood Management Design: Proactive Planning Under Climate Change Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, K.; de Neufville, R.; van der Vlist, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative, value-enhancing procedure for effective planning and design of long-lived flood management infrastructure given uncertain future flooding threats due to climate change. Designing infrastructure that can be adapted over time is a method to safeguard the efficacy of current design decisions given uncertainty about rates and future impacts of climate change. This paper explores the value of embedding "options" in a physical structure, where an option is the right but not the obligation to do something at a later date (e.g. over-dimensioning a floodwall foundation now facilitates a future height addition in response to observed increases in sea level; building of extra pump bays in a pumping station now enables the addition of pumping capacity whenever increased precipitation warrants an expansion.) The proposed procedure couples a simulation model that captures future climate induced changes to the hydrologic operating environment of a structure, with an economic model that estimates the lifetime economic performance of alternative investments. The economic model uses Real "In" Options analysis, a type of cash flow analysis that quantifies the implicit value of options and the flexibility they provide. This procedure is demonstrated using replacement planning for the multi-functional pumping station IJmuiden on the North Sea Canal in the Netherlands. Flexibility in design decisions is modelled, varying the size and specific options included in the new structure. Results indicate that the incorporation of options within the structural design has the potential to improve its economic performance, as compared to more traditional, "build it once and build it big" designs where flexibility is not an explicit design criterion. The added value resulting from the incorporation of flexibility varies with the range of future conditions considered, as well as the options examined. This procedure could be applied more broadly to explore

  18. System Level Analysis of Dynamic User-Centric Scheduling for a Flexible 5G Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Niparko, Maciej; Steiner, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest findings on dynamic user-centric scheduling for a flexible 5G radio design, capable of serving users with highly diverse QoS requirements. The benefits of being able to schedule users with different transmission time intervals (TTIs) are demonstrated...... to the conclusion that a future 5G design shall include support for dynamic scheduling with different TTI sizes to achieve the best performance....

  19. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  20. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  1. Improved hybrid position/force controller design of a flexible robot manipulator using a sliding observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farooq M; Wang Daobo; Dar N. U

    2009-01-01

    An improved hybrid position/force controller design of a flexible robot manipulator is presented using a sliding observer. The friction between the end effector and the environment is considered and compensated. For systematic reasons the controller is designed taking into consideration the rigid link subsystems and the flexible joints. The proposed control system satisfies the stability of the two subsystems and copes with the uncertainty of robot dynamics. A sliding observer is designed to estimate the time derivative of the torque applied as input to the rigid part of the robot. For the stability of the observer, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the observed system is bounded. A MRAC algorithm is used for the estimation of the friction forces at the contact point between the end effector and the environment. Finally simulation and experimental results are given, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  2. Optimal vibration control and co-design of very flexible actuated structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraniello, S.; Palacios, R.

    2016-09-01

    The single shooting method is applied to the optimal control and combined structural and control design (co-design) of very flexible beams. The objective is to assess feasibility, advantages and limitations of an integrated design approach when dealing with actuated structures exhibiting large oscillations and, more generally, strongly nonlinear couplings. A gradient based approach is proposed for the large design space defined by both the optimal control and co-design problems. Numerical studies are presented for the case of a very flexible actuated pendulum with large rigid-body motion. The impact of local (B-splines) and global (discrete sines) set of basis functions is investigated for increasing levels of actuation authority, showing the importance of the time-frequency resolution of the parametrisation on the convergence properties and outcome quality of the process. Locking between control and structural disciplines around specific design points is found, thus highlighting the disadvantage of a sequential design approach. Simultaneous designing of control law and structure is seen, instead, to explore efficiently larger regions of the design space.

  3. 浅谈安全阀的配管设计%Piping Design of Pressure Safety Vavles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟飞

    2015-01-01

    随着经济的发展,石化行业已经成为我国经济发展的支柱产业。但是由于石化装置中设备多为高温高压,一旦出现问题将极易产生重大事故。安全阀作为压力容器的安全泄放装置,由于其结构简单、灵敏可靠,在压力容器上被大量采用。然而,在工程设计中人们一般只重视安全阀设定压力与排量,而忽视安全阀的配管设计,现结合工程实例,就安全阀的配管设计进行叙述,供相关人员参考。%With the development of economy , the petrochemical industry in China has become a pillar industry of economic development.The equipment in petrochemical plant has high temperature and high pressure , once appear problem will easily produce a major accident.Safety valves as a kind of safety relief devices are used a large number on pressure vessel , because of its simple structure , sensitive and reliable.However, designer is generally only pay attention to the safety valve set pressure and displacement , ignoring the piping design of safety valve.Combined with the engineering example , piping design of safety valves were introduced , the reference for the related person was provides.

  4. Does Implementation Follow Design? A Case Study of a Workplace Health Promotion Program Using the 4-S Program Design and the PIPE Impact Metric Evaluation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äikäs, Antti Hermanni; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Hirvensalo, Mirja Hannele; Absetz, Pilvikki

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the content of a multiyear market-based workplace health promotion (WHP) program and to evaluate design and implementation processes in a real-world setting. Data was collected from the databases of the employer and the service provider. It was classified using the 4-S (Size, Scope, Scalability, and Sustainability) and PIPE Impact Metric (Penetration, Implementation) models. Data analysis utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods. Program design covered well the evidence-informed best practices except for clear path toward sustainability, cooperation with occupational health care, and support from middle-management supervisors. The penetration rate among participants was high (99%) and majority (81%) of services were implemented as designed. Study findings indicate that WHP market would benefit the use of evidence-based design principles and tendentious decisions to anticipate a long-term implementation process already during the planning phase.

  5. 46 CFR 154.522 - Materials for piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials for piping. 154.522 Section 154.522 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.522 Materials for piping. (a) The materials for piping systems must meet § 154.625 for the minimum design temperature of the piping, except the material for open ended...

  6. Design methodology for flexible energy conversion systems accounting for dynamic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Casati, Emiliano; Casella, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a methodology to help in the definition of the optimal design of power generation systems. The innovative element is the integration of requirements on dynamic performance into the system design procedure. Operational flexibility is an increasingly important specification...... of these simulations are used within the framework of a multi-objective optimization procedure to identify a number of equally optimal system configurations. A dynamic model of each of these systems is automatically parameterized, by inheriting its parameters values from the design model. Dynamic simulations allow...

  7. Research on Rapid Response Schematic Design for Flexible Transfer Line CAPP-Based

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To meet the market requirements for Flexible Transf er Line (FTL), which consists of modular NC machining tools of high quality and co st saving, the methodologies and technologies of client-oriented FTL rapid resp onse schematic design CAPP-based, one of the key techniques, are presented in t his paper. In order to achieve this purpose, an integrated system for integrated design of CAD/CAPP/FTL with box-type parts is realized. In this paper, firstly the theory of the conceptual design of FTL based on CA...

  8. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Green, G.F.; Roth, E.W. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in the temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined.

  9. Impairment-constrained network design in mixed line rate and flexible-grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weisheng

    Mixed line rate (MLR) and flexible-grid optical networks are two promising network paradigms for next generation optical networks. In MLR optical networks, different optical channels may operate at different line rates and use the same amount of spectrum. In flexible-grid optical networks, besides different line rates, different optical channels can use different amount of spectrum. In both MLR and flexible-grid optical networks, the physical layer impairments will impact the signal reachability and will require regenerator placement to restore the signal quality. Different line rates and modulation formats suffer from different levels of impairments, and thus have different reachabilities. In this dissertation, we study multiple network design problems with impairment constraints for both MLR and flexible-grid optical networks. We first study regenerator site (RS) selection problems in MLR optical networks. Given a network topology, set of requests, and different line rates' reachabilities, the problem is to select the minimum number of nodes in the network as RSs. We divide the topic into two separate research problems depending on whether routing is fixed or flexible. Energy efficiency is an important factor that will impact the operational expenditure of a telecom network. When designing the routing and wavelength assignment approach for a set of connection requests, the placement of regenerators needs to be considered in order to increase energy efficiency. In this work, we study how to place the minimum number of regenerators in MLR optical networks, while satisfying all the requests. Virtual optical network (VON) mapping plays a vital role in optical network virtualization. When mapping VONs, it is necessary to provision backup resources to guarantee survivability. Thus, we consider how to map VONs that can survive single link failures in flexible-grid optical networks. The objective is to minimize network equipment cost, including regenerators. We also

  10. Literature review and experimental investigation of heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, W. O.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Viskanta, R.; Winter, E. R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Tests on heat pipes determine operational limits, external boundary conditions, noncondensable gas effects, startup behavior, and geometric configurations. Experiment consists of design, construction, and testing of an apparatus for measuring wick properties, conventional heat pipes and coplanar heat pipes.

  11. Robust tracking control design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张垚; 鲜斌; 刁琛; 赵勃; 郭建川

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear robust controller was presented to improve the tracking control performance of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) which is subjected to system parametric uncertainties and unknown additive time-varying disturbances. The longitudinal dynamic model for the flexible AHV was used for the control development. High-gain observers were designed to compensate for the system uncertainties and additive disturbances. Small gain theorem and Lyapunov based stability analysis were utilized to prove the stability of the closed loop system. Locally uniformly ultimately bounded tracking of the vehicle’s velocity, altitude and attack angle were achieved under aeroelastic effects, system parametric uncertainties and unknown additive disturbances. Matlab/Simulink simulation results were provided to validate the robustness of the proposed control design. The simulation results demonstrate that the tracking errors stay in a small region around zero.

  12. Flexible Design Research to validate communication in persons with dementia in advanced stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2003-01-01

    . The method is an ethnographical process research using Atlas.ti as qualitative research software for the analysis and administration of transcribed data, and using physiological data to validate observational data in a case study design. In a flexible design both quantitative and qualitative data collection...... to the case description. The flexible research methodology will be exemplified with material from the case descriptions and of the use of Atlas.ti....... enable ways of communication adjusted to the person. The songs function to structure, motivate, stimulate, and regulate, and finally as means of enabling communication and dialogue. The research is trying to investigate if songs have regulative effects and to outline different levels of communication...

  13. Design of a smart ECG garment based on conductive textile electrode and flexible printed circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Luo, Kan; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Jianqing

    2017-08-09

    A smart electrocardiogram (ECG) garment system was designed for continuous, non-invasive and comfortable ECG monitoring, which mainly consists of four components: Conductive textile electrode, garment, flexible printed circuit board (FPCB)-based ECG processing module and android application program. Conductive textile electrode and FPCB-based ECG processing module (6.8 g, 55 mm × 53 mm × 5 mm) are identified as two key techniques to improve the system's comfort and flexibility. Preliminary experimental results verified that the textile electrodes with circle shape, 40 mm size in diameter, and 5 mm thickness sponge are best suited for the long-term ECG monitoring application. The tests on the whole system confirmed that the designed smart garment can obtain long-term ECG recordings with high signal quality.

  14. Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    of low-energy DH systems. Various design concepts are considered in this paper: flexible pre-insulated twin pipes with symmetrical or asymmetrical insulation, double pipes, triple pipes. These technologies are potentially energyefficient and cost-effective solutions for DH networks in low-heat density......The synergy between highly energy efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Distribution heat losses represent a key factor in the design...... areas. We start with a review of theories and methods for steady-state heat loss calculation. Next, the article shows how detailed calculations with 2D-modeling of pipes can be carried out by means of computer software based on the finite element method (FEM). The model was validated by comparison...

  15. A NEW STRATEGY FOR THE DESIGN OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS WITH FLEXIBLE AND APOLAR BUILDING BLOCKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C. Gupta; H.K. Abdulkadir; S. Chand

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new series of liquid crystalline polymers, poly(dicycloalkyl vinylterephthalate)s, are reported. The basic building blocks of these polymers are not mesogenic by themselves. However,very stable mesophases can be generated by self-assembly of the polymer molecules. This approach suggests a novel design strategy of liquid crystalline polymers with flexible and apolar building blocks.

  16. Design and synthesis of flexible switching 1 × 2 antenna array on Kapton substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges Rabobason, Yvon; Rigas, Grigorios; Swaisaenyakorn, Srijittar; Mirkhaydarov, Bobur; Ravelo, Blaise; Shkunov, Maxim; Young, Paul; Benjelloun, Nabil

    2016-06-01

    Flexible front- and back-end RF/analogue system antennas were recently emerged. However, little flexible antenna system design is available so far, in planar hybrid technology with surface mounted components. This paper describes the design feasibility of flexible switching 1 × 2 antenna array system. It acts as a switching antenna implemented in hexapole configuration. The system is comprised of a key element RF switch terminated by two identical patch antennas associated to half-wave elementary transmission lines (TLs). A detailed theory illustrating the global S-parameter model determination in function of the given RF-switch return and insertion losses is established. In difference to the conventional microwave circuit theory, the proposed equivalent S-parameter model is originally built with the non-standard optimized antenna load. Thus, the synthesis method of the terminal antenna input impedance and the output access line characteristic impedance is formulated in function of the specified return and optimal transmission losses. The design method and theoretical approach feasibility is verified with the demonstrator of flexible switching 1 × 2 antenna array printed on Kapton substrate. The circuit prototype is implemented in hybrid planar technology integrating patch antenna operating at about 6 GHz and a packaged GaAs RF switch associated to the RF/DC signal decoupling accessory mounted surface components. Simulations of the designed circuit transmission and isolation losses from 5.5 GHz to 7 GHz were carried out by using the commercial RF switch S-parameter touchstone model provided by the manufacturer. The simulated and measured return losses are compared and discussed. Then, the measured radiation patterns confirm the proposed switched antenna concept feasibility.

  17. Avionics/Control co-design for large flexible space structures

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-model H1 synthesis scheme for fixed-structure controller design is developed and applied to the attitude control of a highly flexible earth-observation satellite. The particularity of the proposed approach is that the decision variables optimized by the fixed-structure Hinfinity solver include the structured controller parameters but also some parameters which characterize the avionics. Furthermore the proposed control scheme can be very easily adapted to a new confi...

  18. 可变径煤矿管道检测机器人的设计%Design of variable diameter detection robot for colliery pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰

    2011-01-01

    在煤矿生产中使用大量的管道,其质量关系到整个煤矿的安全和高效生产。为提高管道寿命,预防管道老化、腐蚀及断裂等问题,并实现高效准确地故障诊断,笔者设计了一种可变径管道检测机器人,并建立了机器人三维模型,利用ADAMS对其进行运动仿真,从而验证了机器人在直径为220-300mm的管道中自由行走和检测的可行性。%Plenty of pipes are used in collieries, their quality relates to the safe and efficient production in collieries. In order to enhance the pipe lifespan and prevent the aging, corrosion and breaking of the pipe so as to realize the accurate and efficient fault diagnosis, a kind of variable diameter detection robot for colliery pipes is designed. In addition, a 3D model of the robot is built, and the kinematic simulation is carried out by ADAMS. The results show that the robot is able to freely walk and detect faults in pipes whose diameter ranging from 220 mm to 300 mm.

  19. 新型石油钻杆液压矫直机结构分析%Analysis and Design of Oil Drill Pipe Hydraulic Straightening Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石永军; 白立剑; 王维旭

    2013-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of the existing drill pipe hydraulic straightening machines which have low straightening accuracy and low efficiency,a new kind of drill pipe hydraulic straightening machine was designed,adopting three-point straightening principle to straighten curving drill pipe.Its rotating mechanism first rotates the curving drill pipe and detects the curving position,and then the movable machine moves the drill pipe to make the curving position aligned to the pressure head.The finite element method is used to check the key parts of strength,which satisfied the operating requirement.%目前的钻杆矫直装置存在矫直精度低和工作效率低的问题.设计了一种新型的石油钻杆液压矫直机.采用三点矫直原理对弯曲钻杆进行矫直,通过旋转机构旋转钻杆,并检测出弯曲位置.由移动式主机移动钻杆,使弯曲位置对准压头,提高了工作效率和矫直精度.应用有限元方法分析了关键部件的强度,满足使用要求.

  20. The Designation Method of Bend Forming Dies for Aluminum Tube of PE-Al-PE Composite Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The PE-Al-PE composite pipe is a multiplayer pipe t hat is composed of PE (polyethylene) and Aluminum. Al is inlayed the inner PE la yer and the outer PE layer. In the producing technological process of this kind of pipe the bend forming of Al belt to tube is very important. It is the bend fo rming dies that are used in the process of producing PE-Al-PE pipe that is stu died in this article. To make a elaborate division, these dies can be classified as bending dies and forming dies here. In this paper, t...

  1. Optimal Design and Numerical Simulation on Fish-Like Flexible Hydrofoil Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Gang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrofoil is widely used in underwater vehicle for the excellent hydrodynamic characteristics. Currently, researches are mostly about the rigid hydrofoil while the flexible hydrofoil, like the caudal fin, has not been studied adequately. In this paper, the fish was regarded as the bionic object. Then the kinematics model to describe the fish swimming was put forward. A fin-peduncle propulsion mechanism was designed based on the kinematics model to achieve the similar sine curve swimming model. The propulsion mechanism was optimized by Matlab to reduce the deviation between the output curve of the fin-peduncle propulsion mechanism and the ideal motion trajectory. Moreover, the motion phase angles among flexible articulations are optimized to reduce fluid resistance and improve propulsive efficiency. Finally, the fish-like hydrofoil oscillation is simulated by fluid-solid coupling method based on the Fluent. It was shown that the optimized flexible fish-like oscillation could generate the motion that follows the similar law of sine. The propulsive efficiency of oscillating hydrofoil propeller is much higher than that of the screw propeller, and the flexible oscillation has higher propulsive efficiency than the rigid oscillation without obvious fluid resistance increase.

  2. A Designer Fluid For Aluminum Phase Change Devices. Performance Enhancement in Copper Heat Pipes Performance Enhancement in Copper Heat Pipes. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    34 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 20, pp. 397-410, 2013. [42] Liu, Z.-H., Li, Y.-Y., and Bao, R., "Thermal performance of inclined grooved...enhancement— research gap to engineering application," Progress in Nuclear Energy , 66, pp. 13-24, 2013. [39] Ahn, H. S., and Kim, M. H., "A review on...Heat Pipes," Proc. ASME 2013 Heat Transfer Summer Conference collocated with the ASME 2013 7th International Conference on Energy Sustainability and

  3. Design of signal processing system of portable quality detector for oil drill pipes%便携式钻杆质量检测仪信号处理系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彬; 何箭

    2014-01-01

    便携式钻杆质量检测仪可在油气开采现场对钻杆进行无损检测,野外作业的特点对信号处理系统提出了体积小、功耗低、检测灵敏度高以及与显示终端间数据传输灵活的要求。文章设计了一套完整的可进行信号采集、处理、显示的嵌入式软硬件系统和手持终端软件系统,嵌入式处理系统与手持式显示终端之间采用无线方式进行数据通信。整套系统性能符合相应的国家标准,能够满足野外开采现场对钻杆进行检测的需要。%Portable drill pipe quality detector can conduct nondestructive test on drill pipe at oil and gas extracting sites .The signal processing system fulfills the requirements of field operation with compact size ,low power consumption and high detection sensitivity with flexible data transmission between display terminal and DSP .The embedded software and hardware system and the software for portable display terminal system are designed ,working as a complete set for data acquisition ,processing and display .The system which owns relatively high sampling sensitivity and sampling precision with wire-less transmission for terminal data is suitable for the drill pipe testing in field extracting operations , and it meets the requirements of related national standards .

  4. 伸缩叠合型柔性(袋)管取心内管的研究与应用%Research on Coring Inner-tube of Flexible Retractable and Folable Pipe(Bag) and the Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪发文; 邬学农; 徐俊; 方波; 叶慧

    2015-01-01

    A coring inner-tube of flexible retractable and foldable pipe ( bag) has been developed to solve the problems caused by rigid coring tube, such as core disturbance, moisture retention and low core recovery.By the comparison of in-fluence on coring effects by the flexible coring tube with axial and radial folding patterns, the axial one was selected.The flexible coring inner-tube is made of polyethylene plastic with glass wool, and employs the drilling technology with ancillary techniques of high matrix bottom jet bit and single way claw spring cover.In the tests of 4 typical drilling projects, the sam-ple disturbance are lower than 5%, moisture retention higher than 95%and core recovery reaching 80%~95%.The prac-tices show that by the triple-tube equipped with coring inner-tube of flexible retractable and foldable pipe (bag), special rock samples and the undisturbed samples can keep high fidelities and high recovery with perfect coring effect.%为解决刚性取心管采取岩心扰动度、水分保真度、取心率难以满足业主及设计部门要求的问题,研制了伸缩叠合型柔性(袋)管取心内管。通过分析比较柔性取心内管轴向和径向2种折叠方式对取心效果的影响,选用了轴向折叠方式的柔性取心内衬管。柔性取心内管的材质选用添加玻璃纤维丝的聚乙烯塑料。辅之配套使用高胎体底喷钻头、单向性罩爪簧的钻进工艺。通过在4种典型钻探项目中的试验,样品的扰动度<5%,水分保真度>95%,取心率达到了80%~95%。实践证明,应用伸缩式叠合型柔性(袋)管取心内管的三重管钻取特殊心样等原状样品,保真度高,采取率高,取心效果良好,有较好的推广应用价值。

  5. Toward a More Flexible Web-Based Framework for Multidisciplinary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. L.; Salas, A. O.

    1999-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, both industry and government agencies are under pressure to reduce the time and cost of multidisciplinary design projects. New tools have been introduced to assist in this process by facilitating the integration of and communication among diverse disciplinary codes. One such tool, a framework for multidisciplinary design, is defined as a hardware-software architecture that enables integration, execution, and communication among diverse disciplinary processes. An examination of current frameworks reveals weaknesses in various areas, such as sequencing, monitoring, controlling, and displaying the design process. The objective of this research is to explore how Web technology can improve these areas of weakness and lead toward a more flexible framework. This article describes a Web-based system that optimizes and controls the execution sequence of design processes in addition to monitoring the project status and displaying the design results.

  6. Design and development of RFID and RFID-enabled sensors on flexible low cost substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a step-by-step discussion of the design and development of radio frequency identification (RFID) and RFID-enabled sensors on flexible low cost substrates for UHF frequency bands. Various examples of fully function building blocks (design and fabrication of antennas, integration with ICs and microcontrollers, power sources, as well as inkjet-printing techniques) demonstrate the revolutionary effect of this approach in low cost RFID and RFID-enabled sensors fields. This approach could be easily extended to other microwave and wireless applications as well. The first chapter de

  7. Flexible displays as key for high-value and unique automotive design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isele, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Within the last few years' car industry changed very fast. Information and Communication became more important and displays are now standard in nearly every car. But this is not the only trend which could be recognized in this industry. CO2 emission, fuel price as well as the increasing traffic inside the Mega Cities initialized a big change in the behavior of the customers. The big battle for the car industry will enter the interior extremely fast, and the premium cars need ore innovative design icons. Flexible Displays are one big step that enables totally different designs and a new value of the driver experience.

  8. A flexible Li-ion battery with design towards electrodes electrical insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E. M. F.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Correia, J. H.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2016-08-01

    The application of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology in several consumer electronics leads to the development of micro/nano power sources with high power and MEMS integration possibility. This work presents the fabrication of a flexible solid-state Li-ion battery (LIB) (~2.1 μm thick) with a design towards electrodes electrical insulation, using conventional, low cost and compatible MEMS fabrication processes. Kapton® substrate provides flexibility to the battery. E-beam deposited 300 nm thick Ge anode was coupled with LiCoO2/LiPON (cathode/solid-state electrolyte) in a battery system. LiCoO2 and LiPON films were deposited by RF-sputtering with a power source of 120 W and 100 W, respectively. LiCoO2 film was annealed at 400 °C after deposition. The new design includes Si3N4 and LiPO thin-films, providing electrode electrical insulation and a battery chemical stability safeguard, respectively. Microstructure and battery performance were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electric resistivity and electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential, charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). A rechargeable thin-film and lightweight flexible LIB using MEMS processing compatible materials and techniques is reported.

  9. Efficient Design of Flexible and Low Cost Paper-Based Inkjet-Printed Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, efficient, flexible, and cheap antenna designed at 1.57 GHz microstrip patch antenna based on simple inkjet printer with improved performance using silver nanoparticles ink is developed. The antenna is printed on a kind of flexible substrate “glossy paper,” to offer the advantage of light and flexibility for different applications. The performance of silver nanoparticles ink has been studied through inkjet printing versus postsynthesis annealing and multilayer printing. The conductivity has been improved to have promising values up to 2 Ω/cm at temperatures up to 180°C. The surface morphology of the circuits has been analyzed using SEM with mean diameter of the nanoparticles around 100 nm, uniform surface distribution, and mean thickness of the printed layer around 230 microns. Also, a simple design of a coplanar waveguide (CPW monopole Z-shaped antenna has been considered as an application of fabricated printed antenna using the studied silver nanoparticles ink through a cheap printer.

  10. DNA origami design of dolphin-shaped structures with flexible tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ebbe S; Dong, Mingdong; Nielsen, Morten M; Jahn, Kasper; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Mamdouh, Wael; Gothelf, Kurt V; Besenbacher, Flemming; Kjems, Jørgen

    2008-06-01

    The DNA origami method allows the folding of long, single-stranded DNA sequences into arbitrary two-dimensional structures by a set of designed oligonucleotides. The method has revealed an unexpected strength and efficiency for programmed self-assembly of molecular nanostructures and makes it possible to produce fully addressable nanostructures with wide-reaching application potential within the emerging area of nanoscience. Here we present a user-friendly software package for designing DNA origami structures ( http://www.cdna.dk/origami ) and demonstrate its use by the design of a dolphin-like DNA origami structure that was imaged by high-resolution AFM in liquid. The software package provides automatic generation of DNA origami structures, manual editing, interactive overviews, atomic models, tracks the design history, and has a fully extendable toolbox. From the AFM images, it was demonstrated that different designs of the dolphin tail region provided various levels of flexibility in a predictable fashion. Finally, we show that the addition of specific attachment sites promotes dimerization between two independently self-assembled dolphin structures, and that these interactions stabilize the flexible tail.

  11. Novel RF MEMS capacitive switches with design flexibility for multi-frequency operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sarath; DasGupta, Amitava; Nair, Deleep R.

    2017-09-01

    RF MEMS capacitive shunt switches with a dielectric-on-metal (DOM) capacitor, which are widely used for microwave applications in the communication field, suffer from some serious drawbacks. A significant shift is observed in the resonant frequency of these switches due to the reduction in the down-state capacitance caused by the surface roughness of the dielectric layer. In order to achieve accurate down-state capacitance, a thin layer of floating metal is deposited on the dielectric layer converting the DOM switch to a metal-insulator metal (MIM) switch. The MIM switch opens up interesting possibilities in the design, such as achieving flexibility in the operating frequency of the switch. This paper reports a novel method to achieve design flexibility for multi-frequency operation in switches, by effectively utilizing the equipotential nature of the floating metal in the MIM capacitor. Unlike in a DOM switch, the resonant frequency can be varied by changing merely the length of the floating metal, without having to make any other structural modifications. This enables to have switches operating at different frequency on the same wafer. The beams of the switches are also designed in such a way as to provide stress resilience, thereby preventing buckling. This paper presents the design, simulation, fabrication and characterization of a switch that operates in the X-band. The fabricated switches show excellent stress resilience. The characterized switch demonstrates a reduction in the resonant frequency in proportion to an increase in the length of the floating metal, hence validating the design flexibility proposed in this paper.

  12. A Markovian state-space framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    The past decades have seen the state of the art in aerospace system design progress from a scope of simple optimization to one including robustness, with the objective of permitting a single system to perform well even in off-nominal future environments. Integrating flexibility, or the capability to easily modify a system after it has been fielded in response to changing environments, into system design represents a further step forward. One challenge in accomplishing this rests in that the decision-maker must consider not only the present system design decision, but also sequential future design and operation decisions. Despite extensive interest in the topic, the state of the art in designing flexibility into aerospace systems, and particularly space systems, tends to be limited to analyses that are qualitative, deterministic, single-objective, and/or limited to consider a single future time period. To address these gaps, this thesis develops a stochastic, multi-objective, and multi-period framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions. Central to the framework are five steps. First, system configuration options are identified and costs of switching from one configuration to another are compiled into a cost transition matrix. Second, probabilities that demand on the system will transition from one mission to another are compiled into a mission demand Markov chain. Third, one performance matrix for each design objective is populated to describe how well the identified system configurations perform in each of the identified mission demand environments. The fourth step employs multi-period decision analysis techniques, including Markov decision processes from the field of operations research, to find efficient paths and policies a decision-maker may follow. The final step examines the implications of these paths and policies for the primary goal of informing initial system selection. Overall, this thesis unifies state-centric concepts of

  13. Hydrodynamic analysis, performance assessment, and actuator design of a flexible tail propulsor in an artificial alligator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philen, Michael; Neu, Wayne

    2011-09-01

    The overall objective of this research is to develop analysis tools for determining actuator requirements and assessing viable actuator technology for design of a flexible tail propulsor in an artificial alligator. A simple hydrodynamic model that includes both reactive and resistive forces along the tail is proposed and the calculated mean thrust agrees well with conventional estimates of drag. Using the hydrodynamic model forces as an input, studies are performed for an alligator ranging in size from 1 cm to 2 m at swimming speeds of 0.3-1.8 body lengths per second containing five antagonistic pairs of actuators distributed along the length of the tail. Several smart materials are considered for the actuation system, and preliminary analysis results indicate that the acrylic electroactive polymer and the flexible matrix composite actuators are potential artificial muscle technologies for the system.

  14. Design of a Flexible Hardware Interface for Multiple Remote Electronic practical Experiments of Virtual Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Said

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to present a new design of a Flexible Hardware Interface (FHI based on PID control techniques to use in a virtual laboratory. This flexible hardware interface allows the easy implementation of different and multiple remote electronic practical experiments for undergraduate engineering classes. This interface can be viewed as opened hardware architecture to easily develop simple or complex remote experiments in the electronic domain. The philosophy of the use of this interface can also be expanded to many other domains as optic experiments for instance. It is also demonstrated that software can be developed to enable remote measurements of electronic circuits or systems using only Web site Interface. Using standard browsers (such as Internet explorer, Firefox, Chrome or Safari, different students can have a remote access to different practical experiments at a time.

  15. Design and Implementation of Distributed Numerical Control in Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炳海; 余传猛; 奚立峰; 曹永上

    2004-01-01

    To monitor, control and manage the work process ofcomputer numerical control machine tools in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) effectively, the distributed numerical control (distributed-NC) software should be innovated with the characteristics of modularization and reconfiguration. In this paper, firstly, distributed-NC functions in the FMS environment are described. Then, we present a design and development method of the real time distributed-NC that is on the basis of the re-configurable software and hardware platform and with an object-oriented model concept. Finally, to verify the proposed method, the distributed-NC software has been implemented in VC + +6.0 and has been tested in connection with the different physical flexible manufacturing shops.

  16. Preliminary research on the design of flexible barriers for debris flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan ZHANG; Li-zhou ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Rigid barriers,including check dams,steel cells and retaining wal s,are widely utilized for debris flow mitigation.It has to be said that these rigid structures are general y effective and technical feasible.However,with the enhancement of environmental awareness and innovative materials,flexible barriers have been being created which are very engineering effective,envi-ronmental friendly,material saving as wel as easy construction in rugged terrain.Although the merits of such structures are summarized in above,the understanding of such barriers are very limited.Most of constructions are just on the basis of engineering experience and largely depend on the factor of safety to eliminate the uncertainties.In this paper,method for debris flow dynam-ics calibration and conventional ideas for the design of flexible barriers wil be il ustrated and an advanced method-finite element wil be used to analyze the debris flow.

  17. Design of a flexible fetoscopy manipulation system for congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wei; Elangovan, Hariprashanth; Nicolaides, Kypros

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in fetal surgery have proven that tracheal occlusion in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia is an effective way to prevent the occurrence of pulmonary hypoplasia. A novel flexible fetoscope with a parallel mechanism structure of a thumbstick to carry on the fetal tracheal balloon occlusion by the targeting and manipulation of the fetal endoscope at a high standard of quick response and dexterity is proposed in this paper. This design is compared with a commercial rigid fetoscope in terms of operation timing and reduced stress to the fetus at neck level. Experiments using a phantom have demonstrated that the flexible fetoscope has a better dexterity and is able to perform stable tracheoscopy and balloon inflation at different levels of the trachea, with the help of a fiberoptic camera.

  18. Design, dynamic modelling and experimental validation of a 2DOF flexible antenna sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Claudia F.; Naci Engin, Seref; Feliu Batlle, Vicente

    2014-04-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom flexible antenna sensor platform was designed to physically simulate the ability of a robotic arm, which rapidly reorients and targets itself towards specific surfaces from different approachable angles. An accurate antenna model involves non-linear expressions that represent the system dynamics. Therefore, a comprehensive study along with experimental work has been carried out in order to achieve accurate system identification and validate the dynamic model. The model developed has proven useful in controlling the antenna tip, minimising the effects of the non-linear flexural dynamics and the Coulomb friction. The system was driven by servo motors. Algebraic controllers were developed for the antenna tip to track the reference trajectory. The platform system used encoders to measure the joint angles and a loadcell sensor to obtain the flexible link tip position. To validate the sensory information, the results obtained by the integrated sensors were compared to that of an external camera system.

  19. Micro-lens array design on a flexible light-emitting diode package for indoor lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-10-01

    An advanced, ultra-thin, flexible LED (FLED) package technique is first proposed in this study, where a polyimide substrate was used as the lead frame package material due to its physical stability in thermal processing. The experimental results showed that the thickness of the mockup sample measured by a vernier caliper was 260 μm and 35% thinner than the Panasonic organic LED lighting panel announced on 4 March 2014 in Tokyo. Moreover, the flexible angle of the ultra-thin LED package was 200.54° when it surrounded a disk with a 1 cm radius. A design of a micro-lens array manufactured by silicone molding on the FLED is also proposed in this study. Finally, different types of micro-lenses were applied to different lighting regions to investigate their lighting effects.

  20. Design of Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test Environment Chamber, Cooling System, and Radio Frequency Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Reid, R. S.; Stewart, E. T.; Davis, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipes will be experimentally tested to examine heat pipe aging. To support this evaluation, an environmental test chamber and a number of auxiliary subsystems are required. These subsystems include radio frequency (RF) power supplies/inductive coils, recirculation water coolant loops, and chamber gas conditioning. The heat pipes will be grouped, based on like power and gas mixture requirements, into three clusters of five units each, configured in a pentagonal arrangement. The highest powered heat pipe will be tested separately. Test chamber atmospheric purity is targeted at test hardware, providing warning indicators followed by automatic shutdown should potentially damaging conditions develop. During hardware construction, a number of checkout tests.many making use of stainless steel prototype heat pipes that are already fabricated.will be required to verify operation.

  1. Exact mesh shape design of large cable-network antenna reflectors with flexible ring truss supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wang; Li, Dong-Xu; Yu, Xin-Zhan; Jiang, Jian-Ping

    2014-04-01

    An exact-designed mesh shape with favorable surface accuracy is of practical significance to the performance of large cable-network antenna reflectors. In this study, a novel design approach that could guide the generation of exact spatial parabolic mesh configurations of such reflector was proposed. By incorporating the traditional force density method with the standard finite element method, this proposed approach had taken the deformation effects of flexible ring truss supports into consideration, and searched for the desired mesh shapes that can satisfy the requirement that all the free nodes are exactly located on the objective paraboloid. Compared with the conventional design method, a remarkable improvement of surface accuracy in the obtained mesh shapes had been demonstrated by numerical examples. The present work would provide a helpful technical reference for the mesh shape design of such cable-network antenna reflector in engineering practice. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  3. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  4. The mechanical design of a humanoid robot with flexible skin sensor for use in psychiatric therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alec; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a humanoid robot is presented for ultimate use in the rehabilitation of children with mental disorders, such as autism. Creating affordable and efficient humanoids could assist the therapy in psychiatric disability by offering multimodal communication between the humanoid and humans. Yet, the humanoid development needs a seamless integration of artificial muscles, sensors, controllers and structures. We have designed a human-like robot that has 15 DOF, 580 mm tall and 925 mm arm span using a rapid prototyping system. The robot has a human-like appearance and movement. Flexible sensors around the arm and hands for safe human-robot interactions, and a two-wheel mobile platform for maneuverability are incorporated in the design. The robot has facial features for illustrating human-friendly behavior. The mechanical design of the robot and the characterization of the flexible sensors are presented. Comprehensive study on the upper body design, mobile base, actuators selection, electronics, and performance evaluation are included in this paper.

  5. Evolutionary multiobjective design of a flexible caudal fin for robotic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony J; Tan, Xiaobo; McKinley, Philip K

    2015-11-25

    Robotic fish accomplish swimming by deforming their bodies or other fin-like appendages. As an emerging class of embedded computing system, robotic fish are anticipated to play an important role in environmental monitoring, inspection of underwater structures, tracking of hazardous wastes and oil spills, and the study of live fish behaviors. While integration of flexible materials (into the fins and/or body) holds the promise of improved swimming performance (in terms of both speed and maneuverability) for these robots, such components also introduce significant design challenges due to the complex material mechanics and hydrodynamic interactions. The problem is further exacerbated by the need for the robots to meet multiple objectives (e.g., both speed and energy efficiency). In this paper, we propose an evolutionary multiobjective optimization approach to the design and control of a robotic fish with a flexible caudal fin. Specifically, we use the NSGA-II algorithm to investigate morphological and control parameter values that optimize swimming speed and power usage. Several evolved fin designs are validated experimentally with a small robotic fish, where fins of different stiffness values and sizes are printed with a multi-material 3D printer. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed design approach in balancing the two competing objectives.

  6. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  7. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  8. Design Considerations of Very Low Profile Coupled Inductors for Flexible Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Acanski, M; Popovic, J

    2012-01-01

    important design issues for the sandwich core structure including self-inductance, leakage inductance, eddy current effect and core loss are analyzed in-depth in this work. Since the non-uniform flux is distributed in the core plates, the parameters calculation and the design considerations are completely......Power converters with flexible PCB integrated magnetic components are highly demanded in future photovoltaic (PV) applications, resulting in a higher power density. In this paper, a 1.5-mm thickness integrated coupled inductor with planar sandwich core structure is under investigation. Several...... different with the traditional magnetic approaches. Accordingly, this paper enables original design considerations as a guideline for sandwiched coupled inductor. In order to reduce the high frequency eddy current effect in sandwich core structure, section III initiates a discussion with adjustable core...

  9. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies.

  10. CONCURRENT PRODUCTION ENGINEERING SYSTEM FOR BUFFER SIZE AND FLEXIBLE TRANSFER LINE LAYOUT DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidehiko YAMAMOTO; Jaber ABU QUDEIRI; M. Anouar JAMALI

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Concurrent Production Engineering System (COPES) for the flexible transfer line (FTL) layout design in a restricted area. COPES first determines the buffer size in front of the bay of each machine tool in the FTL and then initializes a computer aided design (CAD) system to draw the FTL in a restricted area. We develop a set of modules systems which have been integrated into a single framework, in accordance with the practice of concurrent engineering. Concurrent engineering involves the cooperation of these activities. It's expected that the developed COPES can improve the cooperation between production engineers' and the plant designer. This can be done by enabling the production engineers' to make better decision regarding FTL buffer size.

  11. Development and Design of a Flexible Measurement System for Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper

    The development process of a flexible measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term offshore data logging is described in this paper. This covers the complete design taking into account precise synchronisation, electromagnetic compatibility, software development and sensor...... calibration. The presented measurement set-up was tested in a rough offshore environment. Results from measurement campaigns at Avedøre and Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farms including synchronisation precision and accuracy, electromagnetic interference of power electronic devices are briefly presented....

  12. Development and Design of a Flexible Measurement System for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Ivan; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The development process of a flexible measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term offshore data logging is described in this paper. This covers the complete design taking into account precise synchronisation, electromagnetic compatibility, software development and sensor...... calibration. The presented measurement set-up was tested in a rough offshore environment. Results from measurement campaigns at Avedøre and Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farms including synchronisation precision and accuracy, electromagnetic interference of power electronic devices are briefly presented....

  13. Design of a Generic and Flexible Data Structure for Efficient Formulation of Large Scale Network Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan;

    2013-01-01

    The formulation of Enterprise-Wide Optimization (EWO) problems as mixed integer nonlinear programming requires collecting, consolidating and systematizing large amount of data, coming from different sources and specific to different disciplines. In this manuscript, a generic and flexible data...... structure for efficient formulation of enterprise-wide optimization problems is presented. Through the integration of the described data structure in our synthesis and design framework, the problem formulation workflow is automated in a software tool, reducing time and resources needed to formulate large...... problems, while ensuring at the same time data consistency and quality at the application stage....

  14. Design Considerations for Lightweight Space Radiators Based on Fabrication and Test Experience with a Carbon-Carbon Composite Prototype Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1998-01-01

    This report discusses the design implications for spacecraft radiators made possible by the successful fabrication and Proof-of-concept testing of a graphite-fiber-carbon-matrix composite (i.e., carbon-carbon (C-C)) heat pipe. The proto-type heat pipe, or space radiator element, consists of a C-C composite shell with integrally woven fins. It has a thin-walled furnace-brazed metallic (Nb-1%Zr) liner with end caps for containment of the potassium working fluid. A short extension of this liner, at increased wall thickness beyond the C-C shell, forms the heat pipe evaporator section which is in thermal contact with the radiator fluid that needs to be cooled. From geometric and thermal transport properties of the C-C composite heat pipe tested, a specific radiator mass of 1.45 kg/m2 can be derived. This is less than one-fourth the specific mass of present day satellite radiators. The report also discusses the advantage of segmented space radiator designs utilizing heat pipe elements, or segments, in their survivability to micro-meteoroid damage. This survivability is further raised by the use of condenser sections with attached fins, which also improve the radiation heat transfer rate. Since the problem of heat radiation from a fin does not lend itself to a closed analytical solution, a derivation of the governing differential equation and boundary conditions is given in appendix A, along with solutions for rectangular and parabolic fin profile geometries obtained by use of a finite difference computer code written by the author.

  15. Design Considerations for Lightweight Space Radiators Based on Fabrication and Test Experience With a Carbon-Carbon Composite Prototype Heat Pipe. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses the design implications for spacecraft radiators made possible by the successful fabrication and proof-of-concept testing of a graphite-fiber-carbon-matrix composite (i.e., carbon-carbon (C-C)) heat pipe. The prototype heat pipe, or space radiator element, consists of a C-C composite shell with integrally woven fins. It has a thin-walled furnace-brazed metallic (Nb-1%Zr) liner with end caps for containment of the potassium working fluid. A short extension of this liner, at increased wall thickness beyond the C-C shell, forms the heat pipe evaporator section which is in thermal contact with the radiator fluid that needs to be cooled. From geometric and thermal transport properties of the C-C composite heat pipe tested, a specific radiator mass of 1.45 kg/sq m can be derived. This is less than one-fourth the specific mass of present day satellite radiators. The report also discusses the advantage of segmented space radiator designs utilizing heat pipe elements, or segments, in their survivability to micrometeoroid damage. This survivability is further raised by the use of condenser sections with attached fins, which also improve the radiation heat transfer rate. Since the problem of heat radiation from a fin does not lend itself to a closed analytical solution, a derivation of the governing differential equation and boundary conditions is given in appendix A, along with solutions for rectangular and parabolic fin profile geometries obtained by use of a finite difference computer code written by the author.

  16. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  17. Design Study Based on Thermal Insulation Structure of Heat Pipe Network%基于热力管网保温结构的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洁

    2013-01-01

    Thermal network is used for the steam distribution pipe network system, in the distribution process,as the steam temperature with the surrounding environmentdifference is too large, it will cause losing steam enthalpy, thus the thermal effi-ciency of heating pipe network is greatly reduced. Through the analysis of various factors affecting the thermal pipe insula-tion, such as insulation structure design, material properties, construction quality, various measures are discussed to improve the heat pipe insulation effect.%热力管网是用于蒸汽配送的管道网络系统,在配送过程中,由于蒸汽与周围环境的温差过大,会在这一过程中损失掉不少的蒸汽热焓,从而使热力管网的输送热效率大为降低。通过分析影响热力管网保温节能的各种因素,如保温结构设计、保温材料性能、施工质量等,对提高热力管网保温效果的各种措施进行了探讨。

  18. Mechanical Structure Design of PGZX-1 Pipe Climbing Robot%PGZX-1型炉管爬行机器人机械结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵聪; 李浩; 仲于海

    2012-01-01

    PGZX-1 pipe is specific reference the straight pipe which pipe diameter is from 50 mm to 90 mm, and its tube spacing is 30 mm. At present, most factory boiler pipes and heating pipes of thermal power plant belong to it It is easily to have serious cementation phenomenon that heated the furnace tube for a long time, and the cementation will make the pipe wall material carbon amount to advance, thus cause the pipe wall hardening changes crisp, extremely easy to create the furnace tube break. The frequent examination to the tube column can know the furnace tube interior cementation situation, will guarantee the work more stable and more safe. One kind robot is proposed that can climb the tube column, and it can climb the tube does not on the limit of column material and the caliber. It will reduce the size and weight of the new robot This design aimed at the problem which is that the tube spacing is narrow and small, the caliber change and the body distortion we faced while we do the work of tube crawling. The robot's principle plan, and elaborated the design of the new crawl robot primary mechanical structure principle are introduced.%PGZX-1型炉管特指管径在50 mm-90 mm,管间距在30 mm左右的直管.目前很多化工厂锅炉管道和热电厂加热管均属于PGZX-1型炉管.因长期受热,炉管极易产生严重的渗碳现象,需对管柱渗碳层厚度进行检测,以随对了解炉管内部渗碳情况,确保工作的稳定性及安全性.提出了一种能够攀爬管柱的机器人,这种机器人不受攀爬管柱材料和管径限制,在尺寸及重量上实现最小化.对炉管爬行工作时面临的管间距狭小,管径变动及管体变形进行了针对性设计,介绍了新型爬管机器人的原理方案,阐述了新型爬管机器人主要机械结构的设计原理.

  19. Numerical study and design optimization of electromagnetic energy harvesters integrated with flexible magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Won [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This study presents a new design of an electromagnetic energy harvester integrated with a soft magnetic material. The harvester design optimizes the magnetic material characteristics and the size of a rectangular permanent magnet. The design employs a complete magnetic circuit made of (1) a thin-film soft magnetic material that facilitates a flexible but highly (magnetically) permeable beam and (2) an optimally-sized magnet that maximizes the harvester performance. The design is demonstrated to reduce magnetic flux leakage, and thus considerably enhances both magnetic flux density (B) and its change by time (dB/dt), which both influence harvester performance. The improvement in harvester performances strongly depends on critical design parameters, especially, the magnet size and characteristics of magnetic materials, including permeability, stiffness, and thickness. The analyses conclude that recently-introduced nanomaterials (having ultrahigh magnetic permeability) can potentially innovate harvester performances. However, the performance may be degraded without design optimization. Once optimized, the integrated nanomaterials facilitate a significant improvement compared with a conventional design without integrated magnetic materials.

  20. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  1. 33 CFR 127.1101 - Piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piping systems. 127.1101 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1101 Piping systems. Each piping system within the marine transfer area for LHG used for the transfer of LHG must meet the...

  2. Simulation and model design of pipe-shell reactor for the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfang Hu; Zhaoguang Nie; Dingye Fang

    2008-01-01

    The simulation was made based on the model of pipe-shell reactor that was established by the model of global kinetics of synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas over a bifunctional catalyst. The results of simulation showed that the selectivity for dimethyl ether (DME) and the conversion of CO were higher but the hot spot was kept below the temperature limit of the pipe-shell reactor. The suitable diameter of the pipe was φ38e pipe was 5.8 m. The optimal process conditions of the reactor were that the pressure was 5 MPa, the temperature of the cooling water was 240 ℃, and the temperature of the raw gas at inlet of the reactor was 220 ℃. The production of this reactor was 102800 t/y (ton per year) under these conditions.

  3. Multi-flexible-body analysis for application to wind turbine control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon

    The objective of the present research is to build a theoretical and computational framework for the aeroelastic analysis of flexible rotating systems, more specifically with special application to a wind turbine control design. The methodology is based on the integration of Kane's approach for the analysis of the multi-rigid-body subsystem and a mixed finite element method for the analysis of the flexible-body subsystem. The combined analysis is then strongly coupled with an aerodynamic model based on Blade Element Momentum theory for inflow model. The unified framework from the analysis of subsystems is represented as, in a symbolic manner, a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with time-variant, periodic coefficients, which describe the aeroelastic behavior of whole system. The framework can be directly applied to control design due to its symbolic characteristics. The solution procedures for the equations are presented for the study of nonlinear simulation, periodic steady-state solution, and Floquet stability of the linearized system about the steady-state solution. Finally the linear periodic system equation can be obtained with both system and control matrices as explicit functions of time, which can be directly applicable to control design. The structural model is validated by comparison of its results with those from software, some of which is commercial. The stability of the linearized system about periodic steady-state solution is different from that obtained about a constant steady-state solution, which have been conventional in the field of wind turbine dynamics. Parametric studies are performed on a wind turbine model with various pitch angles, precone angles, and rotor speeds. Combined with composite material, their effects on wind turbine aeroelastic stability are investigated. Finally it is suggested that the aeroelastic stability analysis and control design for the whole system is crucial for the design of wind turbines, and the

  4. On the Design of a Reinforced Concrete Pipe for a Heat Supply Tunnel Constructed by Pipe Jacking%顶管法热力隧道钢筋混凝土管设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董淑棉

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical pipe jacking construction technology is characterized by many advantages,such as fast construction,high automation,safety,reliability,and less impact on surroundings; it is therefore of great importance in the construction of heat supply tunnels.During the operation phase,a heat supply tunnel will be subjected to a high environmental temperature and internal forces of constant thrust,guiding thrust,and so on.This paper analyzes the deformation and mechanical state of the mechanically jacked reinforced concrete pipe for a heat supply tunnel in different temperatures by means of field testing and theoretical calculation.The results were verified by engineering practice.Additionally,it summarizes how the design and calculation method for reinforced concrete pipes are applicable to heat supply engineering.Finally,it concludes that the calculation results for the structural design of the reinforced concrete pipe in a jacked heat supply tunnel are similar to the test results with more safety redundancy,provided that a reduction method for the concrete strength and elastic modulus is used.%机械顶管施工技术具有施工速度快、自动化程度高、安全可靠、对周围环境影响小等优点,将顶管技术用于热力隧道施工中,具有重要意义.热力隧道在运行过程中,存在较高的环境温度,有固定推力、导向推力等内作用力.文章通过现场试验和理论计算,研究分析了热力机械钢筋混凝土顶管在不同温度工况下的变形和力学状态,并通过工程实践进行了验证;总结出了适用于热力工程的钢筋混凝土管的设计计算方法.分析结果表明,采取混凝土强度值及弹性模量折减的方法进行顶管法热力隧道钢筋混凝土管的结构设计,其计算与试验结果较为接近,更偏于安全.

  5. Novel Robotic Tools for Piping Inspection and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    motion. This in-pipe motion is accomplished by the use of inflatable pneumatic annular grippers in concert with a novel flexible pneumatic linear ...actuator capable. This linear actuator is capable of actuation while bent to conform to the contours of a piping system. The flexible linear actuator...robotic tool is based on pneumatically actuated peristaltic motion. This in-pipe motion is accomplished by the use of inflatable pneumatic annular

  6. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bio‐inspired wire‐driven multi‐section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots’ structure and the continuum robots’ actuation. As a result, it is more compact than traditional serpentine robots and has a higher positioning accuracy than typical continuum soft robots, such as OctArm V. A Kinematics model and a workspace model of the robot are developed based on the piece wise constant curvature assumption. To evaluate the design, a prototype is built and experiments are carried out. The average distal end positioning error is less than 4%. Characteristics of the wire‐driven robot are also discussed, including the leverage effect and the manipulability under constraint. These features makes the proposed robot well suited to confined spaces, especially for working in minimally invasive surgery, nuclear reactor pipelines, disaster debris, etc.

  7. Design and analysis of flexible colorless remote node using RSOA-assisted Michelson interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu; Min Zhang; Mingtao Liu; Xiaopin Zhang; Peida Ye

    2011-01-01

    @@ A scheme of flexible colorless remote note with reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) assisted Michelson interferometer is proposed. This is capable of generating an optical carrier suppressed signal at a specific radio frequency to suppress the penalty brought about by Rayleigh backscattering and reflection in a full-duplex single fiber transmission network. Simulations are conducted, and the validation of the proposal is discussed by observing the penalty eye opening factor. The results are useful for designing cost-effective multi-wavelength passive optical network (PON) or radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems.%A scheme of flexible colorless remote note with reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) assisted Michelson interferometer is proposed. This is capable of generating an optical carrier suppressed signal at a specific radio frequency to suppress the penalty brought about by Rayleigh backscattering and reflection in a full-duplex single fiber transmission network. Simulations are conducted, and the validation of the proposal is discussed by observing the penalty eye opening factor. The results are useful for designing cost-effective multi-wavelength passive optical network (PON) or radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems.

  8. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible, transparent superhydrophobic films with hierarchical surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Ha, Sung-Hun; Jang, Nam-Su; Kim, Jeonghyo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-03-11

    Optical transparency and mechanical flexibility are both of great importance for significantly expanding the applicability of superhydrophobic surfaces. Such features make it possible for functional surfaces to be applied to various glass-based products with different curvatures. In this work, we report on the simple and potentially cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible and transparent superhydrophobic films based on hierarchical surface design. The hierarchical surface morphology was easily fabricated by the simple transfer of a porous alumina membrane to the top surface of UV-imprinted polymeric micropillar arrays and subsequent chemical treatments. Through optimization of the hierarchical surface design, the resultant superhydrophobic films showed superior surface wetting properties (with a static contact angle of >170° and contact angle hysteresis of 82% at 550 nm wavelength). The superhydrophobic films were also experimentally found to be robust without significant degradation in the superhydrophobicity, even under repetitive bending and pressing for up to 2000 cycles. Finally, the practical usability of the proposed superhydorphobic films was clearly demonstrated by examining the antiwetting performance in real time while pouring water on the film and submerging the film in water.

  9. Passivity/Lyapunov based controller design for trajectory tracking of flexible joint manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.; Lanari, Leonardo

    1992-01-01

    A passivity and Lyapunov based approach for the control design for the trajectory tracking problem of flexible joint robots is presented. The basic structure of the proposed controller is the sum of a model-based feedforward and a model-independent feedback. Feedforward selection and solution is analyzed for a general model for flexible joints, and for more specific and practical model structures. Passivity theory is used to design a motor state-based controller in order to input-output stabilize the error system formed by the feedforward. Observability conditions for asymptotic stability are stated and verified. In order to accommodate for modeling uncertainties and to allow for the implementation of a simplified feedforward compensation, the stability of the system is analyzed in presence of approximations in the feedforward by using a Lyapunov based robustness analysis. It is shown that under certain conditions, e.g., the desired trajectory is varying slowly enough, stability is maintained for various approximations of a canonical feedforward.

  10. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  11. Analytical Quality by Design: A Tool for Regulatory Flexibility and Robust Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Peraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA has approved a few new drug applications (NDA with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design. It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR. Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT results and out-of-specification (OOS results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10. Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT.

  12. Analytical quality by design: a tool for regulatory flexibility and robust analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraman, Ramalingam; Bhadraya, Kalva; Padmanabha Reddy, Yiragamreddy

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a few new drug applications (NDA) with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD) based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design). It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR). Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT) results and out-of-specification (OOS) results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD) in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10). Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT).

  13. Collaboration in-between The Care Hotel and Designing for Flexible Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Grönvall, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the challenges of working between organizations and established information infrastructures. The Care Hotel is a municipal healthcare facility where persons, typically following a hospital stay, undergo rehabilitation to enable them to live independently at home. Admission......, stay, and discharge from the Care Hotel entail numerous coordination activities with a variety of frequent and sporadic, heterogeneous, external collaborators, including general practitioners, relatives, and hospitals, some of which are already part of large information infrastructures, whereas others...... are too small or shifting to allow for stable arrangements. Hence, work at the Care Hotel may be characterized as "collaboration in-between". We propose a design solution for flexible use to further stimulate reflection on design implications, and how to meet the challenges of collaboration in...

  14. 沟槽式平板铝热管设计与性能分析%Design and Experimental Analysis of Grooved Flat Aluminum Heat Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玉琴; 陆龙生; 张仕伟; 黄光汉

    2014-01-01

    基于相变传热原理的微热管在高效太阳能利用热控制方面具有良好应用空间。针对太阳能平板集热器的热控制需求,在沟槽式平板铝热管的设计过程中,综合分析了工质、管壳材料、管芯结构和充液率等因素对性能的影响;并搭建试验平台对制造的沟槽式平板铝热管进行性能测试。得出以下结论:不凝性气体对热管传热性能有较大的影响,应加强热管防漏措施;制作过程应该严格控制清洗、充装、封接等工序以确保质量;适当的充液量有助于提高热管等温性能。%With the working principle of phase-change heat transfer,micro heat pipe has a broad application space in the respect of highly efficient solar thermal control. According to growing thermal control demand for solar plane heat collectors,design of grooved flat aluminum heat pipe was discussed. Various factors influencing heat transfer performance such as working fluid,material of heat pipe shell,wick structure and filling rate were studied. An experimental platform was set up to investigate the characteristics of fabrica-ted heat pipes heat transfer performance both experimentally and analytically. The conclusions are that non-condensable gases has great impact on performance of heat pipes,so measures should be taken to avoid leaking;in order to ensure heat pipe quality,the processes of cleaning,filling of working fluid and sealing need to be careful;reasonable filling rate helps boost heat pipe ability of temperature u-niformity.

  15. Flexible Design and Implementation of Cognitive Models for Predicting Pilot Errors in Cockpit Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Janssen, J.; Mioch, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated design and implementation framework for cognitive models in complex task environments. We propose a task- and humancentered development methodology for deriving the cognitive models, and present a goal-based framework for implementing them. We illustrate our approa

  16. Re-Evaluation of the AASHTO-Flexible Pavement Design Equation with Neural Network Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiğdemir, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Here we establish that equivalent single-axle loads values can be estimated using artificial neural networks without the complex design equality of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). More importantly, we find that the neural network model gives the coefficients to be able to obtain the actual load values using the AASHTO design values. Thus, those design traffic values that might result in deterioration can be better calculated using the neural networks model than with the AASHTO design equation. The artificial neural network method is used for this purpose. The existing AASHTO flexible pavement design equation does not currently predict the pavement performance of the strategic highway research program (Long Term Pavement Performance studies) test sections very accurately, and typically over-estimates the number of equivalent single axle loads needed to cause a measured loss of the present serviceability index. Here we aimed to demonstrate that the proposed neural network model can more accurately represent the loads values data, compared against the performance of the AASHTO formula. It is concluded that the neural network may be an appropriate tool for the development of databased-nonparametric models of pavement performance. PMID:25397962

  17. Re-evaluation of the AASHTO-flexible pavement design equation with neural network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiğdemir, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Here we establish that equivalent single-axle loads values can be estimated using artificial neural networks without the complex design equality of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). More importantly, we find that the neural network model gives the coefficients to be able to obtain the actual load values using the AASHTO design values. Thus, those design traffic values that might result in deterioration can be better calculated using the neural networks model than with the AASHTO design equation. The artificial neural network method is used for this purpose. The existing AASHTO flexible pavement design equation does not currently predict the pavement performance of the strategic highway research program (Long Term Pavement Performance studies) test sections very accurately, and typically over-estimates the number of equivalent single axle loads needed to cause a measured loss of the present serviceability index. Here we aimed to demonstrate that the proposed neural network model can more accurately represent the loads values data, compared against the performance of the AASHTO formula. It is concluded that the neural network may be an appropriate tool for the development of databased-nonparametric models of pavement performance.

  18. Re-evaluation of the AASHTO-flexible pavement design equation with neural network modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Tiğdemir

    Full Text Available Here we establish that equivalent single-axle loads values can be estimated using artificial neural networks without the complex design equality of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO. More importantly, we find that the neural network model gives the coefficients to be able to obtain the actual load values using the AASHTO design values. Thus, those design traffic values that might result in deterioration can be better calculated using the neural networks model than with the AASHTO design equation. The artificial neural network method is used for this purpose. The existing AASHTO flexible pavement design equation does not currently predict the pavement performance of the strategic highway research program (Long Term Pavement Performance studies test sections very accurately, and typically over-estimates the number of equivalent single axle loads needed to cause a measured loss of the present serviceability index. Here we aimed to demonstrate that the proposed neural network model can more accurately represent the loads values data, compared against the performance of the AASHTO formula. It is concluded that the neural network may be an appropriate tool for the development of databased-nonparametric models of pavement performance.

  19. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  20. Evolutionary design of a generalized polynomial neural network for modelling sediment transport in clean pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebtehaj, Isa; Bonakdari, Hossein; Khoshbin, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    To determine the minimum velocity required to prevent sedimentation, six different models were proposed to estimate the densimetric Froude number (Fr). The dimensionless parameters of the models were applied along with a combination of the group method of data handling (GMDH) and the multi-target genetic algorithm. Therefore, an evolutionary design of the generalized GMDH was developed using a genetic algorithm with a specific coding scheme so as not to restrict connectivity configurations to abutting layers only. In addition, a new preserving mechanism by the multi-target genetic algorithm was utilized for the Pareto optimization of GMDH. The results indicated that the most accurate model was the one that used the volumetric concentration of sediment (CV), relative hydraulic radius (d/R), dimensionless particle number (Dgr) and overall sediment friction factor (λs) in estimating Fr. Furthermore, the comparison between the proposed method and traditional equations indicated that GMDH is more accurate than existing equations.

  1. Design Optimization of a Cable-Driven Two-DOF Flexible Joint Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the kinematics, kinetostatics and design optimization of a 2‐DOF cable‐ driven flexible joint module. Based on the motion characteristics of the 2‐DOF joint module, the concept of instantaneous screw axis in conjunction with the Product‐ Of‐Exponentials (POE formula is proposed to formulate its kinematic model. However, as the instantaneous screw axis is unfixed, the Lie group method is employed to derive the instantaneous kinematic model of the joint module. In order to generate the feasible workspace subject to positive tension constraint, the kinetostatics of the joint module is addressed, where the stiffness resulting from both the driving cables and the flexible backbone are considered. A numerical orientation workspace evaluation method is proposed based on an equi‐volumetric partition in its parametric space and the volume‐element associated integral factor. A global singular value (GSV index, which considers the minimum singular value of the stiffness matrix of joint module over the achievable workspace, is employed to optimize the geometric size of joint module. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed GSV optimization algorithm.

  2. Wind-Friendly Flexible Ramping Product Design in Multi-Timescale Power System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-07-01

    With increasing wind power penetration in the electricity grid, system operators are recognizing the need for additional flexibility, and some are implementing new ramping products as a type of ancillary service. However, wind is generally thought of as causing the need for ramping services, not as being a potential source for the service. In this paper, a multi-timescale unit commitment and economic dispatch model is developed to consider the wind power ramping product (WPRP). An optimized swinging door algorithm with dynamic programming is applied to identify and forecast wind power ramps (WPRs). Designed as positive characteristics of WPRs, the WPRP is then integrated into the multi-timescale dispatch model that considers new objective functions, ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. Numerical simulations on the modified IEEE 118-bus system show the potential effectiveness of WPRP in increasing the economic efficiency of power system operations with high levels of wind power penetration. It is found that WPRP not only reduces the production cost by using less ramping reserves scheduled by conventional generators, but also possibly enhances the reliability of power system operations. Moreover, wind power forecasts play an important role in providing high-quality WPRP service.

  3. Designing flexible instructional space for teaching introductory physics with emphasis on inquiry and collaborative active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Tikhon

    2010-03-01

    In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.

  4. Coral-Inspired Nanoengineering Design for Long-Cycle and Flexible Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yangyong; Wang, Cheng; Xue, Yinghui; Zhang, Qin; Mendes, Rafael G; Chen, Linfeng; Zhang, Tao; Gemming, Thomas; Rümmeli, Mark H; Ai, Xinping; Fu, Lei

    2016-04-13

    Conversion reaction electrode materials (CREMs) have gained significant interest in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their high theoretical gravimetric capacity. However, traditional CREMs-based electrodes, with large strain arising from Li(+) intercalation/deintercalation causes pulverization or electrical breakdown and cracking of the active materials which leads to structural collapse, limiting performance. Therefore, in order to construct electrodes with a strong tolerance to the strain incurred during the conversion reaction process, we design a coral-like three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructure by using cross-linked nanoflakes interspersed with nanoparticles (NPs) standing vertically on graphene foam (GF). The coral-like 3D hierarchical heterostructures can efficiently disperse the strain from both internal and external forces as well as increase the specific surface area for enhanced electrochemical reactions. These features lead to long-cycle stability and excellent flexibility in LIBs. Fe3O4 NPs and CoO NFs are utilized as a model system to demonstrate our strategy. The as-prepared coral-like hierarchical electrode is studied as an anode in LIBs for the first time and is shown to deliver a high reversible specific gravimetric capacity of ∼1200 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 0.5 A g(-1) for 400 cycles. In addition, our batteries can even power a green light-emitting diode when bent to high degrees confirming the excellent flexibility of the material.

  5. Forgiveness Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Seda Çolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness flexibility is the skill to minimize the negative effect of an event by using cognitive, affective and behavioral skills while taking a stand at the end of an injurious process. A number of studies were conducted to test the flexibility of the structure of forgiveness. The theoretical structure, structural validity and the confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretical structure of forgiveness flexibility. The criterion validity evaluated in similar manners was found high. Forgiveness flexibility designed as a three dimensional structure and its sub-dimensions was confirmed theoretically as the recognition of forgivenessand the internalization of forgiveness through insight and its practice.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated... spillage of fuel and that activates an alarm system. (b) All piping, valves and fittings must be—...

  7. 46 CFR 153.294 - Marking of piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of piping systems. 153.294 Section 153.294... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.294 Marking of piping systems. (a) Each cargo piping...

  8. 46 CFR 154.528 - Piping joints: Flange type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Flange type. 154.528 Section 154.528... and Process Piping Systems § 154.528 Piping joints: Flange type. (a) A flange must be one of the following types: (1) Welding neck. (2) Slip-on. (3) Socket weld. (b) If the piping is designed for...

  9. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from liquid pressure exceeding the design pressure must discharge into: (1) A cargo...

  10. 46 CFR 153.292 - Separation of piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of piping systems. 153.292 Section 153.292... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.292 Separation of piping systems. Cargo piping systems must...

  11. Flexible designs for phase II comparative clinical trials involving two response variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersimis, S; Sachlas, A; Papaioannou, T

    2015-01-30

    The aim of phase II clinical trials is to determine whether an experimental treatment is sufficiently promising and safe to justify further testing. The need for reduced sample size arises naturally in phase II clinical trials owing to both technical and ethical reasons, motivating a significant part of research in the field during recent years, while another significant part of the research effort is aimed at more complex therapeutic schemes that demand the consideration of multiple endpoints to make decisions. In this paper, our attention is restricted to phase II clinical trials in which two treatments are compared with respect to two dependent dichotomous responses proposing some flexible designs. These designs permit the researcher to terminate the clinical trial when high rates of favorable or unfavorable outcomes are observed early enough requiring in this way a small number of patients. From the mathematical point of view, the proposed designs are defined on bivariate sequences of multi-state trials, and the corresponding stopping rules are based on various distributions related to the waiting time until a certain number of events appear in these sequences. The exact distributions of interest, under a unified framework, are studied using the Markov chain embedding technique, which appears to be very useful in clinical trials for the sample size determination. Tables of expected sample size and power are presented. The numerical illustration showed a very good performance for these new designs.

  12. Design and implementation of visual inspection system handed in tokamak flexible in-vessel robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Xu, Lifei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China)

    2016-05-15

    In-vessel viewing system (IVVS) is a fundamental tool among the remote handling systems for ITER, which is used to providing information on the status of the in-vessel components. The basic functional requirement of in-vessel visual inspection system is to perform a fast intervention with adequate optical resolution. In this paper, we present the software and hardware solution, which is designed and implemented for tokamak in-vessel viewing system that installed on end-effector of flexible in-vessel robot working under vacuum and high temperature. The characteristic of our in-vessel viewing system consists of two parts: binocular heterogeneous vision inspection tool and first wall scene emersion based augment virtuality. The former protected with water-cooled shield is designed to satisfy the basic functional requirement of visual inspection system, which has the capacity of large field of view and high-resolution for detection precision. The latter, achieved by overlaying first wall tiles images onto virtual first wall scene model in 3D virtual reality simulation system, is designed for convenient, intuitive and realistic-looking visual inspection instead of viewing the status of first wall only by real-time monitoring or off-line images sequences. We present the modular division of system, each of them in smaller detail, and go through some of the design choices according to requirements of in-vessel visual inspection task.

  13. Piping Design of Jinchengtai Coal Gasification Plant%金诚泰煤制甲醇项目气化装置管线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国峰

    2012-01-01

    煤气化技术是煤炭高效清洁利用的核心技术,非熔渣—熔渣分级气化技术是我国完全自主知识产权的煤气化技术。本文以金诚泰煤制甲醇项目气化装置为例介绍了非熔渣—熔渣分级气化装置工艺流程、设备布置、部分管线材料的选择、阀门的选型和关键工艺管线的布置,提出了优化管道布置设计的建议。%Coal gasification was the key process for clean and high-efficiency coal utilization.Non-slag and slag stage technology was our country's own gasification technology.The characteristics of the coal gasification technology,the equipment layout of this coal gasification technology,the piping materials,valves selection and piping design were introduced by Jinchengtai Coal Gasification Plant,and the proposal for piping design was proposed.

  14. Design of Heat Pipe Type Adsorption Ice Maker for Fishing Boats%热管型船用吸附制冰机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽伟; 王如竹; 夏再忠; 吴静怡

    2005-01-01

    A heat pipe type adsorption ice maker with two adsorbers for fishing boats is designed by using ammonia as refrigerant and compound of activated carbon-CaCl2 as adsorbent. This type of heat pipe adsorber can solve the problem of incompatibility between ammonia, copper, seawater and steel. The working process of the ice maker with 8.7kg adsorbent per bed is simulated. The results show that the optimal semi-cycle time is about 9min at the evaporating temperature of -15℃, where the corresponding cooling power, specific cooling power per kilogram adsorbent SCP and coefficient of refrigerant performance COP are respectively 3.6 kW, 217W·kg-1 and 0.404.

  15. Design and Prototyping Flow of Flexible and Efficient NISC-Based Architectures for MIMO Turbo Equalization and Demapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rizk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of digital wireless communication, flexible design implementations are increasingly explored for different applications in order to cope with diverse system configurations imposed by the emerging wireless communication standards. In fact, shrinking the design time to meet market pressure, on the one hand, and adding the emerging flexibility requirement and, hence, increasing system complexity, on the other hand, require a productive design approach that also ensures final design quality. The no instruction set computer (NISC approach fulfills these design requirements by eliminating the instruction set overhead. The approach offers static scheduling of the datapath, automated register transfer language (RTLsynthesis and allows the designer to have direct control of hardware resources. This paper presents a complete NISC-based design and prototype flow, from architecture specification till FPGA implementation. The proposed design and prototype flow is illustrated through two case studies of flexible implementations, which are dedicated to low-complexity MIMO turbo-equalizer and a universal turbo-demapper. Moreover, the flexibility of the proposed prototypes allows supporting all communication modes defined in the emerging wireless communication standards, such LTE, LTE-Advanced, WiMAX, WiFi and DVB-RCS. For each prototype, its functionality is evaluated, and the resultant performance is verified for all system configurations.

  16. Object oriented design provides flexible framework for electrophysiolgy software toolbox - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Charlotte M

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a software platform to support an expandible toolbox for electrophysiology data analysis. The current focus of the toolbox, known as NeuroMAX is spike-sorting and spike-time analysis tools. A key feature of the toolbox is the ability for a user to connect tools into a workspace toolchain in a flexible, intelligent feed-forward manner that allows a tool to use any previously computed data set as input. Tool parameters can be saved and applied to other data sets. Tools and workspaces can be accessed to process data either directly from the MATLAB command line or from the NeuroMAX GUI. This work discusses the object-oriented design of the toolbox, including the data classes, workspace classes, and tool classes created to achieve this functionality.

  17. Inclusion of Structural Flexibility in Design Load Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Hydroelastic interactions, caused by ocean wave loading on wave energy devices with deformable structures, are studied in the time domain. A midfidelity, hybrid modeling approach of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics is developed and implemented in an open-source simulation tool for wave energy converters (WEC-Sim) to simulate the dynamic responses of wave energy converter component structural deformations under wave loading. A generalized coordinate system, including degrees of freedom associated with rigid bodies, structural modes, and constraints connecting multiple bodies, is utilized. A simplified method of calculating stress loads and sectional bending moments is implemented, with the purpose of sizing and designing wave energy converters. Results calculated using the method presented are verified with those of high-fidelity fluid-structure interaction simulations, as well as low-fidelity, frequency-domain, boundary element method analysis.

  18. Designing Flexible GUI to Increase the Acceptance Rate of Product Data Management Systems in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2011-01-01

    Product Data Management (PDM) desktop and web based systems maintain the organizational technical and managerial data to increase the quality of products by improving the processes of development, business process flows, change management, product structure management, project tracking and resource planning. Though PDM is heavily benefiting industry but PDM community is facing a very serious unresolved issue in PDM system development with flexible and user friendly graphical user interface for efficient human machine communication. PDM systems offer different services and functionalities at a time but the graphical user interfaces of most of the PDM systems are not designed in a way that a user (especially a new user) can easily learn and use them. Targeting this issue, a thorough research was conducted in field of Human Computer Interaction; resultant data provides the information about graphical user interface development using rich internet applications. The accomplished goal of this research was to suppor...

  19. Design and application of a flexible and implantable sensor for detecting uterine musculature contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Qin, Ling; Yang, Qing; Wu, Shangchun; He, Peiyu

    2009-09-15

    It is very important to obtain the parameters of deformation size and contraction frequency of women's uterine musculature in medical research. This paper proposes a type of sensor for measuring these parameters and analyzes its force situation. The flexibility of the sensor makes it easy for doctors to let the sensor pass through woman's narrow cervix and get to her uterine cavity. The experiment shows that the sensitivity of three coils in the sample sensor achieves 22.38 nH/mm(2) both for left and right coils, 22.84 nH/mm(2) for top coil, which can meet the requirements of sensitivity for testing the contraction situation of uterine musculature. Furthermore, an interface designed in the back end system can display the parameters of deformation size and vivid contraction situation of women's uterine musculature in real-time. The sensor has been applied in some medical fields.

  20. Flexible end-to-end system design for synthetic aperture radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Evan C.; Edwards, Matthew C.; Bradley, Joshua P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents ARTEMIS, Inc.'s approach to development of end-to-end synthetic aperture radar systems for multiple applications and platforms. The flexible design of the radar and the image processing tools facilitates their inclusion in a variety of application-specific end-to-end systems. Any given application comes with certain requirements that must be met in order to achieve success. A concept of operation is defined which states how the technology is used to meet the requirements of the application. This drives the design decisions. Key to adapting our system to multiple applications is the flexible SlimSAR radar system, which is programmable on-the-fly to meet the imaging requirements of a wide range of altitudes, swath-widths, and platform velocities. The processing software can be used for real-time imagery production or post-flight processing. The ground station is adaptable, and the radar controls can be run by an operator on the ground, on-board the aircraft, or even automated as part of the aircraft autopilot controls. System integration takes the whole operation into account, seeking to flawlessly work with data links and on-board data storage, aircraft and payload control systems, mission planning, and image processing and exploitation. Examples of applications are presented including using a small unmanned aircraft at low altitude with a line of sight data link, a long-endurance UAV maritime surveillance mission with on-board processing, and a manned ground moving target indicator application with the radar using multiple receive channels.

  1. Design and Analysis of a Flexible, Reliable Deep Space Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a flexible, reliable, deep space life support system design approach that uses either storage or recycling or both together. The design goal is to provide the needed life support performance with the required ultra reliability for the minimum Equivalent System Mass (ESM). Recycling life support systems used with multiple redundancy can have sufficient reliability for deep space missions but they usually do not save mass compared to mixed storage and recycling systems. The best deep space life support system design uses water recycling with sufficient water storage to prevent loss of crew if recycling fails. Since the amount of water needed for crew survival is a small part of the total water requirement, the required amount of stored water is significantly less than the total to be consumed. Water recycling with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide removal material storage can achieve the high reliability of full storage systems with only half the mass of full storage and with less mass than the highly redundant recycling systems needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Improved recycling systems with lower mass and higher reliability could perform better than systems using storage.

  2. ABSTRACTS WELDEL PIPE AND TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACTS WELDEL PIPE AND TUBE Vol.24 No.3 May.2001 Huang Jingan(1) Strengthen, Intercourse, Coordination and Promote the Development Together Liang Aiyu(11) The Production and the Development of the Water supply pipe for City Construction From the aspects of the quality, appearance, environment protection, economic analysis etc., This article evaluates the galvanized pipe, plastic steel complex pipe, plastic aluminum pipe, stainless pipe for city water supply. In accordance with the requirements of the city construction programming and development, it is considered that the plastic aluminum pipe and plastic steel pipe instead of galvanization pipe is the trend of the development. The author also gives some constructive proposals for reference. Subject Terms:galvanized pipe complex pipe stainless pipe city water supply evaluation Zhao Rongbin,Li Guangjun(14) The TIG welding of Protected Tantalum-pipe for sheathed thermocouples used in corrosive environment The protected Tantalum-pipe welding of sheathed therocouples was investigated by TIG. The welding process and its key parameters were introduced. Welding quality influenced by processing was discussed. Subject Terms:welding protected Tantalum-pipe corrosion He Defu et al(18) Design and Research for An Automatic MIG Welding Machine of Catalyst Converter of Automobile Two different schemes for automatic MIG welding of catalyst converter of automobile have been compared and analysed. A design of automatic MIG welding machine used for catalyst converter of automobile has been suggested in this paper. Subject Terms:environmental protection automobile tri-catalyst converter MIG welding automatic welding PLC Fang Chucai(24) Cold Crack Analysis of Low Alloy High Strength Steel Weld Seam Heat Affected Area During the welding of low alloy high strength (X65 and above), the fine crack occurs in the weld (especially inner weld) and the low plastic hard brickle structure occurs in the Heat Affected Area (HAZ) sometime. This

  3. Redesigning Terraced Social Housing in the UK for Flexibility Using Building Energy Simulation with Consideration of Passive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Altan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A chosen case study house forms the basis of this paper, which is a pilot energy-efficient social housing project, completed by one of the largest housing developers in the UK. The main aim of this study is to inform the redesign of flexible energy-efficient housing units. The housing, designed for social tenants, was built by the Accent Group in 2005, using modern construction methods and sustainable materials, based on extensive research from the adaptable and “Grow Home” principles of Avi Friedman as well as open building implementation. The first pilot scheme was designed in collaboration with the Building Energy Analysis Unit at the University of Sheffield, together with the Goddard Wybor Practise, and was a successful housing development with respect to being environmentally friendly and a low-energy design scheme for the UK climate. This paper presents redesigning of flexible terraced housing units, and their performance evaluation, using a building simulation method as well as the passive-house planning package. The aim was to plan a row of terraced houses that can not only utilize a flexible design concept in floor planning layout, but also to reduce energy consumption with a passive design with particular attention paid to material selection. In addition, building simulation work has been carried out with the use of DesignBuilder software for both thermal and energy performance evaluation. The study examines the annual energy performance and comfort conditions in the designed house to be situated in the Northeast of England, UK. A terraced house unit design is considered a flexible home that can adjust to the needs of different tenants for the purpose of achieving a sustainable building under different aspects, such as low energy, low carbon, use of renewables, and low impact materials, with flexibility by design.

  4. Ultrafast direct fabrication of flexible substrate-supported designer plasmonic nanoarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaowu; Kumar, Prashant; Xu, Rong; Zhao, Kejie; Cheng, Gary J.

    2015-12-01

    Fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures has been an important topic for their potential applications in photonic and optoelectronic devices. Among plasmonic materials, gold is one of the most promising materials due to its low ohmic loss at optical frequencies and high oxidation resistance. However, there are two major bottlenecks for its industrial applications: (1) the need for large-scale fabrication technology for high-precision plasmonic nanostructures; and (2) the need to integrate the plasmonic nanostructures on various substrates. While conventional top-down approaches involve high cost and give low throughput, bottom-up approaches suffer from irreproducibility and low precision. Herein, we report laser shock induced direct imprinting of large-area plasmonic nanostructures from physical vapor deposited (PVD) gold thin film on a flexible commercial free-standing aluminum foil. Among the important characteristics of the laser-shock direct imprinting is their unique capabilities to reproducibly deliver designer plasmonic nanostructures with extreme precision and in an ultrafast manner. Excellent size tunability (from several μm down to 15 nm) has been achieved by varying mold dimensions and laser parameters. The physical mechanism of the hybrid film imprinting is elaborated by finite element modeling. A mechanical robustness test of the hybrid film validates a significantly improved interfacial contact between gold arrays and the underlying substrate. The strong optical field enhancement was realized in the large-area fabricated engineered gold nanostructures. Low concentration molecular sensing was investigated employing the fabricated structures as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. The ability to ultrafast direct imprint plasmonic nanoarrays on a flexible substrate at multiscale is a critical step towards roll-to-roll manufacturing of multi-functional devices which is poised to inspire several emerging applications.Fabrication of

  5. 高频焊管锁相电路设计%Phase Lock Circuit Design for High-frequency Welded(HFW) Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付立功; 轩宗志; 葛永国; 轩宗震

    2014-01-01

    对锁相电路、高频焊管电路以及锁相环的基本原理做了详细的论述,并对高频焊管生产线上的锁相电路的设计及其在高频焊管机组中的使用、调整以及维护进行了详细分析。实践证明,锁相环具有频率自动跟踪和相位自动控制的功能,对于频率1MHz以下,用CD4046锁相环作为高频焊管锁相电路非常实用,电路简单,抗干扰,运行可靠,足以保证高频焊管电源可靠工作。%In this article, it expatiated the phase lock circuit, HFW pipe circuit and the basic principle of phase-locked loop, and detailedly analyzed design, application, adjustment and maintenance of phase lock in HFW pipe production line. Practice proved that the phase-locked loop possesses functions of frequency automatic tracking and phase automatic control. For frequencies below 1 MHz, using phase-locked loop CD4046 as phase locked circuit for HFW pipe is very practical, the circuit is simple, anti-interference, reliable operation, and it is enough to guarantee the high frequency welded pipe reliable work.

  6. Design and Voluntary Motion Intention Estimation of a Novel Wearable Full-Body Flexible Exoskeleton Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wearable full-body exoskeleton robot developed in this study is one application of mobile cyberphysical system (CPS, which is a complex mobile system integrating mechanics, electronics, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Steel wire was used as the flexible transmission medium and a group of special wire-locking structures was designed. Additionally, we designed passive joints for partial joints of the exoskeleton. Finally, we proposed a novel gait phase recognition method for full-body exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors, plantar pressure sensors, and inclination sensors. The method consists of four procedures. Firstly, we classified the three types of main motion patterns: normal walking on the ground, stair-climbing and stair-descending, and sit-to-stand movement. Secondly, we segregated the experimental data into one gait cycle. Thirdly, we divided one gait cycle into eight gait phases. Finally, we built a gait phase recognition model based on k-Nearest Neighbor perception and trained it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result shows that the model has a 98.52% average correct rate of classification of the main motion patterns on the testing set and a 95.32% average correct rate of phase recognition on the testing set. So the exoskeleton robot can achieve human motion intention in real time and coordinate its movement with the wearer.

  7. Design of a Novel Flexible Capacitive Sensing Mattress for Monitoring Sleeping Respiratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an algorithm to extract respiration signals using a flexible projected capacitive sensing mattress (FPCSM designed for personal health assessment is proposed. Unlike the interfaces of conventional measurement systems for poly-somnography (PSG and other alternative contemporary systems, the proposed FPCSM uses projected capacitive sensing capability that is not worn or attached to the body. The FPCSM is composed of a multi-electrode sensor array that can not only observe gestures and motion behaviors, but also enables the FPCSM to function as a respiration monitor during sleep using the proposed approach. To improve long-term monitoring when body movement is possible, the FPCSM enables the selection of data from the sensing array, and the FPCSM methodology selects the electrodes with the optimal signals after the application of a channel reduction algorithm that counts the reversals in the capacitive sensing signals as a quality indicator. The simple algorithm is implemented in the time domain. The FPCSM system is used in experimental tests and is simultaneously compared with a commercial PSG system for verification. Multiple synchronous measurements are performed from different locations of body contact, and parallel data sets are collected. The experimental comparison yields a correlation coefficient of 0.88 between FPCSM and PSG, demonstrating the feasibility of the system design.

  8. Ultrasonically spray coated silver layers from designed precursor inks for flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, W.; Vandevenne, G.; D'Haen, J.; Almeida, A. Calmont de Andrade; Durand Sola, M. A., Jr.; van den Ham, E. J.; Drijkoningen, J.; Elen, K.; Deferme, W.; Van Bael, M. K.; Hardy, A.

    2017-05-01

    Integration of electronic circuit components onto flexible materials such as plastic foils, paper and textiles is a key challenge for the development of future smart applications. Therefore, conductive metal features need to be deposited on temperature sensitive substrates in a fast and straightforward way. The feasibility of these emerging (nano-) electronic technologies depends on the availability of well-designed deposition techniques and on novel functional metal inks. As ultrasonic spray coating (USSC) is one of the most promising techniques to meet the above requirements, innovative metal organic decomposition (MOD) inks are designed to deposit silver features on plastic foils. Various amine ligands were screened and their influence on the ink stability and the characteristics of the resulting metal depositions were evaluated to determine the optimal formulation. Eventually, silver layers with excellent performance in terms of conductivity (15% bulk silver conductivity), stability, morphology and adhesion could be obtained, while operating in a very low temperature window of 70 °C-120 °C. Moreover, the optimal deposition conditions were determined via an in-depth analysis of the ultrasonically sprayed silver layers. Applying these tailored MOD inks, the USSC technique enabled smooth, semi-transparent silver layers with a tunable thickness on large areas without time-consuming additional sintering steps after deposition. Therefore, this novel combination of nanoparticle-free Ag-inks and the USSC process holds promise for high throughput deposition of highly conductive silver features on heat sensitive substrates and even 3D objects.

  9. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  10. Applications and market of PVC for piping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny De N. Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic materials by the piping industry accounts for a significant volume of polymers. In this segment PVC represents the largest worldwide market for plastics. PVC is often used in plastic pressure pipe systems for pipelines in the water and sewer industries because of its inexpensive nature and flexibility. Pipes and fittings constitute the largest volume application at 40% of the marketplace. This paper discusses the piping extrusion process and the worldwide PVC market, emphasizing the Brazilian market. It is also presented a case study including an overall cost calculation for making an extrusion line for PVC piping.

  11. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a "segmented" thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed "segmented" model shows more precise than the "non-segmented" model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the "segmented" model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  12. PPOOLEX experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through either one or two vertical transparent blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. Five experiments with one pipe and six with two parallel pipes were carried out. The main purpose of the experiments was to study loads caused by chugging (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. In the experiments the initial temperature of the condensation pool water varied from 12 deg. C to 55 deg. C, the steam flow rate from 40 g/s to 1 300 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 120 deg. C to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with only one transparent blowdown pipe chugging phenomenon didn't occur as intensified as in the preceding experiments carried out with a DN200 stainless steel pipe. With the steel blowdown pipe even 10 times higher pressure pulses were registered inside the pipe. Meanwhile, loads registered in the pool didn't indicate significant differences between the steel and polycarbonate pipe experiments. In the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes, the steamwater interface moved almost synchronously up and down inside both pipes. Chugging was stronger than in the one pipe experiments and even two times higher loads were measured inside the pipes. The loads at the blowdown pipe outlet were approximately the same as in the one pipe cases. Other registered loads around the pool were about 50-100 % higher than with one pipe. The experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes gave contradictory results compared to the earlier studies dealing with chugging loads in case of multiple pipes. Contributing

  13. 直缝焊管自动超声探伤系统设计%Design of Automatic Ultrasonic Inspection System of Longitudinal Welded Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平

    2016-01-01

    针对直缝焊管生产中传统应用手工探伤效率低、故障率高等问题,利用超声无损探伤精度高、速度快的优点,构建以可编程控制器(PLC)为核心的直缝焊管自动超声探伤系统。提出该系统的工艺参数和系统机械构成,设计系统的 PLC 控制硬件、PLC 程序流程及 PLC 控制程序。系统的操作监控硬件选用台达触摸屏,给出基于 Windows 系统触摸屏编程软件设计的人机操作监控画面。运行结果显示:该系统结构稳定、可靠。%Aiming at the problem of low manual detection efficiency and high failure rate in traditional longitudinal wel-ded pipe production,using the advantages of high accuracy,high speed of ultrasonic nondestructive testing,taking the programmable controller (PLC)as the core,a set of automatic ultrasonic inspection system of the longitudinal welded pipe is designed.The paper summarizes the longitudinal-seam welded pipe automatic ultrasonic inspection system.The process parameters and the mechanical structure of the system are put forward,and the PLC control hardware,program flow and control procedures of the system are designed accordingly.A touch screen is chosen for system operation monito-ring,and the man-machine operation monitoring picture based on the touch screen programming software design of the Windows system is given.

  14. Predicting the tolerated sequences for proteins and protein interfaces using RosettaBackrub flexible backbone design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A Smith

    Full Text Available Predicting the set of sequences that are tolerated by a protein or protein interface, while maintaining a desired function, is useful for characterizing protein interaction specificity and for computationally designing sequence libraries to engineer proteins with new functions. Here we provide a general method, a detailed set of protocols, and several benchmarks and analyses for estimating tolerated sequences using flexible backbone protein design implemented in the Rosetta molecular modeling software suite. The input to the method is at least one experimentally determined three-dimensional protein structure or high-quality model. The starting structure(s are expanded or refined into a conformational ensemble using Monte Carlo simulations consisting of backrub backbone and side chain moves in Rosetta. The method then uses a combination of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm optimization methods to enrich for low-energy sequences for the individual members of the ensemble. To emphasize certain functional requirements (e.g. forming a binding interface, interactions between and within parts of the structure (e.g. domains can be reweighted in the scoring function. Results from each backbone structure are merged together to create a single estimate for the tolerated sequence space. We provide an extensive description of the protocol and its parameters, all source code, example analysis scripts and three tests applying this method to finding sequences predicted to stabilize proteins or protein interfaces. The generality of this method makes many other applications possible, for example stabilizing interactions with small molecules, DNA, or RNA. Through the use of within-domain reweighting and/or multistate design, it may also be possible to use this method to find sequences that stabilize particular protein conformations or binding interactions over others.

  15. Analysis of tiling array expression studies with flexible designs in Bioconductor (waveTiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuf Kristof

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing statistical methods for tiling array transcriptome data either focus on transcript discovery in one biological or experimental condition or on the detection of differential expression between two conditions. Increasingly often, however, biologists are interested in time-course studies, studies with more than two conditions or even multiple-factor studies. As these studies are currently analyzed with the traditional microarray analysis techniques, they do not exploit the genome-wide nature of tiling array data to its full potential. Results We present an R Bioconductor package, waveTiling, which implements a wavelet-based model for analyzing transcriptome data and extends it towards more complex experimental designs. With waveTiling the user is able to discover (1 group-wise expressed regions, (2 differentially expressed regions between any two groups in single-factor studies and in (3 multifactorial designs. Moreover, for time-course experiments it is also possible to detect (4 linear time effects and (5 a circadian rhythm of transcripts. By considering the expression values of the individual tiling probes as a function of genomic position, effect regions can be detected regardless of existing annotation. Three case studies with different experimental set-ups illustrate the use and the flexibility of the model-based transcriptome analysis. Conclusions The waveTiling package provides the user with a convenient tool for the analysis of tiling array trancriptome data for a multitude of experimental set-ups. Regardless of the study design, the probe-wise analysis allows for the detection of transcriptional effects in both exonic, intronic and intergenic regions, without prior consultation of existing annotation.

  16. Reliability-based design optimization for flexible mechanism with particle swarm optimization and advanced extremum response surface method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春宜; 宋鲁凯; 费成巍; 郝广平; 刘令君

    2016-01-01

    To improve the computational efficiency of the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) of flexible mechanism, particle swarm optimization-advanced extremum response surface method (PSO-AERSM) was proposed by integrating particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and advanced extremum response surface method (AERSM). Firstly, the AERSM was developed and its mathematical model was established based on artificial neural network, and the PSO algorithm was investigated. And then the RBDO model of flexible mechanism was presented based on AERSM and PSO. Finally, regarding cross-sectional area as design variable, the reliability optimization of flexible mechanism was implemented subject to reliability degree and uncertainties based on the proposed approach. The optimization results show that the cross-section sizes obviously reduce by 22.96 mm2 while keeping reliability degree. Through the comparison of methods, it is demonstrated that the AERSM holds high computational efficiency while keeping computational precision for the RBDO of flexible mechanism, and PSO algorithm minimizes the response of the objective function. The efforts of this work provide a useful sight for the reliability optimization of flexible mechanism, and enrich and develop the reliability theory as well.

  17. Design and Modeling of a Flexible Contact-Mode Piezoresistive Detector for Time-Based Acceleration Sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Hau, B.S.; Rocha, L.A.; French, P.J.; Makinwa, K.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on the design and modeling of a new flexible contact-mode 1-DOF piezoresistive contact force and impacttime detector used for acceleration sensing in the time domain. The key advantages of the contact-mode detection mechanism are the use of simple readout circuitry, compactness,

  18. Design and Modeling of a Flexible Contact-Mode Piezoresistive Detector for Time-Based Acceleration Sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Hau, B.S.; Rocha, L.A.; French, P.J.; Makinwa, K.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on the design and modeling of a new flexible contact-mode 1-DOF piezoresistive contact force and impacttime detector used for acceleration sensing in the time domain. The key advantages of the contact-mode detection mechanism are the use of simple readout circuitry, compactness, go

  19. Mimosa-inspired design of a flexible pressure sensor with touch sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin; Gong, Shu; Ma, Zheng; Yap, Lim Wei; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-04-24

    A bio-inspired flexible pressure sensor is generated with high sensitivity (50.17 kPa(-1)), quick responding time (sensor substrates results from the direct molding of natural mimosa leaves, presenting a simple, environment-friendly and easy scale-up fabrication process for these flexible pressure sensors.

  20. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  1. Flexible Radio: A Framework for Optimized Multimodal Operation via Dynamic Signal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagres Ioannis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for multimodal terminals that adjust their configuration on the fly in order to meet the required quality of service (QoS, under various channel/system scenarios, creates the need for flexible architectures that are capable of performing such actions. The paper focuses on the concept of flexible/reconfigurable radio systems and especially on the elements of flexibility residing in the PHYsical layer (PHY. It introduces the various ways in which a reconfigurable transceiver can be used to provide multistandard capabilities, channel adaptivity, and user/service personalization. It describes specific tools developed within two IST projects aiming at such flexible transceiver architectures. Finally, a specific example of a mode-selection algorithmic architecture is presented which incorporates all the proposed tools and, therefore, illustrates a baseband flexibility mechanism.

  2. Control of low-frequency noise for piping systems via the design of coupled band gap of acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanfei [College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033 (China); Shen, Huijie, E-mail: shj588@163.com [College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033 (China); Zhang, Linke [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430063 (China); Su, Yongsheng, E-mail: suyongsheng1981@163.com [College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033 (China); Yu, Dianlong [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation and sound transmission in a metamaterial-based piping system with Helmholtz resonator (HR) attached periodically are studied. A transfer matrix method is developed to conduct the investigation. Calculational results show that the introduction of periodic HRs in the piping system could generate a band gap (BG) near the resonant frequency of the HR, such that the bandwidth and the attenuation effect of HR improved notably. Bragg type gaps are also exist in the system due to the systematic periodicity. By plotting the BG as functions of HR parameters, the effect of resonator parameters on the BG behavior, including bandwidth, location and attenuation performance, etc., is examined. It is found that Bragg-type gap would interplay with the resonant-type gap under some special situations, thereby giving rise to a super-wide coupled gap. Further, explicit formulation for BG exact coupling is extracted and some key parameters on modulating the width and the attenuation coefficient of coupled gaps are investigated. The coupled gap can be located to any frequency range as one concerned, thus rendering the low-frequency noise control feasible in a broad band range. - Highlights: • A metamaterial-type pipe system with Bragg and resonant acoustic gaps. • A low-frequency acoustic coupled gap. • Exact coupling condition for Bragg and resonant gaps. • Effects of resonant parameters on coupled gaps.

  3. Heat Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  4. Inspection and monitoring techniques for un-bonded flexible risers and pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Un-bonded flexible pipelines and risers are an alternative to conventional rigid steel pipes. The use of flexible pipes has enabled development of several offshore fields that seemed unfeasible with the use of rigid pipes due to extensive seabed preparation and large dynamic motions. The lack of knowledge and integrity management tools for flexible pipes is a limiting factor and cause pipelines and risers to be replaced before their service life has been reached. This thesis aims to discover...

  5. PROBABILITY MODEL AND SOLUTION ON EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS COMBINATION IN ALONG WIND RESISTANT DESIGN OF TALL-FLEXIBLE BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Xiao-jian; GU Ming

    2006-01-01

    A model on the earthquake effects combination in wind resistant design of high-rise flexible structures is proposed in accordance with the probability method. Based on the Turkstra criteria, the stochastic characters of wind velocity, earthquake ground acceleration and excitations occurrence probability are taken into account and then the combination of the earthquake effects in structure wind resistant design is analyzed with the convolution approach. The results indicate that as for the tall flexible buildings whose lateral force is governed by wind loading, the maximum lateral loads verification with respect to the wind resistant design combined with earthquake effects may be more unfavorable compared with that in terms of the earthquake resistant design involving wind effects.

  6. A Flexible Modulation Scheme Design for C-Band GNSS Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the spectrum congestion of current navigation signals in L-band, C-band has been taken into consideration as a candidate frequency band for global navigation satellite system (GNSS. As is known, modulation scheme is the core part of signal structure, and how to design a modulation waveform that could make full use of narrow bandwidth 20 MHz and satisfy the constraint condition of frequency compatibility in C-band is the main research content of this paper. In view of transmission characteristics and constraint condition of compatibility in C-band, multi-h continuous phase modulation (CPM is proposed as a candidate modulation scheme. Then the classical channel capacity estimation and a comprehensive evaluation criterion for GNSS modulation signals are employed to assess the proposed scheme in the aspects of the capacity over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, tracking accuracy, multipath mitigation, antijamming, and so on. Simulation results reveal that, through optimizing the number and size of modulation indexes, the flexible scheme could offer better performance in terms of code tracking, multipath mitigation, and antijamming compared with other candidates such as MSK and GMSK while maintaining high band efficiency and moderate implementation complexity of receiver. Moreover, this paper also provides a reference for next generation modulation signals in C-band.

  7. Design and fabrication of magnetically functionalized flexible micropillar arrays for rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, BingPu

    2015-03-25

    Magnetically functionalized PDMS-based micropillar arrays have been successfully designed, fabricated and implanted for controllable microfluidic mixing. The arrangement of PDMS micropillar arrays inside the microchannel can be flexibly controlled by an external magnetic field. As a consequence, the flow fields inside the microchannel can be regulated at will via magnetic activation conveniently. When a microchannel is implanted with such micropillar arrays, two microstreams can be mixed easily and controllably upon the simple application of an on/off magnetic signal. Mixing efficiencies based on micropillar arrays with different densities were investigated and compared. It was found that micropillar arrays with higher density (i.e. smaller pillar pitch) would render better mixing performance. Our microfluidic system is capable of generating highly reproducible results within many cycles of mixing/non-mixing conversion. We believe that the simple mixing-triggering method together with rapid and controllable mixing control will be extraordinarily valuable for various biological or chemical applications in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  8. InP-Based Heterostructure Design and Growth for Semiconductor Nanomembrane Optoelectronics on Si and on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2014-0015 InP-based heterostructure design and growth for semiconductor nanomembrane optoelectronics on Si and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE InP-based heterostructure design and growth for semiconductor nanomembrane optoelectronics on Si and on flexible substrates...on the realization of ultracompact microcavity lasers directly integrated on silicon. Using a stamp-assisted transfer-printing technology, silicon

  9. 基于钢管材料的现代金属家具创新设计%Mordern Metal Furniture Design Innovation Based on Steel Pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文芳

    2016-01-01

    The writer recalls the development process of steel pipe furniture, summarizes the innovative methods of modern furniture design, such as technology and process innovation, multifunctional design, composition and proportion of design, visual language design, and proposed the design direction of traditional culture elements combining with modern steel pipe material. The group designed steel pipe furniture quite similar but different from the prototype on the basis of the Ming Dynasty furniture styling and humanistic spirit analysis, through the decorative symbols simplifying and extraction. The traditional cultural elements weakens the cold sense of metal furniture, and enhances the cultural properties and aesthetic tastes. To get series of design, the group referenced modular design thinking, maintained the same frame, and only took the brain shape changed.%回顾钢管家具的发展历程,总结了现代家具的创新设计方法,如技术与工艺的创新,多功能设计,构成与比例的设计,视觉语言的设计,提出传统文化元素与现代钢管材料结合的设计方向。在对明代家具的造型特征和人文精神进行分析的基础上,对明代家具的装饰符号进行抽取和简化,结合钢管的造型特点,设计出与原型神似而形异的钢管家具。融入传统文化元素,弱化了金属家具的冷峻感,增强金属家具的文化属性和审美趣味。借鉴模块化设计思想,保持座面及框架不变,改变搭脑的形态获得系列设计。

  10. Systematic design of transmitter and receiver architectures for flexible filter bank multi-carrier signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Esteban; López-Salcedo, José A.; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2014-12-01

    Multi-carrier (MC) signaling is currently in the forefront of a myriad of systems, either wired or wireless, due to its high spectral efficiency, simple equalization, and robustness in front of multipath and narrowband interference sources. Despite its widespread deployment, the design of efficient architectures for MC systems becomes a challenging task when adopting filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation due to the inclusion of band-limited shaping pulses into the signal model. The reason to employ these pulses is the numerous improvements they offer in terms of performance, such as providing higher spectral confinement and no frequency overlap between adjacent subcarriers. These attributes lead to a reduced out-of-band power emission and a higher effective throughput. The latter is indeed possible by removing the need of cyclic prefix, which is in charge of preserving orthogonality among subcarriers in conventional MC systems. Nevertheless, the potential benefits of FBMC modulations are often obscured when it comes to an implementation point of view. In order to circumvent this limitation, the present paper provides a unified framework to describe all FBMC signals in which both signal design and implementation criteria are explicitly combined. In addition to this, we introduce the concept of flexible FBMC signals that, unlike their traditional MC counterparts, do not impose restrictions on the signal parameters (i.e., symbol rate, carrier spacing, or sampling frequency). Moreover, our framework also proposes a methodology that overcomes the implementation issues that characterize FBMC systems and allows us to derive simple, efficient, and time-invariant transmitter and receiver architectures.

  11. SWMM在保山市某区雨水管网设计中的应用%AppIication of SWMM in design of rainwater pipe network for Baoshan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖江; 施永生; 豆洁; 王东伟

    2015-01-01

    Taking the design of rainwater pipe network for Yongchang road Longyang district of Baoshan city as an example, the application of SWMM was discussed. Using Chicago rainstorm model to compare the re-sult of pipe section flow calculated by SWMM simulation method with that by runoff coefficient method, adjusting the design pipe diameter, and then, the simulation re-check of the design pipe network was carried out in larger recurrence interval. The results showed that, SWMM model could provide reliable data for the calculation of de-sign rainwater flow;therefore, it could offer new methods for rainwater pipe network design.%以保山市隆阳区永昌路雨水管道设计为例,讨论了SWMM的应用。采用芝加哥暴雨模型,将管段流量的模拟结果与径流系数法比较,对管道的设计管径做出调整。在较大重现期情况下,对设计管网进行模拟复核。结果显示, SWMM模型可以为计算雨水设计流量提供可靠的数据支持。该应用说明SWMM能为雨水管道的设计提供新的方法。

  12. Flexible workspace design and ergonomics training: impacts on the psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness among knowledge workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M

    2008-07-01

    A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings.

  13. Roll plus maneuver load alleviation control system designs for the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas B.; Miller, Gerald D.; Klepl, Martin J.

    1991-01-01

    Three designs for controlling loads while rolling for the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) are discussed. The goal is to provide good roll control while simultaneously limiting the torsion and bending loads experienced by the wing. The first design uses Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) modern control methods to control roll rate and torsional loads at four different wing locations. The second design uses a nonlinear surface command function to produce surface position commands as a function of current roll rate and commanded roll rate. The final design is a flutter suppression control system. This system stabilizes both symmetric and axisymmetric flutter modes of the AFW.

  14. Vieillissement du polyamide 11 utilisé dans les conduites flexibles : influence de la composition du fluide transporté Influence of the Chemical Nature of the Environment on the Aging of Polyamide 11 Used for Offshore Flexible Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubrich E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le polyamide 11 est utilisé comme gaine d'étanchéité interne des conduites flexibles de transport de produits pétroliers. Dans certaines conditions d'utilisation, celui-ci subit une dégradation de ses propriétés mécaniques et physico-chimiques initiales. Des échanges de matières s'établissent entre le matériau et le fluide transporté : des composés constitutifs du fluide (eau, hydrocarbures peuvent être absorbés par le polyamide tandis que le principal additif du matériau (le plastifiant est extrait. Cette étude, entreprise pour déterminer l'influence de la composition du milieu chimique sur les propriétés du polyamide 11, a permis : 1 De développer une nouvelle méthode d'analyse des matières diffusant dans le polyamide 11. Le principe de cette méthode consiste à réaliser une thermodésorption des différentes matières présentes dans le polymère et à les analyser en ligne par spectrométrie de masse à moyenne résolution (résolution = 3000. Cette méthode permet l'analyse quantitative simultanée du plastifiant résiduel, de l'eau et des hydrocarbures absorbés ainsi que la détermination de la répartition par familles chimiques de ces hydrocarbures. 2 De proposer un modèle prédictif du vieillissement du polyamide 11 dans des milieux modèles constitués d'eau, d'une coupe gazole principalement aliphatique et d'une coupe gazole principalement aromatique. La composition de ces différents milieux de vieillissement a été choisie à l'aide d'un plan d'expériences appliqué aux mélanges. L'influence de l'eau sur les propriétés mécaniques (diminution de l'allongement à la rupture et physico-chimiques (diminution de la masse moléculaire moyenne et augmentation du taux de cristallinité a été mise en évidence. Par ailleurs, quel que soit le milieu de vieillissement, à 140°C, le plastifiant est extrait du polyamide. L'influence du milieu aromatique sur la plastification du matériau a été d

  15. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  16. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...

  17. Optimum design and global analysis of flexible jumper for an innovative subsurface production system in ultra-deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Zhen, Xing-wei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Wen-hua

    2014-04-01

    The study focuses on the flexible jumper issue of Subsurface Tension Leg Production (STLP) system concept, which is considered as a competing alternative system to support well completion devices and rigid risers in ultra-deep water for offshore petroleum production. The paper presents analytical and numerical approaches for the optimum design and global analysis of the flexible jumper. Criteria using catenary concept are developed to define the critical length for optimum design. Based on the criteria, detailed hydrodynamic analyses including quasi-static analysis, modal analysis, and dynamic analysis are performed. Modal analysis with respect to the quasi-static analysis shows that the existence of resonant modes requires special consideration. The results of dynamic analysis confirm the effectiveness of the de-coupled effect from the jumper on STLP system. The approaches developed in the study also have wide application prospect in reference to the optimum design and analysis of any Hybrid Riser (HR) concept.

  18. A Design of Alternating Temperature Heat Pipe Adsorber%一种交变式三温区热管吸附床的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯梦娇; 孙文哲; 胡选哲; 顾晓勇; 侯龙

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis and environmental degradation become the problem that confronted by all over the world. Traditional refrigeration led to the deterioration of environmental problems. Adsorption refrigeration become the subject of the study as it is a green refrigeration technology. Objective discussion of adsorption refrigeration itself, there are still many deficiencies,in order to solve these problems,the combination of heat pipe and its scholars both at home and abroad to develop a series of new type refrigeration units,to a certain extent,and improves the deficiency of the adsorption refrigeration unit performance. At the same time broaden the application field of heat pipe adsorption bed system. This paper mainly introduces a design of alternating temperature heat pipe adsorber,this de-vice combined heat pipe with adsorption refrigeration,complementary advantages. This paper introduces the princi-ple and the system of experiment process, details in this paper, the design of the experimental device compo-nents. Finally we analysis the feasibility of the system and prospect for the future.%能源危机,环境恶化成为全世界共同面对的问题。吸附制冷作为一种绿色环保的制冷技术倍受青睐,成为众学者研究的课题。客观讨论,吸附制冷本身仍存在很多不足之处,为解决这些问题,国内外学者将热管与其结合研制出一系列新型制冷机组,在一定程度上缓解了吸附制冷的不足并提高了机组性能。同时还拓宽了热管吸附床系统的应用领域。本文主要介绍了一种交变式三温区热管吸附床的设计,该装置将热管与吸附制冷结合,优势互补。文中介绍了实验进行的原理及系统流程,详细阐述了实验装置各部件的设计细节。最后分析了其可行性并对其做了展望。

  19. Flexible design of fuel injection and ignition systems for gasoline direct injection engines; Flexibles Design der Einspritzduese und Effektivitaet von Zuendanlagen fuer Benzin-Direkt-Einspritzung-Motoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, H.; Yoshinaga, T.; Nakashima, T.; Sugiura, S. [DENSO Corp. (Japan); Saitoh, K.; Okabe, S. [NIPPON SOKEN, Inc. (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    First generation ''wall-guided'' DISI engines had stratified lean combustion with a wide spacing between the injector and spark plug. In these engines, however, the combustion timing tended to be too early, leading to the inability to achieve ideal efficiency from the thermodynamic process. One proposal to overcome the disadvantages of ''wall-guided'' DISI engines is second-generation ''spray-guided'' DISI engines. It has stratified lean combustion with a close spacing between the injector and spark plug. In ''spray-guided'' DISI engines, the air-fuel mixture formation is independent of gas flow and piston movement. This enables the most significant possibilities for decreasing fuel consumption. Nevertheless, stratified lean combustion has been criticized for the costs and complexity of the aftertreatment required to achieve particulate and NOx emissions compliance. As one response to this problem, there has been a shift toward DISI development specific to stoichiometric homogeneous combustion. In this report, we will describe DENSO's current status and the future of two critical technologies for DISI fuel spray and ignition. Specifically, we will describe a nozzle concept and a high-performance ignition concept. The first concerns a ''multi-hole nozzle with highly flexible spray formation,'' and the second concerns a ''multi-spark ignition system with a high degree of energy flexibility.'' In addition, we will describe advanced ignition methods involving a plasma and a laser ignition. (orig.)

  20. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error. The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the “safety factor”, as it indicated the degree to which the coating

  1. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sagar; Lo, Meng-Chen; Damodaran, Vinod B; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Shreiber, David I

    2016-03-04

    Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM) to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the "safety factor", as it indicated the degree to which the coating should be over-designed to ensure successful insertion. Probability color maps were generated to visually compare the influence of design parameters. Statistical metrics derived from the color maps and multi-variable regression analysis confirmed

  2. Development of pipe welding, cutting and inspection tools for the ITER blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Taguchi, Kou; Takiguchi, Yuji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, internal access pipe welding/cutting/inspection tools for manifolds and branch pipes are being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T329). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In the same way, a design concept of inspection head with a non-destructive inspection probe (including a leak-testing probe) has been developed and the basic characteristic tests are performed using welded stainless steel pipes. In this report, the details of welding/cutting/inspection heads for manifolds and branch pipes are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and inspection. In addition, details of a composite type optical fiber, which can transmit both the high-power YAG laser and visible rays, is described. (author)

  3. Enhancing propulsive efficiency through proper design of bending patterns of a flexible pitching foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Many aquatic animals propel themselves efficiently through water by oscillating flexible fins. These fins are, however, not homogeneously flexible, but instead their flexural rigidity varies along their chord and span. To detail the flow structures and propulsive performance of these functionally-graded propulsors a simple model of an unsteady pitching airfoil with a flexible hinge of varying location is examined. This acts as a first-order model of a functionally-graded fin by varying both the flexibility and bending pattern of the propulsor. Recent experiments have shown that adding a flexible 'tail' with the proper stiffness to a rigid pitching foil can effectively delay/suppress the formation of a deflected wake thereby enhancing the cycle-averaged wake momentum in the swimming direction. To extend these observations, we investigate the dependency of the wake pattern of a hinged pitching airfoil to the location and flexibility of the hinge by employing a fast boundary element method solver that is strongly coupled with a torsional spring structural model. The observed wake patterns are further connected to the thrust production and propulsive efficiency with the goal of determining the proper combinations of parameters that yields the maximum gain in efficiency. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  4. The design and installation of dynamic risers and umbilicals for the Atlantic Frontiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benstead, P.J.; Moore, F.; Holen, P.T.; Ekeberg, K.I.

    1996-12-31

    The Foinaven riser and umbilical system comprises 10 flexible pipes and 2 umbilicals and provides production, test, gas injection, water injection and control for two drilling centers. The design pressure for the system is 3,689 psi (254 bar g). The configuration of the risers is a ``pliant wave`` which is anchored to a gravity base structure by tethers and has buoyancy modules distributed along the lower end. The system is designed such that it can be released from the FPSO in extreme emergency conditions. The paper describes the design conditions, vessel interface, buoyancy modules, tether clamps and tether, flexible pipe design, umbilical design, schedules, subsea alliance, and installation.

  5. Design and fabrication of polymer-concrete pipe for testing in geothermal-energy processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.E.

    1981-07-01

    Polymer concrete is a composite material which has strength and durability characteristics greatly superior to those of portland cement concrete and better durability in hot brine than steel. Polymer concrete has been successfully tested in brine, flashing brine, and steam at temperatures up to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). Exposures were as long as 960 days. Glass-filament-wound polymer concrete pipe was developed with excellent strength, low weight, and a cost comparable to or less than Schedule 40 steel. Connections can be made with slip joints for low-pressure applications and flanged joints for high-pressure applications.

  6. High heat flux loop heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Mark T.; Sarraf, David B.; Rosenfeld, John H.; Maidanik, Yuri F.; Vershinin, Sergey

    1997-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) can transport very large thermal power loads, over long distances, through flexible, small diameter tubes and against high gravitational heads. While recent LHPs have transported as much as 1500 W, the peak heat flux through a LHP's evaporator has been limited to about 0.07 MW/m2. This limitation is due to the arrangement of vapor passages next to the heat load which is one of the conditions necessary to ensure self priming of the device. This paper describes work aimed at raising this limit by threefold to tenfold. Two approaches were pursued. One optimized the vapor passage geometry for the high heat flux conditions. The geometry improved the heat flow into the wick and working fluid. This approach also employed a finer pored wick to support higher vapor flow losses. The second approach used a bidisperse wick material within the circumferential vapor passages. The bidisperse material increased the thermal conductivity and the evaporative surface area in the region of highest heat flux, while providing a flow path for the vapor. Proof-of-concept devices were fabricated and tested for each approach. Both devices operated as designed and both demonstrated operation at a heat flux of 0.70 MW/m2. This performance exceeded the known state of the art by a factor of more than six for both conventional heat pipes and for loop heat pipes using ammonia. In addition, the bidisperse-wick device demonstrated boiling heat transfer coefficients up to 100,000 W/m2.K, and the fine pored device demonstrated an orientation independence with its performance essentially unaffected by whether its evaporator was positioned above, below or level with the condenser.

  7. Onset of Flow Induced Tonal Noise in Corrugated Pipe Segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudenko, O.; Nakiboglu, G.; Hirschberg, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Corrugated pipes combine small-scale rigidity and large-scale flexibility, which make them very useful in industrial applications. The flow through such a pipe can induce strong undesirable tonal noise (whistling) and even drive integrity threatening structural vibrations. Placing a corrugated

  8. Control of low-frequency noise for piping systems via the design of coupled band gap of acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfei; Shen, Huijie; Zhang, Linke; Su, Yongsheng; Yu, Dianlong

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation and sound transmission in a metamaterial-based piping system with Helmholtz resonator (HR) attached periodically are studied. A transfer matrix method is developed to conduct the investigation. Calculational results show that the introduction of periodic HRs in the piping system could generate a band gap (BG) near the resonant frequency of the HR, such that the bandwidth and the attenuation effect of HR improved notably. Bragg type gaps are also exist in the system due to the systematic periodicity. By plotting the BG as functions of HR parameters, the effect of resonator parameters on the BG behavior, including bandwidth, location and attenuation performance, etc., is examined. It is found that Bragg-type gap would interplay with the resonant-type gap under some special situations, thereby giving rise to a super-wide coupled gap. Further, explicit formulation for BG exact coupling is extracted and some key parameters on modulating the width and the attenuation coefficient of coupled gaps are investigated. The coupled gap can be located to any frequency range as one concerned, thus rendering the low-frequency noise control feasible in a broad band range.

  9. The design of ellipticity of tension reduce pass for steel pipe%钢管张力减径孔型椭圆度的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于俊春

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduced the ellipticity design method of tension reduce pass of Φ89mm welded steel tube unit which imported from German by Chengde Wanli Steel Pipe Co., Ltd. The design based on ellipticity calculation methods of the traditional circular and ellipse pass. The practice shows that the defects, such as inner polygonal of thick tube and folding ear of thin tube, are eliminated%介绍了承德万利钢管有限公司从德国引进的Φ89mm焊管机组张力减径孔型采用了介于传统椭圆孔型和圆孔型椭圆度计算的设计方法。此法消除了厚壁钢管内多边形和薄壁钢管挤入辊缝的缺陷。

  10. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  11. Offshore flexibility: marine engineering with polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, A.

    1996-12-01

    An overview of the use of polymers for a wide range of applications in the marine environment is presented. The use of polymers in offshore structures, flexible and rigid pipes, in composites (eg fibre reinforced plastic) for pipes and high pressure seawater injection lines, and in wellhead and downhole sealings is described. (UK)

  12. Design criteria for XeF2 enabled deterministic transformation of bulk silicon (100) into flexible silicon layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2016-07-15

    Isotropic etching of bulk silicon (100) using Xenon Difluoride (XeF2) gas presents a unique opportunity to undercut and release ultra-thin flexible silicon layers with pre-fabricated state-of-the-art Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. In this work, we present design criteria and mechanism with a comprehensive mathematical model for this method. We consider various trench geometries and parametrize important metrics such as etch time, number of cycles and area efficiency in terms of the trench diameter and spacing so that optimization can be done for specific applications. From our theoretical analysis, we conclude that a honeycomb-inspired hexagonal distribution of trenches can produce the most efficient release of ultra-thin flexible silicon layers in terms of the number of etch cycles, while a rectangular distribution of circular trenches provides the most area efficient design. The theoretical results are verified by fabricating and releasing (varying sizes) flexible silicon layers. We observe uniform translation of design criteria into practice for etch distances and number of etch cycles, using reaction efficiency as a fitting parameter.

  13. Control system design for flexible rotors supported by actively lubricated bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a methodology for calculating the gains of an output feedback controller for active vibration control of flexible rotors. The methodology is based on modal reduction. The proportional and derivative gains are obtained by adjusting the first two damping factors of the system...... and keeping the lengths of the two eigenvalues constant in the real-imaginary plane. The methodology is applied to an industrial gas compressor supported by active tilting-pad journal bearings. The unbalance response functions and mode shapes of the flexible rotor with and without active control are presented...

  14. Design of a Large-scale Three-dimensional Flexible Arrayed Tactile Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiang Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new type of large-scale three-dimensional flexible arrayed tactile sensor based on conductive rubber. It can be used to detect three-dimensional force information on the continuous surface of the sensor, which realizes a true skin type tactile sensor. The widely used method of liquid rubber injection molding (LIMS method is used for "the overall injection molding" sample preparation. The structure details of staggered nodes and a new decoupling algorithm of force analysis are given. Simulation results show that the sensor based on this structure can achieve flexible measurement of large-scale 3-D tactile sensor arrays.

  15. Design and Implementation of Flexible D-Statcom for Mitigating Power Quality Problems and Improve the Distribution System Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Lakavath,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed information about flexible D-STATCOM, which is used to mitigate and reduces all types of faults and operate as a Distributed Generation. When the main source is disconnected it supplies power to sensitive loads and doesn‟t interrupt the supply power to the loads. Thus D-STATCOM operates same as a flexible D-STATCOM and hence is known as Flexible D-STATCOM. The performance of Flexible D-STATCOM system is to mitigate power quality problems and improve distribution system performance under all types of system related disturbances and system unbalanced faults, such as Line-to-Line and DLG faults under islanding condition. 12-pulse D-STATCOM configuration is utilized with IGBT which is designed and is used in determining the graphical representation of the D-STATCOM using the software PSCAD/EMTDC electromagnetic transient simulation program. The reliability and robustness of the control schemes in the system is determined by the voltage disturbances occurred by Line to line and double line to ground faults and islanded operating condition are thus verified in the results obtained in simulation.

  16. Balance and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  17. Construction of a linker library with widely controllable flexibility for fusion protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Huang, Ziliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Bo-Jun; Guo, Ruo-Hai; Yue, Hong-Wei; Yan, Li-Tang; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility or rigidity of the linker between two fused proteins is an important parameter that affects the function of fusion proteins. In this study, we constructed a linker library with five elementary units based on the combination of the flexible (GGGGS) and the rigid (EAAAK) units. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation showed that more rigid units in the linkers lead to more helical conformation and hydrogen bonds, and less distance fluctuation between the N- and C-termini of the linker. The diversity of linker flexibility of the linker library was then studied by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion proteins, which showed that there is a wide range of distribution of the FRET efficiency. Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation of CFP-YFP with different linkers also gave identical results with that of FRET efficiency analysis, and we further found that the combination manner of the linker peptide had a remarkable effect on the orientation of CFP and YFP domains. Our studies demonstrated that the construction of the linker library with the widely controllable flexibility could provide appropriate linkers with the desirable characteristics to engineer the fusion proteins with the expected functions.

  18. Essays on the Design of Contracts and Markets for Power System Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    This PhD thesis consists of five essays on the economics of Power System Flexibility, a topic that has traditionally been addressed from a technical perspective by engineers, system planners, electricity industry stakeholders and energy policymakers interested in the integration of Variable...

  19. Designing Flexible Neuro-Fuzzy System Based on Sliding Mode Controller for Magnetic Levitation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohammadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel controller of magnetic levitation system by using new neuro-fuzzy structures which called flexible neuro-fuzzy systems. In this type of controller we use sliding mode control with neuro-fuzzy to eliminate the Jacobian of plant. At first, we control magnetic levitation system with Mamdanitype neuro-fuzzy systems and logical-type neuro-fuzzy systems separately and then we use two types of flexible neuro-fuzzy systems as controllers. Basic flexible OR-type neuro-fuzzy inference system and basic compromise AND-type neuro-fuzzy inference system are two new flexible neuro-fuzzy controllers which structure of fuzzy inference system (Mamdani or logical is determined in the learning process. We can investigate with these two types of controllers which of the Mamdani or logical type systems has better performance for control of this plant. Finally we compare performance of these controllers with sliding mode controller and RBF sliding mode controller.

  20. QuantPrime – a flexible tool for reliable high-throughput primer design for quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasniewski Miroslaw

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium- to large-scale expression profiling using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays are becoming increasingly important in genomics research. A major bottleneck in experiment preparation is the design of specific primer pairs, where researchers have to make several informed choices, often outside their area of expertise. Using currently available primer design tools, several interactive decisions have to be made, resulting in lengthy design processes with varying qualities of the assays. Results Here we present QuantPrime, an intuitive and user-friendly, fully automated tool for primer pair design in small- to large-scale qPCR analyses. QuantPrime can be used online through the internet http://www.quantprime.de/ or on a local computer after download; it offers design and specificity checking with highly customizable parameters and is ready to use with many publicly available transcriptomes of important higher eukaryotic model organisms and plant crops (currently 295 species in total, while benefiting from exon-intron border and alternative splice variant information in available genome annotations. Experimental results with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the crop Hordeum vulgare and the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii show success rates of designed primer pairs exceeding 96%. Conclusion QuantPrime constitutes a flexible, fully automated web application for reliable primer design for use in larger qPCR experiments, as proven by experimental data. The flexible framework is also open for simple use in other quantification applications, such as hydrolyzation probe design for qPCR and oligonucleotide probe design for quantitative in situ hybridization. Future suggestions made by users can be easily implemented, thus allowing QuantPrime to be developed into a broad-range platform for the design of RNA expression assays.

  1. Aeroelastic Analysis of a Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data analysis of a flexible wing wind tunnel model with a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap (VCCTEF) design for drag minimization tested at the University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory (UWAL). The wind tunnel test was designed to explore the relative merit of the VCCTEF concept for improved cruise efficiency through the use of low-cost aeroelastic model test techniques. The flexible wing model is a 10%-scale model of a typical transport wing and is constructed of woven fabric composites and foam core. The wing structural stiffness in bending is tailored to be half of the stiffness of a Boeing 757-era transport wing while the torsional stiffness is about the same. This stiffness reduction results in a wing tip deflection of about 10% of the wing semi-span. The VCCTEF is a multi-segment flap design having three chordwise camber segments and five spanwise flap sections for a total of 15 individual flap elements. The three chordwise camber segments can be positioned appropriately to create a desired trailing edge camber. Elastomeric material is used to cover the gaps in between the spanwise flap sections, thereby creating a continuous trailing edge. Wind tunnel data analysis conducted previously shows that the VCCTEF can achieve a drag reduction of up to 6.31% and an improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio (L=D) of up to 4.85%. A method for estimating the bending and torsional stiffnesses of the flexible wingUWAL wind tunnel model from static load test data is presented. The resulting estimation indicates that the stiffness of the flexible wing is significantly stiffer in torsion than in bending by as much as 9 to 1. The lift prediction for the flexible wing is computed by a coupled aerodynamic-structural model. The coupled model is developed by coupling a conceptual aerodynamic tool Vorlax with a finite-element model of the flexible wing via an automated geometry deformation tool. Based on the comparison of the lift curve slope

  2. Design of Pipe Material around Ionic Membrane Caustic Soda Electrolyzer%离子膜烧碱电解槽附近管道材质的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郅红虹

    2012-01-01

    To assure the long -term stability running properties Of the pipe matefiais around electrolyzer are highly ionic membrane electrolyzer licensors at home and abroad,analyzes their advantages and disadvantages, and it could provide reference for design.%为保证电解槽离子膜的长期稳定运行,电解槽附近的工艺介质管道对材质的耐腐蚀性要求非常高。综合比较了目前国际常用的离子膜电解槽专利厂家的选材及其优缺点,以供设计参考。

  3. 33 CFR 157.11 - Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pumping, piping and discharge... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.11 Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements. (a) Each tank vessel must have a fixed piping system for transferring oily mixtures from...

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-105 - Low-temperature piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low-temperature piping. 56.50-105 Section 56.50-105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-105 Low-temperature piping. (a) Class...

  5. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a)...

  6. 46 CFR 153.283 - Valving for cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valving for cargo piping. 153.283 Section 153.283... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.283 Valving for cargo piping. (a) Except as described in...

  7. 46 CFR 56.50-85 - Tank-vent piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank-vent piping. 56.50-85 Section 56.50-85 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-85 Tank-vent piping. (a) This...

  8. 49 CFR 192.193 - Valve installation in plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve installation in plastic pipe. 192.193... Components § 192.193 Valve installation in plastic pipe. Each valve installed in plastic pipe must be designed so as to protect the plastic material against excessive torsional or shearing loads when the...

  9. Critical velocity and dynamic respondency of pipe conveying fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the calculation of critical velocity, natural frequencyand dynamic respondency of fluid-conveying pipe are calculated under different boundary conditions using finite element method, and the use of calculation results to design and research rocket pipes feeding fuel and watery turbine pipes conveying water etc.

  10. Automatic Control Design of Rust Removing Device for Pipe End%管端除锈设备自动控制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建明; 邓志伟; 付雪强; 张世平; 江渊; 魏耀华

    2012-01-01

    In this article, it introduced the structure and functions of a new kind of SAW pipe end rust removing device, and expounded its working principle. At the same time, the full-automatic control technology of rust removing was designed based on SIEMENS S7-200 PLC. The productive practice proved that this automatic control design increased production efficiency, reduced failure rate and work labor cost, avoided unstable factors of manual operation, and realized stable rust removing quality.lt was in favour of HSE field management, and simple maintenance. Meanwhile, it avoided base metal scratch, increased rust removing quality. So it is applicable to widely promote in SAWH pipe industry.%介绍了一种新型螺旋埋弧焊管管端除锈设备的构造和功能,阐述了其工作原理,并基于西门子S7-200 PLC设计了除锈设备的全自动控制工艺.经过实际生产应用证明,管端除锈设备的自动控制设计提高了工作效率,维修、维护方便,故障率降低,更有利于HSE现场管理,避免了人工操作的不稳定因素,降低了劳动力成本,保证了管端除锈质量的稳定,同时,避免了母材划伤,提高了除锈质量,在同行业中具有很好的推广应用价值.

  11. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    as well as structural design. Material development was carried out considering both processing requirements as well as mechanical properties of the hardened material. A micro-mechanical model for the non-linear material behavior of the hardened material based on the stress-crack width or the $\\sigma...... itself. The structural modeling of the pipe was done making direct use of the $\\sigma-w$ material characterization. The processing technique developed is a novel type of extrusion combiningease of material mixing and few requirements for material pre-processingwith a high degree of accuracy and stability...

  12. Investigation of the Solvis stratification inlet pipe for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Jordan, Ulrike; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    plates inside the pipes (Davidson, 1992) or openings in form of balls (e.g. Leibfried, 2000) or flaps (e.g. described in Krause, 2001) have entered the market during the recent years. In this paper an investigation of a stratification pipe with openings covered with flaps according to (Krause, 2001...... these openings from the bottom of the store mixed with the heated water that flew through the pipe and thereby induced mixing in the tank during charging. More detailed investigations of the flow structure close to the flaps of the stratification pipe are presented in the following for one set of operating......). The aim pursued was to transport the heated water into the tank level of corresponding temperature. Flexible stratification pipes (manifolds) have been further developed for example by (Gari et al., 1982). Furthermore, a wide variety of non flexible tubes with either open holes and perforated vertical...

  13. Experimental investigations on an axial grooved cryogenic heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Muniappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with development and studies of a trapezoidal axial grooved nitrogen heat pipe. A special liquid nitrogen cryostat has been designed and developed for evaluating the performance of heat pipe where the condenser portion is connected to the cold sink externally. Experiments have been performed on the heat pipe as well as on an equivalent diameter copper rod at different heat loads. The steady state performance of the heat pipe is compared with that of copper rod.

  14. Modelling the performance of the tapered artery heat pipe design for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Austin Lewis

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents a computer program developed to model the steady-state performance of the tapered artery heat pipe for use in the radiator of the solar dynamic power system of the NASA Space Station. The program solves six governing equations to ascertain which one is limiting the maximum heat transfer rate of the heat pipe. The present model appeared to be slightly better than the LTV model in matching the 1-g data for the standard 15-ft test heat pipe.

  15. Synthesis and retrofit design of operable heat exchanger networks; 1: Flexibility and structural controllability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papalexandri, K.P.; Pistikopoulos, E.N. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology)

    1994-07-01

    A systematic framework for the synthesis and/or retrofit of flexible and structurally controllable heat exchanger networks is presented in this paper. Based on a multiperiod hyperstructure network representation, explicit structural controllability (total disturbance rejection) criteria are developed and included within a synthesis/retrofit mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, where a total annualized (operating and investment) cost is minimized. The proposed framework results in a network structure which features minimum annualized cost, while being (1) flexible to operate within a specified range (or discrete set) of uncertain stream flow rates, inlet temperature, and/or heat transfer coefficients and (2) structurally controllable for a given set of disturbances and control variables.

  16. An adaptive method with weight matrix as a function of the state to design the rotatory flexible system control law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luiz C. G.; Bigot, P.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most well-known techniques of optimal control is the theory of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). This method was originally applied only to linear systems but has been generalized for non-linear systems: the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) technique. One of the advantages of SDRE is that the weight matrix selection is the same as in LQR. The difference is that weights are not necessarily constant: they can be state dependent. Then, it gives an additional flexibility to design the control law. Many are applications of SDRE for simulation or real time control but generally SDRE weights are chosen constant so no advantage of this flexibility is taken. This work serves to show through simulation that state dependent weights matrix can improve SDRE control performance. The system is a non-linear flexible rotatory beam. In a brief first part SDRE theory will be explained and the non-linear model detailed. Then, influence of SDRE weight matrix associated with the state Q will be analyzed to get some insight in order to assume a state dependent law. Finally, these laws are tested and compared to constant weight matrix Q. Based on simulation results; one concludes showing the benefits of using an adaptive weight Q rather than a constant one.

  17. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-03-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  18. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsobky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF, which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC. The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC, a differential difference amplifier (DDA, and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  19. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsobky, Mourad; Mahsereci, Yigit; Keck, Jürgen; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.

    2017-09-01

    Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI) substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF), which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing) of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA) in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a differential difference amplifier (DDA), and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  20. BEAM PIPE IS INSTALLED

    CERN Multimedia

    The installation of the central section of the beam pipe into the heart of the  CMS was completed by 23 April. All the beam pipe elements have been successfully vacuum-tested and the bakeout started.  

  1. Methods for flexible sample-size design in clinical trials: Likelihood, weighted, dual test, and promising zone approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Weichung Joe; Li, Gang; Wang, Yining

    2016-03-01

    Sample size plays a crucial role in clinical trials. Flexible sample-size designs, as part of the more general category of adaptive designs that utilize interim data, have been a popular topic in recent years. In this paper, we give a comparative review of four related methods for such a design. The likelihood method uses the likelihood ratio test with an adjusted critical value. The weighted method adjusts the test statistic with given weights rather than the critical value. The dual test method requires both the likelihood ratio statistic and the weighted statistic to be greater than the unadjusted critical value. The promising zone approach uses the likelihood ratio statistic with the unadjusted value and other constraints. All four methods preserve the type-I error rate. In this paper we explore their properties and compare their relationships and merits. We show that the sample size rules for the dual test are in conflict with the rules of the promising zone approach. We delineate what is necessary to specify in the study protocol to ensure the validity of the statistical procedure and what can be kept implicit in the protocol so that more flexibility can be attained for confirmatory phase III trials in meeting regulatory requirements. We also prove that under mild conditions, the likelihood ratio test still preserves the type-I error rate when the actual sample size is larger than the re-calculated one.

  2. Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Validation of Novel Flexible Silicon-Based Dry Sensors for Electroencephalography Signal Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Hsin; Lu, Shao-Wei; Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2014-01-01

    Many commercially available electroencephalography (EEG) sensors, including conventional wet and dry sensors, can cause skin irritation and user discomfort owing to the foreign material. The EEG products, especially sensors, highly prioritize the comfort level during devices wear. To overcome these drawbacks for EEG sensors, this paper designs Societe Generale de Surveillance S [Formula: see text] A [Formula: see text] (SGS)-certified, silicon-based dry-contact EEG sensors (SBDSs) for EEG signal measurements. According to the SGS testing report, SBDSs extract does not irritate skin or induce noncytotoxic effects on L929 cells according to ISO10993-5. The SBDS is also lightweight, flexible, and nonirritating to the skin, as well as capable of easily fitting to scalps without any skin preparation or use of a conductive gel. For forehead and hairy sites, EEG signals can be measured reliably with the designed SBDSs. In particular, for EEG signal measurements at hairy sites, the acicular and flexible design of SBDS can push the hair aside to achieve satisfactory scalp contact, as well as maintain low skin-electrode interface impedance. Results of this paper demonstrate that the proposed sensors perform well in the EEG measurements and are feasible for practical applications.

  3. Heat pipe testing program test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, W.B.

    1980-03-14

    A test plan is given which describes the tests to be conducted on several typical solar receiver heat pipes. The hardware to be used, test fixtures and rationale of the test program are discussed. The program objective is to perform life testing under simulated receiver conditions, and to conduct performance tests with selected heat pipes to further map their performance, particularly with regard to their transient behavior. Performance requirements are defined. Test fixtures designed for the program are described in detail, and their capabilities for simulating the receiver conditions and their limitations are discussed. The heat pipe design is given. (LEW)

  4. Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna

    2012-08-01

    Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Heat Pipe Wicks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wick properties are often the limiting factor in a heat pipe design. Current technology uses conventional sintering of metal powders, screen wick, or grooves to...

  6. 49 CFR 192.107 - Yield strength (S) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. 192.107 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.107 Yield strength (S) for steel pipe. (a) For pipe that is manufactured in accordance with a specification listed in...

  7. 49 CFR 192.109 - Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. 192.109... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.109 Nominal wall thickness (t) for steel pipe. (a) If the nominal wall thickness for steel pipe is not known...

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section 56.50-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-25 Safety and relief valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping...

  9. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so as to prevent the accumulation of liquids in the holder, in connecting pipe, or in...

  10. Acoustic Signal Processing for Pipe Condition Assessment (WaterRF Report 4360)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unique to prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), individual wire breaks create an excitation in the pipe wall that may vary in response to the remaining compression of the pipe core. This project was designed to improve acoustic signal processing for pipe condition assessment...

  11. Design of Mobile Robot System for Pipe Trench Inspection in Nuclear Industry%移动式在役核管沟检测机器人系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益路; 颜国正; 王志武; 高鹏; 刘华; 姜萍萍

    2011-01-01

    针对核设施的安全检测,研制了适用于核工业在役管沟检测的移动式机器人系统.该系统由机器人本体、控制系统、图像采集系统等组成,在核工业在役管沟中的现场检测结果表明,该系统在一般的核污染环境下可正常工作,且能有效保障现场人员的安全;对于环境不明且存在隐患的管沟,采用移动式机器人检测能尽快排除隐患,这也是目前实现在役管沟检测的最有效途径之一;检测数据将为核工业在役管沟的整改以及下一代管沟的设计提供重要依据.%For the safety inspection of nuclear facilities, a mobile robot system was developed to examine the inuse pipe trench in nuclear industry. The system consists of robot, control system and image acquisition system.The inspection results of in-use pipe trench in nuclear industry show that this system can work normally under general nuclear contamination, and can also protect the related workers efficiently. For the pipe trench with unknown situation and latent danger, mobile robot's inspection can eliminate danger as soon as possible, which is regarded as one of the most efficient ways of examining in-use pipe trench. The inspection would provide critical reference not only for the rectification of pipe trench, but also for the design of the future generation of pipe trench.

  12. Co-crystallization with conformation-specific designed ankyrin repeat proteins explains the conformational flexibility of BCL-W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Johannes; Schöppe, Jendrik; Sauer, Evelyn; Plückthun, Andreas

    2014-06-12

    BCL-W is a member of the BCL-2 family of anti-apoptotic proteins. A key event in the regulation of apoptosis is the heterodimerization between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic family members, which involves a conserved surface-exposed groove on the anti-apoptotic proteins. Crystal structures of the ligand binding-competent conformation exist for all anti-apoptotic family members, with the exception of BCL-W, due to the flexibility of the BCL-W groove region. Existing structures had suggested major deviations of the BCL-W groove region from the otherwise structurally highly related remaining anti-apoptotic family members. To capture its ligand binding-competent conformation by counteracting the conformational flexibility of the BCL-W groove, we had selected high-affinity groove-binding designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) using ribosome display. We now determined two high-resolution crystal structures of human BCL-W in complex with different DARPins at resolutions 1.5 and 1.85Å, in which the structure of BCL-W is virtually identical, and BCL-W adopts a conformation extremely similar to the ligand-free conformation of its closest relative BCL-XL in both structures. However, distinct differences to all previous BCL-W structures are evident, notably in the ligand-binding region. We provide the first structural explanation for the conformational flexibility of the BCL-W groove region in comparison to other BCL-2 family members. Due to the importance of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family as drug targets, the presented crystal structure of ligand binding-competent BCL-W may serve as a valuable basis for structure-based drug design in the future and provides a missing piece for the structural characterization of this protein family.

  13. Nonlinear modeling, strength-based design, and testing of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large dynamic loads for rotorcraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadenham, Stephen; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    There has been growing interest in enabling wireless health and usage monitoring for rotorcraft applications, such as helicopter rotor systems. Large dynamic loads and acceleration fluctuations available in these environments make the implementation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters a very promising choice. However, such extreme loads transmitted to the harvester can also be detrimental to piezoelectric laminates and overall system reliability. Particularly flexible resonant cantilever configurations tuned to match the dominant excitation frequency can be subject to very large deformations and failure of brittle piezoelectric laminates due to excessive bending stresses at the root of the harvester. Design of resonant piezoelectric energy harvesters for use in these environments require nonlinear electroelastic dynamic modeling and strength-based analysis to maximize the power output while ensuring that the harvester is still functional. This paper presents a mathematical framework to design and analyze the dynamics of nonlinear flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large base acceleration levels. A strength-based limit is imposed to design the piezoelectric energy harvester with a proof mass while accounting for material, geometric, and dissipative nonlinearities, with a focus on two demonstrative case studies having the same linear fundamental resonance frequency but different overhang length and proof mass values. Experiments are conducted at different excitation levels for validation of the nonlinear design approach proposed in this work. The case studies in this work reveal that harvesters exhibiting similar behavior and power generation performance at low excitation levels (e.g. less than 0.1g) can have totally different strength-imposed performance limitations under high excitations (e.g. above 1g). Nonlinear modeling and strength-based design is necessary for such excitation levels especially when using resonant cantilevers with no

  14. Piping and tubing technology: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A compilation on the devices, techniques, and methods used in piping and tubing technology is presented. Data cover the following: (1) a number of fittings, couplings, and connectors that are useful in joining tubing and piping and various systems, (2) a family of devices used where flexibility and/or vibration damping are necessary, (3) a number of devices found useful in the regulation and control of fluid flow, and (4) shop hints to aid in maintenance and repair procedures such as cleaning, flaring, and swaging of tubes.

  15. Design of a micro-robot with an electro-pneumatic servo-actuator for the intra-pipe inspection; Conception d'un micro robot a actionneur asservi electropneumatique pour l'inspection intratubulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthierens, C

    1999-12-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are integrated in many current products and are not only the concern of military defence or medicine. Nowadays micro actuators are diversified by using different kind of energy, and creating different motions. Several applications require small systems to inspect confined and hostile places. Vapour generators in nuclear plants are composed with 3000 to 5000 vertical pipes of 17 mm diameter. These pipes endure high mechanical constraints and have to be inspected to detect eventual cracks. Our study is based on the design, modelling and implementation of a micro-robot enable to move up and carry sensors in these pipes. It moves as an inchworm and then is composed by 2 blocking modules that brace the robot on the pipe sides, and one stretching module that creates a step. This actuator is pneumatic and composed by metal bellows. By this original design, the micro-robot have a good power to volume ratio and thus it can carry a load higher than 1 kg. Its good positioning accuracy is proved with a 90 mm course where the error of positioning is less than 60{mu}m. A PID control law is used to control the robot but state feed back control law is planed. (author)

  16. Design Points for the Equipment and Piping Arrangement of Flammable Liquid Tank Farm%可燃液体罐区设备及管道布置设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧

    2015-01-01

    可燃液体罐区是化工装置不可或缺的重要设施,其设备选型、管道布置等在设计上是有较高要求的,正确的设备及管道布置对罐区起着至关重要的安全保障作用。本文以甲醇为例,介绍了可燃液体储罐的设计选型、容量确定、设备布置及与之相通管道的设计要点,可为今后的可燃液体储罐的相关设计提供参考与借鉴。%Flammable liquid tank farm is an indispensable facility in chemical devices. Equipment selection, piping arrangement etc. have to meet higher requirements. Correct equipment and piping arrangement play an important guarantee role in the safety of the farm. In this paper, the methanol plant was introduced as an example for the design of unit mode selection, capacity determination, equipment arrangement and piping arrangement. This will offer some references for the design of the equipment and piping arrangement in the flammable liquid tank farm.

  17. Flexible learning in the periodic system with multiple representations: The design of a hypertext for learning complex concepts in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Punyashloke

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation attempts to understand the complete process of instructional software design by looking closely at one iteration of the development of an educational computer program. FLiPS (Flexible Learning In the Periodic System) is a World Wide Web based multi-media hypertext for learning complex concepts in chemistry related to the periodic system of elements. The process of design begins with a theoretical argument for seeing the periodic system of elements as being a complex and ill-structured domain. A significant aspect of this argument is the introduction of certain non-standard representations of the periodic system and a demonstration of how these representations emphasize different aspects of the complex relationships between elements. The design of FLiPS is based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory---a cognitive theory that emphasizes the use of multiple representations for advanced learning in complex domains. A detailed analysis of the process of design of FLiPS is offered within the context of significant themes/perspectives on the design process. A significant part of the process of design is studying the manner in which different users interact and learn with FLiPS. Multiple means of data collection are used to understand the patterns of interaction and the cognitive processes of four students as they worked with FLiPS. This data is used to construct rich narrative profiles of the individual students: their backgrounds, beliefs, and process of working and learning. Analysis indicates that the importance of FLiPS as a learning tool seems to be dependent on the ontological and epistemological beliefs of the participants. This data is also used to generate recommendations for the further development of FLiPS. This dissertation argues that the design of technological artifacts such as educational software is a complex process involving a continuous dialogue between theory and practice; between constraints and tradeoffs; between designers and their

  18. Design and Trafficability Study of Flexible Wheel for Planetary Exploration Rover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen; GAO Feng; XU Guo-yan

    2007-01-01

    To reduce sending costs, a flexible wheel configuration is proposed. The wheel is made of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) in consideration of the planetary environment factors (i.e. strong radiation, big temperature differences, high vacuum), and mass constraint of launch vehicle. The advantages of the proposed wheel involves the potential for: ① small sending volume and mass, ② large deployed area and volume to reduce wheel loading, ③ a damping effect to smooth motion on rough terrain. To study the trafficability and tractive performance of the wheel concept, the drawbar pull and driven torque were calculated based on simplified model of terramechanics formulations. The results show that the wheel possesses sufficient drawbar pull to negotiate all types of soil stratums listed in this contribution.

  19. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ���±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  20. Design and Fabrication of Single-Walled Carbon Nanonet Flexible Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Kien Vu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel flexible strain sensor for real-time strain sensing. The material for strain sensing is single-walled carbon nanonets, grown using the alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition method, that were encapsulated between two layers of Parylene-C, with a polyimide layer as the sensing surface. All of the micro-fabrication was compatible with the standard IC process. Experimental results indicated that the gauge factor of the proposed strain sensor was larger than 4.5, approximately 2.0 times greater than those of commercial gauges. The results also demonstrated that the gauge factor is small when the growth time of SWCNNs is lengthier, and the gauge factor is large when the line width of the serpentine pattern of SWCNNs is small.

  1. Design of Hydraulic System for Embedded Double Pipes Amphibious Crane%内嵌双输油管两用起重机液压系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志珍; 倪学虎; 舒希勇; 王成龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on analyzing requirements of embedded double pipes amphibious crane to hydraulic system, the hydraulic system design thinking was put forward according to crane technical parameters and customers requirements. Calculations and type selections of the key hydraulic components; hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor, hydraulic cylinder, were completed. The hydraulic principle diagram was designed and the work principle of the hydraulic loop was expounded.%在分析内嵌双输油管两用起重机对液压系统要求的基础上,针对起重机技术参数及客户要求提出了液压系统设计的思路,对关键液压元件——液压泵、液压马达、液压缸进行了计算选型,给出了液压原理图,并阐述了起重机液压回路的工作原理.

  2. Numerical study of heat pipe application in heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Lin; Broadbent, John; McGlen, Ryan [Thermacore Europe, Ashington (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with extremely high effective thermal conductivity. They can be cylindrical or planar in structure. Heat pipes can be embedded in a metal cooling plate, which is attached to the heat source, and can also be assembled with a fin stack for fluid heat transfer. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchangers with heat pipes have become much smaller than traditional heat exchangers in handling high heat fluxes. With the working fluid in a heat pipe, heat can be absorbed on the evaporator region and transported to the condenser region where the vapour condenses releasing the heat to the cooling media. Heat pipe technology has found increasing applications in enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in microelectronics, energy and other industrial sectors. Utilisation of a heat pipe fin stack in the drying cycle of domestic appliances for heat recovery may lead to a significant energy saving in the domestic sector. However, the design of the heat pipe heat exchanger will meet a number of challenges. This paper presents a design method by using CFD simulation of the dehumidification process with heat pipe heat exchangers. The strategies of simulating the process with heat pipes are presented. The calculated results show that the method can be further used to optimise the design of the heat pipe fin stack. The study suggests that CFD modelling is able to predict thermal performance of the dehumidification solution with heat pipe heat exchangers. (Author)

  3. Proposal of a Self-baking Single-wall Design for the VI Section of the ATLAS Beam Pipe

    CERN Document Server

    Marco Olcese, MO

    2002-01-01

    A single-wall design for the VI section of the ATLAS beam vacuum chamber is presented. This design would allow for a major cost saving with respect to the current double-wall baseline. All the thermal implications and impact on the B-layer mudules are discussed.

  4. Design and Strength Analysis of A Spherical Connector for Lifting Subsystem in Deep Sea Mining System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ya-li; ZHANG Wen-ming; FENG Fu-zhang

    2006-01-01

    A flexible connector of lifting pipes in a deep sea mining system is designed. The buttress thread (based on API standard) is used and foreign experience in connector design is referred to. With this kind of connector, the lifting pipe will only bear the axial force, free of moment. The strength of the connector is analyzed in detail, including the connecting strength of the buttress thread, the dynamic load of the pipe system, pressures inside and outside of the pipe, the lateral stress of the pipe wall and so on. Especially, a geometric model is built for 3-D contact stress analysis. The distribution graph of contact stress is presented. It is indicated that the strength of the spherical connector meets the demand.

  5. Impedance modelling of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, M. Austin

    2016-03-01

    Impedance models of pipes can be used to estimate resonant frequencies of standing waves and model acoustic pressure of closed and open ended pipes. Modelling a pipe with impedance methods allows additional variations to the pipe to be included in the overall model as a system. Therefore an actuator can be attached and used to drive the system and the impedance model is able to include the dynamics of the actuator. Exciting the pipe system with a chirp signal allows resonant frequencies to be measured in both the time and frequency domain. The measurements in the time domain are beneficial for introducing undergraduates to resonances without needing an understanding of fast Fourier transforms. This paper also discusses resonant frequencies in open ended pipes and how numerous texts incorrectly approximate the resonant frequencies for this specific pipe system.

  6. A flexible and highly pressure-sensitive graphene-polyurethane sponge based on fractured microstructure design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong-Bin; Ge, Jin; Wang, Chang-Feng; Wang, Xu; Hu, Wei; Zheng, Zhi-Jun; Ni, Yong; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-12-10

    A fractured microstructure design: A new type of piezoresistive sensor with ultra-high-pressure sensitivity (0.26 kPa(-1) ) in low pressure range (<2 kPa) and minimum detectable pressure of 9 Pa has been fabricated using a fractured microstructure design in a graphene-nanosheet-wrapped polyurethane (PU) sponge. This low-cost and easily scalable graphene-wrapped PU sponge pressure sensor has potential application in high-spatial-resolution, artificial skin without complex nanostructure design.

  7. The design of thermal pipe monitoring software based on GPRS%基于GPRS的热力管网监测软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萍; 高腾; 刘兆峰; 高雪为; 詹鹏飞

    2011-01-01

    GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a mature commercial wireless communication technique. Its lower cost than other wireless communications (such as 3G) and high transmission rate make it have a good prospect for the application in the wireless monitoring & administration system. The methods for the design of the thermal pipes monitoring software base on GPRS has been put forward in this paper. The overall structure of the monitoring system, flow diagram of software design and some programs are given. Especially, the design adopts GPRS TCP/IP protocol to communicate, using the Winsock control in VB environment to achieve data receiving and Access database for management. The feasibility of this design is proved well by field applications.%通用分组无线业务GPRS技术作为一种成熟的商用无线通信技术,在无线监测管理系统中因其费用较其他无线传输(如3G技术)低,且传输速率高,而有着很好的应用前景.文章提出了基于GPRS的热力管网监测软件设计的方法,包括热力管网监测系统的总体结构图、具体的软件设计流程图以及部分程序,其中:设计的通讯部分主要采用基于GPRS的TCP/IP协议来实现,数据的接收是采用VB环境中的Winsock控件来实现;设计利用Access数据库对该监测系统的数据进行管理,其可行性通过现场使用得到了充分验证.

  8. The comprehensive pipe gallery design of Wenli avenue extension line in Hainan test area%海南试验区文黎大道延伸线综合管廊设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨湖平

    2015-01-01

    以海南国际旅游岛先行试验区文黎大道延伸线项目为例,重点介绍了综合管廊纳入管线的选择,管廊设计标准的选取,对浅埋式盖板沟结构综合管廊的横断面设计、平面布置、纵断面设计、各种节点设计、附属工程设计等作了详细阐述,提出了此类综合管廊管理意见。%Taking the Wenli avenue extension line project in Hainan international tourism island pilot test district as an example,this paper em-phatically introduced the comprehensive pipe gallery into pipeline selection,pipe gallery design criteria selection,elaborated in detail the cross-sectional design,plane layout,vertical section design,all kinds of nodes design,affiliated engineering design etc. of shallow buried type trench cover structure,put forward such comprehensive pipe gallery management advices.

  9. Development of Submersible Corrugated Pipe Sewage Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li; SHI Yan; TAN Yu-fei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of heat transfer for corrugated pipe,a method of calculating and de-sign on the submersible corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger was put forward theoretically and experimental-ly.The actual movement parameters of air-conditioning system used in this heat exchanger were measured.The experimental result shows that the quantity of heat transfer of the corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger can satisfy the building's load with the average coefficient of performance 4.55.At the same time.the quantity ot heat transfer of the corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger was compared with that of the other nonmetallic sewage heat exchangers(i.e.,the plastic-Al pipe sewage heat exchanger and PP-R pipe sewage heat exchanger)experimentally.It is found out that the effect of heat transfer for submersible corrugated pipe sewage heat ex-changer is superior to those of the plastic-Al pipe and the PP-R pipe.The quantity of heat transfer per mile of corrugated pipe sewage heat exchanger is 5.2 times as much as that of the plastic-Al pipe,and it is 8.1 times as much as that of PP-R pipe.

  10. A Framework for the Flexible Content Packaging of Learning Objects and Learning Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiak, Jason; Agostinho, Shirley; Burnett, Ian; Drury, Gerrard; Goodes, Jason; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori; Harper, Barry

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a platform-independent method for packaging learning objects and learning designs. The method, entitled a Smart Learning Design Framework, is based on the MPEG-21 standard, and uses IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) to provide bibliographic, technical, and pedagogical descriptors for the retrieval and description of learning…

  11. A Flexible System Level Design Methodology Targeting Run-Time Reconfigurable FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzet Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reconfigurable computing is certainly one of the most important emerging research topics on digital processing architectures over the last few years. The introduction of run-time reconfiguration (RTR on FPGAs requires appropriate design flows and methodologies to fully exploit this new functionality. For that purpose, we present an automatic design generation methodology for heterogeneous architectures based on DSPs and FPGAs that ease and speed RTR implementation. We focus on how to take into account specificities of partially reconfigurable components from a high-level specification during the design generation steps. This method automatically generates designs for both fixed and partially reconfigurable parts of an FPGA with automatic management of the reconfiguration process. Furthermore, this automatic design generation enables a reconfiguration prefetching technique to minimize reconfiguration latency and buffer-merging techniques to minimize memory requirements of the generated design. This concept has been applied to different wireless access schemes, based on a combination of OFDM and CDMA techniques. This implementation example illustrates the benefits of the proposed design methodology.

  12. Flexible Design for α-Duplex Communications in Multi-Tier Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    AlAmmouri, Ahmad

    2016-06-13

    Backward compatibility is an essential ingredient for the success of new technologies. In the context of inband full-duplex (FD) communication, FD base stations (BSs) should support half-duplex (HD) users’ equipment (UEs) without sacrificing the foreseen FD gains. This paper presents flexible and tractable modeling framework for multi-tier cellular networks with FD BSs and FD/HD UEs. The presented model is based on stochastic geometry and accounts for the intrinsic vulnerability of uplink transmissions. The results show that FD UEs are not necessarily required to harvest rate gains from FD BSs. In particular, the results show that adding FD UEs to FD BSs offers a maximum of 5% rate gain over FD BSs and HD UEs case if multi-user diversity is exploited, which is a marginal gain compared to the burden required to implement FD transceivers at the UEs’ side. To this end, we shed light on practical scenarios where HD UEs operation with FD BSs outperforms the operation when both the BSs and UEs are FD and we find a closed form expression for the critical value of the self-interference attenuation power required for the FD UEs to outperform HD UEs.

  13. Designing interlayers to improve the mechanical reliability of transparent conductive oxide coatings on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Yang, Chan-Woo; Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of interlayers on the mechanical properties of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on flexible polymer substrates. Indium tin oxide (ITO), which is the most widely used TCO film, and Ti, which is the most widely used adhesive interlayer, are selected as the coating and the interlayer, respectively. These films are deposited on the polymer substrates using dc-magnetron sputtering to achieve varying thicknesses. The changes in the following critical factors for film cracking and delamination are analyzed: the internal stress ({sigma}{sup i}) induced in the coatings during deposition using a white light interferometer, the crystallinity using a transmission electron microscope, and the surface roughness of ITO caused by the interlayer using an atomic force microscope. The resistances to the cracking and delamination of ITO are evaluated using a fragmentation test. Our tests and analyses reveal the important role of the interlayers, which significantly reduce the compressive {sigma}{sup i} that is induced in the ITO and increase the resistance to the buckling delamination of the ITO. However, the relaxation of {sigma}{sup i} is not beneficial to cracking because there is less compensation for the external tension as {sigma}{sup i} further decreases. Based on these results, the microstructural control is revealed as a more influential factor than {sigma}{sup i} for improving crack resistance.

  14. Designing interlayers to improve the mechanical reliability of transparent conductive oxide coatings on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Yang, Chan-Woo; Park, Jin-Woo

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of interlayers on the mechanical properties of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on flexible polymer substrates. Indium tin oxide (ITO), which is the most widely used TCO film, and Ti, which is the most widely used adhesive interlayer, are selected as the coating and the interlayer, respectively. These films are deposited on the polymer substrates using dc-magnetron sputtering to achieve varying thicknesses. The changes in the following critical factors for film cracking and delamination are analyzed: the internal stress (σi) induced in the coatings during deposition using a white light interferometer, the crystallinity using a transmission electron microscope, and the surface roughness of ITO caused by the interlayer using an atomic force microscope. The resistances to the cracking and delamination of ITO are evaluated using a fragmentation test. Our tests and analyses reveal the important role of the interlayers, which significantly reduce the compressive σi that is induced in the ITO and increase the resistance to the buckling delamination of the ITO. However, the relaxation of σi is not beneficial to cracking because there is less compensation for the external tension as σi further decreases. Based on these results, the microstructural control is revealed as a more influential factor than σi for improving crack resistance.

  15. Robust and flexible mapping for real-time distributed applications during the early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe; Pop, Paul; Gruian, Flavius

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in mapping hard real-time applications on distributed heterogeneous architectures. An application is modeled as a set of tasks, and we consider a fixed-priority preemptive scheduling policy. We target the early design phases, when decisions have a high impact on the subsequent...... implementation choices. However, due to a lack of information, the early design phases are characterized by uncertainties, e.g., in the worst-case execution times (wcets), or in the functionality requirements. We model uncertainties in the wcets using the “percentile method”. The uncertainties...... of taking into account the uncertainties during the early design phases....

  16. Model-Based Control Design for Flexible Rotors Supported by Active Gas Bearings - Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo

    Gas journal bearings have been increasingly adopted in modern turbo-machinery due to their numerous indisputable advantages. They can operate at higher speed than most bearing designs, almost without noise or heat generation and in most cases, as in this work, the gas used is air which is cheap...... work, the control signal design is based on a theoretical model. This approach enables easy modifications of any of the numerous physical parameters in the system if needed. The theoretical model used is based on a modifed version of Reynolds equation where an extra term is added in order to include...... frequencies and damping ratios of the rotor-bearing system) is performed and finally to design controllers that allows improvement of the dynamic properties of the rotor-active gas bearings system and lets the systemto safely cross the critical speeds, using the theoretical model as a design tool. The results...

  17. QuantPrime--a flexible tool for reliable high-throughput primer design for quantitative PCR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arvidsson, Samuel; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    ...) assays are becoming increasingly important in genomics research. A major bottleneck in experiment preparation is the design of specific primer pairs, where researchers have to make several informed choices, often outside their area of expertise...

  18. Design and simulation of CONWIP in the complex flexible job shop of a Make-To-Order manufacturing firm ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Romagnoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the design and integration of CONWIP in a make-to-order firm. The approach proposed was applied directly to the flexible job shop of a real manufacturing firm in order to assess the validity of the methodology. After the description of the whole plant layout, attention was focused on a section of the shop floor (21 workstations. The CONWIP system deals with multiple-product families and is characterized by path-type cards and a pull-from-the-bottleneck scheme. The cards release strategy and a customized dispatching rule were created to meet the firm’s specific needs. After the simulation model of the present state was built and validated, the future state to be implemented was created and simulated (i.e. the CONWIP system. The comparison between the two systems achieved excellent results, and showed that CONWIP is a very interesting tool for planning and controlling a complex flexible job shop.

  19. Interfacial modification to optimize stainless steel photoanode design for flexible dye sensitized solar cells: an experimental and numerical modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi Taleghani, Sara; Zamani Meymian, Mohammad Reza; Ameri, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    In the present research, we report fabrication, experimental characterization and theoretical analysis of semi and full flexible dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) manufactured on the basis of bare and roughened stainless steel type 304 (SS304) substrates. The morphological, optical and electrical characterizations confirm the advantage of roughened SS304 over bare and even common transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). A significant enhancement of about 51% in power conversion efficiency is obtained for flexible device (5.51%) based on roughened SS304 substrate compared to the bare SS304. The effect of roughening the SS304 substrates on electrical transport characteristics is also investigated by means of numerical modeling with regard to metal-semiconductor and interfacial resistance arising from the metallic substrate and nanocrystalline semiconductor contact. The numerical modeling results provide a reliable theoretical backbone to be combined with experimental implications. It highlights the stronger effect of series resistance compared to schottky barrier in lowering the fill factor of the SS304-based DSSCs. The findings of the present study nominate roughened SS304 as a promising replacement for conventional DSSCs substrates as well as introducing a highly accurate modeling framework to design and diagnose treated metallic or non-metallic based DSSCs.

  20. 报纸信函文件气力管道输送装置的设计%Newspaper letter file pneumatic pipe device design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that current post offices processed clients'newspapers, letters and documents only to u-nit's mailroom, then the worker of the mailroom sorted and sent them artificially, the course of delivery and efficiency cannot satisfy the requirements of high speed and high efficiency. At a angle of pneumatic transmission, by using the pipeline pneumatic handling installment to send the mails and the programming to realize the automatic control, a pneumatic pipe delivery system was designed. It can realize effective delivery of mails between sections of unit.%针对当前邮电局对许多单位的报纸信函文件仅送至单位的收发室,然后由收发室分拣后再用人工传达,不能快速高效地满足工作需要的现状.从气力输送角度出发,对收发室分拣后的报纸文件采用管道气力输送装置,并采用编程实现自动控制,完全可以高效地在本单位各部门之间的送达.