WorldWideScience

Sample records for flexible multi-bodies sensors

  1. Attitude and Configuration Control of Flexible Multi-Body Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Ki; Cochran, John E., Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Multi-body spacecraft attitude and configuration control formulations based on the use of collaborative control theory are considered. The control formulations are based on two-player, nonzero-sum, differential game theory applied using a Nash strategy. It is desired that the control laws allow different components of the multi-body system to perform different tasks. For example, it may be desired that one body points toward a fixed star while another body in the system slews to track another satellite. Although similar to the linear quadratic regulator formulation, the collaborative control formulation contains a number of additional design parameters because the problem is formulated as two control problems coupled together. The use of the freedom of the partitioning of the total problem into two coupled control problems and the selection of the elements of the cross-coupling matrices are specific problems addressed in this paper. Examples are used to show that significant improvement in performance, as measured by realistic criteria, of collaborative control over conventional linear quadratic regulator control can be achieved by using proposed design guidelines.

  2. Attitude and Configuration Control of Flexible Multi-Body Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Cho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-body spacecraft attitude and configuration control formulations based on the use of collaborative control theory are considered. The control formulations are based on two-player, nonzero-sum, differential game theory applied using a Nash strategy. It is desired that the control laws allow different components of the multi-body system to perform different tasks. For example, it may be desired that one body points toward a fixed star while another body in the system slews to track another satellite. Although similar to the linear quadratic regulator formulation, the collaborative control formulation contains a number of additional design parameters because the problem is formulated as two control problems coupled together. The use of the freedom of the partitioning of the total problem into two coupled control problems and the selection of the elements of the cross-coupling matrices are specific problems addressed in this paper. Examples are used to show that significant improvement in performance, as measured by realistic criteria, of collaborative control over conventional linear quadratic regulator control can be achieved by using proposed design guidelines.

  3. Flexible Multi-Body Spacecraft Simulator: Design, Construction, and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    required analysis. The first step in applying Pontryagin’s Principle is writing the control Hamiltonian: ( , , , ) ( , , ) ( , , )TH x u t F x u t f...of holes allows the adapter plate to be fastened to the MBSS top plate. 26 The base and link are designed to be modular and expandable. The link...https://www.quanser.com/products/2-dof-serial-flexible-joint/ 79 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 1. Defense Technical Information Center Ft. Belvoir

  4. Dynamic Behavior of Wind Turbine by a Mixed Flexible-Rigid Multi-Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Qin, Datong; Ding, Yi

    A mixed flexible-rigid multi-body model is presented to study the dynamic behavior of a horizontal axis wind turbine. The special attention is given to flexible body: flexible rotor is modeled by a newly developed blade finite element, support bearing elasticities, variations in the number of teeth in contact as well as contact tooth's elasticities are mainly flexible components in the power train. The couple conditions between different subsystems are established by constraint equations. The wind turbine model is generated by coupling models of rotor, power train and generator with constraint equations together. Based on this model, an eigenproblem analysis is carried out to show the mode shape of rotor and power train at a few natural frequencies. The dynamic responses and contact forces among gears under constant wind speed and fixed pitch angle are analyzed.

  5. Research on The Construction of Flexible Multi-body Dynamics Model based on Virtual Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z. H.; Ye, X.; Yang, F.

    2018-05-01

    Focus on the harsh operation condition of space manipulator, which cannot afford relative large collision momentum, this paper proposes a new concept and technology, called soft-contact technology. In order to solve the problem of collision dynamics of flexible multi-body system caused by this technology, this paper also proposes the concepts of virtual components and virtual hinges, and constructs flexible dynamic model based on virtual components, and also studies on its solutions. On this basis, this paper uses NX to carry out model and comparison simulation for space manipulator in 3 different modes. The results show that using the model of multi-rigid body + flexible body hinge + controllable damping can make effective control on amplitude for the force and torque caused by target satellite collision.

  6. A Synchronous Multi-Body Sensor Platform in a Wireless Body Sensor Network: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Yeongjoon; Wu, Wanqing; Lee, Jungtae

    2012-01-01

    Background Human life can be further improved if diseases and disorders can be predicted before they become dangerous, by correctly recognizing signals from the human body, so in order to make disease detection more precise, various body-signals need to be measured simultaneously in a synchronized manner. Object This research aims at developing an integrated system for measuring four signals (EEG, ECG, respiration, and PPG) and simultaneously producing synchronous signals on a Wireless Body Sensor Network. Design We designed and implemented a platform for multiple bio-signals using Bluetooth communication. Results First, we developed a prototype board and verified the signals from the sensor platform using frequency responses and quantities. Next, we designed and implemented a lightweight, ultra-compact, low cost, low power-consumption Printed Circuit Board. Conclusion A synchronous multi-body sensor platform is expected to be very useful in telemedicine and emergency rescue scenarios. Furthermore, this system is expected to be able to analyze the mutual effects among body signals. PMID:23112605

  7. A Synchronous Multi-Body Sensor Platform in a Wireless Body Sensor Network: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungtae Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human life can be further improved if diseases and disorders can be predicted before they become dangerous, by correctly recognizing signals from the human body, so in order to make disease detection more precise, various body-signals need to be measured simultaneously in a synchronized manner. Object: This research aims at developing an integrated system for measuring four signals (EEG, ECG, respiration, and PPG and simultaneously producing synchronous signals on a Wireless Body Sensor Network. Design: We designed and implemented a platform for multiple bio-signals using Bluetooth communication. Results: First, we developed a prototype board and verified the signals from the sensor platform using frequency responses and quantities. Next, we designed and implemented a lightweight, ultra-compact, low cost, low power-consumption Printed Circuit Board. Conclusion: A synchronous multi-body sensor platform is expected to be very useful in telemedicine and emergency rescue scenarios. Furthermore, this system is expected to be able to analyze the mutual effects among body signals.

  8. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency

  9. Creation of 3D Multi-Body Orthodontic Models by Using Independent Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Viviano Razionale

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the field of dental health care, plaster models combined with 2D radiographs are widely used in clinical practice for orthodontic diagnoses. However, complex malocclusions can be better analyzed by exploiting 3D digital dental models, which allow virtual simulations and treatment planning processes. In this paper, dental data captured by independent imaging sensors are fused to create multi-body orthodontic models composed of teeth, oral soft tissues and alveolar bone structures. The methodology is based on integrating Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and surface structured light scanning. The optical scanner is used to reconstruct tooth crowns and soft tissues (visible surfaces through the digitalization of both patients’ mouth impressions and plaster casts. These data are also used to guide the segmentation of internal dental tissues by processing CBCT data sets. The 3D individual dental tissues obtained by the optical scanner and the CBCT sensor are fused within multi-body orthodontic models without human supervisions to identify target anatomical structures. The final multi-body models represent valuable virtual platforms to clinical diagnostic and treatment planning.

  10. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  11. Flexible magnetoimpidence sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use[1]. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.

  12. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho N.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors's deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor's large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications. - Highlights: • A flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor is developed. • Studies are carried out using a flexible microstrip transmission line. • An MI ratio of up to 90% is obtained. • The effect of magnetostriction is studied

  13. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  14. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  15. Wearable Flexible Sensors: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2017-05-18

    The paper provides a review on some of the significant research work done on wearable flexible sensors (WFS). Sensors fabricated with flexible materials have been attached to a person along with the embedded system to monitor a parameter and transfer the significant data to the monitoring unit for further analyses. The use of wearable sensors has played a quite important role to monitor physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. The paper categorizes the work according to the materials used for designing the system, the network protocols and different types of activities that were being monitored. The challenges faced by the current sensing systems and future opportunities for the wearable flexible sensors regarding its market values are also briefly explained in the paper.

  16. Wearable Flexible Sensors: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides a review on some of the significant research work done on wearable flexible sensors (WFS). Sensors fabricated with flexible materials have been attached to a person along with the embedded system to monitor a parameter and transfer the significant data to the monitoring unit for further analyses. The use of wearable sensors has played a quite important role to monitor physiological parameters of a person to minimize any malfunctioning happening in the body. The paper categorizes the work according to the materials used for designing the system, the network protocols and different types of activities that were being monitored. The challenges faced by the current sensing systems and future opportunities for the wearable flexible sensors regarding its market values are also briefly explained in the paper.

  17. Flexible Temperature Sensors on Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sloma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used. Elaborated material was adapted to printing and dip-coating techniques to produce NTC composites. Nanotube sensors were free from tensometric effect typical for other carbon-polymer sensor, and demonstrated TCR of 0.13%/K. Obtained temperature sensors, compatible with textile structure, can be applied in rapidly developing smart textiles and be used for health and protections purposes.

  18. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti] 3 /Cu/[FeNi/Ti] 3 films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  19. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  20. A flexible infrared sensor for tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl; Thyssen, Anders; Engholm, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    We present a flexible infrared sensor for use in tissue oximetry with the aim of treating prematurely born infants. The sensor will detect the oxygen saturation in brain tissue through near infrared spectroscopy. The sensor itself consists of several individual silicon photo detectors fully...

  1. High Resolution Flexible Tactile Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Bilberg, Arne

    2011-01-01

    both spatial distribution of pressure and dynamic events such as contact, release of contact and slip. Data acquisition and object recognition applications are described and it is proposed that such a sensor could be used in robotic grippers to improve object recognition, manipulation of objects......This paper describes the development of a tactile sensor for robotics inspired by the human sense of touch. It consists of two parts: a static tactile array sensor based on piezoresistive rubber and a dynamic sensor based on piezoelectric PVDF film. The combination of these two layers addresses...

  2. Flexible heartbeat sensor for wearable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Wonhyo; Park, Kwang Bum; Kim, Kunnyun; Seo, Sungkyu

    2017-08-15

    We demonstrate a flexible strain-gauge sensor and its use in a wearable application for heart rate detection. This polymer-based strain-gauge sensor was fabricated using a double-sided fabrication method with polymer and metal, i.e., polyimide and nickel-chrome. The fabrication process for this strain-gauge sensor is compatible with the conventional flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) processes facilitating its commercialization. The fabricated sensor showed a linear relation for an applied normal force of more than 930 kPa, with a minimum detectable force of 6.25Pa. This sensor can also linearly detect a bending radius from 5mm to 100mm. It is a thin, flexible, compact, and inexpensive (for mass production) heart rate detection sensor that is highly sensitive compared to the established optical photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors. It can detect not only the timing of heart pulsation, but also the amplitude or shape of the pulse signal. The proposed strain-gauge sensor can be applicable to various applications for smart devices requiring heartbeat detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A screen-printed flexible flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschos, A; Kaltsas, G; Syrovy, T; Syrova, L

    2017-01-01

    A thermal flow sensor was printed on a flexible plastic substrate using exclusively screen-printing techniques. The presented device was implemented with custom made screen-printed thermistors, which allows simple, cost-efficient production on a variety of flexible substrates while maintaining the typical advantages of thermal flow sensors. Evaluation was performed for both static (zero flow) and dynamic conditions using a combination of electrical measurements and IR imaging techniques in order to determine important characteristics, such as temperature response, output repeatability, etc. The flow sensor was characterized utilizing the hot-wire and calorimetric principles of operation, while the preliminary results appear to be very promising, since the sensor was successfully evaluated and displayed adequate sensitivity in a relatively wide flow range. (paper)

  4. Flexible optical fiber sensor based on polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard

    Polyurethane (PU) based hollow core fibers are investigated as optical sensors. The flexibility of PU fibers makes it suitable for sensing mechanical perturbations. We fabricated a PU fiber using the fiber drawing method, characterized the fiber and experimentally demonstrated a simple way...... to measure deformation, in the form of applied pressure....

  5. Research for improved flexible tactile sensor sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hae Yong; Kim, Ho Chan [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Hwan [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    With the development of robotic technologies, in recent years these technologies have been applied to multidisciplinary fields of study. To operate similarly to a human being, many robot technologies require devices that can receive exterior stimulus, temperature, visual data, and the sense of smell, etc. The robot's hand needs sensor devices that can receive exterior stimuli in order to operate similarly to human skin. The flexible tactile sensor for the robot has to be manufactured to have a shape similar to the shape of human skin. The research studied the development of a system and materials that will enable exterior stimuli to be received effectively. This research used carbon nano tube as a material. Carbon nano tube is used because it has a high electrical conductivity and outstanding mechanical characteristics. In addition, the two composite Materials are used to improve the stimulation sensitivity at different rates, the flexible tactile sensor to measure the sensitivity. Using 3D printing technology, the fabrication of a flexible tactile sensor system is introduced.

  6. Research for improved flexible tactile sensor sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hae Yong; Kim, Ho Chan; Lee, In Hwan

    2015-01-01

    With the development of robotic technologies, in recent years these technologies have been applied to multidisciplinary fields of study. To operate similarly to a human being, many robot technologies require devices that can receive exterior stimulus, temperature, visual data, and the sense of smell, etc. The robot's hand needs sensor devices that can receive exterior stimuli in order to operate similarly to human skin. The flexible tactile sensor for the robot has to be manufactured to have a shape similar to the shape of human skin. The research studied the development of a system and materials that will enable exterior stimuli to be received effectively. This research used carbon nano tube as a material. Carbon nano tube is used because it has a high electrical conductivity and outstanding mechanical characteristics. In addition, the two composite Materials are used to improve the stimulation sensitivity at different rates, the flexible tactile sensor to measure the sensitivity. Using 3D printing technology, the fabrication of a flexible tactile sensor system is introduced.

  7. Development of flexible array tactile sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2010-01-01

    time data acquisition system scans all the cells and converts electrical resistance to tactile pressure maps. We validate that this information can be used to improve grasping and perform object recognition. Key words: piezoresistivity, tactile, sensor, pressure, robotics......In this paper we describe the development of an array tactile sensor for use in robotic grippers based on a flexible piezoresistive material. We start by comparing different cell structures in terms of output characteristics and we construct an array of cells in a row and columns layout. A real...

  8. Flexible Piezoelectric Sensor-Based Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most motion recognition research has required tight-fitting suits for precise sensing. However, tight-suit systems have difficulty adapting to real applications, because people normally wear loose clothes. In this paper, we propose a gait recognition system with flexible piezoelectric sensors in loose clothing. The gait recognition system does not directly sense lower-body angles. It does, however, detect the transition between standing and walking. Specifically, we use the signals from the flexible sensors attached to the knee and hip parts on loose pants. We detect the periodic motion component using the discrete time Fourier series from the signal during walking. We adapt the gait detection method to a real-time patient motion and posture monitoring system. In the monitoring system, the gait recognition operates well. Finally, we test the gait recognition system with 10 subjects, for which the proposed system successfully detects walking with a success rate over 93 %.

  9. A flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaemin; Seo, Dae Geon; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-06-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a capacitive-type flexible micro sensor for measurement of the human skin piloerection arisen from sudden emotional and environmental change. The present skin piloerection monitoring methods are limited in objective and quantitative measurement by physical disturbance stimulation to the skin due to bulky size and heavy weight of measuring devices. The proposed flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor is composed of 3 × 3 spiral coplanar capacitor array using conductive polymer for having high capacitive density and thin enough thickness to be attached to human skin. The performance of the skin piloerection monitoring sensor is characterized using the artificial bump, representing human skin goosebump; thus, resulting in the sensitivity of -0.00252%/μm and the nonlinearity of 25.9% for the artificial goosebump deformation in the range of 0-326 μm. We also verified successive human skin piloerection having 3.5 s duration on the subject's dorsal forearms, thus resulting in the capacitance change of -6.2 fF and -9.2 fF for the piloerection intensity of 145 μm and 194 μm, respectively. It is demonstrated experimentally that the proposed sensor is capable to measure the human skin piloerection objectively and quantitatively, thereby suggesting the quantitative evaluation method of the qualitative human emotional status for cognitive human-machine interfaces applications.

  10. CVD-Graphene-Based Flexible, Thermoelectrochromic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Januszko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea behind this work was demonstrated in a form of a new thermoelectrochromic sensor on a flexible substrate using graphene as an electrically reconfigurable thermal medium (TEChrom™. Our approach relies on electromodulation of thermal properties of graphene on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET via mechanical destruction of a graphene layer. Graphene applied in this work was obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD technique on copper substrate and characterized by Raman and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Electrical parameters of graphene were evaluated by the van der Pauw method on the transferred graphene layers onto SiO2 substrates by electrochemical delamination method. Two configurations of architecture of sensors, without and with the thermochromic layer, were investigated, taking into account the increase of voltage from 0 to 50 V and were observed by thermographic camera to define heat energy. Current-voltage characteristics obtained for the sensor with damaged graphene layer are linear, and the resistivity is independent from the current applied. The device investigated under 1000 W/m2 exhibited rise of resistivity along with increased temperature. Flexible thermoelectrochromic device with graphene presented here can be widely used as a sensor for both the military and civil monitoring.

  11. Flexible temperature and flow sensor from laser-induced graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Marengo, Marco; Marinaro, Giovanni; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    Herein we present a flexible temperature sensor and a flow speed sensor based on laser-induced graphene. The main benefits arise from peculiar electrical, thermal and mechanical performances of the material thus obtained, along with a cheap

  12. Development of Flexible Pneumatic Cylinder with Built-in Flexible Linear Encoder and Flexible Bending Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Matsushita, Hisashi; Fukuhara, Akimasa

    The purpose of this study is to develop a lightweight and intelligent soft actuator which can be safely attached to the human body. A novel flexible pneumatic cylinder that can be used even if it is deformed by external force had been proposed. The cylinder can realize both pushing and pulling motions even if the cylinder bends. In this paper, a flexible pneumatic cylinder with a built-in flexible linear encoder is proposed and tested. The encoder can detect the cylinder displacement even if the cylinder bends. In the next step, to realize an intelligent flexible cylinder, it is essential to recognize the angle of deflection of the cylinder to estimate the direction of the external force. Therefore, a flexible bending sensor that can measure the directional angle by attaching it to the end of the cylinder is also proposed and tested. The tested bending sensor also consists of four inexpensive photo-reflectors set on the circumferential surface to the cylinder tube every 90 degrees from the center of the tube. By measuring the distance between the photo reflector and the surface of the tube at each point, the bending directional angle of the cylinder can be obtained. A low cost measuring system using a micro-computer incorporating a programmed Up/Down counter to measure the displacement of the cylinder is also developed. As a result, it was confirmed that the measuring accuracy of the bending directional angle was good, less than 0.7 degrees as a standard deviation.

  13. Human-computer interface glove using flexible piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Youngsu; Seo, Jeonggyu; Kim, Jun-Sik; Park, Jung-Min

    2017-05-01

    In this note, we propose a human-computer interface glove based on flexible piezoelectric sensors. We select polyvinylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric material for the sensors because of advantages such as a steady piezoelectric characteristic and good flexibility. The sensors are installed in a fabric glove by means of pockets and Velcro bands. We detect changes in the angles of the finger joints from the outputs of the sensors, and use them for controlling a virtual hand that is utilized in virtual object manipulation. To assess the sensing ability of the piezoelectric sensors, we compare the processed angles from the sensor outputs with the real angles from a camera recoding. With good agreement between the processed and real angles, we successfully demonstrate the user interaction system with the virtual hand and interface glove based on the flexible piezoelectric sensors, for four hand motions: fist clenching, pinching, touching, and grasping.

  14. Flexible micro flow sensor for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Que, Ruiyi; Liu, Peng

    2017-12-01

    This article summarizes our studies on micro flow sensors fabricated on a flexible polyimide circuit board by a low-cost hybrid process of thin-film deposition and circuit printing. The micro flow sensor has merits of flexibility, structural simplicity, easy integrability with circuits, and good sensing performance. The sensor, which adheres to an object surface, can detect the surface flow around the object. In our study, we install the fabricated micro flow sensors on micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) to detect the surface flow variation around the aircraft wing and deduce the aerodynamic parameters of the MAVs in flight. Wind tunnel experiments using the sensors integrated with the MAVs are also conducted.

  15. Application of carbon nanotubes flexible strain sensor in smart textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong CHENG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart textiles have not only the necessary functions of daily wear, but also the intelligence. The focus of the current textile materials research is the selection of flexible material. For flexible materials, carbon material is one of the ideal materials for preparing flexible strain gauges. The application of flexible strain sensor prepared by carbon nanotubes as a flexible material in smart textiles is the research content. The research status of carbon nanotubes flexible strain sensor is introduced from the aspects of the structure, properties and application. The characteristics and functions of flexible strain gages prepared with carbon nanotube fibers and carbon nanotube films as flexible materials are discussed in terms of selection, preparation method, performance test and application. At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages of the flexible strain sensor of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from the aspects of preparation difficulty, production cost and practical application effect. High sensitivity with high strain will be a key research direction for carbon nanotube flexible strain sensors.

  16. Highly Sensitive Flexible Magnetic Sensor Based on Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguang; Wang, Xinjun; Li, Menghui; Gao, Yuan; Hu, Zhongqiang; Nan, Tianxiang; Liang, Xianfeng; Chen, Huaihao; Yang, Jia; Cash, Syd; Sun, Nian-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    A highly sensitive flexible magnetic sensor based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect is fabricated. A limit of detection of 150 nT is observed and excellent deformation stability is achieved after wrapping of the flexible sensor, with bending radii down to 5 mm. The flexible AMR sensor is used to read a magnetic pattern with a thickness of 10 μm that is formed by ferrite magnetic inks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Design of flexible thermoelectric generator as human body sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Shaowei; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2018-01-01

    Flexible thermoelectric generator (TEG) became an attractive technology that has been widely used especially for curved surfaces applications. This study aims an optimal design of a flexible TEG for human body application. The flexible TEG is part of a sensor and supplies required electrical power...... for data transmission by the sensor. The TEG module includes ink based thermoelements made of nano-carbon bismuth telluride materials. One flexible fin conducts the body heat to the TEG module and there are two fins that exchange the heat from the cold side of the TEG to the ambient. The proposed design...

  18. Fibre optic sensor on robot end effector for flexible assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, K.L.; Lau, W.S.; Choi, C.K.; Shan, Y.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fibre optic sensor system was constructed for use on robot end effectors for flexible assembly. The sensor detected the deviations between robot end effector and the workpiece. The signal was fed back to robot controller to shift the end effector until the centre of end effector and the centre of workpiece were aligned at the correct orientation. Then workpiece can be grasped symmetrically. Sensor fusion concept was used to guard against sensor system failure. Fuzzy linguistic variable and control rule concept were introduced in the sensor integration. The experimental setup for the sensor integrated system was shown. The accuracy was also discussed

  19. An Overview of the Development of Flexible Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-Ting; Peng, Haiyan; Sun, Qijun; Venkatesh, Shishir; Chung, Kam-Sing; Lau, Siu Chuen; Zhou, Ye; Roy, V A L

    2017-09-01

    Flexible sensors that efficiently detect various stimuli relevant to specific environmental or biological species have been extensively studied due to their great potential for the Internet of Things and wearable electronics applications. The application of flexible and stretchable electronics to device-engineering technologies has enabled the fabrication of slender, lightweight, stretchable, and foldable sensors. Here, recent studies on flexible sensors for biological analytes, ions, light, and pH are outlined. In addition, contemporary studies on device structure, materials, and fabrication methods for flexible sensors are discussed, and a market overview is provided. The conclusion presents challenges and perspectives in this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Development of flexible tactile sensors for hexapod robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum-Petersen, Mikkel; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of flexible based tactile array sensors based on piezoresistive rubber for use in the leg tips of hexapod robotics. The sensors are composed of a sandwich similar structure, with a piezoresistive rubber used as the middle layer and flexPCB electrodes...

  1. Flexible wearable sensor nodes with solar energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiyang Wu; Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-07-01

    Wearable sensor nodes have gained a lot of attention during the past few years as they can monitor and record people's physical parameters in real time. Wearable sensor nodes can promote healthy lifestyles and prevent the occurrence of potential illness or injuries. This paper presents a flexible wearable sensor system powered by an efficient solar energy harvesting technique. It can measure the subject's heartbeats using a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor and perform activity monitoring using an accelerometer. The solar energy harvester adopts an output current based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, which controls the solar panel to operate within its high output power range. The power consumption of the flexible sensor nodes has been investigated under different operation conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that wearable sensor nodes can work for more than 12 hours when they are powered by the solar energy harvester for 3 hours in the bright sunlight.

  2. Optical fiber sensors embedded in flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoe, Bram; van Steenberge, Geert; Bosman, Erwin; Missinne, Jeroen; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis; Webb, David; van Daele, Peter

    2010-04-01

    In traditional electrical sensing applications, multiplexing and interconnecting the different sensing elements is a major challenge. Recently, many optical alternatives have been investigated including optical fiber sensors of which the sensing elements consist of fiber Bragg gratings. Different sensing points can be integrated in one optical fiber solving the interconnection problem and avoiding any electromagnetical interference (EMI). Many new sensing applications also require flexible or stretchable sensing foils which can be attached to or wrapped around irregularly shaped objects such as robot fingers and car bumpers or which can even be applied in biomedical applications where a sensor is fixed on a human body. The use of these optical sensors however always implies the use of a light-source, detectors and electronic circuitry to be coupled and integrated with these sensors. The coupling of these fibers with these light sources and detectors is a critical packaging problem and as it is well-known the costs for packaging, especially with optoelectronic components and fiber alignment issues are huge. The end goal of this embedded sensor is to create a flexible optical sensor integrated with (opto)electronic modules and control circuitry. To obtain this flexibility, one can embed the optical sensors and the driving optoelectronics in a stretchable polymer host material. In this article different embedding techniques for optical fiber sensors are described and characterized. Initial tests based on standard manufacturing processes such as molding and laser structuring are reported as well as a more advanced embedding technique based on soft lithography processing.

  3. Robotic Hand Controlling Based on Flexible Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgin, Süleyman; Üser, Yavuz; Mercan, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    Today's technology has increased the interest in robotic systems andincrease the number of studies realized in this area.  There are many studies on robotic systems inseveral fields to facilitate human life in the literature. In this study, arobot hand is designed to repeat finger movements depending upon flexiblesensors mounted on any wearable glove. In the literature, various sensors thatdetect the finger movement are used. The sensor that detects the angle of thefingers has b...

  4. Flexible PVDF ferroelectric capacitive temperature sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naveed

    2015-08-02

    In this paper, a capacitive temperature sensor based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) capacitor is explored. The PVDF capacitor is characterized below its Curie temperature. The capacitance of the PVDF capacitor changes vs temperature with a sensitivity of 16pF/°C. The linearity measurement of the capacitance-temperature relation shows less than 0.7°C error from a best fit straight line. An LC oscillator based temperature sensor is demonstrated based on this capacitor.

  5. Pd thin films on flexible substrate for hydrogen sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztürk, Sadullah [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf University, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Kılınç, Necmettin, E-mail: nkilinc@nigde.edu.tr [Nigde University, Mechatronics Engineering Department, 51245 Nigde (Turkey); Nigde University, Nanotechnology Application and Research Center, 51245 Nigde (Turkey)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, palladium (Pd) thin films were prepared via RF sputtering method with various thicknesses (6 nm, 20 nm and 60 nm) on both a flexible substrate and a hard substrate. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) sensing properties of Pd films on flexible substrate have been investigated depending on temperatures (25–100 °C) and H{sub 2} concentrations (600 ppm – 10%). The effect of H{sub 2} on structural properties of the films was also studied. The films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. It is found that whole Pd films on hard substrate show permanent structural deformation after exposed to 10% H{sub 2} for 30 min. But, this H{sub 2} exposure does not causes any structural deformation for 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate and 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2} concentration without any structural deformation. On the other hand, Pd film sensors that have the thicknesses 20 nm and 60 nm on flexible substrate are irreversible for higher H{sub 2} concentration (>2%) with film deformation. The sensor response of 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate increased with increasing H{sub 2} concentration up 4% and then saturated. The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature. - Highlights: • Pd thin films fabricated by RF sputtering on both flexible and hard substrates. • Structural deformation observed for films on hard substrate after exposing 10% H{sub 2}. • 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2}. • H{sub 2} sensing properties of film on flexible substrate investigated depending on temperature and concentration. • The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature.

  6. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0–8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa −1 ) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading. (paper)

  7. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Hye-Mi; Sim, Jin Woo; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun; Chang, Won Seok

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate

  8. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Hye-Mi [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jin Woo [Advanced Nano Technology Ltd., Seoul 132-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jinhyeong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Department of Energy Science and School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won Seok, E-mail: paul@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate.

  9. Flexible PVDF ferroelectric capacitive temperature sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naveed; Omran, Hesham; Yao, Yingbang; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity of 16pF/°C. The linearity measurement of the capacitance-temperature relation shows less than 0.7°C error from a best fit straight line. An LC oscillator based temperature sensor is demonstrated based on this capacitor.

  10. FLEXIBLE PH SENSOR WITH POLYANILINE LAYER BASED ON IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Cheng-Hsin; Wu, Hsun-Pei; Chen, Cheng-Ho; Wu, Peng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    A flexible sensor with conducting polyaniline layer for detecting pH value based on the impedance measurement is fabricated and demonstrated in this study. The pH sensor consists of an interdigital electrode array on a flexible printed circuit and a thin-film polyaniline as the sensing layer. As the conductivity of polyaniline depends on the redox state, the impedance change of the polyaniline after it has reacted with different pH value solutions works as the sensing mechanism. In order to o...

  11. Sleep monitoring sensor using flexible metal strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Jinyong; Kim, Kunnyun

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a sleep monitoring sensor based on a flexible metal strain gauge. As quality of life has improved, interest in sleep quality, and related products, has increased. In this study, unlike a conventional single sensor based on a piezoelectric material, a metal strain gauge-based array sensor based on polyimide and nickel chromium (NiCr) is applied to provide movement direction, respiration, and heartbeat data as well as contact-free use by the user during sleeping. Thin-film-type resistive strain gage sensors are fabricated through the conventional flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) process, which is very useful for commercialization. The measurement of movement direction and respiratory rate during sleep were evaluated, and the heart rate data were compared with concurrent electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An algorithm for analyzing sleep data was developed using MATLAB, and the error rate was 4.2% when compared with ECG for heart rate.

  12. Field-effect enhanced triboelectric colloidal quantum dot flexible sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingju; Xu, Qiwei; Fan, Shicheng; Dick, Carson R.; Wang, Xihua

    2017-10-01

    Flexible electronics, which is of great importance as fundamental sensor and communication technologies for many internet-of-things applications, has established a huge market encroaching into the trillion-dollar market of solid state electronics. For the capability of being processed by printing or spraying, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) play an increasingly important role in flexible electronics. Although the electrical properties of CQD thin-films are expected to be stable on flexible substrates, their electrical performance could be tuned for applications in flexible touch sensors. Here, we report CQD touch sensors employing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) triboelectric films. The electrical response of touching activity is enhanced by incorporating CQD field-effect transistors into the device architecture. Thanks to the use of the CQD thin film as a current amplifier, the field-effect CQD touch sensor shows a fast response to various touching materials, even being bent to a large curvature. It also shows a much higher output current density compared to a PDMS triboelectric touch sensor.

  13. Temperature sensor realized by inkjet printing process on flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dankoco, M.D.; Tesfay, G.Y.; Benevent, E.; Bendahan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible temperature sensor was realized by inkjet printing process on Kapton substrate. • The jetting parameters were optimized to obtain evenly distributed silver coating layers and a large meander forming the sensor. • The Temperature sensor studied offers a good sensitivity, a good linearity and less than 5% hysteresis in extended measurement in the range of 20–60 °C. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to realize a printed and flexible temperature sensor to achieve surface temperature measurement of the human body. The sensor is a thermistor composed silver (Ag) deposited on a Polyimide substrate (Kapton HN). The meander was patterned by inkjet printing with a drop-on-demand Jetlab4 (Microfab Technologies Inc.). The resistance temperature coefficients have been studied in the temperature range of 20–60 °C with a range of voltage between 0 and 1 V. The stability versus time has also been measured without a sensor layer protection. The sensitive area of the sensor, silver lines width and the gap between the electrical conductors were, respectively 6.2 cm 2 , 300 μm, 60 μm. The mean temperature sensor sensitivity found was 2.23 × 10 −3 °C −1 . The results show a good linearity and less than 5% hysteresis in the extended measurement.

  14. Flexible Graphene-Based Wearable Gas and Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Eric; Meyyappan, M; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2017-10-11

    Wearable electronics is expected to be one of the most active research areas in the next decade; therefore, nanomaterials possessing high carrier mobility, optical transparency, mechanical robustness and flexibility, lightweight, and environmental stability will be in immense demand. Graphene is one of the nanomaterials that fulfill all these requirements, along with other inherently unique properties and convenience to fabricate into different morphological nanostructures, from atomically thin single layers to nanoribbons. Graphene-based materials have also been investigated in sensor technologies, from chemical sensing to detection of cancer biomarkers. The progress of graphene-based flexible gas and chemical sensors in terms of material preparation, sensor fabrication, and their performance are reviewed here. The article provides a brief introduction to graphene-based materials and their potential applications in flexible and stretchable wearable electronic devices. The role of graphene in fabricating flexible gas sensors for the detection of various hazardous gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ), hydrogen (H 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and humidity in wearable technology, is discussed. In addition, applications of graphene-based materials are also summarized in detecting toxic heavy metal ions (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including nitrobenzene, toluene, acetone, formaldehyde, amines, phenols, bisphenol A (BPA), explosives, chemical warfare agents, and environmental pollutants. The sensitivity, selectivity and strategies for excluding interferents are also discussed for graphene-based gas and chemical sensors. The challenges for developing future generation of flexible and stretchable sensors for wearable technology that would be usable for the Internet of Things (IoT) are also highlighted.

  15. Flexible MEMS: A novel technology to fabricate flexible sensors and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hongen

    This dissertation presents the design and fabrication techniques used to fabricate flexible MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) devices. MEMS devices and CMOS(Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) circuits are traditionally fabricated on rigid substrates with inorganic semiconductor materials such as Silicon. However, it is highly desirable that functional elements like sensors, actuators or micro fluidic components to be fabricated on flexible substrates for a wide variety of applications. Due to the fact that flexible substrate is temperature sensitive, typically only low temperature materials, such as polymers, metals, and organic semiconductor materials, can be directly fabricated on flexible substrates. A novel technology based on XeF2(xenon difluoride) isotropic silicon etching and parylene conformal coating, which is able to monolithically incorporate high temperature materials and fluidic channels, was developed at Wayne State University. The technology was first implemented in the development of out-of-plane parylene microneedle arrays that can be individually addressed by integrated flexible micro-channels. These devices enable the delivery of chemicals with controlled temporal and spatial patterns and allow us to study neurotransmitter-based retinal prosthesis. The technology was further explored by adopting the conventional SOI-CMOS processes. High performance and high density CMOS circuits can be first fabricated on SOI wafers, and then be integrated into flexible substrates. Flexible p-channel MOSFETs (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors) were successfully integrated and tested. Integration of pressure sensors and flow sensors based on single crystal silicon has also been demonstrated. A novel smart yarn technology that enables the invisible integration of sensors and electronics into fabrics has been developed. The most significant advantage of this technology is its post-MEMS and post-CMOS compatibility. Various high

  16. A flexible slip sensor using triboelectric nanogenerator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Liang, Jiaming; Xiao, Yuxiang; Wu, Yichuan; Deng, Yang; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Min

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of robotic technology, tactile sensors for robots have gained great attention from academic and industry researchers. Tactile sensors for slip detection are essential for human-like steady control in dexterous robot hand. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a flexible slip sensor based on triboelectric nanogenerator with a seesaw structure. The sensor is composed of two porous PDMS layers separated by an inverted trapezoid structure with a height of 500 μm. In order to customize the sensitivity of the sensor, porous PDMS was fabricated by mixing PDMS with deionized water thoroughly and then removing water with heat. Laser-induced porous graphene and aluminium are served as the pair of contact materials. To detect slip from different directions, two sets of the electrode pair were used. Experimental results show a distinct difference between static state and the moment when a slip happens was detected. In addition, the output voltage of the sensors increased as the increase of slip velocity from 0.25 mm/s to 2.5 mm/s. The flexible slip sensor proposed here shows the potential applications in smart robotics and prosthesis.

  17. Flexible pressure and proximity sensor surfaces manufactured with organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattori, M.; Cantatore, E.; Pauer, G.; Agostinelli, T.; Stadlober, B.; Gold, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of two large-Area active matrixes on foil for pressure and proximity sensing applications. Frontend circuits based on organic thin-film transistors on foil are laminated with screen-printed PDVF-TrFE piezo and pyro sensors to create the complete flexible sensing

  18. Low Cost and Flexible UAV Deployment of Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Yndal; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Hansen, John Paulin

    2017-01-01

    -collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility...

  19. Flexible PZT Thin Film Tactile Sensor for Biomedical Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jong Wu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g.

  20. Flexible PZT thin film tactile sensor for biomedical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hong-Jie; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Jong

    2013-04-25

    This paper presents the development of tactile sensors using the sol-gel process to deposit a PZT thin-film from 250 nm to 1 μm on a flexible stainless steel substrate. The PZT thin-film tactile sensor can be used to measure human pulses from several areas, including carotid, brachial, finger, ankle, radial artery, and the apical region. Flexible PZT tactile sensors can overcome the diverse topology of various human regions and sense the corresponding signals from human bodies. The measured arterial pulse waveform can be used to diagnose hypertension and cardiac failure in patients. The proposed sensors have several advantages, such as flexibility, reliability, high strain, low cost, simple fabrication, and low temperature processing. The PZT thin-film deposition process includes a pyrolysis process at 150 °C/500 °C for 10/5 min, followed by an annealing process at 650 °C for 10 min. Finally, the consistent pulse wave velocity (PWV) was demonstrated based on human pulse measurements from apical to radial, brachial to radial, and radial to ankle. It is characterized that the sensitivity of our PZT-based tactile sensor was approximately 0.798 mV/g.

  1. Parametric Optimization of Lateral NIPIN Phototransistors for Flexible Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Seok Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Curved image sensors, which are a key component in bio-inspired imaging systems, have been widely studied because they can improve an imaging system in various aspects such as low optical aberrations, small-form, and simple optics configuration. Many methods and materials to realize a curvilinear imager have been proposed to address the drawbacks of conventional imaging/optical systems. However, there have been few theoretical studies in terms of electronics on the use of a lateral photodetector as a flexible image sensor. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of a Si-based lateral phototransistor as the pixel of a high-efficiency curved photodetector by conducting various electrical simulations with technology computer aided design (TCAD. The single phototransistor is analyzed with different device parameters: the thickness of the active cell, doping concentration, and structure geometry. This work presents a method to improve the external quantum efficiency (EQE, linear dynamic range (LDR, and mechanical stability of the phototransistor. We also evaluated the dark current in a matrix form of phototransistors to estimate the feasibility of the device as a flexible image sensor. Moreover, we fabricated and demonstrated an array of phototransistors based on our study. The theoretical study and design guidelines of a lateral phototransistor create new opportunities in flexible image sensors.

  2. Flexible temperature and flow sensor from laser-induced graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Marengo, Marco

    2017-12-25

    Herein we present a flexible temperature sensor and a flow speed sensor based on laser-induced graphene. The main benefits arise from peculiar electrical, thermal and mechanical performances of the material thus obtained, along with a cheap and simple fabrication process. The temperature sensor is a negative temperature coefficient thermistor with non-linear response typical of semi-metals. The thermistor shows a 4% decrease of the resistance in a temperature range of 20–60 °C. The flow sensor exploits the piezoresistive properties of laser-induced graphene and can be used both in gaseous and liquid media thanks to a protective polydimethylsiloxane coating. Main characteristics are ultra-fast response and versatility in design offered by the laser technology.

  3. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-10-16

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  4. Flexible textile-based strain sensor induced by contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the contact effects are used as the key sensing element to develop flexible textile-structured strain sensors. The structures of the contact are analyzed theoretically and the contact resistances are investigated experimentally. The electromechanical properties of the textiles are investigated to find the key factors which determine the sensitivity, repeatability, and linearity of the sensor. The sensing mechanism is based on the change of contact resistance induced by the change of the configuration of the textiles. In order to improve the performance of the textile strain sensor, the contact resistance is designed based on the electromechanical properties of the fabric. It can be seen from the results that the performance of the sensor is largely affected by the structure of the contacts, which are determined by the morphology of fiber surface and the structures of the yarn and fabric. (paper)

  5. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  6. A ph sensor based on a flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Ding

    pH sensor is an essential component used in many chemical, food, and bio-material industries. Conventional glass electrodes have been used to construct pH sensors, however, have some disadvantages. Glass electrodes are easily affected by alkaline or HF solution, they require a high input impedance pH meter, they often exhibit a sluggish response. In some specific applications, it is also difficult to use glass electrodes for in vivo biomedical or food monitoring applications due to the difficulty of size miniaturization, planarization and polymerization based on current manufacturing technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel flexible pH sensor based on low-cost sol-gel fabrication process of iridium oxide (IrOx) sensing film (IROF). A pair of flexible miniature IrOx/AgCl electrode generated the action potential from the solution by electrochemical mechanism to obtain the pH level of the reagent. The fabrication process including sol-gel, thermal oxidation, and the electro-plating process of the silver chloride (AgCl) reference electrode were reported in the work. The IrOx film was verified and characterized using electron dispersive analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The flexible pH sensor's performance and characterization have been investigated with different testing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity and temperature dependence. The flexible IrOx pH sensors exhibited promising sensing performance with a near-Nernstian response of sensitivity which is between --51.1mV/pH and --51.7mV/pH in different pH levels ranging from 1.5 to 12 at 25°C. Two applications including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosis and food freshness wireless monitoring using our micro-flexible IrOx pH sensors were demonstrated. For the GERD diagnosing system, we embedded the micro flexible pH sensor on a 1.2cmx3.8cm of the capsule size of wireless sensor

  7. A flexible wearable sensor for knee flexion assessment during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Enrica; Bo, Yen Nee; McGregor, Alison H

    2018-05-01

    Gait analysis plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with movement disorders but it is usually performed within a laboratory. Recently interest has shifted towards the possibility of conducting gait assessments in everyday environments thus facilitating long-term monitoring. This is possible by using wearable technologies rather than laboratory based equipment. This study aims to validate a novel wearable sensor system's ability to measure peak knee sagittal angles during gait. The proposed system comprises a flexible conductive polymer unit interfaced with a wireless acquisition node attached over the knee on a pair of leggings. Sixteen healthy volunteers participated to two gait assessments on separate occasions. Data was simultaneously collected from the novel sensor and a gold standard 10 camera motion capture system. The relationship between sensor signal and reference knee flexion angles was defined for each subject to allow the transformation of sensor voltage outputs to angular measures (degrees). The knee peak flexion angle from the sensor and reference system were compared by means of root mean square error (RMSE), absolute error, Bland-Altman plots and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) to assess test-retest reliability. Comparisons of knee peak flexion angles calculated from the sensor and gold standard yielded an absolute error of 0.35(±2.9°) and RMSE of 1.2(±0.4)°. Good agreement was found between the two systems with the majority of data lying within the limits of agreement. The sensor demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICCs>0.8). These results show the ability of the sensor to monitor knee peak sagittal angles with small margins of error and in agreement with the gold standard system. The sensor has potential to be used in clinical settings as a discreet, unobtrusive wearable device allowing for long-term gait analysis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrathin flexible piezoelectric sensors for monitoring eye fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chaofeng; Wu, Shuang; Lu, Bingwei; Zhang, Yangyang; Du, Yangkun; Feng, Xue

    2018-02-01

    Eye fatigue is a symptom induced by long-term work of both eyes and brains. Without proper treatment, eye fatigue may incur serious problems. Current studies on detecting eye fatigue mainly focus on computer vision detect technology which can be very unreliable due to occasional bad visual conditions. As a solution, we proposed a wearable conformal in vivo eye fatigue monitoring sensor that contains an array of piezoelectric nanoribbons integrated on an ultrathin flexible substrate. By detecting strains on the skin of eyelid, the sensors may collect information about eye blinking, and, therefore, reveal human’s fatigue state. We first report the design and fabrication of the piezoelectric sensor and experimental characterization of voltage responses of the piezoelectric sensors. Under bending stress, the output voltage curves yield key information about the motion of human eyelid. We also develop a theoretical model to reveal the underlying mechanism of detecting eyelid motion. Both mechanical load test and in vivo test are conducted to convince the working performance of the sensors. With satisfied durability and high sensitivity, this sensor may efficiently detect abnormal eyelid motions, such as overlong closure, high blinking frequency, low closing speed and weak gazing strength, and may hopefully provide feedback for assessing eye fatigue in time so that unexpected situations can be prevented.

  9. Flexible Graphene Transistor Architecture for Optical Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Richard Christopher

    The unique electrical and optoelectronic properties of graphene allow tunable conductivity and broadband electromagnetic absorption that spans the ultraviolet and infrared regimes. However, in the current state-of-art graphene sensor architectures, junction resistance and doping concentration are predominant factors that affect signal strength and sensitivity. Unfortunately, graphene produces high contact resistances with standard electrode materials ( few kilo-ohms), therefore, signal is weak and large carrier concentrations are required to probe sensitivity. Moreover, the atomic thickness of graphene enables the potential for flexible electronics, but there has not been a successful graphene sensor architecture that demonstrates stable operation on flexible substrates and with minimal fabrication cost. In this study, the author explores a novel 3-terminal transistor architecture that integrates twodimensional graphene, liquid metal, and electrolytic gate dielectrics (LM-GFETs: Liquid Metal and Graphene Field-Effect Transistors ). The goal is to deliver a sensitive, flexible, and lightweight transistor architecture that will improve sensor technology and maneuverability. The reported high thermal conductivity of graphene provides potential for room-temperature thermal management without the need of thermal-electric and gas cooling systems that are standard in sensor platforms. Liquid metals provide a unique opportunity for conformal electrodes that maximize surface area contact, therefore, enable flexibility, lower contact resistance, and reduce damage to the graphene materials involved. Lastly, electrolytic gate dielectrics provide conformability and high capacitances needed for high on/off rations and electrostatic gating. Results demonstrated that with minimal fabrication steps the proposed flexible graphene transistor architecture demonstrated ambipolar current-voltage transfer characteristics that are comparable to the current state-of-the-art. An additional

  10. Flexible and disposable plasmonic refractive index sensor using nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Saswat; Moirangthem, Rakesh S.

    2018-03-01

    Nanostructure based plasmonic sensors are highly demanding in various areas due to their label-free and real-time detection capability. In this work, we developed an inexpensive flexible plasmonic sensor using optical disc nanograting via soft UV-nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL). The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp was used to transfer the nanograting structure from digital versatile discs (DVDs) to flexible and transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Further, the plasmonic sensing substrate was obtained after coating a gold thin film on the top of the imprinted sample. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) modes excited on gold coated nanograting structure appeared as a dip in the reflectance spectra measured at normal incident of white light in ambient air medium. Electromagnetic simulation based on finite element method (FEM) was used to understand and analyze the excited SPR modes and it is a very close agreement with the experimental results. The bulk refractive index (RI) sensing was performed by the sensor chip using water-glycerol mixture with different concentrations. Experimentally, the bulk RI sensitivity was found to be 797+/-17 nm/RIU.

  11. Low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Samatha; Basu, Palash Kumar; Bhat, Navakanta

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach of fabricating a low-cost and low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate sheets for sensing CO, SO2, H2 and NO2 gases. The array has four sensor elements with an integrated microheater which can be individually controlled enabling the monitoring of four gases. The thermal properties of the microheater characterized by IR imaging are presented. The microheater with an active area of 15 µm  ×  5 µm reaches a temperature of 300 °C, consuming 2 mW power, the lowest reported on flexible substrates. A sensing electrode is patterned on top of the microheater, and a nanogap (100 nm) is created by an electromigration process. This nanogap is bridged by four sensing materials doped with platinum, deposited using a solution dispensing technique. The sensing material characterization is completed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The sensing characteristics of ZnO for CO, V2O5 for SO2, SnO2 for H2 and WO3 for NO2 gases are studied at different microheater voltages. The sensing characteristics of ZnO at different bending angles is also studied, which shows that the microheater and the sensing material are intact without any breaking upto a bending angle of 20°. The ZnO CO sensor shows sensitivity of 146.2% at 1 ppm with good selectivity.

  12. New recording package for VACM provides sensor flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, William J.; Worrilow, S. E.; Fucile, S. E.; Martini, Marinna A.

    1994-01-01

    For the past three decades, the VACM has been a standard for ocean current measurements. A VACM is a true vector-averaging instrument that computes north and east current vectors and averages temperature continuously over a specified interval. It keeps a running total of rotor counts, and records one-shot samples of compass, vane position and time. Adding peripheral sensors to the data stream was easy. In today's economy, it seems imperative that operational centers concentrate on upgrading present inventory rather than purchasing newer instruments that often fall short of the flexible measurement platforms with high data capacities required by most researchers today. PCMCIA cards are rapidly becoming an industry standard with a wide range of storage capacities. By upgrading the VACM to a PCMCIA storage system with a flexible microprocessor, the VACM should continue to be a viable instrument into the next century

  13. Flexible carbon nanotube sensors for nerve agent simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattanach, Kyle; Kulkarni, Rashmi D; Kozlov, Mikhail; Manohar, Sanjeev K [Alan G MacDiarmid Center for Innovation, Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson 75083-0688 (United States)

    2006-08-28

    Chemiresistor-based vapour sensors made from network films of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles on flexible plastic substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET) can be used to detect chemical warfare agent simulants for the nerve agents Sarin (diisopropyl methylphosphonate, DIMP) and Soman (dimethyl methylphosphonate, DMMP). Large, reproducible resistance changes (75-150%), are observed upon exposure to DIMP or DMMP vapours, and concentrations as low as 25 ppm can be detected. Robust sensor response to simulant vapours is observed even in the presence of large equilibrium concentrations of interferent vapours commonly found in battle-space environments, such as hexane, xylene and water (10 000 ppm each), suggesting that both DIMP and DMMP vapours are capable of selectively displacing other vapours from the walls of the SWNTs. Response to these interferent vapours can be effectively filtered out by using a 2 {mu}m thick barrier film of the chemoselective polymer polyisobutylene (PIB) on the SWNT surface. These network films are composed of a 1-2 {mu}m thick non-woven mesh of SWNT bundles (15-30 nm diameter), whose sensor response is qualitatively and quantitatively different from previous studies on individual SWNTs, or a network of individual SWNTs, suggesting that vapour sorption at interbundle sites could be playing an important role. This study also shows that the line patterning method used in device fabrication to obtain any desired pattern of films of SWNTs on flexible substrates can be used to rapidly screen simulants at high concentrations before developing more complicated sensor systems.

  14. Flexible Sensors for Pressure Therapy: Effect of Substrate Curvature and Stiffness on Sensor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevych, Iryna; Parmar, Suresh; Troynikov, Olga

    2017-10-20

    Flexible pressure sensors are increasingly being used in medical and non-medical applications, and particularly in innovative health monitoring. Their efficacy in medical applications such as compression therapy depends on the accuracy and repeatability of their output, which in turn depend on factors such as sensor type, shape, pressure range, and conformability of the sensor to the body surface. Numerous researchers have examined the effects of sensor type and shape, but little information is available on the effect of human body parameters such as support surfaces' curvature and the stiffness of soft tissues on pressure sensing performance. We investigated the effects of body parameters on the performance of pressure sensors using a custom-made human-leg-like test setup. Pressure sensing parameters such as accuracy, drift and repeatability were determined in both static (eight hours continuous pressure) and dynamic (10 cycles of pressure application of 30 s duration) testing conditions. The testing was performed with a focus on compression therapy application for venous leg ulcer treatments, and was conducted in a low-pressure range of 20-70 mmHg. Commercially available sensors manufactured by Peratech and Sensitronics were used under various loading conditions to determine the influence of stiffness and curvature. Flat rigid, flat soft silicone and three cylindrical silicone surfaces of radii of curvature of 3.5 cm, 5.5 cm and 6.5 cm were used as substrates under the sensors. The Peratech sensor averaged 94% accuracy for both static and dynamic measurements on all substrates; the Sensitronics sensor averaged 88% accuracy. The Peratech sensor displayed moderate variations and the Sensitronics sensor large variations in output pressure readings depending on the underlying test surface, both of which were reduced markedly by individual pressure calibration for surface type. Sensor choice and need for calibration to surface type are important considerations for

  15. Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Nanocomposites Flexible Stress and Strain Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Sauti, Godfrey; Park, Cheol; Scholl, Jonathan A.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    2008-01-01

    Conformable stress and strain sensors are required for monitoring the integrity of airframe structures as well as for sensing the mechanical stimuli in prosthetic arms. For this purpose, we have developed a series of piezoresistive single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/polymer nanocomposites. The electromechanical coupling of pressure with resistance changes in these nanocomposites is exceptionally greater than that of metallic piezoresistive materials. In fact, the piezoresistive stress coefficient (pi) of a SWCNT/polymer nanocomposite is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of a typical metallic piezoresistive. The piezoresistive stress coefficient is a function of the nanotube concentration wherein the maximum value occurs at a concentration just above the percolation threshold concentration (phi approx. 0.05 %). This response appears to originate from a change in intrinsic resistivity under compression/tension. A systematic study of the effect of the modulus of the polymer matrix on piezoresistivity allowed us to make flexible and conformable sensors for biomedical applications. The prototype haptic sensors using these nanocomposites are demonstrated. The piezocapacitive properties of SWCNT/polymer are also characterized by monitoring the capacitance change under pressure.

  16. Flexible Synthetic Semiconductor Applied in Optoelectronic Organic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and application of new nanostructured organic materials, for the development of technology based on organic devices, have taken great interest from the scientific community. The greatest interest in studying organic semiconductor materials has been connected to its already known potential applications, such as: batteries, organic solar cells, flexible organic solar cells, organic light emitting diodes, organic sensors and others. Phototherapy makes use of different radiation sources, and the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia the most common therapeutic intervention occurs in the neonatal period. In this work we developed an organic optoelectronic sensor capable of detecting and determining the radiation dose rate emitted by the radiation source of neonatal phototherapy equipment. The sensors were developed using optically transparent substrate with Nanostructured thin film layers of Poly(9-Vinylcarbazole covered by a layer of Poly(P-Phenylene Vinylene. The samples were characterized by UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Electrical Measurements and SEM. With the results obtained from this study can be developed dosimeters organics to the neonatal phototherapy equipment.

  17. Scheduling policies of intelligent sensors and sensor/actuators in flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Michael A.; Potami, Raffaele

    2006-03-01

    In this note, we revisit the problem of actuator/sensor placement in large civil infrastructures and flexible space structures within the context of spatial robustness. The positioning of these devices becomes more important in systems employing wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN) for improved control performance and for rapid failure detection. The ability of the sensing and actuating devices to possess the property of spatial robustness results in reduced control energy and therefore the spatial distribution of disturbances is integrated into the location optimization measures. In our studies, the structure under consideration is a flexible plate clamped at all sides. First, we consider the case of sensor placement and the optimization scheme attempts to produce those locations that minimize the effects of the spatial distribution of disturbances on the state estimation error; thus the sensor locations produce state estimators with minimized disturbance-to-error transfer function norms. A two-stage optimization procedure is employed whereby one first considers the open loop system and the spatial distribution of disturbances is found that produces the maximal effects on the entire open loop state. Once this "worst" spatial distribution of disturbances is found, the optimization scheme subsequently finds the locations that produce state estimators with minimum transfer function norms. In the second part, we consider the collocated actuator/sensor pairs and the optimization scheme produces those locations that result in compensators with the smallest norms of the disturbance-to-state transfer functions. Going a step further, an intelligent control scheme is presented which, at each time interval, activates a subset of the actuator/sensor pairs in order provide robustness against spatiotemporally moving disturbances and minimize power consumption by keeping some sensor/actuators in sleep mode.

  18. A Flexible Capacitive Sensor with Encapsulated Liquids as Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunari Hotta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Flexible and high-sensitive capacitive sensors are demanded to detect pressure distribution and/or tactile information on a curved surface, hence, wide varieties of polymer-based flexible MEMS sensors have been developed. High-sensitivity may be achieved by increasing the capacitance of the sensor using solid dielectric material while it deteriorates the flexibility. Using air as the dielectric, to maintain the flexibility, sacrifices the sensor sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate flexible and highly sensitive capacitive sensor arrays that encapsulate highly dielectric liquids as the dielectric. Deionized water and glycerin, which have relative dielectric constants of approximately 80 and 47, respectively, could increase the capacitance of the sensor when used as the dielectric while maintaining flexibility of the sensor with electrodes patterned on flexible polymer substrates. A reservoir of liquids between the electrodes was designed to have a leak path, which allows the sensor to deform despite of the incompressibility of the encapsulated liquids. The proposed sensor was microfabricated and demonstrated successfully to have a five times greater sensitivity than sensors that use air as the dielectric.

  19. Gust alleviation of highly flexible UAVs with artificial hair sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; Reich, Gregory W.

    2015-04-01

    Artificial hair sensors (AHS) have been recently developed in Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) using carbon nanotube (CNT). The deformation of CNT in air flow causes voltage and current changes in the circuit, which can be used to quantify the dynamic pressure and aerodynamic load along the wing surface. AFRL has done a lot of essential work in design, manufacturing, and measurement of AHSs. The work in this paper is to bridge the current AFRL's work on AHSs and their feasible applications in flight dynamics and control (e.g., the gust alleviation) of highly flexible aircraft. A highly flexible vehicle is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with finite-state inflow aerodynamics. A feedback control algorithm for the rejection of gust perturbations will be developed. A simplified Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller will be implemented based on the state-space representation of the linearized system. All AHS measurements will be used as the control input, i.e., wing sectional aerodynamic loads will be defined as the control output for designing the feedback gain. Once the controller is designed, closed-loop aeroelastic simulations will be performed to evaluate the performance of different controllers with the force feedback and be compared to traditional controller designs with the state feedback. From the study, the feasibility of AHSs in flight control will be assessed. The whole study will facilitate in building a fly-by-feel simulation environment for autonomous vehicles.

  20. CameraCast: flexible access to remote video sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jiantao; Ganev, Ivan; Schwan, Karsten; Widener, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    New applications like remote surveillance and online environmental or traffic monitoring are making it increasingly important to provide flexible and protected access to remote video sensor devices. Current systems use application-level codes like web-based solutions to provide such access. This requires adherence to user-level APIs provided by such services, access to remote video information through given application-specific service and server topologies, and that the data being captured and distributed is manipulated by third party service codes. CameraCast is a simple, easily used system-level solution to remote video access. It provides a logical device API so that an application can identically operate on local vs. remote video sensor devices, using its own service and server topologies. In addition, the application can take advantage of API enhancements to protect remote video information, using a capability-based model for differential data protection that offers fine grain control over the information made available to specific codes or machines, thereby limiting their ability to violate privacy or security constraints. Experimental evaluations of CameraCast show that the performance of accessing remote video information approximates that of accesses to local devices, given sufficient networking resources. High performance is also attained when protection restrictions are enforced, due to an efficient kernel-level realization of differential data protection.

  1. 3D printed flexible capacitive force sensor with a simple micro-controller based readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Martijn G.; Sanders, Remco; Krijnen, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a proof of principle of a flexible force sensor and the corresponding readout circuit. The flexible force sensor consists of a parallel plate capacitor that is 3D printed using regular and conductive thermoplastic poly-urethane (TPU). The capacitance change

  2. A silicon-based flexible tactile sensor for ubiquitous robot companion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kunnyun; Lee, Kang Ryeol; Lee, Dae Sung; Cho, Nam-Kyu; Kim, Won Hyo; Park, Kwang-Bum; Park, Hyo-Derk; Kim, Yong Kook; Park, Yon-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We present the fabrication process and characteristics of a 3-axes flexible tactile sensor available for normal and shear mode fabricated using Si micromachining and packaging technologies. The fabrication processes for the 3 axes flexible tactile sensor were classified in the fabrication of sensor chips and their packaging on the flexible PCB. The variation rate of resistance was about 2.1%/N and 0.5%/N in applying normal and shear force, respectively. Because this tactile sensor can measure the variations of resistance of the semiconductor strain gauge for normal and shear force, it can be used to sense touch, pressure, hardness, and slip

  3. Research of a Novel Three-dimensional Force Flexible Tactile Sensor Based on Conductive Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel three-dimensional force flexible tactile sensor using conductive rubber with "overall injection molding" technique is presented. The sensor is based on conductive rubber’s force-sensitive property. The sensor is flexible and can measure 3-D force. The rubber’s characteristics, the sensor’s structure and its principle are described. The results of simulation will be also presented.

  4. Design of a Large-scale Three-dimensional Flexible Arrayed Tactile Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiang Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new type of large-scale three-dimensional flexible arrayed tactile sensor based on conductive rubber. It can be used to detect three-dimensional force information on the continuous surface of the sensor, which realizes a true skin type tactile sensor. The widely used method of liquid rubber injection molding (LIMS method is used for "the overall injection molding" sample preparation. The structure details of staggered nodes and a new decoupling algorithm of force analysis are given. Simulation results show that the sensor based on this structure can achieve flexible measurement of large-scale 3-D tactile sensor arrays.

  5. A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Micropatterned Films Coated with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-lin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent flexibility, high sensitivity, and low consumption are essential characteristics in flexible microtube pressure sensing occasion, for example, implantable medical devices, industrial pipeline, and microfluidic chip. This paper reports a flexible, highly sensitive, and ultrathin piezoresistive pressure sensor for fluid pressure sensing, whose sensing element is micropatterned films with conductive carbon nanotube layer. The flexible pressure sensor, the thickness of which is 40 ± 10 μm, could be economically fabricated by using biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. Experimental results show that the flexible pressure sensor has high sensitivity (0.047 kPa−1 in gas sensing and 5.6 × 10−3 kPa−1 in liquid sensing and low consumption (<180 μW, and the sensor could be used to measure the pressure in curved microtubes.

  6. High-Sensitivity and Low-Power Flexible Schottky Hydrogen Sensor Based on Silicon Nanomembrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minkyu; Yun, Jeonghoon; Kwon, Donguk; Kim, Kyuyoung; Park, Inkyu

    2018-04-18

    High-performance and low-power flexible Schottky diode-based hydrogen sensor was developed. The sensor was fabricated by releasing Si nanomembrane (SiNM) and transferring onto a plastic substrate. After the transfer, palladium (Pd) and aluminum (Al) were selectively deposited as a sensing material and an electrode, respectively. The top-down fabrication process of flexible Pd/SiNM diode H 2 sensor is facile compared to other existing bottom-up fabricated flexible gas sensors while showing excellent H 2 sensitivity (Δ I/ I 0 > 700-0.5% H 2 concentrations) and fast response time (τ 10-90 = 22 s) at room temperature. In addition, selectivity, humidity, and mechanical tests verify that the sensor has excellent reliability and robustness under various environments. The operating power consumption of the sensor is only in the nanowatt range, which indicates its potential applications in low-power portable and wearable electronics.

  7. Vibration sensing in flexible structures using a distributed-effect modal domain optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Karl M.; Lindner, Douglas K.; Claus, Richard O.

    1991-01-01

    Modal domain optical fiber sensors have recently been employed in the implementation of system identification algorithms and the closed-loop control of vibrations in flexible structures. The mathematical model of the modal domain optical fiber sensor used in these applications, however, only accounted for the effects of strain in the direction of the fiber's longitudinal axis. In this paper, we extend this model to include the effects of arbitrary stress. Using this sensor model, we characterize the sensor's sensitivity and dynamic range.

  8. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong In Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superior to those of glass liquid crystal lenses. Microcontroller unit and drivers were developed as part of a reception module with power supply for the IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses with the flexible liquid crystal lens prototypes. IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for 3D HDTV with flexible liquid crystal lenses produced excellent 3D images viewing characteristics.

  9. The Design of a Novel Flexible Tactile Sensor Based on Pressure-conductive Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible tactile sensor using conductive rubber with electrical-wires knitted method is presented. The sensor’s design is based on rubber’s pressure-sensitive property. It is flexible and can be mounted on any object to measure tactile information. The mathematic piezoresistivity model of the rubber is described, and we also discuss the sensor’s structure and scanning method. The simulation results show that the sensor can detect pressure accurately.

  10. High performance flexible pH sensor based on polyaniline nanopillar array electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jo Hee; Hong, Seok Bok; Yun, Seok-Oh; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Tae Jae; Lee, Kyoung G; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-03-15

    Flexible pH sensor technologies have attracted a great deal of attention in many applications, such as, wearable health care devices and monitors for chemical and biological processes. Here, we fabricated flexible and thin pH sensors using a two electrode configuration comprised of a polyaniline nanopillar (PAN) array working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. In order to provide nanostructure, soft lithography using a polymeric blend was employed to create a flexible nanopillar backbone film. Polyaniline-sensing materials were deposited on a patterned-nanopillar array by electrochemical deposition. The pH sensors produced exhibited a near-Nernstian response (∼60.3mV/pH), which was maintained in a bent state. In addition, pH sensors showed other excellent sensor performances in terms of response time, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity, and stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Directly Printable Flexible Strain Sensors for Bending and Contact Feedback of Soft Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elgeneidy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully printable sensorized bending actuator that can be calibrated to provide reliable bending feedback and simple contact detection. A soft bending actuator following a pleated morphology, as well as a flexible resistive strain sensor, were directly 3D printed using easily accessible FDM printer hardware with a dual-extrusion tool head. The flexible sensor was directly welded to the bending actuator’s body and systematically tested to characterize and evaluate its response under variable input pressure. A signal conditioning circuit was developed to enhance the quality of the sensory feedback, and flexible conductive threads were used for wiring. The sensorized actuator’s response was then calibrated using a vision system to convert the sensory readings to real bending angle values. The empirical relationship was derived using linear regression and validated at untrained input conditions to evaluate its accuracy. Furthermore, the sensorized actuator was tested in a constrained setup that prevents bending, to evaluate the potential of using the same sensor for simple contact detection by comparing the constrained and free-bending responses at the same input pressures. The results of this work demonstrated how a dual-extrusion FDM printing process can be tuned to directly print highly customizable flexible strain sensors that were able to provide reliable bending feedback and basic contact detection. The addition of such sensing capability to bending actuators enhances their functionality and reliability for applications such as controlled soft grasping, flexible wearables, and haptic devices.

  12. Piezoelectric Lead Zirconium Titanate Composite Touch Sensors for Integration with Flexible OLED Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Tempelman, E.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    To enable the design of more intuitive product user interfaces, the prospects of matching piezoelectric touch sensors with flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology are investigated. Low stiffness piezoelectric composite sensors, combining piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 powder with a

  13. Design of a flexible tactile sensor for classification of rigid and deformable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Kootstra, Gert; Bilberg, Arne

    2014-01-01

    of the sensor in an active object-classification system. A robotic gripper with two sensors mounted on its fingers performs a palpation procedure on a set of objects. By squeezing an object, the robot actively explores the material properties, and the system acquires tactile information corresponding......For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a novel tactile-array sensor based on flexible piezoresistive rubber.We describe the design of the sensor...... and data acquisition system.We evaluate the sensitivity and robustness of the sensor, and show that it is consistent over time with little relaxation. Furthermore, the sensor has the benefit of being flexible, having a high resolution, it is easy to mount, and simple to manufacture. We demonstrate the use...

  14. The design of a sensor with flexible circuit excitation in electromagnetic tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ze; He Min; Xiong Hanliang

    2005-01-01

    A novel sensor structure of electromagnetic tomography system is presented in this paper. Flexible circuit straps are used in the excitation layer of the sensor and current of each strip can be controlled independently according to the excitation protocol matrix. In the sensor three kinds of excitation protocols: parallel, quasi-parallel and coil pair can be generated. Furthermore excitation field simulation and image reconstruction experiments have been done for analyzing the performance of the different excitation protocols

  15. Recent progress of flexible and wearable strain sensors for human-motion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gang; Huang, Wei; Shao, Jinjun; Dong, Xiaochen

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of human artificial intelligence and the inevitably expanding markets, the past two decades have witnessed an urgent demand for the flexible and wearable devices, especially the flexible strain sensors. Flexible strain sensors, incorporated the merits of stretchability, high sensitivity and skin-mountable, are emerging as an extremely charming domain in virtue of their promising applications in artificial intelligent realms, human-machine systems and health-care devices. In this review, we concentrate on the transduction mechanisms, building blocks of flexible physical sensors, subsequently property optimization in terms of device structures and sensing materials in the direction of practical applications. Perspectives on the existing challenges are also highlighted in the end. Project supported by the NNSF of China (Nos. 61525402, 61604071), the Key University Science Research Project of Jiangsu Province (No. 15KJA430006), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20161012).

  16. Patient Posture Monitoring System Based on Flexible Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring patients using vision cameras can cause privacy intrusion problems. In this paper, we propose a patient position monitoring system based on a patient cloth with unobtrusive sensors. We use flexible sensors based on polyvinylidene fluoride, which is a flexible piezoelectric material. Theflexiblesensorsareinsertedintopartsclosetothekneeandhipoftheloosepatientcloth. We measure electrical signals from the sensors caused by the piezoelectric effect when the knee and hip in the cloth are bent. The measured sensor outputs are transferred to a computer via Bluetooth. We use a custom-made program to detect the position of the patient through a rule-based algorithm and the sensor outputs. The detectable postures are based on six human motions in and around a bed. The proposed system can detect the patient positions with a success rate over 88 percent for three patients.

  17. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-Based Flexible Resistive Strain Sensors for Wearable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing attention and rapid development on flexible electronic devices with electronic materials and sensing technology innovations. In particular, strain sensors with high elasticity and stretchability are needed for several potential applications including human entertainment technology, human–machine interface, personal healthcare, and sports performance monitoring, etc. This article presents recent advancements in the development of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-based flexible resistive strain sensors for wearable applications. First of all, the article shows that PDMS-based stretchable resistive strain sensors are successfully fabricated by different methods, such as the filtration method, printing technology, micromolding method, coating techniques, and liquid phase mixing. Next, strain sensing performances including stretchability, gauge factor, linearity, and durability are comprehensively demonstrated and compared. Finally, potential applications of PDMS-based flexible resistive strain sensors are also discussed. This review indicates that the era of wearable intelligent electronic systems has arrived.

  18. A Miniaturized Force Sensor Based on Hair-Like Flexible Magnetized Cylinders Deposited Over a Giant Magnetoresistive Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Ribeiro, Pedro

    2017-06-13

    The detection of force with higher resolution than observed in humans (similar to 1 mN) is of great interest for emerging technologies, especially surgical robots, since this level of resolution could allow these devices to operate in extremely sensitive environments without harming these. In this paper, we present a force sensor fabricated with a miniaturized footprint (9 mm(2)), based on the detection of the magnetic field generated by magnetized flexible pillars over a giant magnetoresistive sensor. When these flexible pillars deflect due to external loads, the stray field emitted by these will change, thus varying the GMR sensor resistance. A sensor with an array of five pillars with 200 mu m diameter and 1 mm height was fabricated, achieving a 0 to 26 mN measurement range and capable of detecting a minimum force feature of 630 mu N. A simulation model to predict the distribution of magnetic field generated by the flexible pillars on the sensitive area of the GMR sensor in function of the applied force was developed and validated against the experimental results reported in this paper. The sensor was finally tested as a texture classification system, with the ability of differentiating between four distinct surfaces varying between 0 and 162 mu m root mean square surface roughness.

  19. Efficient Skin Temperature Sensor and Stable Gel-Less Sticky ECG Sensor for a Wearable Flexible Healthcare Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Takada, Makoto; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2017-09-01

    Wearable, flexible healthcare devices, which can monitor health data to predict and diagnose disease in advance, benefit society. Toward this future, various flexible and stretchable sensors as well as other components are demonstrated by arranging materials, structures, and processes. Although there are many sensor demonstrations, the fundamental characteristics such as the dependence of a temperature sensor on film thickness and the impact of adhesive for an electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor are yet to be explored in detail. In this study, the effect of film thickness for skin temperature measurements, adhesive force, and reliability of gel-less ECG sensors as well as an integrated real-time demonstration is reported. Depending on the ambient conditions, film thickness strongly affects the precision of skin temperature measurements, resulting in a thin flexible film suitable for a temperature sensor in wearable device applications. Furthermore, by arranging the material composition, stable gel-less sticky ECG electrodes are realized. Finally, real-time simultaneous skin temperature and ECG signal recordings are demonstrated by attaching an optimized device onto a volunteer's chest. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A Miniaturized Force Sensor Based on Hair-Like Flexible Magnetized Cylinders Deposited Over a Giant Magnetoresistive Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Ribeiro, Pedro; Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen; Franco, Fernando; Cardoso, Susana; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, Jose; Jamone, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The detection of force with higher resolution than observed in humans (similar to 1 mN) is of great interest for emerging technologies, especially surgical robots, since this level of resolution could allow these devices to operate in extremely sensitive environments without harming these. In this paper, we present a force sensor fabricated with a miniaturized footprint (9 mm(2)), based on the detection of the magnetic field generated by magnetized flexible pillars over a giant magnetoresistive sensor. When these flexible pillars deflect due to external loads, the stray field emitted by these will change, thus varying the GMR sensor resistance. A sensor with an array of five pillars with 200 mu m diameter and 1 mm height was fabricated, achieving a 0 to 26 mN measurement range and capable of detecting a minimum force feature of 630 mu N. A simulation model to predict the distribution of magnetic field generated by the flexible pillars on the sensitive area of the GMR sensor in function of the applied force was developed and validated against the experimental results reported in this paper. The sensor was finally tested as a texture classification system, with the ability of differentiating between four distinct surfaces varying between 0 and 162 mu m root mean square surface roughness.

  1. A Flexible Flow Sensor System and Its Characteristics for Fluid Mechanics Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyi Que

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel micromachined hot-film flow sensor system realized by a technique using a film depositing processes and incorporating a standard printed circuit. Sensor electrodes and electronic circuits are preprinted on a flexible substrate of polyimide (PI, i.e., a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB. The sensing element, which is made of Cr/Ni/Pt with a temperature coefficient of resistance around 2,000 ppm/K, is fabricated on the FPCB by either magnetron sputtering technology or pulsed laser deposition (PLD. The sensor can be packed efficiently at high-density and integrated with signal processing circuits without additional pads. A simple fabrication process using mature technique and materials selection guarantees that the time and costs are greatly reduced. Both steady-state and transient characteristics of the sensors are experimentally tested, and the results presented to validate the effectiveness of the sensors.

  2. Sensor placement optimization for structural modal identification of flexible structures using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, B. K.; Cho, J. R.; Jeong, W. B.

    2015-01-01

    The position of vibration sensors influences the modal identification quality of flexible structures for a given number of sensors, and the quality of modal identification is usually estimated in terms of correlation between the natural modes using the modal assurance criterion (MAC). The sensor placement optimization is characterized by the fact that the design variables are not continuous but discrete, implying that the conventional sensitivity-driven optimization methods are not applicable. In this context, this paper presents the application of genetic algorithm to the sensor placement optimization for improving the modal identification quality of flexible structures. A discrete-type optimization problem using genetic algorithm is formulated by defining the sensor positions and the MAC as the design variables and the objective function, respectively. The proposed GA-based evolutionary optimization method is validated through the numerical experiment with a rectangular plate, and its excellence is verified from the comparison with the cases using different modal correlation measures.

  3. Flexible Pressure Sensor with Ag Wrinkled Electrodes Based on PDMS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible pressure sensors are essential components of electronic skins for future attractive applications ranging from human healthcare monitoring to biomedical diagnostics, robotic skins, and prosthetic limbs. Here we report a new kind of flexible pressure sensor. The sensors are capacitive, and composed of two Ag wrinkled electrodes separated by a carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS composite deformable dielectric layer. Ag wrinkled electrodes were formed by vacuum deposition on top of pre-strained and relaxed PDMS substrates which were treated using an O2 plasma, a surface functionalization process, and a magnetron sputtering process. Ultimately, the developed sensor exhibits a maximum sensitivity of 19.80% kPa−1 to capacitance, great durability over 500 cycles, and rapid mechanical responses (<200 ms. We also demonstrate that our sensor can be used to effectively detect the location and distribution of finger pressure.

  4. A novel flexible tactile sensor based on Ce-doped BaTiO3 nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yongyong; Xu, Zhuo; Fu, Xiaotian; Li, Fei; Li, Jinglei; Liao, Zhipeng; Liu, Weihua

    2017-07-01

    The performance of a robotic hand is severely limited by the tactile feedback information similar to a human hand. Hence, a novel and robust tactile sensor has been developed to cope with the challenge of robotic hand technology. Piezoelectric material is proposed as a suitable candidate for a new efficient tactile sensor due to its excellent piezoelectric properties. In this paper, a novel flexible tactile sensor based on Ce-doped BTO nanofibers was developed. The doping mechanism of cerium ions and the working process of the sensor were analysed. The results showed that sheer stress had no contribution to the sensor, this indicated that the sensor was easy to control according to the individual’s wish. The output voltage of the sensor could reach up to 0.078 V which showed great potential for the future of intelligent robot skin application.

  5. Transparent conductive-polymer strain sensors for touch input sheets of flexible displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Seiichi; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Muraki, Masato; Iwase, Eiji; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2010-01-01

    A transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array, designed especially for touch input sheets of flexible displays, was developed. A transparent conductive polymer, namely poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), was utilized owing to its strength under repeated mechanical bending. PEDOT:PSS strain sensors with a thickness of 130 nm exhibited light transmittance of 92%, which is the same as the transmittance of ITO electrodes widely used in flat panel displays. We demonstrated that the sensor array on a flexible sheet was able to sustain mechanical bending 300 times at a bending radius of 5 mm. The strain sensor shows a gauge factor of 5.2. The touch point on a flexible sheet could be detected from histograms of the outputs of the strain sensors when the sheet was pushed with an input force of 5 N. The touch input could be detected on the flexible sheet with a curved surface (radius of curvature of 20 mm). These results show that the developed transparent conductive polymer-based strain-sensor array is applicable to touch input sheets of mechanically bendable displays.

  6. Flexible Nanowire Cluster as a Wearable Colorimetric Humidity Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Li, Qiuyu; Xue, Jiancai; Di Falco, Andrea; Yang, Zhongjian; Zhou, Jianhua; Wang, Xuehua

    2017-07-01

    Wearable plasmonic devices combine the advantages of high flexibility, ultrathinness, light weight, and excellent integration with the optical benefits mediated by plasmon-enhanced electric fields. However, two obstacles severely hinder further developments and applications of a wearable plasmonic device. One is the lack of efficient approach to obtaining devices with robust antimotion-interference property, i.e., the devices can work independently on the morphology changes of their working structures caused by arbitrary wearing conditions. The other issue is to seek a facile and high-throughput fabrication method to satisfy the financial requirement of industrialization. In order to overcome these two challenges, a functional flexible film of nanowire cluster is developed, which can be easily fabricated by taking the advantages of both conventional electrochemical and sputtering methods. Such flexible plasmonic films can be made into wearable devices that work independently on shape changes induced by various wearing conditions (such as bending, twisting and stretching). Furthermore, due to plasmonic advantages of color controlling and high sensitivity to environment changes, the flexible film of nanowire cluster can be used to fabricate wearable items (such as bracelet, clothes, bag, or even commercial markers), with the ability of wireless visualization for humidity sensing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 3D Printing Technologies for Flexible Tactile Sensors toward Wearable Electronics and Electronic Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Over the past three decades, various 3D printing technologies have been developed including photopolymerization-based, materials extrusion-based, sheet lamination-based, binder jetting-based, power bed fusion-based and direct energy deposition-based processes. 3D printing offers unparalleled flexibility and simplicity in the fabrication of highly complex 3D objects. Tactile sensors that emulate human tactile perceptions are used to translate mechanical signals such as force, pressure, strain, shear, torsion, bend, vibration, etc. into electrical signals and play a crucial role toward the realization of wearable electronics and electronic skin. To date, many types of 3D printing technologies have been applied in the manufacturing of various types of tactile sensors including piezoresistive, capacitive and piezoelectric sensors. This review attempts to summarize the current state-of-the-art 3D printing technologies and their applications in tactile sensors for wearable electronics and electronic skin. The applications are categorized into five aspects: 3D-printed molds for microstructuring substrate, electrodes and sensing element; 3D-printed flexible sensor substrate and sensor body for tactile sensors; 3D-printed sensing element; 3D-printed flexible and stretchable electrodes for tactile sensors; and fully 3D-printed tactile sensors. Latest advances in the fabrication of tactile sensors by 3D printing are reviewed and the advantages and limitations of various 3D printing technologies and printable materials are discussed. Finally, future development of 3D-printed tactile sensors is discussed.

  8. Improved response time of flexible microelectromechanical sensors employing eco-friendly nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shicheng; Dan, Li; Meng, Lingju; Zheng, Wei; Elias, Anastasia; Wang, Xihua

    2017-11-09

    Flexible force/pressure sensors are of interest for academia and industry and have applications in wearable technologies. Most of such sensors on the market or reported in journal publications are based on the operation mechanism of probing capacitance or resistance changes of the materials under pressure. Recently, we reported the microelectromechanical (MEM) sensors based on a different mechanism: mechanical switches. Multiples of such MEM sensors can be integrated to achieve the same function of regular force/pressure sensors while having the advantages of ease of fabrication and long-term stability in operation. Herein, we report the dramatically improved response time (more than one order of magnitude) of these MEM sensors by employing eco-friendly nanomaterials-cellulose nanocrystals. For instance, the incorporation of polydimethysiloxane filled with cellulose nanocrystals shortened the response time of MEM sensors from sub-seconds to several milliseconds, leading to the detection of both diastolic and systolic pressures in the radial arterial blood pressure measurement. Comprehensive mechanical and electrical characterization of the materials and the devices reveal that greatly enhanced storage modulus and loss modulus play key roles in this improved response time. The demonstrated fast-response flexible sensors enabled continuous monitoring of heart rate and complex cardiovascular signals using pressure sensors for future wearable sensing platforms.

  9. High performance flexible pH sensor based on carboxyl-functionalized and DEP aligned SWNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lu; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Zhao, Qiang; Nie, Bangbang; Xu, Chuan; Ding, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on two-terminal microsensors eliminating the need for a reference electrode, is simple in structure and can be fabricated on a variety of substrates such as PET, PI and PVC. • SWNTs as an ideal one dimensional material are carboxyl-functionalized to make the pH sensor show high sensitivity and outstanding flexibility for practical applications. • DEP technique is used to manipulate and position SWNTs into appropriate locations and desired formations to improve the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of pH value, resulting in better overall device performance. • Mechanical bendability of the pH sensor, which arises from the combination of flexible PET substrates and SWNTs, offer a significant improvement for applications that are difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional sensors on rigid substrates. - Abstract: The detection and control of the pH is very important in many biomedical and chemical reaction processes. A miniaturized flexible pH sensor that is light weight, robust, and conformable is very important in many applications, such as multifunctional lab-on-a-chip systems or wearable biomedical devices. In this work, we demonstrate a flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) aligned carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Decorated carboxyl groups can react with hydrogen (H"+) and hydroxide (OH"−) ions, enabling the sensor to be capable of sensing the pH. DEP is used to deposit well-organized and highly aligned SWNTs in desired locations, which improves the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of the pH, resulting in better overall device performance. When pH buffer solutions are dropped onto such SWNTs, the H"+ and OH"− ions caninteract with the carboxyl groups and affect the generation of holes and electrons in the SWNTs, leading to resistance variations in the SWNTs. The results shows that the

  10. High performance flexible pH sensor based on carboxyl-functionalized and DEP aligned SWNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu; Shao, Jinyou, E-mail: jyshao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, Xiangming; Zhao, Qiang; Nie, Bangbang; Xu, Chuan; Ding, Haitao

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on two-terminal microsensors eliminating the need for a reference electrode, is simple in structure and can be fabricated on a variety of substrates such as PET, PI and PVC. • SWNTs as an ideal one dimensional material are carboxyl-functionalized to make the pH sensor show high sensitivity and outstanding flexibility for practical applications. • DEP technique is used to manipulate and position SWNTs into appropriate locations and desired formations to improve the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of pH value, resulting in better overall device performance. • Mechanical bendability of the pH sensor, which arises from the combination of flexible PET substrates and SWNTs, offer a significant improvement for applications that are difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional sensors on rigid substrates. - Abstract: The detection and control of the pH is very important in many biomedical and chemical reaction processes. A miniaturized flexible pH sensor that is light weight, robust, and conformable is very important in many applications, such as multifunctional lab-on-a-chip systems or wearable biomedical devices. In this work, we demonstrate a flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) aligned carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Decorated carboxyl groups can react with hydrogen (H{sup +}) and hydroxide (OH{sup −}) ions, enabling the sensor to be capable of sensing the pH. DEP is used to deposit well-organized and highly aligned SWNTs in desired locations, which improves the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of the pH, resulting in better overall device performance. When pH buffer solutions are dropped onto such SWNTs, the H{sup +} and OH{sup −} ions caninteract with the carboxyl groups and affect the generation of holes and electrons in the SWNTs, leading to resistance variations in the SWNTs. The results

  11. Tolerance Towards Sensor Faults: An Application to a Flexible Arm Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Pin Tan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As more engineering operations become automatic, the need for robustness towards faults increases. Hence, a fault tolerant control (FTC scheme is a valuable asset. This paper presents a robust sensor fault FTC scheme implemented on a flexible arm manipulator, which has many applications in automation. Sensor faults affect the system's performance in the closed loop when the faulty sensor readings are used to generate the control input. In this paper, the non-faulty sensors are used to reconstruct the faults on the potentially faulty sensors. The reconstruction is subtracted from the faulty sensors to form a compensated ‘virtual sensor’ and this signal (instead of the normally used faulty sensor output is then used to generate the control input. A design method is also presented in which the FTC scheme is made insensitive to any system uncertainties. Two fault conditions are tested; total failure and incipient faults. Then the scheme robustness is tested by implementing the flexible joint's FTC scheme on a flexible link, which has different parameters. Excellent results have been obtained for both cases (joint and link; the FTC scheme caused the system performance is almost identical to the fault-free scenario, whilst providing an indication that a fault is present, even for simultaneous faults.

  12. Novel fabrication of flexible graphene-based chemical sensors with heaters using soft lithographic patterning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Wook; Myung, Sung; Song, Wooseok; Kang, Min-A; Kim, Sung Ho; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Sun Sook; Lim, Jongsun; Park, Chong-Yun; Lee, Jeong-O; An, Ki-Seok

    2014-08-27

    We have fabricated graphene-based chemical sensors with flexible heaters for the highly sensitive detection of specific gases. We believe that increasing the temperature of the graphene surface significantly enhanced the electrical signal change of the graphene-based channel, and reduced the recovery time needed to obtain a normal state of equilibrium. In addition, a simple and efficient soft lithographic patterning process was developed via surface energy modification for advanced, graphene-based flexible devices, such as gas sensors. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated the high sensitivity of NO2 gas sensors based on graphene nanosheets. These devices were fabricated using a simple soft-lithographic patterning method, where flexible graphene heaters adjacent to the channel of sensing graphene were utilized to control graphene temperature.

  13. Novel Flexible Wearable Sensor Materials and Signal Processing for Vital Sign and Human Activity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servati, Amir; Zou, Liang; Wang, Z Jane; Ko, Frank; Servati, Peyman

    2017-07-13

    Advances in flexible electronic materials and smart textile, along with broad availability of smart phones, cloud and wireless systems have empowered the wearable technologies for significant impact on future of digital and personalized healthcare as well as consumer electronics. However, challenges related to lack of accuracy, reliability, high power consumption, rigid or bulky form factor and difficulty in interpretation of data have limited their wide-scale application in these potential areas. As an important solution to these challenges, we present latest advances in novel flexible electronic materials and sensors that enable comfortable and conformable body interaction and potential for invisible integration within daily apparel. Advances in novel flexible materials and sensors are described for wearable monitoring of human vital signs including, body temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate, muscle movements and activity. We then present advances in signal processing focusing on motion and noise artifact removal, data mining and aspects of sensor fusion relevant to future clinical applications of wearable technology.

  14. A Flexible Acoustic Sensor Network for Various Monitoring Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Wessels, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic monitoring using a sensor network is a powerful instrument to assess and manage complex noise situations. It can provide a basis to identify appropriate and cost effective measures, and to assess their effect by comparing before and after implementation. It can also be an instrument for

  15. Flexible and Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks for Detecting Rainfall-Induced Landslides

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Chinh D.; Tran, Tan D.; Tran, Nghia D.; Huynh, Tue Huu; Nguyen, Duc T.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of climate change and human activities leads to a series of dangerous phenomena, such as landslides and flood. In such a context, building a system to monitor environmental hazards is seriously needed. Some studies propose to use wireless sensor network (WSN) technique for landslide monitoring systems. Two important factors for these systems are the flexibility and the energy management. This paper focuses on the development of a flexible and efficient WSN for detecting rainfall-in...

  16. Materials and Techniques for Implantable Nutrient Sensing Using Flexible Sensors Integrated with Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wei; Liew, Guoguang; Li, Ya; Hao, Yafeng; Pan, Huizhuo; Wang, Hanjie; Ning, Baoan; Xu, Hang; Huang, Xian

    2018-06-01

    The combination of novel materials with flexible electronic technology may yield new concepts of flexible electronic devices that effectively detect various biological chemicals to facilitate understanding of biological processes and conduct health monitoring. This paper demonstrates single- or multichannel implantable flexible sensors that are surface modified with conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as copper-MOF and cobalt-MOF with large surface area, high porosity, and tunable catalysis capability. The sensors can monitor important nutriments such as ascorbicacid, glycine, l-tryptophan (l-Trp), and glucose with detection resolutions of 14.97, 0.71, 4.14, and 54.60 × 10 -6 m, respectively. In addition, they offer sensing capability even under extreme deformation and complex surrounding environment with continuous monitoring capability for 20 d due to minimized use of biological active chemicals. Experiments using live cells and animals indicate that the MOF-modified sensors are biologically safe to cells, and can detect l-Trp in blood and interstitial fluid. This work represents the first effort in integrating MOFs with flexible sensors to achieve highly specific and sensitive implantable electrochemical detection and may inspire appearance of more flexible electronic devices with enhanced capability in sensing, energy storage, and catalysis using various properties of MOFs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A flexible and highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor based on DVD-laser scribed graphene substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyue; Feng, Wendou; Miao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xiangxin; Chen, Sujing; Chen, Yuanqiang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yining

    2018-07-01

    Flexible and implantable glucose biosensors are emerging technologies for continuous monitoring of blood-glucose of diabetes. Developing a flexible conductive substrates with high active surface area is critical for advancing the technology. Here, we successfully fabricate a flexible and highly sensitive nonenzymatic glucose by using DVD-laser scribed graphene (LSG) as a flexible conductively substrate. Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) are electrodeposited as the catalyst. The LSG/Cu-NPs sensor demonstrates excellent catalytic activity toward glucose oxidation and exhibits a linear glucose detection range from 1 μM to 4.54 mM with high sensitivity (1.518 mA mM -1 cm -2 ) and low limit of detection (0.35 μM). Moreover, the LSG/Cu-NPs sensor shows excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. It is also highly selective toward glucose oxidation under the presence of various interfering species. Excellent flexing stability is also demonstrated by the LSG/Cu-NPs sensor, which is capable of maintaining 83.9% of its initial current after being bent against a 4-mm diameter rod for 180 times. The LSG/Cu-NPs sensor shows great potential for practical application as a nonenzymatic glucose biosensor. Meanwhile, the LSG conductive substrate provides a platform for the developing next-generation flexible and potentially implantable bioelectronics and biosensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ferroelectric Zinc Oxide Nanowire Embedded Flexible Sensor for Motion and Temperature Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Park, Dae Hoon; Jung, Joo-Yun; Lee, Min Hyung; Nah, Junghyo

    2017-03-22

    We report a simple method to realize multifunctional flexible motion sensor using ferroelectric lithium-doped ZnO-PDMS. The ferroelectric layer enables piezoelectric dynamic sensing and provides additional motion information to more precisely discriminate different motions. The PEDOT:PSS-functionalized AgNWs, working as electrode layers for the piezoelectric sensing layer, resistively detect a change of both movement or temperature. Thus, through the optimal integration of both elements, the sensing limit, accuracy, and functionality can be further expanded. The method introduced here is a simple and effective route to realize a high-performance flexible motion sensor with integrated multifunctionalities.

  19. Flexible hemispheric microarrays of highly pressure-sensitive sensors based on breath figure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Jin; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2018-05-30

    Recently, flexible pressure sensors featuring high sensitivity, broad sensing range and real-time detection have aroused great attention owing to their crucial role in the development of artificial intelligent devices and healthcare systems. Herein, highly sensitive pressure sensors based on hemisphere-microarray flexible substrates are fabricated via inversely templating honeycomb structures deriving from a facile and static breath figure process. The interlocked and subtle microstructures greatly improve the sensing characteristics and compressibility of the as-prepared pressure sensor, endowing it a sensitivity as high as 196 kPa-1 and a wide pressure sensing range (0-100 kPa), as well as other superior performance, including a lower detection limit of 0.5 Pa, fast response time (10 000 cycles). Based on the outstanding sensing performance, the potential capability of our pressure sensor in capturing physiological information and recognizing speech signals has been demonstrated, indicating promising application in wearable and intelligent electronics.

  20. Flexible, highly sensitive pressure sensor with a wide range based on graphene-silk network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Tao, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dan-Yang; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a flexible, simple-preparation, and low-cost graphene-silk pressure sensor based on soft silk substrate through thermal reduction was demonstrated. Taking silk as the support body, the device had formed a three-dimensional structure with ordered multi-layer structure. Through a simple and low-cost process technology, graphene-silk pressure sensor can achieve the sensitivity value of 0.4 kPa - 1 , and the measurement range can be as high as 140 kPa. Besides, pressure sensor can have a good combination with knitted clothing and textile product. The signal had good reproducibility in response to different pressures. Furthermore, graphene-silk pressure sensor can not only detect pressure higher than 100 kPa, but also can measure weak body signals. The characteristics of high-sensitivity, good repeatability, flexibility, and comfort for skin provide the high possibility to fit on various wearable electronics.

  1. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Flexible Sensor for Human Sleep Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoheng Ding

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG and its application as a sensor is a popular research subject. There is demand for self-powered, flexible sensors with high sensitivity and high power-output for the next generation of consumer electronics. In this study, a 300 mm × 300 mm carbon nanotube (CNT-doped porous PDMS film was successfully fabricated wherein the CNT influenced the micropore structure. A self-powered TENG tactile sensor was established according to triboelectric theory. The CNT-doped porous TENG showed a voltage output seven times higher than undoped porous TENG and 16 times higher than TENG with pure PDMS, respectively. The TENG successfully acquired human motion signals, breath signals, and heartbeat signals during a sleep monitoring experiment. The results presented here may provide an effective approach for fabricating large-scale and low-cost flexible TENG sensors.

  2. Passive wireless structural health monitoring sensor made with a flexible planar dipole antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sang-Dong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2012-01-01

    Cheap and efficient wireless sensors have been widely studied by electronics and communication technology development. In this paper, a flexible planar dipole antenna based passive wireless strain sensor has been investigated. The planar dipole antenna is designed for X band and made on a flexible polymer substrate using a conventional photolithography process. The fabricated dipole antenna is attached to a nonmetallic cantilever beam and monitors its bending strain. Mechanical strain and load impedance of the dipole antenna can change its resonance frequency, return loss and reflected signal. The return loss and reflected signals of the dipole antenna sensor are characterized by using a network analyzer. The strain sensitivity of the sensor is proportional to the return loss variation with the bending strain of the cantilever beam. The magnitude of reflected signals increases as the bending strain increases. (technical note)

  3. Patient cloth with motion recognition sensors based on flexible piezoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsu Cha; Kihyuk Nam; Doik Kim

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a patient cloth for position monitoring using motion recognition sensors based on flexible piezoelectric materials. The motion recognition sensors are embedded in three parts, which are the knee, hip and back, in the patient cloth. We use polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the flexible piezoelectric material for the sensors. By using the piezoelectric effect of the PVDF, we detect electrical signals when the cloth is bent or extended. We analyze the sensing values for our human motions by processing the sensor outputs in a custom-made program. Specifically, we focus on the transitions between standing and sitting, and sitting knee extension and supine position, which are important motions for patient monitoring.

  4. Flexible and Transparent Strain Sensors with Embedded Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Bangbang; Li, Xiangming; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xin; Tian, Hongmiao; Wang, Duorui; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Bingheng

    2017-11-22

    Strain sensors combining high sensitivity with good transparency and flexibility would be of great usefulness in smart wearable/flexible electronics. However, the fabrication of such strain sensors is still challenging. In this study, new strain sensors with embedded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) meshes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films were designed and tested. The strain sensors showed elevated optical transparency of up to 87% and high sensitivity with a gauge factor of 1140 at a small strain of 8.75%. The gauge factors of the sensors were also found relatively stable since they did not obviously change after 2000 stretching/releasing cycles. The sensors were tested to detect motion in the human body, such as wrist bending, eye blinking, mouth phonation, and pulse, and the results were shown to be satisfactory. Furthermore, the fabrication of the strain sensor consisting of mechanically blading MWCNTs aqueous dispersions into microtrenches of prestructured PDMS films was straightforward, was low cost, and resulted in high yield. All these features testify to the great potential of these sensors in future real applications.

  5. Evaluation of Flexible Force Sensors for Pressure Monitoring in Treatment of Chronic Venous Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Suresh; Khodasevych, Iryna; Troynikov, Olga

    2017-08-21

    The recent use of graduated compression therapy for treatment of chronic venous disorders such as leg ulcers and oedema has led to considerable research interest in flexible and low-cost force sensors. Properly applied low pressure during compression therapy can substantially improve the treatment of chronic venous disorders. However, achievement of the recommended low pressure levels and its accurate determination in real-life conditions is still a challenge. Several thin and flexible force sensors, which can also function as pressure sensors, are commercially available, but their real-life sensing performance has not been evaluated. Moreover, no researchers have reported information on sensor performance during static and dynamic loading within the realistic test conditions required for compression therapy. This research investigated the sensing performance of five low-cost commercial pressure sensors on a human-leg-like test apparatus and presents quantitative results on the accuracy and drift behaviour of these sensors in both static and dynamic conditions required for compression therapy. Extensive experimental work on this new human-leg-like test setup demonstrated its utility for evaluating the sensors. Results showed variation in static and dynamic sensing performance, including accuracy and drift characteristics. Only one commercially available pressure sensor was found to reliably deliver accuracy of 95% and above for all three test pressure points of 30, 50 and 70 mmHg.

  6. A flexible tactile sensitive sheet using a hetero-core fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Hosoki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2014-05-01

    In this report, we have designed a tactile sensitive sheet based on a hetero-core fiber-optic sensor, which realize an areal sensing by using single sensor potion in one optical fiber line. Recently, flexible and wide-area tactile sensing technology is expected to applied to acquired biological information in living space and robot achieve long-term care services such as welfare and nursing-care and humanoid technology. A hetero-core fiber-optic sensor has several advantages such as thin and flexible transmission line, immunity to EMI. Additionally this sensor is sensitive to moderate bending actions with optical loss changes and is independent of temperature fluctuation. Thus, the hetero-core fiber-optic sensor can be suitable for areal tactile sensing. We measure pressure characteristic of the proposed sensitive sheet by changing the pressure position and pinching characteristic on the surface. The proposed tactile sensitive sheet shows monotonic responses on the whole sensitive sheet surface although different sensitivity by the position is observed at the sensitive sheet surface. Moreover, the tactile sensitive sheet could sufficiently detect the pinching motion. In addition, in order to realize the discrimination between pressure and pinch, we fabricated a doubled-over sensor using a set of tactile sensitive sheets, which has different kinds of silicon robbers as a sensitive sheet surface. In conclusion, the flexible material could be given to the tactile sensation which is attached under proposed sensitive sheet.

  7. Bioinspired Flexible and Highly Responsive Dual-Mode Strain/Magnetism Composite Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei; Li, Yuan-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Guang; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Nie, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jin-Rui; Hu, Ning; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2018-04-04

    The mimicry of human skin to detect both oncoming and physical-contacting object is of great importance in the fields of manufacturing, artificial robots and vehicles, etc. Herein, a novel bioinspired flexible and highly responsive dual-mode strain/magnetism composite sensor, which works via both contact and contactless modes, is first fabricated by incorporating Fe 3 O 4 /silicone system into a carbon fiber aerogel (CFA). The distance dependence of magnetic field endorses the CFA/Fe 3 O 4 /silicone composite possible for spatial sensing due to the introduction of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles. As a result, the as-prepared flexible sensor exhibits precise and real-time response not only to direct-contact compression as usual but also to contactless magnetic field in a wide frequency range from 0.1 to 10 Hz, achieving the maximum variance of 68% and 86% in relative electrical resistance, respectively. The contact and contactless sensing modes of the strain/magnetism sensor are clearly demonstrated by recording the speeds of bicycle riding and walking, respectively. Interestingly, this dual-mode composite sensor exhibits the capacity of identifying the contact and contactless state, which is the first report for flexible sensors. The current protocol is eco-friendly, facile, and thought-provoking for the fabrication of multifunctional sensors.

  8. Transparent, Flexible, Conformal Capacitive Pressure Sensors with Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeohn; Kim, Gwangmook; Kim, Taehoon; Lee, Sangwoo; Kang, Donyoung; Hwang, Min-Soo; Chae, Youngcheol; Kang, Shinill; Lee, Hyungsuk; Park, Hong-Gyu; Shim, Wooyoung

    2018-02-01

    The fundamental challenge in designing transparent pressure sensors is the ideal combination of high optical transparency and high pressure sensitivity. Satisfying these competing demands is commonly achieved by a compromise between the transparency and usage of a patterned dielectric surface, which increases pressure sensitivity, but decreases transparency. Herein, a design strategy for fabricating high-transparency and high-sensitivity capacitive pressure sensors is proposed, which relies on the multiple states of nanoparticle dispersity resulting in enhanced surface roughness and light transmittance. We utilize two nanoparticle dispersion states on a surface: (i) homogeneous dispersion, where each nanoparticle (≈500 nm) with a size comparable to the visible light wavelength has low light scattering; and (ii) heterogeneous dispersion, where aggregated nanoparticles form a micrometer-sized feature, increasing pressure sensitivity. This approach is experimentally verified using a nanoparticle-dispersed polymer composite, which has high pressure sensitivity (1.0 kPa -1 ), and demonstrates excellent transparency (>95%). We demonstrate that the integration of nanoparticle-dispersed capacitor elements into an array readily yields a real-time pressure monitoring application and a fully functional touch device capable of acting as a pressure sensor-based input device, thereby opening up new avenues to establish processing techniques that are effective on the nanoscale yet applicable to macroscopic processing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  10. Flexible Piezoelectric Touch Sensor by Alignment of Lead-Free Alkaline Niobate Microcubes in PDMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Mascarenhas, N.T.; Schelen, J.B.J.; de Leeuw, D.M.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive, lead-free, and flexible piezoelectric touch sensor is reported based on composite films of alkaline niobate K0.485Na0.485Li0.03NbO3 (KNLN) powders aligned in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. KNLN powder is fabricated by

  11. Nozzle-less Ultrasonic Spray Deposition for Flexible Ammonia and Ozone Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica ACUAUTLA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years printing and flexible electronic is transforming the way we used electronic devices. Among these, special interest is given to the development of gas sensors for industrial and environmental applications. Nozzle-less ultrasonic spray deposition is a simple and precise technique, which offers good homogeneity and high quality of the sensitive thin film. In addition, it represents a potential fabrication process for flexible electronic with low cost production and low waste of material. In this paper, nanoparticles of zinc oxide were deposited by nozzle-less ultrasonic spray deposition on flexible substrate. The sensing properties towards reducing and oxidizing gases in function of the operational temperature are reported. The flexible platform consists in titanium/platinum interdigitated electrodes and a micro-heater device, both fabricated by lift-off and photolithography. The operating temperature of the sensor is also challenging in term of power consumption. It is allowing the reaction with the exposure gases. Most of the semiconducting metal oxide materials used for gas sensing applications require high temperatures above 250 °C. Flexible gas sensors fabricated in this work present good responses towards ammonia and ozone at 300 °C and 200 °C respectively, with fast response and recovery time in a wide range of gas concentration.

  12. Application of flexible micro temperature sensor in oxidative steam reforming by a methanol micro reformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Shen, Chia-Chieh; Yeh, Chuin-Tih; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2011-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  13. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Lo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM, with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  14. Fatigue Crack Length Sizing Using a Novel Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifang Xie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The eddy current probe, which is flexible, array typed, highly sensitive and capable of quantitative inspection is one practical requirement in nondestructive testing and also a research hotspot. A novel flexible planar eddy current sensor array for the inspection of microcrack presentation in critical parts of airplanes is developed in this paper. Both exciting and sensing coils are etched on polyimide films using a flexible printed circuit board technique, thus conforming the sensor to complex geometric structures. In order to serve the needs of condition-based maintenance (CBM, the proposed sensor array is comprised of 64 elements. Its spatial resolution is only 0.8 mm, and it is not only sensitive to shallow microcracks, but also capable of sizing the length of fatigue cracks. The details and advantages of our sensor design are introduced. The working principal and the crack responses are analyzed by finite element simulation, with which a crack length sizing algorithm is proposed. Experiments based on standard specimens are implemented to verify the validity of our simulation and the efficiency of the crack length sizing algorithm. Experimental results show that the sensor array is sensitive to microcracks, and is capable of crack length sizing with an accuracy within ±0.2 mm.

  15. Flexible tension sensor based on poly(l-lactic acid) film with coaxial structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsunobu; Onishi, Katsuki; Tanimoto, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Shigeo

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a tension sensor with a coaxial structure using a narrow slit ribbon made of a uniaxially stretched poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) film for application to a wearable device. The tension sensor is produced as follows. We used tinsel wire as the center conductor of the sensor. The tinsel wire consists of a yarn of synthetic fibers arranged at the center, with a spirally wound rolled copper foil ribbon on the side surface. Next, slit ribbons obtained from a uniaxially oriented film of PLLA are wound helically on the side surface of the center conductor in the direction of a left-handed screw, at an angle of 45° to the central axis. The rolled copper foil is used as an outer conductor and covers the yarn without a gap. The prototype of the fabricated tension sensor has good flexibility, since the sensor is in the form of a filament and consists of a highly flexible material. For the 1 mm tension sensor, it was found that for a tension of 1 N, a charge of 14 pC was output. It was also found that the sensor maintained its room-temperature sensitivity up to 60 °C. Compared with an existing coaxial line sensor using poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), the sensor using PLLA does not exhibit pyroelectricity, meaning that no undesirable voltage is generated when in contact with body heat, which is a significant advantage as wearable sensors. The result has demonstrated the potential application of the PLLA film to wearable devices for detecting heartbeat and respiration.

  16. Flexible, Stretchable Sensors for Wearable Health Monitoring: Sensing Mechanisms, Materials, Fabrication Strategies and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Hai; Zhao, Wei; Qin, Hongbo; Xie, Yongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Wearable health monitoring systems have gained considerable interest in recent years owing to their tremendous promise for personal portable health watching and remote medical practices. The sensors with excellent flexibility and stretchability are crucial components that can provide health monitoring systems with the capability of continuously tracking physiological signals of human body without conspicuous uncomfortableness and invasiveness. The signals acquired by these sensors, such as body motion, heart rate, breath, skin temperature and metabolism parameter, are closely associated with personal health conditions. This review attempts to summarize the recent progress in flexible and stretchable sensors, concerning the detected health indicators, sensing mechanisms, functional materials, fabrication strategies, basic and desired features. The potential challenges and future perspectives of wearable health monitoring system are also briefly discussed. PMID:29470408

  17. Virtual Sensor for Kinematic Estimation of Flexible Links in Parallel Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoa, Pablo; Zubizarreta, Asier; Cabanes, Itziar; Mancisidor, Aitziber; Pinto, Charles; Mata, Sara

    2017-08-23

    The control of flexible link parallel manipulators is still an open area of research, endpoint trajectory tracking being one of the main challenges in this type of robot. The flexibility and deformations of the limbs make the estimation of the Tool Centre Point (TCP) position a challenging one. Authors have proposed different approaches to estimate this deformation and deduce the location of the TCP. However, most of these approaches require expensive measurement systems or the use of high computational cost integration methods. This work presents a novel approach based on a virtual sensor which can not only precisely estimate the deformation of the flexible links in control applications (less than 2% error), but also its derivatives (less than 6% error in velocity and 13% error in acceleration) according to simulation results. The validity of the proposed Virtual Sensor is tested in a Delta Robot, where the position of the TCP is estimated based on the Virtual Sensor measurements with less than a 0.03% of error in comparison with the flexible approach developed in ADAMS Multibody Software.

  18. Flexible Ferroelectric Sensors with Ultrahigh Pressure Sensitivity and Linear Response over Exceptionally Broad Pressure Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngoh; Park, Jonghwa; Cho, Soowon; Shin, Young-Eun; Lee, Hochan; Kim, Jinyoung; Myoung, Jinyoung; Cho, Seungse; Kang, Saewon; Baig, Chunggi; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2018-04-24

    Flexible pressure sensors with a high sensitivity over a broad linear range can simplify wearable sensing systems without additional signal processing for the linear output, enabling device miniaturization and low power consumption. Here, we demonstrate a flexible ferroelectric sensor with ultrahigh pressure sensitivity and linear response over an exceptionally broad pressure range based on the material and structural design of ferroelectric composites with a multilayer interlocked microdome geometry. Due to the stress concentration between interlocked microdome arrays and increased contact area in the multilayer design, the flexible ferroelectric sensors could perceive static/dynamic pressure with high sensitivity (47.7 kPa -1 , 1.3 Pa minimum detection). In addition, efficient stress distribution between stacked multilayers enables linear sensing over exceptionally broad pressure range (0.0013-353 kPa) with fast response time (20 ms) and high reliability over 5000 repetitive cycles even at an extremely high pressure of 272 kPa. Our sensor can be used to monitor diverse stimuli from a low to a high pressure range including weak gas flow, acoustic sound, wrist pulse pressure, respiration, and foot pressure with a single device.

  19. A Compact Inductive Position Sensor Made by Inkjet Printing Technology on a Flexible Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Samardžić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, simulation and fabrication of an inductive angular position sensor on a flexible substrate. The sensor is composed of meandering silver coils printed on a flexible substrate (Kapton film using inkjet technology. The flexibility enables that after printing in the plane, the coils could be rolled and put inside each other. By changing the angular position of the internal coil (rotor related to the external one (stator, the mutual inductance is changed and consequently the impedance. It is possible to determine the angular position from the measured real and imaginary part of the impedance, in our case in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 MHz. Experimental results were compared with simulation results obtained by in-house developed software tool, and very good agreement has been achieved. Thanks to the simple design and fabrication, smaller package space requirements and weight, the presented sensor represents a cost-effective alternative to the other sensors currently used in series production applications.

  20. Strengthening of Back Muscles Using a Module of Flexible Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chun Chuang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at developing a flexible strain module applied to the strengthening of back muscles. Silver films were sputtered onto flexible substrates to produce a flexible sensor. Assuming that back muscle elongation is positively correlated with the variations in skin surface length, real-time resistance changes exhibited by the sensor during simulated training sessions were measured. The results were used to identify the relationship between resistance change of sensors and skin surface stretch. In addition, muscle length changes from ultrasound images were used to determine the feasibility of a proof of concept sensor. Furthermore, this module is capable of detecting large muscle contractions, some of which may be undesirable for the prescribed training strategy. Therefore, the developed module can facilitate real-time assessments of the movement accuracy of users during training, and the results are instantly displayed on a screen. People using the developed training system can immediately adjust their posture to the appropriate position. Thus, the training mechanism can be constructed to help user improve the efficiency of back muscle strengthening.

  1. Flexible Mixed-Potential-Type (MPT) NO₂ Sensor Based on An Ultra-Thin Ceramic Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Rui; Jing, Gaoshan; Yu, Hongyan; Cui, Tianhong

    2017-07-29

    A novel flexible mixed-potential-type (MPT) sensor was designed and fabricated for NO₂ detection from 0 to 500 ppm at 200 °C. An ultra-thin Y₂O₃-doped ZrO₂ (YSZ) ceramic film 20 µm thick was sandwiched between a heating electrode and reference/sensing electrodes. The heating electrode was fabricated by a conventional lift-off process, while the porous reference and the sensing electrodes were fabricated by a two-step patterning method using shadow masks. The sensor's sensitivity is achieved as 58.4 mV/decade at the working temperature of 200 °C, as well as a detection limit of 26.7 ppm and small response time of less than 10 s at 200 ppm. Additionally, the flexible MPT sensor demonstrates superior mechanical stability after bending over 50 times due to the mechanical stability of the YSZ ceramic film. This simply structured, but highly reliable flexible MPT NO₂ sensor may lead to wide application in the automobile industry for vehicle emission systems to reduce NO₂ emissions and improve fuel efficiency.

  2. Sensitive and Flexible Polymeric Strain Sensor for Accurate Human Motion Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassan; Razmjou, Amir; Ebrahimi Warkiani, Majid; Kottapalli, Ajay; Asadnia, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    Flexible electronic devices offer the capability to integrate and adapt with human body. These devices are mountable on surfaces with various shapes, which allow us to attach them to clothes or directly onto the body. This paper suggests a facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning to develop a stretchable, and sensitive poly (vinylidene fluoride) nanofibrous strain sensor for human motion monitoring. A complete characterization on the single PVDF nano fiber has been performed. The charge generated by PVDF electrospun strain sensor changes was employed as a parameter to control the finger motion of the robotic arm. As a proof of concept, we developed a smart glove with five sensors integrated into it to detect the fingers motion and transfer it to a robotic hand. Our results shows that the proposed strain sensors are able to detect tiny motion of fingers and successfully run the robotic hand.

  3. Sensitive and Flexible Polymeric Strain Sensor for Accurate Human Motion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronic devices offer the capability to integrate and adapt with human body. These devices are mountable on surfaces with various shapes, which allow us to attach them to clothes or directly onto the body. This paper suggests a facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning to develop a stretchable, and sensitive poly (vinylidene fluoride nanofibrous strain sensor for human motion monitoring. A complete characterization on the single PVDF nano fiber has been performed. The charge generated by PVDF electrospun strain sensor changes was employed as a parameter to control the finger motion of the robotic arm. As a proof of concept, we developed a smart glove with five sensors integrated into it to detect the fingers motion and transfer it to a robotic hand. Our results shows that the proposed strain sensors are able to detect tiny motion of fingers and successfully run the robotic hand.

  4. Multidirectional flexible force sensors based on confined, self-adjusting carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-I.; Pyo, Soonjae; Kim, Min-Ook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive force sensor based on self-adjusting carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. Aligned CNT arrays are directly synthesized on silicon microstructures by a space-confined growth technique which enables a facile self-adjusting contact. To afford flexibility and softness, the patterned microstructures with the integrated CNTs are embedded in polydimethylsiloxane structures. The sensing mechanism is based on variations in the contact resistance between the facing CNT arrays under the applied force. By finite element analysis, proper dimensions and positions for each component are determined. Further, high sensitivities up to 15.05%/mN of the proposed sensors were confirmed experimentally. Multidirectional sensing capability could also be achieved by designing multiple sets of sensing elements in a single sensor. The sensors show long-term operational stability, owing to the unique properties of the constituent CNTs, such as outstanding mechanical durability and elasticity.

  5. Optimal sensor configuration for flexible structures with multi-dimensional mode shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Minwoo; Pakzad, Shamim N

    2015-01-01

    A framework for deciding the optimal sensor configuration is implemented for civil structures with multi-dimensional mode shapes, which enhances the applicability of structural health monitoring for existing structures. Optimal sensor placement (OSP) algorithms are used to determine the best sensor configuration for structures with a priori knowledge of modal information. The signal strength at each node is evaluated by effective independence and modified variance methods. Euclidean norm of signal strength indices associated with each node is used to expand OSP applicability into flexible structures. The number of sensors for each method is determined using the threshold for modal assurance criterion (MAC) between estimated (from a set of observations) and target mode shapes. Kriging is utilized to infer the modal estimates for unobserved locations with a weighted sum of known neighbors. A Kriging model can be expressed as a sum of linear regression and random error which is assumed as the realization of a stochastic process. This study presents the effects of Kriging parameters for the accurate estimation of mode shapes and the minimum number of sensors. The feasible ranges to satisfy MAC criteria are investigated and used to suggest the adequate searching bounds for associated parameters. The finite element model of a tall building is used to demonstrate the application of optimal sensor configuration. The dynamic modes of flexible structure at centroid are appropriately interpreted into the outermost sensor locations when OSP methods are implemented. Kriging is successfully used to interpolate the mode shapes from a set of sensors and to monitor structures associated with multi-dimensional mode shapes. (paper)

  6. A nafion coated capacitive humidity sensor on a flexible PET substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos

    2017-03-07

    This paper reports a simple and low-cost technique for fabricating low-power capacitive humidity sensors without the use of a cleanroom environment. A maskless laser engraving system was utilized to fabricate two different gold electrode structures, interdigitated electrodes and Hilbert\\'s fifth-order fractal. The capacitive structures were implemented on a flexible PET substrate. The usage of Nafion, a well-known polymer for its hydrophilic properties as a sensing film, was attempted on the PET and outperformed the current efforts in flexible substrates. Its humidity sensing properties were evaluated in an automated gas setup with a relative humidity (RH %) ranging from 15% to 95 %.

  7. A nafion coated capacitive humidity sensor on a flexible PET substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos; Buttner, Ulrich; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a simple and low-cost technique for fabricating low-power capacitive humidity sensors without the use of a cleanroom environment. A maskless laser engraving system was utilized to fabricate two different gold electrode structures, interdigitated electrodes and Hilbert's fifth-order fractal. The capacitive structures were implemented on a flexible PET substrate. The usage of Nafion, a well-known polymer for its hydrophilic properties as a sensing film, was attempted on the PET and outperformed the current efforts in flexible substrates. Its humidity sensing properties were evaluated in an automated gas setup with a relative humidity (RH %) ranging from 15% to 95 %.

  8. A flexible liquid crystal polymer MEMS pressure sensor array for fish-like underwater sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J M; Barbastathis, G; Triantafyllou, M S

    2012-01-01

    In order to perform underwater surveillance, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) require flexible, light-weight, reliable and robust sensing systems that are capable of flow sensing and detecting underwater objects. Underwater animals like fish perform a similar task using an efficient and ubiquitous sensory system called a lateral-line constituting of an array of pressure-gradient sensors. We demonstrate here the development of arrays of polymer microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors which are flexible and can be readily mounted on curved surfaces of AUV bodies. An array of ten sensors with a footprint of 60 (L) mm × 25 (W) mm × 0.4 (H) mm is fabricated using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) as the sensing membrane material. The flow sensing and object detection capabilities of the array are illustrated with proof-of-concept experiments conducted in a water tunnel. The sensors demonstrate a pressure sensitivity of 14.3 μV Pa −1 . A high resolution of 25 mm s −1 is achieved in water flow sensing. The sensors can passively sense underwater objects by transducing the pressure variations generated underwater by the movement of objects. The experimental results demonstrate the array’s ability to detect the velocity of underwater objects towed past by with high accuracy, and an average error of only 2.5%. (paper)

  9. Towards development of nanofibrous large strain flexible strain sensors with programmable shape memory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Asif, H.; Naguib, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospun polymeric fibers can be used as strain sensors due to their large surface to weight/volume ratio, high porosity and pore interconnectivity. Large strain flexible strain sensors are used in numerous applications including rehabilitation, health monitoring, and sports performance monitoring where large strain detection should be accommodated by the sensor. This has boosted the demand for a stretchable, flexible and highly sensitive sensor able to detect a wide range of mechanically induced deformations. Herein, a physically cross-linked polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blend is made into nanofiber networks via electrospinning. The PLA/TPU weight ratio is optimized to obtain a maximum attainable strain of 100% while maintaining its mechanical integrity. The TPU/PLA fibers also allowed for their thermally activated recovery due to shape memory properties of the substrate. This novel feature enhances the sensor’s performance as it is no longer limited by its plastic deformation. Using spray coating method, a homogeneous layer of single-walled carbon nanotube is deposited onto the as-spun fiber mat to induce electrical conductivity to the surface of the fibers. It is shown that stretching and bending the sensor result in a highly sensitive and linear response with a maximum gauge factor of 33.

  10. A Fully Transparent Flexible Sensor for Cryogenic Temperatures Based on High Strength Metallurgical Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Pawlak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature electronics operating in below zero temperatures or even below the lower limit of the common −65 to 125 °C temperature range are essential in medical diagnostics, in space exploration and aviation, in processing and storage of food and mainly in scientific research, like superconducting materials engineering and their applications—superconducting magnets, superconducting energy storage, and magnetic levitation systems. Such electronic devices demand special approach to the materials used in passive elements and sensors. The main goal of this work was the implementation of a fully transparent, flexible cryogenic temperature sensor with graphene structures as sensing element. Electrodes were made of transparent ITO (Indium Tin Oxide or ITO/Ag/ITO conductive layers by laser ablation and finally encapsulated in a polymer coating. A helium closed-cycle cryostat has been used in measurements of the electrical properties of these graphene-based temperature sensors under cryogenic conditions. The sensors were repeatedly cooled from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. Graphene structures were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The observation of the resistance changes as a function of temperature indicates the potential use of graphene layers in the construction of temperature sensors. The temperature characteristics of the analyzed graphene sensors exhibit no clear anomalies or strong non-linearity in the entire studied temperature range (as compared to the typical carbon sensor.

  11. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA, notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  12. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25°C to 65°C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  13. Scalable Microfabrication Procedures for Adhesive-Integrated Flexible and Stretchable Electronic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Y.; Kim, Yun-Soung; Ornelas, Gladys; Sinha, Mridu; Naidu, Keerthiga; Coleman, Todd P.

    2015-01-01

    New classes of ultrathin flexible and stretchable devices have changed the way modern electronics are designed to interact with their target systems. Though more and more novel technologies surface and steer the way we think about future electronics, there exists an unmet need in regards to optimizing the fabrication procedures for these devices so that large-scale industrial translation is realistic. This article presents an unconventional approach for facile microfabrication and processing of adhesive-peeled (AP) flexible sensors. By assembling AP sensors on a weakly-adhering substrate in an inverted fashion, we demonstrate a procedure with 50% reduced end-to-end processing time that achieves greater levels of fabrication yield. The methodology is used to demonstrate the fabrication of electrical and mechanical flexible and stretchable AP sensors that are peeled-off their carrier substrates by consumer adhesives. In using this approach, we outline the manner by which adhesion is maintained and buckling is reduced for gold film processing on polydimethylsiloxane substrates. In addition, we demonstrate the compatibility of our methodology with large-scale post-processing using a roll-to-roll approach. PMID:26389915

  14. Flexible surface acoustic wave respiration sensor for monitoring obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Tao, Xiang; Dong, Shurong; Qin, Yiheng; Yu, Liyang; Luo, Jikui; Deen, M. Jamal

    2017-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has received much attention in recent years due to its significant harm to human health and high morbidity rate. A respiration monitoring system is needed to detect OSAS, so that the patient can receive treatment in a timely manner. Wired and wireless OSAS monitoring systems have been developed, but they require a wire connection and batteries to operate, and they are bulky, heavy and not user-friendly. In this paper, we propose the use of a flexible surface acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor to detect and monitor OSAS by measuring the humidity change associated with the respiration of a person. SAW sensors on rigid 128° YX LiNbO3 substrate are also characterized for this application. Results show both types of SAW sensors are suitable for OSAS monitoring with good sensitivity, repeatability and reliability, and the response time and recovery time for the flexible SAW sensors are 1.125 and 0.75 s, respectively. Our work demonstrates the potential for an innovative flexible microsensor for the detection and monitoring of OSAS.

  15. Analysis to determine the maximum dimensions of flexible apertures in sensored security netting products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murton, Mark; Bouchier, Francis A.; vanDongen, Dale T.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Cutler, Robert P; Ross, Michael P.

    2013-08-01

    Although technological advances provide new capabilities to increase the robustness of security systems, they also potentially introduce new vulnerabilities. New capability sometimes requires new performance requirements. This paper outlines an approach to establishing a key performance requirement for an emerging intrusion detection sensor: the sensored net. Throughout the security industry, the commonly adopted standard for maximum opening size through barriers is a requirement based on square inchestypically 96 square inches. Unlike standard rigid opening, the dimensions of a flexible aperture are not fixed, but variable and conformable. It is demonstrably simple for a human intruder to move through a 96-square-inch opening that is conformable to the human body. The longstanding 96-square-inch requirement itself, though firmly embedded in policy and best practice, lacks a documented empirical basis. This analysis concluded that the traditional 96-square-inch standard for openings is insufficient for flexible openings that are conformable to the human body. Instead, a circumference standard is recommended for these newer types of sensored barriers. The recommended maximum circumference for a flexible opening should be no more than 26 inches, as measured on the inside of the netting material.

  16. Free-standing and flexible graphene papers as disposable non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Hou, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    ) disclosed AuNPs coated uniformly by a 5 nm thick PB layer. Au@PB NPs were attached to single-layer graphene oxide (GO) to form Au@PB decorated GO sheets. The resulting hybrid material was filtered layer-by-layer into flexible and freestanding GO paper, which was further converted into conductive reduced GO...... (RGO)/Au@PB paper via hydrazine vapour reduction. High-resolution TEM images suggested that RGO papers are multiply sandwich-like structures functionalized with core-shell NPs. Resulting sandwich functionalized graphene papers have high conductivity, sufficient flexibility, and robust mechanical...... response range (1-30 μM), the detection limit (100 nM), and the high amperometric sensitivity (5 A cm-2 M-1). With the advantages of low cost and scalable production capacity, such graphene supported functional papers are of particular interest in the use as flexible disposable sensors....

  17. Development of a Flexible Strain Sensor Based on PEDOT:PSS for Thin Film Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra El Zein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a reproducible flexible sensor adapted to thin low-density polyethylene (LDPE films and/or structures to enable their deformation measurements. As these deformations are suspected to be weak (less than 10%, the developed sensor needs to be particularly sensitive. Moreover, it is of prime importance that sensor integration and usability do not modify the mechanical behavior of its LDPE substrate. The literature review allowed several materials to be investigated and an elastomer/intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS (CleviosTM filled composite was selected to simultaneously combine mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. This composite (made of PEDOT:PSS and silicone Bluesil® presented satisfying compatibilities with piezoresistive effects, negative temperature performances (in a range from −60 °C to 20 °C, as well as elongation properties (until the elastic limit of the substrate was reached. The method used for creating the sensor is fully described, as are the optimization of the sensor manufacture in terms of used materials, the used amount of materials where the percolation theory aspects must be considered, the adhesion to the substrate, and the manufacturing protocol. Electromechanical characterization was performed to assess the gauge factor (K of the sensor on its substrate.

  18. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ���±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  19. Carbon nanotube/polymer composite electrodes for flexible, attachable electrochemical DNA sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lee, Eun-Cheol

    2015-09-15

    All-solution-processed, easily-made, flexible multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based electrodes were fabricated and used for electrochemical DNA sensors. These electrodes could serve as a recognition layer for DNA, without any surface modification, through π-π interactions between the MWCNTs and DNA, greatly simplifying the fabrication process for DNA sensors. The electrodes were directly connected to an electrochemical analyzer in the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements, where methylene blue was used as a redox indicator. Since neither functional groups nor probe DNA were immobilized on the surfaces of the electrodes, the sensor can be easily regenerated by washing these electrodes with water. The limit of detection was found to be 1.3 × 10(2)pM (S/N=3), with good DNA sequence differentiation ability. Fast fabrication of a DNA sensor was also achieved by cutting and attaching the MWCNT-PDMS composite electrodes at an analyte solution-containable region. Our results pave the way for developing user-fabricated easily attached DNA sensors at low costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A modified analytical model to study the sensing performance of a flexible capacitive tactile sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Guanhao; Wang, Yancheng; Mei, Deqing; Xi, Kailun; Chen, Zichen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a modified analytical model to study the sensing performance of a flexible capacitive tactile sensor array, which utilizes solid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film as the dielectric layer. To predict the deformation of the sensing unit and capacitance changes, each sensing unit is simplified into a three-layer plate structure and divided into central, edge and corner regions. The plate structure and the three regions are studied by the general and modified models, respectively. For experimental validation, the capacitive tactile sensor array with 8  ×  8 (= 64) sensing units is fabricated. Experiments are conducted by measuring the capacitance changes versus applied external forces and compared with the general and modified models’ predictions. For the developed tactile sensor array, the sensitivity predicted by the modified analytical model is 1.25%/N, only 0.8% discrepancy from the experimental measurement. Results demonstrate that the modified analytical model can accurately predict the sensing performance of the sensor array and could be utilized for model-based optimal capacitive tactile sensor array design. (paper)

  1. A flexible data fusion architecture for persistent surveillance using ultra-low-power wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jeffrey A.; McLaughlin, Keith L.; Sereno, Thomas J.

    2011-06-01

    We have developed a flexible, target-driven, multi-modal, physics-based fusion architecture that efficiently searches sensor detections for targets and rejects clutter while controlling the combinatoric problems that commonly arise in datadriven fusion systems. The informational constraints imposed by long lifetime requirements make systems vulnerable to false alarms. We demonstrate that our data fusion system significantly reduces false alarms while maintaining high sensitivity to threats. In addition, mission goals can vary substantially in terms of targets-of-interest, required characterization, acceptable latency, and false alarm rates. Our fusion architecture provides the flexibility to match these trade-offs with mission requirements unlike many conventional systems that require significant modifications for each new mission. We illustrate our data fusion performance with case studies that span many of the potential mission scenarios including border surveillance, base security, and infrastructure protection. In these studies, we deployed multi-modal sensor nodes - including geophones, magnetometers, accelerometers and PIR sensors - with low-power processing algorithms and low-bandwidth wireless mesh networking to create networks capable of multi-year operation. The results show our data fusion architecture maintains high sensitivities while suppressing most false alarms for a variety of environments and targets.

  2. Fabrication of a Flexible Micro CO Sensor for Micro Reformer Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Lo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration of a reformer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is problematic due to the presence in the gas from the reforming process of a slight amount of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide poisons the catalyst of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell subsequently degrading the fuel cell performance, and necessitating the sublimation of the reaction gas before supplying to fuel cells. Based on the use of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology to manufacture flexible micro CO sensors, this study elucidates the relation between a micro CO sensor and different SnO2 thin film thicknesses. Experimental results indicate that the sensitivity increases at temperatures ranging from 100–300 °C. Additionally, the best sensitivity is obtained at a specific temperature. For instance, the best sensitivity of SnO2 thin film thickness of 100 nm at 300 °C is 59.3%. Moreover, a flexible micro CO sensor is embedded into a micro reformer to determine the CO concentration in each part of a micro reformer in the future, demonstrating the inner reaction of a micro reformer in depth and immediate detection.

  3. The mechanical design of a humanoid robot with flexible skin sensor for use in psychiatric therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alec; Tadesse, Yonas

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a humanoid robot is presented for ultimate use in the rehabilitation of children with mental disorders, such as autism. Creating affordable and efficient humanoids could assist the therapy in psychiatric disability by offering multimodal communication between the humanoid and humans. Yet, the humanoid development needs a seamless integration of artificial muscles, sensors, controllers and structures. We have designed a human-like robot that has 15 DOF, 580 mm tall and 925 mm arm span using a rapid prototyping system. The robot has a human-like appearance and movement. Flexible sensors around the arm and hands for safe human-robot interactions, and a two-wheel mobile platform for maneuverability are incorporated in the design. The robot has facial features for illustrating human-friendly behavior. The mechanical design of the robot and the characterization of the flexible sensors are presented. Comprehensive study on the upper body design, mobile base, actuators selection, electronics, and performance evaluation are included in this paper.

  4. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    OpenAIRE

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object...

  5. Electrically Conductive TPU Nanofibrous Composite with High Stretchability for Flexible Strain Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; He, Xiao-Xiao; Nie, Guang-Di; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Guo, Wen-Zhe; Long, Yun-Ze

    2018-03-01

    Highly stretchable and electrically conductive thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibrous composite based on electrospinning for flexible strain sensor and stretchable conductor has been fabricated via in situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) on TPU nanofibrous membrane. The PANI/TPU membrane-based sensor could detect a strain from 0 to 160% with fast response and excellent stability. Meanwhile, the TPU composite has good stability and durability. Besides, the composite could be adapted to various non-flat working environments and could maintain opportune conductivity at different operating temperatures. This work provides an easy operating and low-cost method to fabricate highly stretchable and electrically conductive nanofibrous membrane, which could be applied to detect quick and tiny human actions.

  6. A disposable flexible humidity sensor directly printed on paper for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpakos, D.; Segkos, A.; Tsamis, C.; Kaltsas, G.

    2017-11-01

    The present study demonstrates an inkjet - printed interdigitated electrode array on paper substrate and its evaluation as humidity sensor. Inkjet droplet formation analysis has been performed in order to achieve repeatable results regarding generated droplets, based on the driving pulses applied on the inkjet piezoelectric element. Droplet formation has been monitored using stroboscopic effect. Three different paper substrates, namely high glossy inkjet photo paper, glossy inkjet photo and matte inkjet photo paper have been evaluated to investigate compatibility with the ink. Relative humidity measurements have been carried out in a controlled environment. Material degradation, long term response and memory effect are some of the aspects which were studied within the frame of the present work. The proposed sensor provides the opportunity for novel biomedical applications given the flexible substrate nature and the low - cost, single - step fabrication approach.

  7. Design and Fabrication of Single-Walled Carbon Nanonet Flexible Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Kien Vu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel flexible strain sensor for real-time strain sensing. The material for strain sensing is single-walled carbon nanonets, grown using the alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition method, that were encapsulated between two layers of Parylene-C, with a polyimide layer as the sensing surface. All of the micro-fabrication was compatible with the standard IC process. Experimental results indicated that the gauge factor of the proposed strain sensor was larger than 4.5, approximately 2.0 times greater than those of commercial gauges. The results also demonstrated that the gauge factor is small when the growth time of SWCNNs is lengthier, and the gauge factor is large when the line width of the serpentine pattern of SWCNNs is small.

  8. Hybrid fabrication process of additive manufacturing and direct writing for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible tactile sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sang Gu; Lee, In Hwan; Lee, Kyong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Various machines require data from their external environments for safety and/or accuracy. In this respect, many sensors that mimic the human sensory system have been investigated. Among these, tactile sensors may be useful for obtaining data on the roughness of, and external forces acting upon, an object. Several tactile sensors have been developed; however, these are typically fabricated via a series of complex processes, and hence are unsuitable for volume manufacturing. In this paper, we report a fabrication process for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible sensor element using layered manufacturing and direct-write technology. A composite composed of photocurable resin and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was used as the sensing material. The MWCNTs were mixed with the photocurable resin using ultrasonic dispersion, and the liquid mixture exhibited excellent piezoresistive properties following curing using ultraviolet light. The used photocurable resin is flexible and elastic after curing. Therefore, the composite material can be bent and deformed. To use this composite material with the flexible sensor, dispensing characteristics were examined using direct-write technology. For the acquisition of sensor data, a commercial pin-header was inserted and photocurable resin was filled up to the height of pin-header and cured . Then, the composite material was dispensed onto the pin-header as a sensing material. Using this process, a flexible sensor with piezoresistive properties was formed.

  9. Hybrid fabrication process of additive manufacturing and direct writing for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible tactile sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang Gu; Lee, In Hwan [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyong Chang [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Various machines require data from their external environments for safety and/or accuracy. In this respect, many sensors that mimic the human sensory system have been investigated. Among these, tactile sensors may be useful for obtaining data on the roughness of, and external forces acting upon, an object. Several tactile sensors have been developed; however, these are typically fabricated via a series of complex processes, and hence are unsuitable for volume manufacturing. In this paper, we report a fabrication process for a 4 X 4 mm matrix flexible sensor element using layered manufacturing and direct-write technology. A composite composed of photocurable resin and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was used as the sensing material. The MWCNTs were mixed with the photocurable resin using ultrasonic dispersion, and the liquid mixture exhibited excellent piezoresistive properties following curing using ultraviolet light. The used photocurable resin is flexible and elastic after curing. Therefore, the composite material can be bent and deformed. To use this composite material with the flexible sensor, dispensing characteristics were examined using direct-write technology. For the acquisition of sensor data, a commercial pin-header was inserted and photocurable resin was filled up to the height of pin-header and cured . Then, the composite material was dispensed onto the pin-header as a sensing material. Using this process, a flexible sensor with piezoresistive properties was formed.

  10. Fabrication of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistor-driven flexible thermal and pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ick-Joon; Jeong, Chan-Yong; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Cho, Eou-Sik; Kwon, Sang Jik; Kim, Bosul; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present the results concerning the use of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) as a driving transistor of the flexible thermal and pressure sensors which are applicable to artificial skin systems. Although the a-IGZO TFT has been attracting much attention as a driving transistor of the next-generation flat panel displays, no study has been performed about the application of this new device to the driving transistor of the flexible sensors yet. The proposed thermal sensor pixel is composed of the series-connected a-IGZO TFT and ZnO-based thermistor fabricated on a polished metal foil, and the ZnO-based thermistor is replaced by the pressure sensitive rubber in the pressure sensor pixel. In both sensor pixels, the a-IGZO TFT acts as the driving transistor and the temperature/pressure-dependent resistance of the ZnO-based thermistor/pressure-sensitive rubber mainly determines the magnitude of the output currents. The fabricated a-IGZO TFT-driven flexible thermal sensor shows around a seven times increase in the output current as the temperature increases from 20 °C to 100 °C, and the a-IGZO TFT-driven flexible pressure sensors also exhibit high sensitivity under various pressure environments. (paper)

  11. Integrated pressure and temperature sensor with high immunity against external disturbance for flexible endoscope operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yusaku; Maeda, Kohei; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Takao, Hidekuni

    2017-04-01

    In this study, an integrated pressure and temperature sensor device for a flexible endoscope with long-term stability in in vivo environments was developed and demonstrated. The sensor, which is embedded in the thin wall of the disposable endoscope hood, is intended for use in endoscopic surgery. The device surface is coated with a Cr layer to prevent photoelectronic generation induced by the strong light of the endoscope. The integrated temperature sensor allows compensation for the effect of the temperature drift on a pressure signal. The fabricated device pressure resolution is 0.4 mmHg; the corresponding pressure error is 3.2 mmHg. The packaged device was used in a surgical simulation in an animal experiment. Pressure and temperature monitoring was achieved even in a pH 1 acid solution. The device enables intraluminal pressure and temperature measurements of the stomach, which facilitate the maintenance of internal stomach conditions. The applicability of the sensor was successfully demonstrated in animal experiments.

  12. Fingerprint-Inspired Flexible Tactile Sensor for Accurately Discerning Surface Texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yudong; Li, Tie; Gu, Yang; Luo, Hui; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Ting

    2018-04-01

    Inspired by the epidermal-dermal and outer microstructures of the human fingerprint, a novel flexible sensor device is designed to improve haptic perception and surface texture recognition, which is consisted of single-walled carbon nanotubes, polyethylene, and polydimethylsiloxane with interlocked and outer micropyramid arrays. The sensor shows high pressure sensitivity (-3.26 kPa -1 in the pressure range of 0-300 Pa), and it can detect the shear force changes induced by the dynamic interaction between the outer micropyramid structure on the sensor and the tested material surface, and the minimum dimension of the microstripe that can be discerned is as low as 15 µm × 15 µm (interval × width). To demonstrate the texture discrimination capability, the sensors are tested for accurately discerning various surface textures, such as the textures of different fabrics, Braille characters, the inverted pyramid patterns, which will have great potential in robot skins and haptic perception, etc. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Respiration and Heartbeat Measurement for Sleep Monitoring Using a Flexible AlN Piezoelectric Film Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan BU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory and heartbeat monitoring during sleep provides basic physiological information for diagnosis of sleep disorders. This paper proposes a new method for non-invasive and unconstrained measurement of respiration and heartbeat during sleep. A flexible piezoelectric film sensor made of aluminum nitride (AlN material is used for signal acquisition. The total thickness of this sensor is less than 40 μm; the thin thickness makes it imperceptible when integrated into a bed. In addition, the AlN film sensor has good sensitivity, so that pressure fluctuation due to respiration and heartbeat can be measured when a subject is lying on this sensor. The pressure fluctuation measured can be further separated into signals corresponding to respiration and heartbeat, respectively. In the proposed method, the signal separation is achieved using an algorithm based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD. From the experimental results, it was found that respiration and heartbeat signals can be successfully obtained with the proposed method.

  14. Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Michael C; Ahmad, Habib; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R

    2007-05-01

    The development of a robust method for integrating high-performance semiconductors on flexible plastics could enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications. One area of vital relevance is chemical and biological sensing, which if implemented on biocompatible substrates, could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable monitoring systems. Semiconducting nanowires (and nanotubes) are particularly sensitive chemical sensors because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. Here, we present a scalable and parallel process for transferring hundreds of pre-aligned silicon nanowires onto plastic to yield highly ordered films for low-power sensor chips. The nanowires are excellent field-effect transistors, and, as sensors, exhibit parts-per-billion sensitivity to NO2, a hazardous pollutant. We also use SiO2 surface chemistries to construct a 'nano-electronic nose' library, which can distinguish acetone and hexane vapours via distributed responses. The excellent sensing performance coupled with bendable plastic could open up opportunities in portable, wearable or even implantable sensors.

  15. Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Michael C.; Ahmad, Habib; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R.

    2007-05-01

    The development of a robust method for integrating high-performance semiconductors on flexible plastics could enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications. One area of vital relevance is chemical and biological sensing, which if implemented on biocompatible substrates, could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable monitoring systems. Semiconducting nanowires (and nanotubes) are particularly sensitive chemical sensors because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. Here, we present a scalable and parallel process for transferring hundreds of pre-aligned silicon nanowires onto plastic to yield highly ordered films for low-power sensor chips. The nanowires are excellent field-effect transistors, and, as sensors, exhibit parts-per-billion sensitivity to NO2, a hazardous pollutant. We also use SiO2 surface chemistries to construct a `nano-electronic nose' library, which can distinguish acetone and hexane vapours via distributed responses. The excellent sensing performance coupled with bendable plastic could open up opportunities in portable, wearable or even implantable sensors.

  16. System Theory Aspects of Multi-Body Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-18

    systems are described from a system theory point of view. Various system theory concepts and research topics which have applicability to this class of...systems are identified and briefly described. The subject of multi-body dynamics is presented in a vector space setting and is related to system theory concepts. (Author)

  17. Large-area compatible fabrication and encapsulation of inkjet-printed humidity sensors on flexible foils with integrated thermal compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Lopez, F; Quintero, A Vásquez; Mattana, G; Briand, D; De Rooij, N F

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the simultaneous fabrication of ambient relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors arrays, inkjet-printed on flexible substrates and subsequently encapsulated at foil level. These sensors are based on planar interdigitated capacitors with an inkjet-printed sensing layer and meander-shaped resistors. Their combination allows the compensation of the RH signals variations at different temperatures. The whole fabrication of the system is carried out at foil level and involves the utilization of additive methods such as inkjet-printing and electrodeposition. Electrodeposition of the printed lines resulted in an improvement of the thermoresistors. The sensors have been characterized and their performances analyzed. The encapsulation layer does not modify the performances of the sensors in terms of sensitivity or response time. This work demonstrates the potential of inkjet-printing in the large-area fabrication of light-weight and cost-efficient gas sensors on flexible substrates. (paper)

  18. Calibration of a flexible measurement system based on industrial articulated robot and structured light sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nan; Wang, Kun; Xie, Zexiao; Ren, Ping

    2017-05-01

    To realize online rapid measurement for complex workpieces, a flexible measurement system based on an articulated industrial robot with a structured light sensor mounted on the end-effector is developed. A method for calibrating the system parameters is proposed in which the hand-eye transformation parameters and the robot kinematic parameters are synthesized in the calibration process. An initial hand-eye calibration is first performed using a standard sphere as the calibration target. By applying the modified complete and parametrically continuous method, we establish a synthesized kinematic model that combines the initial hand-eye transformation and distal link parameters as a whole with the sensor coordinate system as the tool frame. According to the synthesized kinematic model, an error model is constructed based on spheres' center-to-center distance errors. Consequently, the error model parameters can be identified in a calibration experiment using a three-standard-sphere target. Furthermore, the redundancy of error model parameters is eliminated to ensure the accuracy and robustness of the parameter identification. Calibration and measurement experiments are carried out based on an ER3A-C60 robot. The experimental results show that the proposed calibration method enjoys high measurement accuracy, and this efficient and flexible system is suitable for online measurement in industrial scenes.

  19. Ultra-Sensitive Strain Sensor Based on Flexible Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Piezoelectric Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Huang, Wen; Guo, Junxiong; Gong, Tianxun; Wei, Xiongbang; Lu, Bing-Wei; Liu, Si-Yi; Yu, Bin

    2018-03-01

    A flexible 4 × 4 sensor array with 16 micro-scale capacitive units has been demonstrated based on flexible piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film. The piezoelectricity and surface morphology of the PVDF were examined by optical imaging and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The PFM shows phase contrast, indicating clear interface between the PVDF and electrode. The electro-mechanical properties show that the sensor exhibits excellent output response and an ultra-high signal-to-noise ratio. The output voltage and the applied pressure possess linear relationship with a slope of 12 mV/kPa. The hold-and-release output characteristics recover in less than 2.5 μs, demonstrating outstanding electro-mechanical response. Additionally, signal interference between the adjacent arrays has been investigated via theoretical simulation. The results show the interference reduces with decreasing pressure at a rate of 0.028 mV/kPa, highly scalable with electrode size and becoming insignificant for pressure level under 178 kPa.

  20. Flexible palladium-based H2 sensor with fast response and low leakage detection by nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Hui; Radha, Boya; Chan, Jie Yong; Saifullah, Mohammad S M; Kulkarni, Giridhar U; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2013-08-14

    Flexible palladium-based H2 sensors have a great potential in advanced sensing applications, as they offer advantages such as light weight, space conservation, and mechanical durability. Despite these advantages, the paucity of such sensors is due to the fact that they are difficult to fabricate while maintaining excellent sensing performance. Here, we demonstrate, using direct nanoimprint lithography of palladium, the fabrication of a flexible, durable, and fast responsive H2 sensor that is capable of detecting H2 gas concentration as low as 50 ppm. High resolution and high throughput patterning of palladium gratings over a 2 cm × 1 cm area on a rigid substrate was achieved by heat-treating nanoimprinted palladium benzyl mercaptide at 250 °C for 1 h. The flexible and robust H2 sensing device was fabricated by subsequent transfer nanoimprinting of these gratings into a polycarbonate film at its glass transition temperature. This technique produces flexible H2 sensors with improved durability, sensitivity, and response time in comparison to palladium thin films. At ambient pressure and temperature, the device showed a fast response time of 18 s at a H2 concentration of 3500 ppm. At 50 ppm concentration, the response time was found to be 57 s. The flexibility of the sensor does not appear to compromise its performance.

  1. SensorKit: A Flexible and Extensible System for In-Situ Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Deschon, A.; Chang, J.; Westrich, S.; Cho, Y. H.; Gullapalli, S.; Benzel, T.; Graham, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Over the years, sensor networks technology has evolved tremendously and has great potential in environmental sensing applications. However, because sensor networks are usually designed and built by computer scientists and engineers with little input from the scientific community, the resulting technology is often complex and out of reach for most field scientists. A few sensor, and data logger vendors have released data acquisition systems that can be used with their products. Unfortunately, these are generally vendor-specific, requiring scientists with heterogeneous sensors to use multiple systems to acquire data from all their sensors. A few, more generic systems, are compatible with multiple brands. However, these often offer only limited functionality, little flexibility, and no extensibility. We built SensorKit to overcome these limitations and to accelerate the adoption of sensor networks by field scientists. Using a simplicity-through-sophistication approach, we provide scientists with a powerful tool for field data collection. SensorKit is hardware agnostic, and was built using commercial off-the-shelf components. By employing a Linux-based ultra low-power generic embedded processing platform with a variety of dataloggers (including Berkeley motes, National Instruments' Compact RIOs, as well as legacy and newer PakBus-based Campbell data loggers), we support requirements from a large number of scientists. The user interfaces are designed to be intuitive so that most scientists can deploy, configure, and operate the system without extensive training. Working in close collaboration with field scientists allowed us to better understand scientific requirements and ensure system relevancy. The requirements for data acquisition, data storage, and data communication vary significantly for each deployment. Data acquisition needs to include capabilities for different analog, digital, and other complex sensors (e.g. cameras, and robotic sensors). Moreover, the

  2. Waste to wealth concept: Disposable RGO filter paper for flexible temperature sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neella, Nagarjuna; Kedambaimoole, Vaishakh; Gaddam, Venkateswarlu; Nayak, M. M.; Rajanna, K.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed a flexible reduced graphene oxide (RGO) temperature sensor on filter paper based cellulose substrate using vacuum filtration method. One of the most commonly used synthesized methods for RGO thin films is vacuum filtration process. It has several advantages such as simple operation and good controllability. The structural analysis was carried out by FE-SEM, in which the surface morphology images confirm the formation of RGO nanostructures on the filter paper substrate. It was observed that the pores of the filter paper were completely filled with the RGO material during the filtration process, subsequently the formation of continuous RGO thin films. As a results, the RGO films exhibits a piezoresistive property. The resulted RGO based films on the filter paper reveals the semiconducting behavior having sensitivity of 0.278 Ω /°C and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) about -0.00254 Ω/ Ω / °C. Thus, we demonstrate a simplified way for the fabrication of RGO films on filter paper that possesses better and easier measurable macroscopic electrical properties. Our approach is for easy way of electronics, cost-effective and environment friendly fabrication route for flexible conducting graphene films on filter paper. This will enable for the potential applications in flexible electronics in various fields including biomedical, automobile and aerospace engineering.

  3. Non-aqueous electrochemical deposition of lead zirconate titanate films for flexible sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sherin; Kumar, A. V. Ramesh; John, Reji

    2017-11-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is one of the most important piezoelectric materials widely used for underwater sensors. However, PZTs are hard and non-compliant and hence there is an overwhelming attention devoted toward making it flexible by preparing films on flexible substrates by different routes. In this work, the electrochemical deposition of composition controlled PZT films over flexible stainless steel (SS) foil substrates using non-aqueous electrolyte dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was carried out. Effects of various key parameters involved in electrochemical deposition process such as current density and time of deposition were studied. It was found that a current density of 25 mA/cm2 for 5 min gave a good film. The morphology and topography evaluation of the films was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively, which showed a uniform morphology with a surface roughness of 2 nm. The PZT phase formation was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corroborated with Raman spectroscopic studies. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss, hysteresis and I-V characteristics of the film was evaluated.

  4. Flexible and multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvester for self-powered human motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ook; Pyo, Soonjae; Oh, Yongkeun; Kang, Yunsung; Cho, Kyung-Ho; Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-03-01

    A flexible piezoelectric strain energy harvester that is responsive to multi-directional input forces produced by various human motions is proposed. The structure of the harvester, which includes a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bump, facilitates the effective conversion of strain energy, produced by input forces applied in random directions, into electrical energy. The structural design of the PDMS bump and frame as well as the slits in the piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film provide mechanical flexibility and enhance the strain induced in the PVDF film under input forces applied at various angles. The amount and direction of the strain induced in PVDF can be changed by the direction of the applied force; thus, the generated output power can be varied. The measured maximum output peak voltage is 1.75, 1.29, and 0.98 V when an input force of 4 N (2 Hz) is applied at angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and the corresponding maximum output power is 0.064, 0.026, and 0.02 μW, respectively. Moreover, the harvester stably generates output voltage over 1.4 × 104 cycles. Thus, the proposed harvester successfully identifies and converts strain energy produced by multi-directional input forces by various human motions into electrical energy. We demonstrate the potential utility of the proposed flexible energy harvester as a self-powered human motion sensor for wireless healthcare systems.

  5. Fully integrated carbon nanotube composite thin film strain sensors on flexible substrates for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. R.; Lynch, J. P.; Kurata, M.; Law, K. H.

    2017-09-01

    Multifunctional thin film materials have opened many opportunities for novel sensing strategies for structural health monitoring. While past work has established methods of optimizing multifunctional materials to exhibit sensing properties, comparatively less work has focused on their integration into fully functional sensing systems capable of being deployed in the field. This study focuses on the advancement of a scalable fabrication process for the integration of multifunctional thin films into a fully integrated sensing system. This is achieved through the development of an optimized fabrication process that can create a broad range of sensing systems using multifunctional materials. A layer-by-layer deposited multifunctional composite consisting of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in a polyvinyl alcohol and polysodium-4-styrene sulfonate matrix are incorporated with a lithography process to produce a fully integrated sensing system deposited on a flexible substrate. To illustrate the process, a strain sensing platform consisting of a patterned SWNT-composite thin film as a strain-sensitive element within an amplified Wheatstone bridge sensing circuit is presented. Strain sensing is selected because it presents many of the design and processing challenges that are core to patterning multifunctional thin film materials into sensing systems. Strain sensors fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate are experimentally tested under cyclic loading using standard four-point bending coupons and a partial-scale steel frame assembly under lateral loading. The study reveals the material process is highly repeatable to produce fully integrated strain sensors with linearity and sensitivity exceeding 0.99 and 5 {{V}}/{ε }, respectively. The thin film strain sensors are robust and are capable of high strain measurements beyond 3000 μ {ε }.

  6. Flexible quality of service model for wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yangzhe; Leeson, Mark S; Higgins, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    Wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs) are becoming an increasingly significant breakthrough technology for smart healthcare systems, enabling improved clinical decision-making in daily medical care. Recently, radio frequency ultra-wideband technology has developed substantially for physiological signal monitoring due to its advantages such as low-power consumption, high transmission data rate, and miniature antenna size. Applications of future ubiquitous healthcare systems offer the prospect of collecting human vital signs, early detection of abnormal medical conditions, real-time healthcare data transmission and remote telemedicine support. However, due to the technical constraints of sensor batteries, the supply of power is a major bottleneck for healthcare system design. Moreover, medium access control (MAC) needs to support reliable transmission links that allow sensors to transmit data safely and stably. In this Letter, the authors provide a flexible quality of service model for ad hoc networks that can support fast data transmission, adaptive schedule MAC control, and energy efficient ubiquitous WBASN networks. Results show that the proposed multi-hop communication ad hoc network model can balance information packet collisions and power consumption. Additionally, wireless communications link in WBASNs can effectively overcome multi-user interference and offer high transmission data rates for healthcare systems.

  7. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhi Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  8. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Dan; Shi, Zhongpan; Zhao, Tieshi

    2016-08-11

    Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR) joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  9. Development of patterned carbon nanotubes on a 3D polymer substrate for the flexible tactile sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Fang, Weileun; Su, Wang-Shen

    2011-01-01

    This study reports an improved approach to implement a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible tactile sensor, which is integrated with a flexible print circuit (FPC) connector and is capable of detecting normal and shear forces. The merits of the presented tactile sensor by the integration process are as follows: (1) 3D polymer tactile bump structures are naturally formed by the use of an anisotropically etched silicon mold; (2) planar and 3D distributed CNTs are adopted as piezoresistive sensing elements to enable the detection of shear and normal forces; (3) the processes of patterning CNTs and metal routing can be easily batch fabricated on rigid silicon instead of flexible polymer; (4) robust electrical routing is realized using parylene encapsulation to avoid delamination; (5) patterned CNTs, electrical routing and FPC connector are integrated and transferred to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate by a molding process. In application, the CNT-based flexible tactile sensor and its integration with the FPC connector are implemented. Preliminary tests show the feasibility of detecting both normal and shear forces using the presented flexible sensor.

  10. Mechanical transfer of ZnO nanowires for a flexible and conformal piezotronic strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kory; Yang, Rusen

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a truly conformal and flexible piezotronic strain sensor using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. Well-aligned, vertical ZnO nanowires are grown by chemical vapor deposition on a silicon wafer with a hydrothermally grown ZnO seed layer. The nanowires are infiltrated with polydimethylsiloxane and mechanically transferred from the silicon substrate. Plasma etching exposes the top surface of the nanowires before deposition of a gold (Au) top electrode. The bottom electrode is formed by silver paint which also adheres the sensor to the measured structure. To demonstrate the sensor’s ability to conform to complex surfaces, a stepped shaft with a shoulder fillet is used. The sensor is attached to the shoulder fillet of the stepped shaft, conforming to both the circumference of the shaft, and the radius of the fillet. A periodic bending displacement is applied to the end of the shaft. The strain induces a piezoelectric potential in the ZnO nanowires which controls the barrier height and conductivity at the gold/ZnO interface, by what is known as the piezotronic effect. The conductivity change is measured for periodically applied strains. The nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) response of the device is due to the Schottky contact between the ZnO nanowires and gold electrode. The geometry of the stepped shaft corresponds to a known stress concentration factor, and the strain experienced by the shaft is estimated with a COMSOL FEA study. The conformal nature of the strain sensor makes it suitable for structural monitoring applications involving complex geometries and stress concentrators.

  11. Decoupling Research on Flexible Tactile Sensors Interfered by White Gaussian Noise Using Improved Radical Basis Function Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilu Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on tactile sensors to enhance their flexibility and ability of multi- dimensional information detection is a key issue to develop humanoid robots. In view of that the tactile sensor is often affected by noise, this paper adds different white Gaussian noises (WGN into the ideal model of flexible tactile sensors based on conductive rubber purposely, then improves the standard radial basis function neural network (RNFNN to deal with the noises. The modified RBFNN is applied to approximate and decouple the mapping relationship between row-column resistance with WGNs and three-dimensional deformation. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the decoupling result of the deformation for the sensor is quite good. The results show that the improved RBFNN which doesn’t rely on the mathematical model of the system has good anti-noise ability and robustness.

  12. A Low-Operating-Power and Flexible Active-Matrix Organic-Transistor Temperature-Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaochen; Pei, Ke; Peng, Boyu; Zhang, Zhichao; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Chan, Paddy K L

    2016-06-01

    An organic flexible temperature-sensor array exhibits great potential in health monitoring and other biomedical applications. The actively addressed 16 × 16 temperature sensor array reaches 100% yield rate and provides 2D temperature information of the objects placed in contact, even if the object has an irregular shape. The current device allows defect predictions of electronic devices, remote sensing of harsh environments, and e-skin applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Transparent conducting films of hierarchically nanostructured polyaniline networks on flexible substrates for high-performance gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shouli; Sun, Chaozheng; Wan, Pengbo; Wang, Cheng; Luo, Ruixian; Li, Yaping; Liu, Junfeng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2015-01-21

    Transparent chemical gas sensors are assembled from a transparent conducting film of hierarchically nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) networks fabricated on a flexible PET substrate, by coating silver nanowires (Ag NWs) followed by the in situ polymerization of aniline near the sacrificial Ag NW template. The sensor exhibits enhanced gas sensing performance at room temperature in both sensitivity and selectivity to NH3 compared to pure PANI film. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A High-Sensitivity Flexible Eddy Current Array Sensor for Crack Monitoring of Welded Structures under Varying Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; He, Yuting; Du, Jinqiang

    2018-06-01

    This paper develops a high-sensitivity flexible eddy current array (HS-FECA) sensor for crack monitoring of welded structures under varying environment. Firstly, effects of stress, temperature and crack on output signals of the traditional flexible eddy current array (FECA) sensor were investigated by experiments that show both stress and temperature have great influences on the crack monitoring performance of the sensor. A 3-D finite element model was established using Comsol AC/DC module to analyze the perturbation effects of crack on eddy currents and output signals of the sensor, which showed perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents is reduced by the current loop when crack propagates. Then, the HS-FECA sensor was proposed to boost the sensitivity to cracks. Simulation results show that perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents excited by the HS-FECA sensor gradually grows stronger when the crack propagates, resulting in much higher sensitivity to cracks. Experimental result further shows that the sensitivity of the new sensor is at least 19 times that of the original one. In addition, both stress and temperature variations have little effect on signals of the new sensor.

  15. Flexible pressure sensor based on graphene aerogel microstructures functionalized with CdS nanocrystalline thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesco, Irina; Dragoman, Mircea; Strobel, Julian; Ghimpu, Lidia; Schütt, Fabian; Dinescu, Adrian; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Kienle, Lorenz; Adelung, Rainer; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report on functionalization of graphene aerogel with a CdS thin film deposited by magnetron sputtering and on the development of flexible pressure sensors based on ultra-lightweight CdS-aerogel nanocomposite. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclose the uniform deposition of nanocrystalline CdS films with quasi-stoichiometric composition. The piezoresistive response of the aforementioned nanocomposite in the pressure range from 1 to 5 atm is found to be more than one order of magnitude higher than that inherent to suspended graphene membranes, leading to an average sensitivity as high as 3.2 × 10-4 kPa-1.

  16. Synthesis of ZnO tetrapods for flexible and transparent UV sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackauskas, Simas; Mustonen, Kimmo; Järvinen, Terhi; Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko I; Nasibulin, Albert G; Mattila, Marco; Lipsanen, Harri; Klimova, Olga; Tolochko, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    ZnO tetrapods (ZnO-Ts) were synthesized in a vertical flow reactor by gas phase oxidation of Zn vapor in an air atmosphere. The morphology of the product was varied from nearly spherical nanoparticles to ZnO-Ts, together with the partial pressure of Zn and reaction temperature. MgO introduced during synthesis, increased the band gap, the optical transparency in the visible range, and also changed the ZnO-T structure. Fabricated flexible transparent UV sensors showed a 45-fold current increase under UV irradiation with an intensity of 30 μW cm −2 at a wavelength of 365 nm and response time of 0.9 s. (paper)

  17. Flexible, all-organic ammonia sensor based on dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, G.; Arena, A.; Donato, N.; Latino, M.; Saitta, G.; Bonavita, A.; Neri, G.

    2010-01-01

    A stable chlorobenzene dispersion of conducting polyaniline (PANI) has been obtained by doping emeraldine base with dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) and studied by spectrophotometric measurements in the UV-vis-IR range. The electrical properties of PANI: DBSA films obtained from the above dispersion have been investigated under different temperature and relative humidity conditions. All-organic chemoresistive devices have been developed by spin-coating the PANI: DBSA dispersion on flexible substrates, and then by depositing electrodes on the top, from a carbon nanotube conducting ink. Sensing tests performed under exposition to calibrated amounts of ammonia reveal that these simple and inexpensive sensors are able to detect ammonia at room temperature in a reliable way, with a sensitivity linearly related to concentration in the range between 5 ppm and 70 ppm.

  18. A Flexible Temperature Sensor Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Robot Skin Used in Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanyu; Tan, Qiulin; Kou, Hairong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jinqi; Lv, Wen; Dong, Helei; Xiong, Jijun

    2018-05-02

    Flexible electronics, which can be distributed on any surface we need, are highly demanded in the development of Internet of Things (IoT), robot technology and electronic skins. Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter, and it is an important indicator in many applications. Therefore, a flexible temperature sensor is required. Here, we report a simple method to fabricate three lightweight, low-cost and flexible temperature sensors, whose sensitive materials are reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). By comparing linearity, sensitive and repeatability, we found that the r-GO temperature sensor had the most balanced performance. Furthermore, the r-GO temperature sensor showed good mechanical properties and it could be bent in different angles with negligible resistance change. In addition, the performance of the r-GO temperature sensor remained stable under different kinds of pressure and was unaffected by surrounding environments, like humidity or other gases, because of the insulating layer on its sensitive layer. The easy-fabricated process and economy, together with the remarkable performance of the r-GO temperature sensor, suggest that it is suitable for use as a robot skin or used in the environment of IoT.

  19. A Flexible Temperature Sensor Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Robot Skin Used in Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyu Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics, which can be distributed on any surface we need, are highly demanded in the development of Internet of Things (IoT, robot technology and electronic skins. Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter, and it is an important indicator in many applications. Therefore, a flexible temperature sensor is required. Here, we report a simple method to fabricate three lightweight, low-cost and flexible temperature sensors, whose sensitive materials are reduced graphene oxide (r-GO, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. By comparing linearity, sensitive and repeatability, we found that the r-GO temperature sensor had the most balanced performance. Furthermore, the r-GO temperature sensor showed good mechanical properties and it could be bent in different angles with negligible resistance change. In addition, the performance of the r-GO temperature sensor remained stable under different kinds of pressure and was unaffected by surrounding environments, like humidity or other gases, because of the insulating layer on its sensitive layer. The easy-fabricated process and economy, together with the remarkable performance of the r-GO temperature sensor, suggest that it is suitable for use as a robot skin or used in the environment of IoT.

  20. Accurate SERS detection of malachite green in aquatic products on basis of graphene wrapped flexible sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lei; Yao, Ling; Zhou, Taohong; Zhu, Lihua

    2018-10-16

    Malachite Green (MG) is a banned pesticide for aquaculture products. As a required inspection item, its fast and accurate determination before the products' accessing market is very important. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a promising tool for MG sensing, but it requires the overcoming of several problems such as fairly poor sensitivity and reproducibility, especially laser induced chemical conversion and photo-bleaching during SERS observation. By using a graphene wrapped Ag array based flexible membrane sensor, a modified SERS strategy was proposed for the sensitive and accurate detection of MG. The graphene layer functioned as an inert protector for impeding chemical transferring of the bioproduct Leucomalachite Green (LMG) to MG during the SERS detection, and as a heat transmitter for preventing laser induced photo-bleaching, which enables the separate detection of MG and LMG in fish extracts. The combination of the Ag array and the graphene cover also produced plentiful densely and uniformly distributed hot spots, leading to analytical enhancement factor up to 3.9 × 10 8 and excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation low to 5.8% for 70 runs). The proposed method was easily used for MG detection with limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2.7 × 10 -11  mol L -1 . The flexibility of the sensor enable it have a merit for in-field fast detection of MG residues on the scale of a living fish through a surface extraction and paste transferring manner. The developed strategy was successfully applied in the analysis of real samples, showing good prospects for both the fast inspection and quantitative detection of MG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An effective flexible wireless energy harvester/sensor based on porous electret piezoelectric polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanty, Biswajit [Organic Nano-Piezoelectric Device Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032 (India); Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Saroj Mohan Institute of Technology, Hooghly, 712512 (India); Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Garain, Samiran [Organic Nano-Piezoelectric Device Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032 (India); Mandal, Dipankar, E-mail: dipankar@phys.jdvu.ac.in [Organic Nano-Piezoelectric Device Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032 (India)

    2017-01-15

    A flexible sponge-like nanogenerator (FSNG) based on ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) etched porous electret poly (vinylidene fluoride–hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) film is spotlighted without any electrical poling treatment. It possesses improved dielectric and ferroelectric properties than neat P(VDF-HFP) film. The FSNG harvests an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 9 V and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) of 1.3 μAcm{sup −2} under repeated mechanical impact of 0.36 MPa stress amplitude on the top surface. With the power density (P) of 1.21 mW/cm{sup 2} and energy conversion efficiency of 0.3% it directly operates several consumer electronics. The highly sensitive (∼1 μVPa{sup −1}) FSNG is demonstrated as a self-powered wireless sensor with 3.0% efficiency for detecting some tiny human activities including finger movements. - Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles etched porous electret P(VDF-HFP) film is spot lighted. • Superior dielectric and ferroelectric properties without any poling are observed. • It harvests 9 V output voltage with 4.7 μA current under 0.36 MPa stress. • It shows superior power density and energy conversion efficiency of same stress. • It also acts as self-powered wireless sensor for detecting tiny human activities.

  2. A review: flexible, stretchable multifunctional sensors and actuators for heart arrhythmia therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Jo; Pak, James Jungho

    2017-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a very serious disease which results in about 30% of all global mortality. Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes rapid and irregular contractions resulting in stroke and cardiac arrest. AF is caused by abnormality of the heartbeat controlling electrical signal. Catheter ablation (CA) is often used to treat and remove the abnormal electrical source from the heart but it has limitations in sensing capability and spatial coverage. To overcome the limitations of the CA, new devices for improving the spatial capability have been reported. One of the most impressive methods is wrapping the heart surface with a flexible/stretchable film with an array of high-density multifunctional micro-sensors and actuators. With this technique, the overall heart surface may be diagnosed in real time and the AF may be treated much more effectively. The data acquisition from the array of multifunctional sensors is also very important for making the new devices useful. To operate the implanted device system, a battery is mostly used and it should be avoided to replace the battery by surgery. Therefore, various energy harvesting techniques or wireless energy transfer techniques to continuously feed the power to the system are under investigation. The development of these technologies was reviewed, and the current level of technology was reviewed and summarized.

  3. A Flexible Sensor Technology for the Distributed Measurement of Interaction Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Marco; Vitiello, Nicola; De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Lenzi, Tommaso; Crea, Simona; Persichetti, Alessandro; Giovacchini, Francesco; Koopman, Bram; Podobnik, Janez; Munih, Marko; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2013-01-01

    We present a sensor technology for the measure of the physical human-robot interaction pressure developed in the last years at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna. The system is composed of flexible matrices of opto-electronic sensors covered by a soft silicone cover. This sensory system is completely modular and scalable, allowing one to cover areas of any sizes and shapes, and to measure different pressure ranges. In this work we present the main application areas for this technology. A first generation of the system was used to monitor human-robot interaction in upper- (NEUROExos; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna) and lower-limb (LOPES; University of Twente) exoskeletons for rehabilitation. A second generation, with increased resolution and wireless connection, was used to develop a pressure-sensitive foot insole and an improved human-robot interaction measurement systems. The experimental characterization of the latter system along with its validation on three healthy subjects is presented here for the first time. A perspective on future uses and development of the technology is finally drafted. PMID:23322104

  4. Searches for $CP$ violation in multi-body charm decays and studies of radiation damage in the LHCb VELO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shanzhen; Gersabeck, Marco

    This thesis presents two searches for direct charge-parity ($CP$) violation in multi-body decays in the charm-sector at LHCb, the development of techniques for performing model-independent searches for direct $CP$ violation in multi-body decays, and the development of studies of radiation damage effects in the LHCb vertex detector. LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision vertex detector surrounding the $pp$ interaction region made with silicon strip sensors. Studies of the effects of radiation damage in LHC run-2 for the operation of this detector are presented and the determination of the operational bias voltages of the silicon strip sensors is discussed. An unbinned model independent technique for $CP$ violation searches in multi-body decays called the energy test is used for the first time. The selection and treatment of the coordinates used to describe the phase-space of the de...

  5. In situ measurement of the junction temperature of light emitting diodes using a flexible micro temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Su, Ay; Liu, Yin-Chieh; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Hsieh, Wei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    This investigation aimed to fabricate a flexible micro resistive temperature sensor to measure the junction temperature of a light emitting diode (LED). The junction temperature is typically measured using a thermal resistance measurement approach. This approach is limited in that no standard regulates the timing of data capture. This work presents a micro temperature sensor that can measure temperature stably and continuously, and has the advantages of being lightweight and able to monitor junction temperatures in real time. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technologies are employed to minimize the size of a temperature sensor that is constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (SS-304 with 30 μm thickness). A flexible micro resistive temperature sensor can be fixed between the LED chip and the frame. The junction temperature of the LED can be measured from the linear relationship between the temperature and the resistance. The sensitivity of the micro temperature sensor is 0.059 ± 0.004 Ω/°C. The temperature of the commercial CREE(®) EZ1000 chip is 119.97 °C when it is thermally stable, as measured using the micro temperature sensor; however, it was 126.9 °C, when measured by thermal resistance measurement. The micro temperature sensor can be used to replace thermal resistance measurement and performs reliably.

  6. In Situ Measurement of the Junction Temperature of Light Emitting Diodes Using a Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jung Hsieh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed to fabricate a flexible micro resistive temperature sensor to measure the junction temperature of a light emitting diode (LED. The junction temperature is typically measured using a thermal resistance measurement approach. This approach is limited in that no standard regulates the timing of data capture. This work presents a micro temperature sensor that can measure temperature stably and continuously, and has the advantages of being lightweight and able to monitor junction temperatures in real time. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS technologies are employed to minimize the size of a temperature sensor that is constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (SS-304 with 30 μm thickness. A flexible micro resistive temperature sensor can be fixed between the LED chip and the frame. The junction temperature of the LED can be measured from the linear relationship between the temperature and the resistance. The sensitivity of the micro temperature sensor is 0.059 ± 0.004 Ω/°C. The temperature of the commercial CREE® EZ1000 chip is 119.97 °C when it is thermally stable, as measured using the micro temperature sensor; however, it was 126.9 °C, when measured by thermal resistance measurement. The micro temperature sensor can be used to replace thermal resistance measurement and performs reliably.

  7. Development of 3D carbon nanotube interdigitated finger electrodes on polymer substrate for flexible capacitive sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chih-Fan; Wang, Jhih-Yu; Fang, Weileun; Liu, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Ming-Han

    2013-01-01

    This study reports a novel approach to the implementation of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) interdigitated finger electrodes on flexible polymer, and the detection of strain, bending curvature, tactile force and proximity distance are demonstrated. The merits of the presented CNT-based flexible sensor are as follows: (1) the silicon substrate is patterned to enable the formation of 3D vertically aligned CNTs on the substrate surface; (2) polymer molding on the silicon substrate with 3D CNTs is further employed to transfer the 3D CNTs to the flexible polymer substrate; (3) the CNT–polymer composite (∼70 μm in height) is employed to form interdigitated finger electrodes to increase the sensing area and initial capacitance; (4) other structures such as electrical routings, resistors and mechanical supporters are also available using the CNT–polymer composite. The preliminary fabrication results demonstrate a flexible capacitive sensor with 50 μm high CNT interdigitated electrodes on a poly-dimethylsiloxane substrate. The tests show that the typical capacitance change is several dozens of fF and the gauge factor is in the range of 3.44–4.88 for strain and bending curvature measurement; the sensitivity of the tactile sensor is 1.11% N −1 ; a proximity distance near 2 mm away from the sensor can be detected. (paper)

  8. A 0.7V 7-to-10bit 0-to-2MS/s Flexible SAR ADC for Ultra Low-Power Wireless Sensor Nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harpe, P.J.A.; Dolmans, G.; Philips, K.J.P.; Groot, de H.W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible SAR ADC in 90nm CMOS for wireless sensor nodes. By supporting resolutions from 7 to 10bit and sample rates from DC to 2MS/s, this design can be used for a variety of applications such as sensor interfacing and receiver frontends. Flexibility is achieved by a

  9. Characteristics and parametric analysis of a novel flexible ink-based thermoelectric generator for human body sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Shaowei; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2018-01-01

    Flexible thermoelectric generator became an attractive technology for its wide use especially for curved surfaces applications. This study proposes design of a flexible thermoelectric generator, which is part of a sensor and supplies required electrical power for human body application...... elements thickness and thermoelectric module row number in a proper range can significantly enhance thermoelectric generator performance. The maximum output power can reach 0.2 μW/cm2, which indicates the proposed design is promising for supplying human body sensors. In addition, the basic optimal design....... The thermoelectric generator module has ink-based thermoelements which are made of nano-carbon bismuth telluride materials. Flexible fins conduct the body heat to the thermoelectric uni-couples, extended fins exchange the heat from the cold side of the thermoelectric generator to the ambient. A fully developed one...

  10. Error Modeling and Experimental Study of a Flexible Joint 6-UPUR Parallel Six-Axis Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Cao, Yachao; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Jie

    2017-09-29

    By combining a parallel mechanism with integrated flexible joints, a large measurement range and high accuracy sensor is realized. However, the main errors of the sensor involve not only assembly errors, but also deformation errors of its flexible leg. Based on a flexible joint 6-UPUR (a kind of mechanism configuration where U-universal joint, P-prismatic joint, R-revolute joint) parallel six-axis force sensor developed during the prephase, assembly and deformation error modeling and analysis of the resulting sensors with a large measurement range and high accuracy are made in this paper. First, an assembly error model is established based on the imaginary kinematic joint method and the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) method. Next, a stiffness model is built to solve the stiffness matrix. The deformation error model of the sensor is obtained. Then, the first order kinematic influence coefficient matrix when the synthetic error is taken into account is solved. Finally, measurement and calibration experiments of the sensor composed of the hardware and software system are performed. Forced deformation of the force-measuring platform is detected by using laser interferometry and analyzed to verify the correctness of the synthetic error model. In addition, the first order kinematic influence coefficient matrix in actual circumstances is calculated. By comparing the condition numbers and square norms of the coefficient matrices, the conclusion is drawn theoretically that it is very important to take into account the synthetic error for design stage of the sensor and helpful to improve performance of the sensor in order to meet needs of actual working environments.

  11. Error Modeling and Experimental Study of a Flexible Joint 6-UPUR Parallel Six-Axis Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhi Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By combining a parallel mechanism with integrated flexible joints, a large measurement range and high accuracy sensor is realized. However, the main errors of the sensor involve not only assembly errors, but also deformation errors of its flexible leg. Based on a flexible joint 6-UPUR (a kind of mechanism configuration where U-universal joint, P-prismatic joint, R-revolute joint parallel six-axis force sensor developed during the prephase, assembly and deformation error modeling and analysis of the resulting sensors with a large measurement range and high accuracy are made in this paper. First, an assembly error model is established based on the imaginary kinematic joint method and the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H method. Next, a stiffness model is built to solve the stiffness matrix. The deformation error model of the sensor is obtained. Then, the first order kinematic influence coefficient matrix when the synthetic error is taken into account is solved. Finally, measurement and calibration experiments of the sensor composed of the hardware and software system are performed. Forced deformation of the force-measuring platform is detected by using laser interferometry and analyzed to verify the correctness of the synthetic error model. In addition, the first order kinematic influence coefficient matrix in actual circumstances is calculated. By comparing the condition numbers and square norms of the coefficient matrices, the conclusion is drawn theoretically that it is very important to take into account the synthetic error for design stage of the sensor and helpful to improve performance of the sensor in order to meet needs of actual working environments.

  12. A Coupled Helicopter Rotor/Fuselage Dynamics Model Using Finite Element Multi-body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qi-you

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage model for vibration reduction studies, the equation of coupled rotor-fuselage is set up based on the theory of multi-body dynamics, and the dynamic analysis model is established with the software MSC.ADMAS and MSC.NASTRAN. The frequencies and vibration acceleration responses of the system are calculated with the model of coupled rotor-fuselage, and the results are compared with those of uncoupled modeling method. Analysis results showed that compared with uncoupled model, the dynamic characteristic obtained by the model of coupled rotor-fuselage are some different. The intrinsic frequency of rotor is increased with the increase of rotational velocities. The results also show that the flying speed has obvious influence on the vibration acceleration responses of the fuselage. The vibration acceleration response in the vertical direction is much higher at the low speed and high speed flight conditions.

  13. Multi-rate sensor fusion-based adaptive discrete finite-time synergetic control for flexible-joint mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Guang-Yue; Ren Xue-Mei; Xia Yuan-Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive discrete finite-time synergetic control (ADFTSC) scheme based on a multi-rate sensor fusion estimator for flexible-joint mechanical systems in the presence of unmeasured states and dynamic uncertainties. Multi-rate sensors are employed to observe the system states which cannot be directly obtained by encoders due to the existence of joint flexibilities. By using an extended Kalman filter (EKF), the finite-time synergetic controller is designed based on a sensor fusion estimator which estimates states and parameters of the mechanical system with multi-rate measurements. The proposed controller can guarantee the finite-time convergence of tracking errors by the theoretical derivation. Simulation and experimental studies are included to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (general)

  14. Design and Development of a Flexible Strain Sensor for Textile Structures Based on a Conductive Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Dufour

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a smart flexible sensor adapted to textile structures, able to measure their strain deformations. The sensors are “smart” because of their capacity to adapt to the specific mechanical properties of textile structures that are lightweight, highly flexible, stretchable, elastic, etc. Because of these properties, textile structures are continuously in movement and easily deformed, even under very low stresses. It is therefore important that the integration of a sensor does not modify their general behavior. The material used for the sensor is based on a thermoplastic elastomer (Evoprene/carbon black nanoparticle composite, and presents general mechanical properties strongly compatible with the textile substrate. Two preparation techniques are investigated: the conventional melt-mixing process, and the solvent process which is found to be more adapted for this particular application. The preparation procedure is fully described, namely the optimization of the process in terms of filler concentration in which the percolation theory aspects have to be considered. The sensor is then integrated on a thin, lightweight Nylon fabric, and the electromechanical characterization is performed to demonstrate the adaptability and the correct functioning of the sensor as a strain gauge on the fabric. A normalized relative resistance is defined in order to characterize the electrical response of the sensor. Finally, the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature and atmospheric humidity, on the sensor performance is investigated. The results show that the sensor’s electrical resistance is particularly affected by humidity. This behavior is discussed in terms of the sensitivity of the carbon black filler particles to the presence of water.

  15. Flexible Pressure Sensor Based on PVDF Nanocomposites Containing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Titania Hybrid Nanolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Al-Saygh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible nanocomposite pressure sensor with a tensile strength of about 47 MPa is fabricated in this work. Nanolayers of titanium dioxide (titania nanolayers, TNL synthesized by hydrothermal method are used to reinforce the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF by simple solution mixing. A hybrid composite is prepared by incorporating the TNL (2.5 wt % with reduced graphene oxide (rGO (2.5 wt % synthesized by improved graphene oxide synthesis to form a PVDF/rGO-TNL composite. A comparison between PVDF, PVDF/rGO (5 wt %, PVDF/TNL (5 wt % and PVDF/rGO-TNL (total additives 5 wt % samples are analyzed for their sensing, thermal and dielectric characteristics. The new shape of additives (with sharp morphology, good interaction and well distributed hybrid additives in the matrix increased the sensitivity by 333.46% at 5 kPa, 200.7% at 10.7 kPa and 246.7% at 17.6 kPa compared to the individual PVDF composite of TNL, confirming its possible application in fabricating low cost and light weight pressure sensing devices and electronic devices with reduced quantity of metal oxides. Increase in the β crystallinity percentage and removal of α phase for PVDF was detected for the hybrid composite and linked to the improvement in the mechanical properties. Tensile strength for the hybrid composite (46.91 MPa was 115% higher than that of the neat polymer matrix. Improvement in the wettability and less roughness in the hybrid composites were observed, which can prevent fouling, a major disadvantage in many sensor applications.

  16. Flexible Sheet-Type Sensor for Noninvasive Measurement of Cellular Oxygen Metabolism on a Culture Dish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kojima

    Full Text Available A novel flexible sensor was developed for the noninvasive oxygen metabolism measurement of cultivated cells and tissues. This device is composed of a transparent double-layered polymer sheet of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH and poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS having an array of microhole structures of 90 μm diameter and 50 μm depth on its surface. All the microhole structures were equipped with a 1-μm-thick optical chemical sensing layer of platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer on their bottom. The three-dimensional microstructures of the sensor were fabricated by a newly developed simple and low-cost production method named self-aligned hot embossing. The device was designed to be attached slightly above the cells cultivated on a dish to form a temporarily closed microspace over the target cells during measurement. Since the change in oxygen concentration is relatively fast in the microcompartmentalized culture medium, a rapid evaluation of the oxygen consumption rate is possible by measuring the phosphorescence lifetime of the platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer. The combined use of the device and an automated optical measurement system enabled the high-throughput sensing of cellular oxygen consumption (100 points/min. We monitored the oxygen metabolism of the human breast cancer cell line MCF7 on a Petri dish and evaluated the oxygen consumption rate to be 0.72 ± 0.12 fmol/min/cell. Furthermore, to demonstrate the utility of the developed sensing system, we demonstrated the mapping of the oxygen consumption rate of rat brain slices and succeeded in visualizing a clear difference among the layer structures of the hippocampus, i.e., the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG.

  17. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Cugini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user’s fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  18. Force sensitive handles and capacitive touch sensor for driving a flexible haptic-based immersive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-10-09

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user's fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  19. Light-controlling, flexible and transparent ethanol gas sensor based on ZnO nanoparticles for wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z Q; Yao, J D; Wang, B; Yang, G W

    2015-06-16

    In recent years, owing to the significant applications of health monitoring, wearable electronic devices such as smart watches, smart glass and wearable cameras have been growing rapidly. Gas sensor is an important part of wearable electronic devices for detecting pollutant, toxic, and combustible gases. However, in order to apply to wearable electronic devices, the gas sensor needs flexible, transparent, and working at room temperature, which are not available for traditional gas sensors. Here, we for the first time fabricate a light-controlling, flexible, transparent, and working at room-temperature ethanol gas sensor by using commercial ZnO nanoparticles. The fabricated sensor not only exhibits fast and excellent photoresponse, but also shows high sensing response to ethanol under UV irradiation. Meanwhile, its transmittance exceeds 62% in the visible spectral range, and the sensing performance keeps the same even bent it at a curvature angle of 90(o). Additionally, using commercial ZnO nanoparticles provides a facile and low-cost route to fabricate wearable electronic devices.

  20. Synthesis of CdS nanorod arrays and their applications in flexible piezo-driven active H2S sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Penglei; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    A flexible piezo-driven active H 2 S sensor has been fabricated from CdS nanorod arrays. By coupling the piezoelectric and gas sensing properties of CdS nanorods, the piezoelectric output generated by CdS nanorod arrays acts not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to H 2 S. Under externally applied compressive force, the piezoelectric output of CdS nanorod arrays is very sensitive to H 2 S. Upon exposure to 600 ppm H 2 S, the piezoelectric output of the device decreased from 0.32 V (in air) to 0.12 V. Such a flexible device can be driven by the tiny mechanical energy in our living environment, such as human finger pinching. Our research can stimulate a research trend on designing new material systems and device structures for high-performance piezo-driven active gas sensors. (paper)

  1. Flexible and self-powered temperature-pressure dual-parameter sensors using microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Zang, Yaping; Huang, Dazhen; di, Chong-An; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-09-01

    Skin-like temperature- and pressure-sensing capabilities are essential features for the next generation of artificial intelligent products. Previous studies of e-skin and smart elements have focused on flexible pressure sensors, whereas the simultaneous and sensitive detection of temperature and pressure with a single device remains a challenge. Here we report developing flexible dual-parameter temperature-pressure sensors based on microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric (MFSOTE) materials. The effective transduction of temperature and pressure stimuli into two independent electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of temperature and pressure with an accurate temperature resolution of cost and large-area fabrication, make MFSOTE materials possess promising applications in e-skin and health-monitoring elements.

  2. Influence of temperature and humidity on carbon based printed flexible sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents the response of two different types of novel printed sensors towards the change in temperature and humidity. The electrodes of all the sensors were based on carbon materials. Followed by the design and fabrication of the sensors, the responses of the sensors were analyzed for different temperature and humidity conditions in an incubator. These results provide a podium to enhance the alternation of the fabrication procedure of carbon-based printed sensors.

  3. Influence of temperature and humidity on carbon based printed flexible sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the response of two different types of novel printed sensors towards the change in temperature and humidity. The electrodes of all the sensors were based on carbon materials. Followed by the design and fabrication of the sensors, the responses of the sensors were analyzed for different temperature and humidity conditions in an incubator. These results provide a podium to enhance the alternation of the fabrication procedure of carbon-based printed sensors.

  4. Flexible Mixed-Potential-Type (MPT NO2 Sensor Based on An Ultra-Thin Ceramic Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui You

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible mixed-potential-type (MPT sensor was designed and fabricated for NO2 detection from 0 to 500 ppm at 200 °C. An ultra-thin Y2O3-doped ZrO2 (YSZ ceramic film 20 µm thick was sandwiched between a heating electrode and reference/sensing electrodes. The heating electrode was fabricated by a conventional lift-off process, while the porous reference and the sensing electrodes were fabricated by a two-step patterning method using shadow masks. The sensor’s sensitivity is achieved as 58.4 mV/decade at the working temperature of 200 °C, as well as a detection limit of 26.7 ppm and small response time of less than 10 s at 200 ppm. Additionally, the flexible MPT sensor demonstrates superior mechanical stability after bending over 50 times due to the mechanical stability of the YSZ ceramic film. This simply structured, but highly reliable flexible MPT NO2 sensor may lead to wide application in the automobile industry for vehicle emission systems to reduce NO2 emissions and improve fuel efficiency.

  5. Improvements in purification of silver nanowires by decantation and fabrication of flexible transparent electrodes. Application to capacitive touch sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayousse, Céline; Celle, Caroline; Moreau, Eléonore; Carella, Alexandre; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Mainguet, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Transparent flexible electrodes made of metallic nanowires, and in particular silver nanowires (AgNWs), appear as an extremely promising alternative to transparent conductive oxides for future optoelectronic devices. Though significant progresses have been made the last few years, there is still some room for improvement regarding the synthesis of high quality silver nanowire solutions and fabrication process of high performance electrodes. We show that the commonly used purification process can be greatly simplified through decantation. Using this process it is possible to fabricate flexible electrodes by spray coating with sheet resistance lower than 25 Ω sq −1 at 90% transparency in the visible spectrum. These electrodes were used to fabricate an operative transparent flexible touch screen. To our knowledge this is the first reported AgNW based touch sensor relying on capacitive technology. (paper)

  6. Large-Area High-Performance Flexible Pressure Sensor with Carbon Nanotube Active Matrix for Electronic Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nela, Luca; Tang, Jianshi; Cao, Qing; Tulevski, George; Han, Shu-Jen

    2018-03-14

    Artificial "electronic skin" is of great interest for mimicking the functionality of human skin, such as tactile pressure sensing. Several important performance metrics include mechanical flexibility, operation voltage, sensitivity, and accuracy, as well as response speed. In this Letter, we demonstrate a large-area high-performance flexible pressure sensor built on an active matrix of 16 × 16 carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (CNT TFTs). Made from highly purified solution tubes, the active matrix exhibits superior flexible TFT performance with high mobility and large current density, along with a high device yield of nearly 99% over 4 inch sample area. The fully integrated flexible pressure sensor operates within a small voltage range of 3 V and shows superb performance featuring high spatial resolution of 4 mm, faster response than human skin (<30 ms), and excellent accuracy in sensing complex objects on both flat and curved surfaces. This work may pave the road for future integration of high-performance electronic skin in smart robotics and prosthetic solutions.

  7. Effects of Operating Temperature on Droplet Casting of Flexible Polymer/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chern Chiou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the performance of a flexible polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT composite sensor array as a function of operating temperature. The response magnitudes of a cost-effective flexible gas sensor array equipped with a heater were measured with respect to five different operating temperatures (room temperature, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C via impedance spectrum measurement and sensing response experiments. The selected polymers that were droplet cast to coat a MWCNT conductive layer to form two-layer polymer/MWCNT composite sensing films included ethyl cellulose (EC, polyethylene oxide (PEO, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. Electrical characterization of impedance, sensing response magnitude, and scanning electron microscope (SEM morphology of each type of polymer/MWCNT composite film was performed at different operating temperatures. With respect to ethanol, the response magnitude of the sensor decreased with increasing operating temperatures. The results indicated that the higher operating temperature could reduce the response and influence the sensitivity of the polymer/MWCNT gas sensor array. The morphology of polymer/MWCNT composite films revealed that there were changes in the porous film after volatile organic compound (VOC testing.

  8. A Flexible Optical pH Sensor Based on Polysulfone Membranes Coated with pH-Responsive Polyaniline Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Thabit, Nedal; Umar, Yunusa; Ratemi, Elaref; Ahmad, Ayman; Ahmad Abuilaiwi, Faraj

    2016-06-27

    A new optical pH sensor based on polysulfone (PSU) and polyaniline (PANI) was developed. A transparent and flexible PSU membrane was employed as a support. The electrically conductive and pH-responsive PANI was deposited onto the membrane surface by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization (COP). The absorption spectra of the PANI-coated PSU membranes exhibited sensitivity to pH changes in the range of 4-12, which allowed for designing a dual wavelength pH optical sensor. The performance of the membranes was assessed by measuring their response starting from high pH and going down to low pH, and vice versa. It was found that it is necessary to precondition the sensor layers before each measurement due to the slight hysteresis observed during forward and backward pH titrations. PSU membranes with polyaniline coating thicknesses in the range of ≈100-200 nm exhibited fast response times of pH sensor was characterized by a sigmoidal response (R² = 0.997) which allows for pH determination over a wide dynamic range. All membranes were stable for a period of more than six months when stored in 1 M HCl solution. The reproducibility of the fabricated optical pH sensors was found to be pH sensor was tested and the obtained pH values were compared with the results obtained using a pH meter device.

  9. Method of Obtaining High Resolution Intrinsic Wire Boom Damping Parameters for Multi-Body Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Chai, Dean J.; Olney, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is to understand magnetic reconnection with sensor measurements from four spinning satellites flown in a tight tetrahedron formation. Four of the six electric field sensors on each satellite are located at the end of 60- meter wire booms to increase measurement sensitivity in the spin plane and to minimize motion coupling from perturbations on the main body. A propulsion burn however, might induce boom oscillations that could impact science measurements if oscillations do not damp to values on the order of 0.1 degree in a timely fashion. Large damping time constants could also adversely affect flight dynamics and attitude control performance. In this paper, we will discuss the implementation of a high resolution method for calculating the boom's intrinsic damping, which was used in multi-body dynamics simulations. In summary, experimental data was obtained with a scaled-down boom, which was suspended as a pendulum in vacuum. Optical techniques were designed to accurately measure the natural decay of angular position and subsequently, data processing algorithms resulted in excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. This method was repeated in a parametric study for various lengths, root tensions and vacuum levels. For all data sets, regression models for damping were applied, including: nonlinear viscous, frequency-independent hysteretic, coulomb and some combination of them. Our data analysis and dynamics models have shown that the intrinsic damping for the baseline boom is insufficient, thereby forcing project management to explore mitigation strategies.

  10. A flexible, transparent and high-performance gas sensor based on layer-materials for wearable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Yao, Jiandong; Wang, Bing; Yang, Guowei

    2017-10-01

    Gas sensors play a vital role among a wide range of practical applications. Recently, propelled by the development of layered materials, gas sensors have gained much progress. However, the high operation temperature has restricted their further application. Herein, via a facile pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method, we demonstrate a flexible, transparent and high-performance gas sensor made of highly-crystalline indium selenide (In2Se3) film. Under UV-vis-NIR light or even solar energy activation, the constructed gas sensors exhibit superior properties for detecting acetylene (C2H2) gas at room temperature. We attribute these properties to the photo-induced charger transfer mechanism upon C2H2 molecule adsorption. Moreover, no apparent degradation in the device properties is observed even after 100 bending cycles. In addition, we can also fabricate this device on rigid substrates, which is also capable to detect gas molecules at room temperature. These results unambiguously distinguish In2Se3 as a new candidate for future application in monitoring C2H2 gas at room temperature and open up new opportunities for developing next generation full-spectrum activated gas sensors.

  11. All solution-processed micro-structured flexible electrodes for low-cost light-emitting pressure sensors fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Rie; Takumi, Takahiro; Vohra, Varun

    2017-07-31

    Recent studies have demonstrated the advantage of developing pressure-sensitive devices with light-emitting properties for direct visualization of pressure distribution, potential application to next generation touch panels and human-machine interfaces. To ensure that this technology is available to everyone, its production cost should be kept as low as possible. Here, simple device concepts, namely, pressure sensitive flexible hybrid electrodes and OLED architecture, are used to produce low-cost resistive or light-emitting pressure sensors. Additionally, integrating solution-processed self-assembled micro-structures into the flexible hybrid electrodes composed of an elastomer and conductive materials results in enhanced device performances either in terms of pressure or spatial distribution sensitivity. For instance, based on the pressure applied, the measured values for the resistances of pressure sensors range from a few MΩ down to 500 Ω. On the other hand, unlike their evaporated equivalents, the combination of solution-processed flexible electrodes with an inverted OLED architectures display bright green emission when a pressure over 200 kPa is applied. At a bias of 3 V, their luminance can be tuned by applying a higher pressure of 500 kPa. Consequently, features such as fingernails and fingertips can be clearly distinguished from one another in these long-lasting low-cost devices.

  12. Low-temperature synthesis of 2D MoS2 on a plastic substrate for a flexible gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuxi; Song, Jeong-Gyu; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Ko, Kyung Yong; Woo, Whang Je; Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Donghyun; Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Zonghoon; Park, Jusang; Kim, Hyungjun

    2018-05-08

    The efficient synthesis of two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (2D MoS2) at low temperatures is essential for use in flexible devices. In this study, 2D MoS2 was grown directly at a low temperature of 200 °C on both hard (SiO2) and soft substrates (polyimide (PI)) using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with Mo(CO)6 and H2S. We investigated the effect of the growth temperature and Mo concentration on the layered growth by Raman spectroscopy and microscopy. 2D MoS2 was grown by using low Mo concentration at a low temperature. Through optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy measurements, MoS2 produced by low-temperature CVD was determined to possess a layered structure with good uniformity, stoichiometry, and a controllable number of layers. Furthermore, we demonstrated the realization of a 2D MoS2-based flexible gas sensor on a PI substrate without any transfer processes, with competitive sensor performance and mechanical durability at room temperature. This fabrication process has potential for burgeoning flexible and wearable nanotechnology applications.

  13. Flexible and self-powered temperature-pressure dual-parameter sensors using microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Zang, Yaping; Huang, Dazhen; Di, Chong-an; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-09-21

    Skin-like temperature- and pressure-sensing capabilities are essential features for the next generation of artificial intelligent products. Previous studies of e-skin and smart elements have focused on flexible pressure sensors, whereas the simultaneous and sensitive detection of temperature and pressure with a single device remains a challenge. Here we report developing flexible dual-parameter temperature-pressure sensors based on microstructure-frame-supported organic thermoelectric (MFSOTE) materials. The effective transduction of temperature and pressure stimuli into two independent electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of temperature and pressure with an accurate temperature resolution of pressure-sensing sensitivity of up to 28.9 kPa(-1). More importantly, these dual-parameter sensors can be self-powered with outstanding sensing performance. The excellent sensing properties of MFSOTE-based devices, together with their unique advantages of low cost and large-area fabrication, make MFSOTE materials possess promising applications in e-skin and health-monitoring elements.

  14. Flexible Piezoelectric-Induced Pressure Sensors for Static Measurements Based on Nanowires/Graphene Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zefeng; Wang, Zhao; Li, Xinming; Lin, Yuxuan; Luo, Ningqi; Long, Mingzhu; Zhao, Ni; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2017-05-23

    The piezoelectric effect is widely applied in pressure sensors for the detection of dynamic signals. However, these piezoelectric-induced pressure sensors have challenges in measuring static signals that are based on the transient flow of electrons in an external load as driven by the piezopotential arisen from dynamic stress. Here, we present a pressure sensor with nanowires/graphene heterostructures for static measurements based on the synergistic mechanisms between strain-induced polarization charges in piezoelectric nanowires and the caused change of carrier scattering in graphene. Compared to the conventional piezoelectric nanowire or graphene pressure sensors, this sensor is capable of measuring static pressures with a sensitivity of up to 9.4 × 10 -3 kPa -1 and a fast response time down to 5-7 ms. This demonstration of pressure sensors shows great potential in the applications of electronic skin and wearable devices.

  15. Silver nanowire/polymer composite soft conductive film fabricated by large-area compatible coating for flexible pressure sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sujie; Li, Siying; Peng, Sai; Huang, Yukun; Zhao, Jiaqing; Tang, Wei; Guo, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    Soft conductive films composed of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, a neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS over-coating layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer substrate are fabricated by large area compatible coating processes. The neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS layer is shown to be able to significantly improve the conductivity, stretchability and air stability of the conductive films. The soft conductive films are patterned using a simple maskless patterning approach to fabricate an 8 × 8 flexible pressure sensor array. It is shown that such soft conductive films can help to improve the sensitivity and reduce the signal crosstalk over the pressure sensor array. Project supported by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 16JC1400603).

  16. A novel method for in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions in fuel cells using flexible multi-functional micro sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Ping

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, micro voltage, temperature and humidity sensors were fabricated and integrated for the first time on a stainless steel foil using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These flexible multi-functional micro sensors have the advantages of high temperature resistance, flexibility, smallness, high sensitivity and precision of location. They were embedded in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and used to simultaneously measure variations in the inner voltage, temperature and humidity. The accuracy and reproducibility of the calibrated results obtained using the proposed micro sensors is excellent. The experimental results indicate that, at high current density and 100%RH or 75%RH, the relative humidity midstream and downstream saturates due to severe flooding. The performance of the PEM fuel cell can be stabilized using home-made flexible multi-functional micro sensors by the in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions within it.

  17. A Novel Method for In-Situ Monitoring of Local Voltage, Temperature and Humidity Distributions in Fuel Cells Using Flexible Multi-Functional Micro Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, micro voltage, temperature and humidity sensors were fabricated and integrated for the first time on a stainless steel foil using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS. These flexible multi-functional micro sensors have the advantages of high temperature resistance, flexibility, smallness, high sensitivity and precision of location. They were embedded in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and used to simultaneously measure variations in the inner voltage, temperature and humidity. The accuracy and reproducibility of the calibrated results obtained using the proposed micro sensors is excellent. The experimental results indicate that, at high current density and 100%RH or 75%RH, the relative humidity midstream and downstream saturates due to severe flooding. The performance of the PEM fuel cell can be stabilized using home-made flexible multi-functional micro sensors by the in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions within it.

  18. A Novel Method for In-Situ Monitoring of Local Voltage, Temperature and Humidity Distributions in Fuel Cells Using Flexible Multi-Functional Micro Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Ping

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, micro voltage, temperature and humidity sensors were fabricated and integrated for the first time on a stainless steel foil using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These flexible multi-functional micro sensors have the advantages of high temperature resistance, flexibility, smallness, high sensitivity and precision of location. They were embedded in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and used to simultaneously measure variations in the inner voltage, temperature and humidity. The accuracy and reproducibility of the calibrated results obtained using the proposed micro sensors is excellent. The experimental results indicate that, at high current density and 100%RH or 75%RH, the relative humidity midstream and downstream saturates due to severe flooding. The performance of the PEM fuel cell can be stabilized using home-made flexible multi-functional micro sensors by the in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions within it. PMID:22319361

  19. A Flexible Optical pH Sensor Based on Polysulfone Membranes Coated with pH-Responsive Polyaniline Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedal Abu-Thabit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new optical pH sensor based on polysulfone (PSU and polyaniline (PANI was developed. A transparent and flexible PSU membrane was employed as a support. The electrically conductive and pH-responsive PANI was deposited onto the membrane surface by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization (COP. The absorption spectra of the PANI-coated PSU membranes exhibited sensitivity to pH changes in the range of 4–12, which allowed for designing a dual wavelength pH optical sensor. The performance of the membranes was assessed by measuring their response starting from high pH and going down to low pH, and vice versa. It was found that it is necessary to precondition the sensor layers before each measurement due to the slight hysteresis observed during forward and backward pH titrations. PSU membranes with polyaniline coating thicknesses in the range of ≈100–200 nm exhibited fast response times of <4 s, which are attributed to the porous, rough and nanofibrillar morphology of the polyaniline coating. The fabricated pH sensor was characterized by a sigmoidal response (R2 = 0.997 which allows for pH determination over a wide dynamic range. All membranes were stable for a period of more than six months when stored in 1 M HCl solution. The reproducibility of the fabricated optical pH sensors was found to be <0.02 absorption units after one month storage in 1 M HCl solution. The performance of the optical pH sensor was tested and the obtained pH values were compared with the results obtained using a pH meter device.

  20. Highly Sensitive Flexible Pressure Sensors Based on Printed Organic Transistors with Centro-Apically Self-Organized Organic Semiconductor Microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, So Young; Park, Sangsik; Yi, Yeon Jin; Kim, Do Hwan; Lim, Jung Ah

    2017-12-13

    A highly sensitive pressure sensor based on printed organic transistors with three-dimensionally self-organized organic semiconductor microstructures (3D OSCs) was demonstrated. A unique organic transistor with semiconductor channels positioned at the highest summit of printed cylindrical microstructures was achieved simply by printing an organic semiconductor and polymer blend on the plastic substrate without the use of additional etching or replication processes. A combination of the printed organic semiconductor microstructure and an elastomeric top-gate dielectric resulted in a highly sensitive organic field-effect transistor (FET) pressure sensor with a high pressure sensitivity of 1.07 kPa -1 and a rapid response time of <20 ms with a high reliability over 1000 cycles. The flexibility and high performance of the 3D OSC FET pressure sensor were exploited in the successful application of our sensors to real-time monitoring of the radial artery pulse, which is useful for healthcare monitoring, and to touch sensing in the e-skin of a realistic prosthetic hand.

  1. Flexible, Highly Sensitive, and Wearable Pressure and Strain Sensors with Graphene Porous Network Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Tian, He; Tao, Luqi; Li, Yuxing; Wang, Xuefeng; Deng, Ningqin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-10-03

    A mechanical sensor with graphene porous network (GPN) combined with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated by the first time. Using the nickel foam as template and chemically etching method, the GPN can be created in the PDMS-nickel foam coated with graphene, which can achieve both pressure and strain sensing properties. Because of the pores in the GPN, the composite as pressure and strain sensor exhibit wide pressure sensing range and highest sensitivity among the graphene foam-based sensors, respectively. In addition, it shows potential applications in monitoring or even recognize the walking states, finger bending degree, and wrist blood pressure.

  2. Diagnostics of flexible workpiece using acoustic emission, acceleration and eddy current sensors in milling operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Filippova, E. O.; Chazov, P. A.; Shamarin, N. N.; Podgornykh, O. A.

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring of the edge clamped workpiece deflection during milling has been carried our using acoustic emission, accelerometer and eddy current sensors. Such a monitoring is necessary in precision machining of vital parts used in air-space engineering where a majority of them made by milling. The applicability of the AE, accelerometers and eddy current sensors has been discussed together with the analysis of measurement errors. The appropriate sensor installation diagram has been proposed for measuring the workpiece elastic deflection exerted by the cutting force.

  3. A Novel Wearable Electronic Nose for Healthcare Based on Flexible Printed Chemical Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panida Lorwongtragool

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities.

  4. Alcohol Recognition by Flexible, Transparent and Highly Sensitive Graphene-Based Thin-Film Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2017-06-22

    Chemical sensors detect a variety of chemicals across numerous fields, such as automobile, aerospace, safety, indoor air quality, environmental control, food, industrial production and medicine. We successfully assemble an alcohol-sensing device comprising a thin-film sensor made of graphene nanosheets (GNs) and bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCNs). We show that the GN/BCN sensor has a high selectivity to ethanol by distinguishing liquid-phase or vapor-phase ethanol (C2H6O) from water (H2O) intelligently with accurate transformation into electrical signals in devices. The BCN component of the film amplifies the ethanol sensitivity of the film, whereby the GN/BCN sensor has 12400% sensitivity for vapor-phase ethanol compared to the pure GN sensor, which has only 21% sensitivity. Finally, GN/BCN sensors demonstrate fast response/recovery times and a wide range of alcohol detection (10-100%). The superior sensing ability of GN/BCN compared to GNs alone is due to the improved wettability of BCNs and the ionization of liquids. We prove a facile, green, low-cost route for the assembly of ethanol-sensing devices with potential for vast application.

  5. Integrating Flexible Sensor and Virtual Self-Organizing DC Grid Model With Cloud Computing for Blood Leakage Detection During Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Tzan; Jong, Tai-Lang; Li, Chien-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ling; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Blood leakage and blood loss are serious complications during hemodialysis. From the hemodialysis survey reports, these life-threatening events occur to attract nephrology nurses and patients themselves. When the venous needle and blood line are disconnected, it takes only a few minutes for an adult patient to lose over 40% of his / her blood, which is a sufficient amount of blood loss to cause the patient to die. Therefore, we propose integrating a flexible sensor and self-organizing algorithm to design a cloud computing-based warning device for blood leakage detection. The flexible sensor is fabricated via a screen-printing technique using metallic materials on a soft substrate in an array configuration. The self-organizing algorithm constructs a virtual direct current grid-based alarm unit in an embedded system. This warning device is employed to identify blood leakage levels via a wireless network and cloud computing. It has been validated experimentally, and the experimental results suggest specifications for its commercial designs. The proposed model can also be implemented in an embedded system.

  6. Wearable, Flexible, and Multifunctional Healthcare Device with an ISFET Chemical Sensor for Simultaneous Sweat pH and Skin Temperature Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Shogo; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2017-03-24

    Real-time daily healthcare monitoring may increase the chances of predicting and diagnosing diseases in their early stages which, currently, occurs most frequently during medical check-ups. Next-generation noninvasive healthcare devices, such as flexible multifunctional sensor sheets designed to be worn on skin, are considered to be highly suitable candidates for continuous real-time health monitoring. For healthcare applications, acquiring data on the chemical state of the body, alongside physical characteristics such as body temperature and activity, are extremely important for predicting and identifying potential health conditions. To record these data, in this study, we developed a wearable, flexible sweat chemical sensor sheet for pH measurement, consisting of an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) integrated with a flexible temperature sensor: we intend to use this device as the foundation of a fully integrated, wearable healthcare patch in the future. After characterizing the performance, mechanical flexibility, and stability of the sensor, real-time measurements of sweat pH and skin temperature are successfully conducted through skin contact. This flexible integrated device has the potential to be developed into a chemical sensor for sweat for applications in healthcare and sports.

  7. Graphene-based inkjet printing of flexible bioelectronic circuits and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas

    2013-03-01

    Bioelectronics involves interfacing functional biomolecules or living cells with electronic circuitry. Recent advances in electrically conductive inks and inkjet printing technologies have enabled bioelectronic devices to be fabricated on mechanically flexible polymers, paper and silk. In this research, non-conductive graphene-oxide (GO) inks are synthesized from inexpensive graphite powders. Once printed on the flexible substrate the electrical conductivity of the micro-circuitry can be restored through thermal reduction. Laser irradiation is one method being investigated for transforming the high resistance printed GO film into conductive oxygen reduced graphene-oxide (rGO). Direct laser writing is a precision fabrication process that enables the imprinting of conductive and resistive micro-features on the GO film. The mechanically flexible rGO microcircuits can be further biofunctionalized using molecular self-assembly techniques. Opportunities and challenges in exploiting these emerging technologies for developing biosensors and bioelectronic cicruits are briefly discussed.

  8. A flexible sensor based on polyaniline hybrid using ZnO as template and sensing properties to triethylamine at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Le [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Sun, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Bai, Shouli, E-mail: baisl@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Luo, Ruixian [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Dianqing, E-mail: lidq@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Aifan [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmentally Harmful Chemicals Analysis, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Liu, Chung Chiun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecule Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Rapid synthesis of PANI has novelty, which is different with that reported before. • Enhancement of gas sensing is attributed to synergistic effect and heterojunction. • PET film is used as substrate to obtain a flexible, wearable and smart sensor. • Room temperature operating of sensor leads to save energy, safety and long life. - Abstract: A network structure of PANI/SnO{sub 2} hybrid was synthesized by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization using cheaper ZnO nanorods as sacrificial template and the hybrid was loaded on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) thin film to construct a flexible smart sensor. The sensor not only exhibits high sensitivity which is 20 times higher than that of pure PANI to 10 ppm triethylamine, good selectivity and linear response at room temperature but also has flexible, structure simple, economical and portable characters compared with recently existing sensors. Room temperature operating of the sensor is also particularly interesting, which leads to low power consumption, environmental safety and long life times. The improvement of sensing properties is attributed to the network structure of hybrid and formation of p-n heterojunction at the interface between the PANI and SnO{sub 2}. The research is expected to open a new window for development of a kind of wearable electronic devices based on the hybrid of conducting polymer and metal oxides.

  9. A Two-Ply Polymer-Based Flexible Tactile Sensor Sheet Using Electric Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional capacitive tactile sensor sheets usually have a three-layered structure, with a dielectric layer sandwiched by two electrode layers. Each electrode layer has a number of parallel ribbon-like electrodes. The electrodes on the two electrode layers are oriented orthogonally and each crossing point of the two perpendicular electrode arrays makes up a capacitive sensor cell on the sheet. It is well known that compatibility between measuring precision and resolution is difficult, since decreasing the width of the electrodes is required to obtain a high resolution, however, this may lead to reduction of the area of the sensor cells, and as a result, lead to a low Signal/Noise (S/N ratio. To overcome this problem, a new multilayered structure and related calculation procedure are proposed. This new structure stacks two or more sensor sheets with shifts in position. Both a high precision and a high resolution can be obtained by combining the signals of the stacked sensor sheets. Trial production was made and the effect was confirmed.

  10. Photogrammetric Verification of Fiber Optic Shape Sensors on Flexible Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason P.; Rogge, Matthew D.; Jones, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-core fiber (MCF) optic shape sensing offers the possibility of providing in-flight shape measurements of highly flexible aerospace structures and control surfaces for such purposes as gust load alleviation, flutter suppression, general flight control and structural health monitoring. Photogrammetric measurements of surface mounted MCF shape sensing cable can be used to quantify the MCF installation path and verify measurement methods.

  11. A highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced and conventional dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Ho, Kai-Siang; Yang, Chin-Tien; Wang, Jung-Hao; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-06-02

    The number and position of assembled nanowires cannot be controlled using most nanowire sensor assembling methods. In this paper, we demonstrate a high-yield, highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) and conventional dielectrophoresis (DEP). With the ODEP platform, optical images can be used as virtual electrodes to locally turn on a non-contact DEP force and manipulate a micron- or nano-scale substance suspended in fluid. Nanowires were first moved next to the previously deposited metal electrodes using optical images and, then, were attracted to and arranged in the gap between two electrodes through DEP forces generated by switching on alternating current signals to the metal electrodes. A single nanowire can be assembled within 24 seconds using this approach. In addition, the number of nanowires in a single nanowire sensor can be controlled, and the assembly of a single nanowire on each of the adjacent electrodes can also be achieved. The electrical properties of the assembled nanowires were characterized by IV curve measurement. Additionally, the contact resistance between the nanowires and electrodes and the stickiness between the nanowires and substrates were further investigated in this study.

  12. Facile fabrication of wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors applicable to ultrasensitive flexible sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Gyu; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jun; Kim, Won-Gi; Yoo, Hyukjoon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-04-03

    We fabricated wire-type indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a self-formed cracked template based on a lift-off process. The electrical characteristics of wire-type IGZO TFTs could be controlled by changing the width and density of IGZO wires through varying the coating conditions of template solution or multi-stacking additional layers. The fabricated wire-type devices were applied to sensors after functionalizing the surface. The wire-type pH sensor showed a sensitivity of 45.4 mV/pH, and this value was an improved sensitivity compared with that of the film-type device (27.6 mV/pH). Similarly, when the wire-type device was used as a glucose sensor, it showed more variation in electrical characteristics than the film-type device. The improved sensing properties resulted from the large surface area of the wire-type device compared with that of the film-type device. In addition, we fabricated wire-type IGZO TFTs on flexible substrates and confirmed that such structures were very resistant to mechanical stresses at a bending radius of 10 mm.

  13. On computing stress in polymer systems involving multi-body potentials from molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    Hardy stress definition has been restricted to pair potentials and embedded-atom method potentials due to the basic assumptions in the derivation of a symmetric microscopic stress tensor. Force decomposition required in the Hardy stress expression becomes obscure for multi-body potentials. In this work, we demonstrate the invariance of the Hardy stress expression for a polymer system modeled with multi-body interatomic potentials including up to four atoms interaction, by applying central force decomposition of the atomic force. The balance of momentum has been demonstrated to be valid theoretically and tested under various numerical simulation conditions. The validity of momentum conservation justifies the extension of Hardy stress expression to multi-body potential systems. Computed Hardy stress has been observed to converge to the virial stress of the system with increasing spatial averaging volume. This work provides a feasible and reliable linkage between the atomistic and continuum scales for multi-body potential systems.

  14. Alcohol Recognition by Flexible, Transparent and Highly Sensitive Graphene-Based Thin-Film Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Xin, Yangyang; Lubineau, Gilles; Ma, Qian; Jiang, Long

    2017-01-01

    , which has only 21% sensitivity. Finally, GN/BCN sensors demonstrate fast response/recovery times and a wide range of alcohol detection (10-100%). The superior sensing ability of GN/BCN compared to GNs alone is due to the improved wettability of BCNs

  15. Self-powered, ultra-sensitive, flexible tactile sensors based on contact electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2018-03-20

    A tactile sensor for sensing touch from a human finger includes a triboelectric layer and includes a material that becomes electrically charged after being in contact with the finger. The first side of a first conductive layer is in contact with the second side of triboelectric layer. The first side of a dielectric layer is in contact with the first conductive layer and the second side of the dielectric layer is in contact with a second conductive layer. When the triboelectric layer becomes electrically charged after being in contact with the finger, the first conductive layer and the second conductive layer are subjected to an electric field, which has a first field strength at the first conductive layer and a second field strength, different from the first field strength, at the second conductive layer. A plurality of tactile sensors can be arranged as a keyboard.

  16. Flexible quality of service model for wireless body area sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yangzhe; Leeson, Mark S.; Higgins, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs) are becoming an increasingly significant breakthrough technology for smart healthcare systems, enabling improved clinical decision-making in daily medical care. Recently, radio frequency ultra-wideband technology has developed substantially for physiological signal monitoring due to its advantages such as low-power consumption, high transmission data rate, and miniature antenna size. Applications of future ubiquitous healthcare systems offer the pro...

  17. Flexible quality of service model for wireless body area sensor networks\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yangzhe; Leeson, Mark S.; Higgins, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs) are becoming an increasingly significant breakthrough technology for smart healthcare systems, enabling improved clinical decision-making in daily medical care. Recently, radio frequency (RF) ultra-wideband (UWB) technology has developed substantially for physiological signal monitoring due to its advantages such as low power consumption, high transmission data rate, and miniature antenna size. Applications of future ubiquitous healthcare systems of...

  18. An innovative design for using flexible printed coils for magnetostrictive-based longitudinal guided wave sensors in steel strand inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, P W; Liu, X C; Wang, X J; Liu, Z H; Wu, B; He, C F

    2011-01-01

    Magnetostrictive sensors (MsSs) that can excite and receive guided waves are commonly used in detecting defects that may occur in cables and strands for supporting heavy structures. A conventional MsS has a hard sensing coil that is wound onto a bobbin with electric wires to generate the necessary dynamic magnetic field to excite the desired guided waves. This tailor-made hard coil is usually bulky and is not flexible enough to fit steel strands of various sizes. The conventional MsS also cannot be mounted to any steel strand that does not have a free end to allow the bobbin to pass through the structure of the tested strand. Such inflexibilities limit the use of conventional MsSs in practical situations. To solve these limitations, an innovative type of coil, called a flexible printed coil (FPC), which is made out of flexible printed film, has been designed to replace the inflexible hard coil. The flexible structure of the FPC ensures that the new MsS can be easily installed on and removed from steel strands with different diameters and without free ends. Moreover, the FPC-based MsS can be wrapped into multiple layers due to its thin and flexible design. Although multi-layer FPC creates a minor asymmetry in the dynamic magnetic field, the results of finite element analysis and experiments confirm that the longitudinal guided waves excited by a FPC-based MsS are comparable to those excited by a conventional hard coil MsS. No significant reduction in defect inspection performance was found; in fact, further advantages were identified when using the FPC-based MsS. When acting as the transmitter, the innovative FPC-based MsS can cover a longer inspection length of strand. When acting as the receiver, the FPC-based MsS is more sensitive to smaller defects that are impossible to detect using a hard coil MsS. Hence, the multi-layer FPC-based MsS has great potential for replacing the conventional hard coil MsS because of its convenient installation, and ease of fitting to

  19. Synthesis of indium oxide cubic crystals by modified hydrothermal route for application in room temperature flexible ethanol sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetha, M., E-mail: seetha.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram Dt 603 203 (India); Meena, P. [Department of Physics, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [DRDO-BU Centre for Life Sciences, Bharathiar University Campus, Coimbatore (India); Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 014 (India); Masuda, Yoshitake [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Senthil, K. [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Suwon Campus), Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time HMT is used in the preparation of indium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HMT itself acts as base for the precursor and results in cubic indium hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified hydrothermal route used for the preparation of cubic indium oxide crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As a new approach a composite film synthesized with prepared indium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film showed good response to ethanol vapours with quick response and recovery times. - Abstract: Indium oxide cubic crystals were prepared by using hexamethylenetetramine and indium chloride without the addition of any structure directing agents. The chemical route followed in the present work was a modified hydrothermal synthesis. The average crystallite size of the prepared cubes was found to be 40 nm. A blue emission at 418 nm was observed at room temperature when the sample was excited with a 380 nm Xenon lamp. This emission due to oxygen vacancies made the material suitable for gas sensing applications. The synthesized material was made as a composite film with polyvinyl alcohol which was more flexible than the films prepared on glass substrates. This flexible film was used as a sensing element and tested with ethanol vapours at room temperature. The film showed fast response as well as recovery to ethanol vapours with a sensor response of about 1.4 for 100 ppm of the gas.

  20. Adaptive Robust Sliding Mode Vibration Control of a Flexible Beam Using Piezoceramic Sensor and Actuator: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo Lin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of an adaptive robust sliding mode control scheme based on the Lyapunov’s direct method for active vibration control of a flexible beam using PZT (lead zirconate titanate sensor and actuator. PZT, a type of piezoceramic material, has the advantages of high reliability, high bandwidth, and solid state actuation and is adopted here in forms of surface-bond patches for vibration control. Two adaptive robust sliding mode controllers for vibration suppression are designed: one uses a discontinuous bang-bang robust compensator and the other uses a smooth compensator with a hyperbolic tangent function. Both controllers guarantee asymptotic stability, as proved by the Lyapunov’s direct method. Experimental results verified the effectiveness and the robustness of both adaptive sliding mode controllers. However, from the experimental results, the bang-bang robust compensator causes small-magnitude chattering because of the discontinuous switching actions. With the smooth compensator, vibration is quickly suppressed and no chattering is induced. Furthermore, the robustness of the controllers is successfully demonstrated with ensured effectiveness in vibration control when masses are added to the flexible beam.

  1. Synthesis of indium oxide cubic crystals by modified hydrothermal route for application in room temperature flexible ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetha, M.; Meena, P.; Mangalaraj, D.; Masuda, Yoshitake; Senthil, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► For the first time HMT is used in the preparation of indium oxide. ► HMT itself acts as base for the precursor and results in cubic indium hydroxide. ► Modified hydrothermal route used for the preparation of cubic indium oxide crystals. ► As a new approach a composite film synthesized with prepared indium oxide. ► Film showed good response to ethanol vapours with quick response and recovery times. - Abstract: Indium oxide cubic crystals were prepared by using hexamethylenetetramine and indium chloride without the addition of any structure directing agents. The chemical route followed in the present work was a modified hydrothermal synthesis. The average crystallite size of the prepared cubes was found to be 40 nm. A blue emission at 418 nm was observed at room temperature when the sample was excited with a 380 nm Xenon lamp. This emission due to oxygen vacancies made the material suitable for gas sensing applications. The synthesized material was made as a composite film with polyvinyl alcohol which was more flexible than the films prepared on glass substrates. This flexible film was used as a sensing element and tested with ethanol vapours at room temperature. The film showed fast response as well as recovery to ethanol vapours with a sensor response of about 1.4 for 100 ppm of the gas.

  2. Damage detection of rotating wind turbine blades using local flexibility method and long-gauge fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Yu; Shiao, Shen-Yuan; Liao, Wen-I.

    2018-01-01

    Wind turbines are a cost-effective alternative energy source; however, their blades are susceptible to damage. Therefore, damage detection of wind turbine blades is of great importance for condition monitoring of wind turbines. Many vibration-based structural damage detection techniques have been proposed in the last two decades. The local flexibility method, which can determine local stiffness variations of beam-like structures by using measured modal parameters, is one of the most promising vibration-based approaches. The local flexibility method does not require a finite element model of the structure. A few structural modal parameters identified from the ambient vibration signals both before and after damage are required for this method. In this study, we propose a damage detection approach for rotating wind turbine blades using the local flexibility method based on the dynamic macro-strain signals measured by long-gauge fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors. A small wind turbine structure was constructed and excited using a shaking table to generate vibration signals. The structure was designed to have natural frequencies as close as possible to those of a typical 1.5 MW wind turbine in real scale. The optical fiber signal of the rotating blades was transmitted to the data acquisition system through a rotary joint fixed inside the hollow shaft of the wind turbine. Reversible damage was simulated by aluminum plates attached to some sections of the wind turbine blades. The damaged locations of the rotating blades were successfully detected using the proposed approach, with the extent of damage somewhat over-estimated. Nevertheless, although the specimen of wind turbine blades cannot represent a real one, the results still manifest that FBG-based macro-strain measurement has potential to be employed to obtain the modal parameters of the rotating wind turbines and then locations of wind turbine segments with a change of rigidity can be estimated effectively by

  3. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  4. Highly Stable and Flexible Pressure Sensors with Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites for Human Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yin; Ming, Yue; Li, Wei; Li, Yafang; Wu, Maoqi; Song, Jinzhong; Li, Xiaojiu; Liu, Hao

    2018-04-26

    A facile method for preparing an easy processing, repeatable and flexible pressure sensor was presented via the synthesis of modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWNTs) and polyurethane (PU) films. The surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) simultaneously used a silane coupling agent (KH550) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) to improve the dispersibility and compatibility of the MWNTs in a polymer matrix. The electrical property and piezoresistive behavior of the m-MWNT/PU composites were compared with raw multi-walled carbon nanotube (raw MWNT)/PU composites. Under linear uniaxial pressure, the m-MWNT/PU composite exhibited 4.282%kPa −1 sensitivity within the pressure of 1 kPa. The nonlinear error, hysteresis error and repeatability error of the piezoresistivity of m-MWNT/PU decreased 9%, 16.72% and 54.95% relative to raw MWNT/PU respectively. Therefore, the piezoresistive response of m-MWNT/PU had better stability than that of raw MWNT/PU composites. The m-MWNT/PU sensors could be utilized in wearable devices for body movement detection, monitoring of respiration and pressure detection in garments.

  5. Flexible room-temperature formaldehyde sensors based on rGO film and rGo/MoS2 hybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Wang, Jing; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Xia, Yi; Li, Weiwei; Xiang, Lan; Li, Zhemin; Xu, Shiwei; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2017-08-11

    Gas sensors based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films and rGO/MoS 2 hybrid films were fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate substrates by a simple self-assembly method, which yielded flexible devices for detection of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature. The sensing test results indicated that the rGO and rGO/MoS 2 sensors were highly sensitive and fully recoverable to a ppm-level of HCHO. The bending and fatigue test results revealed that the sensors were also mechanically robust, durable and effective for long-term use. The rGO/MoS 2 sensors showed higher sensitivities than rGO sensors, which was attributed to the enhanced HCHO adsorption and electron transfer mediated by MoS 2 . Furthermore, two kinds of MoS 2 nanosheets were prepared by either hydrothermal synthesis or chemical exfoliation and were compared for their detection of HCHO, which revealed that the hydrothermally produced MoS 2 nanosheets with rich defects led to enhanced sensitivity of the rGO/MoS 2 sensors. Moreover, these fabricated flexible sensors can be applied for the HCHO detection in food packaging.

  6. A CMOS-compatible large-scale monolithic integration of heterogeneous multi-sensors on flexible silicon for IoT applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2017-02-07

    We report CMOS technology enabled fabrication and system level integration of flexible bulk silicon (100) based multi-sensors platform which can simultaneously sense pressure, temperature, strain and humidity under various physical deformations. We also show an advanced wearable version for body vital monitoring which can enable advanced healthcare for IoT applications.

  7. A CMOS-compatible large-scale monolithic integration of heterogeneous multi-sensors on flexible silicon for IoT applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Velling, Seneca J.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    We report CMOS technology enabled fabrication and system level integration of flexible bulk silicon (100) based multi-sensors platform which can simultaneously sense pressure, temperature, strain and humidity under various physical deformations. We also show an advanced wearable version for body vital monitoring which can enable advanced healthcare for IoT applications.

  8. Piezoelectric Flexible LCP-PZT Composites for Sensor Applications at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Jarkko; Hannu, Jari; Juuti, Jari; Jantunen, Heli

    2018-03-01

    In this paper fabrication of piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites is demonstrated via filament extrusion enabling cost-efficient large-scale production of highly bendable pressure sensors feasible for elevated temperatures. These composites are fabricated by utilizing environmentally resistant and stable liquid crystal polymer matrix with addition of lead zirconate titanate at loading levels of 30 vol%. These composites, of approximately 0.99 mm thick and length of > 50 cm, achieved excellent bendability with minimum bending radius of 6.6 cm. The maximum piezoelectric coefficients d33 and g33 of the composites were > 14 pC/N and > 108 mVm/N at pressure < 10 kPa. In all cases, the piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) of the composites decreased as a function of pressure. Also, piezoelectric coefficient (d33) further decreased in the case of increased frequency press-release cycle sand pre-stress levels by approximately 37-50%. However, the obtained results provide tools for fabricating novel piezoelectric sensors in highly efficient way for environments with elevated temperatures.

  9. ZnO nanorods/polyaniline heterojunctions for low-power flexible light sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, Rawnaq A.; Abdullah, M.J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Al-Salman, Husam S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Mohammad, Sabah M. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Allam, Nageh K., E-mail: nageh.allam@aucegypt.edu [Energy Materials Laboratory (EML), School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo, 11835 (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    Zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) were directly grown on p-type polyaniline (PAni)/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using chemical bath deposition method at low temperature. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the morphology and structure of the fabricated films. The resulted ZnO NRs are hexagonal and grew vertically on the PAni surface in the (002) direction along the c-axis. The compressive strain, Raman and photoluminescence measurements confirmed the high-quality crystal structure of the formed ZnO NRs with no damage of the PAni surface. The photodetector made using ZnO NRs/PAni junction showed a sensitivity of 85% and a quantum efficiency of 12.3% at 5 V. - Highlights: • ZnO NRs/polyaniline p-n junction photodetectors were fabricated on flexible substrates. • The fabricated ZnO NRs grew along the (002) direction. • The fabricated ZnO NRs have low compressive strain. • The ZnO NRs/PAni junction showed a high sensitivity of 85%. • The photodetectors showed quantum efficiency as high as 12%.

  10. Fiber optical sensor system for shape and haptics for flexible instruments in minimally invasive surgery: overview and status quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Christoph; Pauer, Hendrikje; Woern, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    In minimally invasive surgery, exible mechatronic instruments promise to improve the overall performance of surgical interventions. However, those instruments require highly developed sensors in order to provide haptic feedback to the surgeon or to enable (semi-)autonomous tasks. Precisely, haptic sensors and a shape sensor are required. In this paper, we present our ber optical sensor system of Fiber Bragg Gratings, which consists of a shape sensor, a kinesthetic sensor and a tactile sensor. The status quo of each of the three sensors is described, as well as the concept to integrate them into one ber optical sensor system.

  11. Eraser-based eco-friendly fabrication of a skin-like large-area matrix of flexible carbon nanotube strain and pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatiya, Parikshit; Badhulika, Sushmee

    2017-03-03

    This paper reports a new type of electronic, recoverable skin-like pressure and strain sensor, produced on a flexible, biodegradable pencil-eraser substrate and fabricated using a solvent-free, low-cost and energy efficient process. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film, the strain sensing element, was patterned on pencil eraser with a rolling pin and a pre-compaction mechanical press. This induces high interfacial bonding between the MWCNTs and the eraser substrate, which enables the sensor to achieve recoverability under ambient conditions. The eraser serves as a substrate for strain sensing, as well as acting as a dielectric for capacitive pressure sensing, thereby eliminating the dielectric deposition step, which is crucial in capacitive-based pressure sensors. The strain sensing transduction mechanism is attributed to the tunneling effect, caused by the elastic behavior of the MWCNTs and the strong mechanical interlock between MWCNTs and the eraser substrate, which restricts slippage of MWCNTs on the eraser thereby minimizing hysteresis. The gauge factor of the strain sensor was calculated to be 2.4, which is comparable to and even better than most of the strain and pressure sensors fabricated with more complex designs and architectures. The sensitivity of the capacitive pressure sensor was found to be 0.135 MPa -1 .To demonstrate the applicability of the sensor as artificial electronic skin, the sensor was assembled on various parts of the human body and corresponding movements and touch sensation were monitored. The entire fabrication process is scalable and can be integrated into large areas to map spatial pressure distributions. This low-cost, easily scalable MWCNT pin-rolled eraser-based pressure and strain sensor has huge potential in applications such as artificial e-skin in flexible electronics and medical diagnostics, in particular in surgery as it provides high spatial resolution without a complex nanostructure architecture.

  12. A flexible calibration method for laser displacement sensors based on a stereo-target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Junhua; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Laser displacement sensors (LDSs) are widely used in online measurement owing to their characteristics of non-contact, high measurement speed, etc. However, existing calibration methods for LDSs based on the traditional triangulation measurement model are time-consuming and tedious to operate. In this paper, a calibration method for LDSs based on a vision measurement model of the LDS is presented. According to the constraint relationships of the model parameters, the calibration is implemented by freely moving a stereo-target at least twice in the field of view of the LDS. Both simulation analyses and real experiments were conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the calibration method achieves an accuracy of 0.044 mm within the measurement range of about 150 mm. Compared to traditional calibration methods, the proposed method has no special limitation on the relative position of the LDS and the target. The linearity approximation of the measurement model in the calibration is not needed, and thus the measurement range is not limited in the linearity range. It is easy and quick to implement the calibration for the LDS. The method can be applied in wider fields. (paper)

  13. Flexible and Lightweight Pressure Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Thermoplastic Polyurethane-Aligned Conductive Foam with Superior Compressibility and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenju; Dai, Kun; Zhai, Yue; Liu, Hu; Zhan, Pengfei; Gao, Jiachen; Zheng, Guoqiang; Liu, Chuntai; Shen, Changyu

    2017-12-06

    Flexible and lightweight carbon nanotube (CNT)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) conductive foam with a novel aligned porous structure was fabricated. The density of the aligned porous material was as low as 0.123 g·cm -3 . Homogeneous dispersion of CNTs was achieved through the skeleton of the foam, and an ultralow percolation threshold of 0.0023 vol % was obtained. Compared with the disordered foam, mechanical properties of the aligned foam were enhanced and the piezoresistive stability of the flexible foam was improved significantly. The compression strength of the aligned TPU foam increases by 30.7% at the strain of 50%, and the stress of the aligned foam is 22 times that of the disordered foam at the strain of 90%. Importantly, the resistance variation of the aligned foam shows a fascinating linear characteristic under the applied strain until 77%, which would benefit the application of the foam as a desired pressure sensor. During multiple cyclic compression-release measurements, the aligned conductive CNT/TPU foam represents excellent reversibility and reproducibility in terms of resistance. This nice capability benefits from the aligned porous structure composed of ladderlike cells along the orientation direction. Simultaneously, the human motion detections, such as walk, jump, squat, etc. were demonstrated by using our flexible pressure sensor. Because of the lightweight, flexibility, high compressibility, excellent reversibility, and reproducibility of the conductive aligned foam, the present study is capable of providing new insights into the fabrication of a high-performance pressure sensor.

  14. Flexible electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for instantaneous concentration measurements of NaCl, KCl, MnCl2 and CuCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostynska, O; Ortoneda-Pedrola, M; Mason, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2014-01-01

    A novel electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for real-time chlorides concentration analysis is reported. The sensor response to deionized water, NaCl, KCl, MnCl 2  and CuCl solutions at various concentrations was tested. The sensing element, in the form of a silver pattern antenna that emits an electromagnetic field, was printed on a polyimide flexible laminate substrate to form a sensor to suit a broad range of applications, where a sensor could be placed in water reservoirs or fluid-carrying pipes for continuous analysis. The developed system confirmed the viability of using microwaves for real-time chloride solutions monitoring as the reflected signals represented by S 11  parameters were unique with clearly observed shifts in the resonant frequencies and amplitude changes when placed in direct contact with 20 µl of each solution. (paper)

  15. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-04

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  16. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  17. A novel flexible capacitive load sensor for use in a mobile unicompartmental knee replacement bearing: An in vitro proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentink, M J A; Van Duren, B H; Murray, D W; Gill, H S

    2017-08-01

    Instrumented knee replacements can provide in vivo data quantifying physiological loads acting on the knee. To date instrumented mobile unicompartmental knee replacements (UKR) have not been realised. Ideally instrumentation would be embedded within the polyethylene bearing. This study investigated the feasibility of an embedded flexible capacitive load sensor. A novel flexible capacitive load sensor was developed which could be incorporated into standard manufacturing of compression moulded polyethylene bearings. Dynamic experiments were performed to determine the characteristics of the sensor on a uniaxial servo-hydraulic material testing machine. The instrumented bearing was measured at sinusoidal frequencies between 0.1 and 10Hz, allowing for measurement of typical gait load magnitudes and frequencies. These correspond to frequencies of interest in physiological loading. The loads that were applied were a static load of 390N, corresponding to an equivalent body weight load for UKR, and a dynamic load of ±293N. The frequency transfer response of the sensor suggests a low pass filter response with a -3dB frequency of 10Hz. The proposed embedded capacitive load sensor was shown to be applicable for measuring in vivo loads within a polyethylene mobile UKR bearing. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flexible and Compressible PEDOT:PSS@Melamine Conductive Sponge Prepared via One-Step Dip Coating as Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Human Motion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yichun; Yang, Jack; Tolle, Charles R; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2018-05-09

    Flexible and wearable pressure sensor may offer convenient, timely, and portable solutions to human motion detection, yet it is a challenge to develop cost-effective materials for pressure sensor with high compressibility and sensitivity. Herein, a cost-efficient and scalable approach is reported to prepare a highly flexible and compressible conductive sponge for piezoresistive pressure sensor. The conductive sponge, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)@melamine sponge (MS), is prepared by one-step dip coating the commercial melamine sponge (MS) in an aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Due to the interconnected porous structure of MS, the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS has a high compressibility and a stable piezoresistive response at the compressive strain up to 80%, as well as good reproducibility over 1000 cycles. Thereafter, versatile pressure sensors fabricated using the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS sponges are attached to the different parts of human body; the capabilities of these devices to detect a variety of human motions including speaking, finger bending, elbow bending, and walking are evaluated. Furthermore, prototype tactile sensory array based on these pressure sensors is demonstrated.

  19. Advances in Chimera Grid Tools for Multi-Body Dynamics Simulations and Script Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation contains information about (1) Framework for multi-body dynamics - Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP), (2) Simulation procedure using Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) and OVERFLOW-2 (3) Further recent developments in Chimera Grid Tools OVERGRID, Grid modules, Script library and (4) Future work.

  20. Underwater thrust and power generation using flexible piezoelectric composites: an experimental investigation toward self-powered swimmer-sensor platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erturk, Alper; Delporte, Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    Fiber-based flexible piezoelectric composites offer several advantages to use in energy harvesting and biomimetic locomotion. These advantages include ease of application, high power density, effective bending actuation, silent operation over a range of frequencies, and light weight. Piezoelectric materials exhibit the well-known direct and converse piezoelectric effects. The direct piezoelectric effect has received growing attention for low-power generation to use in wireless electronic applications while the converse piezoelectric effect constitutes an alternative to replace the conventional actuators used in biomimetic locomotion. In this paper, underwater thrust and electricity generation are investigated experimentally by focusing on biomimetic structures with macro-fiber composite piezoelectrics. Fish-like bimorph configurations with and without a passive caudal fin (tail) are fabricated and compared. The favorable effect of having a passive caudal fin on the frequency bandwidth is reported. The presence of a passive caudal fin is observed to bring the second bending mode close to the first one, yielding a wideband behavior in thrust generation. The same smart fish configuration is tested for underwater piezoelectric power generation in response to harmonic excitation from its head. Resonant piezohydroelastic actuation is reported to generate milli-newton level hydrodynamic thrust using milli-watt level actuation power input. The average actuation power requirement for generating a mean thrust of 19 mN at 6 Hz using a 10 g piezoelastic fish with a caudal fin is measured as 120 mW. This work also discusses the feasibility of thrust generation using the harvested energy toward enabling self-powered swimmer-sensor platforms with comparisons based on the capacity levels of structural thin-film battery layers as well as harvested solar and vibrational energy

  1. A flexible proximity sensor formed by duplex screen/screen-offset printing and its application to non-contact detection of human breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kaji, Ryosaku; Iwata, Shiro; Otao, Shinobu; Imawaka, Naoto; Yoshino, Katsumi; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Sato, Junya; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-Ichiro; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2016-01-01

    We describe a flexible capacitance-type sensor that can detect an approaching human without contact, fabricated by developing and applying duplex conductive-ink printing to a film substrate. The results of our calculations show that the difference in size between the top and bottom electrodes of the sensor allows for the spatial extension of the electric field distribution over the electrodes. Hence, such a component functions as a proximity sensor. This thin and light device with a large form factor can be arranged at various places, including curved surfaces and the back of objects such that it is unnoticeable. In our experiment, we attached it to the back of a bed, and found that our device successfully detected the breathing of a subject on the bed without contacting his body. This should contribute to reducing the physical and psychological discomfort among patients during medical checks, or when their condition is being monitored.

  2. A flexible proximity sensor formed by duplex screen/screen-offset printing and its application to non-contact detection of human breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kaji, Ryosaku; Iwata, Shiro; Otao, Shinobu; Imawaka, Naoto; Yoshino, Katsumi; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Sato, Junya; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2016-01-22

    We describe a flexible capacitance-type sensor that can detect an approaching human without contact, fabricated by developing and applying duplex conductive-ink printing to a film substrate. The results of our calculations show that the difference in size between the top and bottom electrodes of the sensor allows for the spatial extension of the electric field distribution over the electrodes. Hence, such a component functions as a proximity sensor. This thin and light device with a large form factor can be arranged at various places, including curved surfaces and the back of objects such that it is unnoticeable. In our experiment, we attached it to the back of a bed, and found that our device successfully detected the breathing of a subject on the bed without contacting his body. This should contribute to reducing the physical and psychological discomfort among patients during medical checks, or when their condition is being monitored.

  3. How to combine binary collision approximation and multi-body potential for molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Seiki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Takayama, Arimichi; Ito, Atsushi M.; Kenmotsu, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    Our group has been developing a hybrid simulation of the molecular dynamics (MD) and the binary collision approximation (BCA) simulation. One of the main problems of this hybridization model is that the multi-body potential suddenly appears at the moment when the simulation method switches from the BCA to the MD. This instantaneously emerged multi-body potential causes the acceleration or deceleration of atoms of the system. To solve this problem, the kinetic energy of atoms should be corrected to conserve the total energy in the system. This paper gives the solution. The hybrid simulation for hydrogen atom injection into a graphite material is executed in order to demonstrate the solution. (author)

  4. Masticatory biomechanics in the rabbit: a multi-body dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Peter J; Gröning, Flora; Curtis, Neil; Fitton, Laura C; Herrel, Anthony; McCormack, Steven W; Fagan, Michael J

    2014-10-06

    Multi-body dynamics is a powerful engineering tool which is becoming increasingly popular for the simulation and analysis of skull biomechanics. This paper presents the first application of multi-body dynamics to analyse the biomechanics of the rabbit skull. A model has been constructed through the combination of manual dissection and three-dimensional imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography). Individual muscles are represented with multiple layers, thus more accurately modelling muscle fibres with complex lines of action. Model validity was sought through comparing experimentally measured maximum incisor bite forces with those predicted by the model. Simulations of molar biting highlighted the ability of the masticatory system to alter recruitment of two muscle groups, in order to generate shearing or crushing movements. Molar shearing is capable of processing a food bolus in all three orthogonal directions, whereas molar crushing and incisor biting are predominately directed vertically. Simulations also show that the masticatory system is adapted to process foods through several cycles with low muscle activations, presumably in order to prevent rapidly fatiguing fast fibres during repeated chewing cycles. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of a validated multi-body dynamics model for investigating feeding biomechanics in the rabbit, and shows the potential for complementing and eventually reducing in vivo experiments.

  5. Flexible Strain Sensor Based on Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Graphene/Polymer Nanocomposite Membrane and Its Sensing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhi; Jiang, Chuanxing; Tong, Jun; Zong, Xiaoqi; Hu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Graphene is a potential building block for next generation electronic devices including field-effect transistors, chemical sensors, and radio frequency switches. Investigations of strain application of graphene-based films have emerged in recent years, but the challenges in synthesis and processing achieving control over its fabrication constitute the main obstacles towards device applications. This work presents an alternative approach, layer-by-layer self-assembly, allowing a controllable fabrication of graphene/polymer film strain sensor on flexible substrates of polyimide with interdigital electrodes. Carboxylated graphene and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) were exploited to form hierarchical nanostructure due to electrostatic action. The morphology and structure of the film were inspected by using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The strain-sensing properties of the graphene/PDDA film sensor were investigated through tuning micrometer caliper exertion and a PC-assisted piezoresistive measurement system. Experimental result shows that the sensor exhibited not only excellent response and reversibility behavior as a function of deflection, but also good repeatability and acceptable linearity. The strain-sensing mechanism of the proposed sensor was attributed to the electrical resistance change resulted from piezoresistive effect.

  6. Investigation of Sensitivities and Drift Effects of the Arrayed Flexible Chloride Sensor Based on RuO2/GO at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chang Tseng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the temperature effect on sensing characteristics and drift effect of an arrayed flexible ruthenium dioxide (RuO2/graphene oxide (GO chloride sensor at different solution temperatures between 10 °C and 50 °C. The average sensor sensitivities according to our experimental results were 28.2 ± 1.4 mV/pCl (10 °C, 42.5 ± 2.0 mV/pCl (20 °C, 47.1 ± 1.8 mV/pCl (30 °C, 54.1 ± 2.01 mV/pCl (40 °C and 46.6 ± 2.1 mV/pCl (50 °C. We found the drift effects of an arrayed flexible RuO2/GO chloride sensor in a 1 M NaCl solution to be between 8.2 mV/h and 2.5 mV/h with solution temperatures from 10 °C to 50 °C.

  7. Investigation of Sensitivities and Drift Effects of the Arrayed Flexible Chloride Sensor Based on RuO2/GO at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shi-Chang; Wu, Tong-Yu; Liao, Yi-Hung; Lai, Chih-Hsien; Yan, Siao-Jie; Tseng, Ting-Wei

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the temperature effect on sensing characteristics and drift effect of an arrayed flexible ruthenium dioxide (RuO2)/graphene oxide (GO) chloride sensor at different solution temperatures between 10 °C and 50 °C. The average sensor sensitivities according to our experimental results were 28.2 ± 1.4 mV/pCl (10 °C), 42.5 ± 2.0 mV/pCl (20 °C), 47.1 ± 1.8 mV/pCl (30 °C), 54.1 ± 2.01 mV/pCl (40 °C) and 46.6 ± 2.1 mV/pCl (50 °C). We found the drift effects of an arrayed flexible RuO2/GO chloride sensor in a 1 M NaCl solution to be between 8.2 mV/h and 2.5 mV/h with solution temperatures from 10 °C to 50 °C. PMID:29461506

  8. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  9. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  10. Growth of coral-like PtAu-MnO2 binary nanocomposites on free-standing graphene paper for flexible nonenzymatic glucose sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Li, Yuanqing; Gao, Hongcai; Ge, Shuibing; Duan, Hongwei

    2013-03-15

    The growing demand for compact point-of-care medical devices and portable instruments for on-site environmental sampling has stimulated intense research on flexible sensors that can be miniaturized and function under considerable physical deformation. We report a new type of flexible electrochemical biosensors based on free-standing graphene paper carrying binary nanocomposites of PtAu alloy and MnO(2). The coral-like PtAu-MnO(2) nanocomposites are grown on the substrate through one-step template-free electrodeposition, leading to an intimate contact between the PtAu alloy and MnO(2) matrix. The flexible electrode exhibits a unique set of structural and electrochemical properties such as better uniformity, larger active surface areas, and faster electron transfer in comparison with the control electrode prepared by tandem growth of MnO(2) network and PtAu alloy in two steps. In nonenzymatic amperometric glucose detection, the PtAu-MnO(2) binary nanostructure-decorated graphene paper has shown greatly enhanced sensing performance such as wide liner range (0.1 mM to 30.0 mM), high sensitivity (58.54 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)), low detection limit (0.02 mM, S/N=3), satisfactory selectivity, excellent reproducibility and stability, and tolerability to mechanical stress. The strategy of co-growth of metal and metal oxides on freestanding carbon substrates opens new possibility to develop high-performance flexible electrochemical sensors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of multi-functional flexible micro-sensors for in situ measurement of temperature, voltage and fuel flow in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lee, Chung-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution all contribute considerably to fuel cell performance. Conventional methods cannot accurately determine parameter changes inside a fuel cell. This investigation developed flexible and multi-functional micro sensors on a 40 μm-thick stainless steel foil substrate by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and embedded them in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to measure the temperature, voltage and flow. Users can monitor and control in situ the temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution in the cell. Thereby, both fuel cell performance and lifetime can be increased.

  12. A flexible angle sensor made from MWNT/CuO/Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite films deposited by an electrophoretic co-deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toboonsung, Buppachat, E-mail: buppachattt@yahoo.co.th [Physics and General Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Singjai, Pisith, E-mail: singjai@hotmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-08-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWNT/CuO/Cu{sub 2}Onanocomposite films were coated on a PET sheet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film resistance and application as angle sensor were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thesensor showed a linear relation between the film resistance and the bending angle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A minimum loop area and a high stability in sensitivity over a thousand bending cycles were obtained. - Abstract: A flexible angle sensor was prepared using an electrophoretic co-deposition process to form nanocomposite networks of multi-wall carbon nanotube/cupric oxide/cuprous oxide (MWNT/CuO/Cu{sub 2}O) on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. The deposition method used copper and stainless steel electrodes, and the effects of varying of electrode separation, MWNT concentration in deionized water, voltage and deposition time were studied. The film resistance of the as-deposited samples decreased with increasing the MWNT concentration up to 0.3 mg/ml. The angle sensor showed a linear relation between the film resistance and the bending angle, a relationship that was illustrated with loop area and sensitivity data. The best angle sensor was successfully made with an electrode separation of 8 mm, a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml, a voltage of 10 V and a deposition time of 3 h, parameters that resulted in a minimum loop area and the most stability in sensitivity over a thousand bending cycles.

  13. An accurate, flexible and small optical fiber sensor: a novel technological breakthrough for real-time analysis of dynamic blood flow data in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-ying Yuan

    Full Text Available Because of the limitations of existing methods and techniques for directly obtaining real-time blood data, no accurate microflow in vivo real-time analysis method exists. To establish a novel technical platform for real-time in vivo detection and to analyze average blood pressure and other blood flow parameters, a small, accurate, flexible, and nontoxic Fabry-Perot fiber sensor was designed. The carotid sheath was implanted through intubation of the rabbit carotid artery (n = 8, and the blood pressure and other detection data were determined directly through the veins. The fiber detection results were compared with test results obtained using color Doppler ultrasound and a physiological pressure sensor recorder. Pairwise comparisons among the blood pressure results obtained using the three methods indicated that real-time blood pressure information obtained through the fiber sensor technique exhibited better correlation than the data obtained with the other techniques. The highest correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.86 was obtained between the fiber sensor and pressure sensor. The blood pressure values were positively related to the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, number of red blood cells, and hemoglobin level, with correlation coefficients of 0.033, 0.129, 0.358, and 0.373, respectively. The blood pressure values had no obvious relationship with the number of white blood cells and high-density lipoprotein and had a negative relationship with triglyceride levels, with a correlation coefficient of -0.031. The average ambulatory blood pressure measured by the fiber sensor exhibited a negative correlation with the quantity of blood platelets (correlation coefficient of -0.839, P<0.05. The novel fiber sensor can thus obtain in vivo blood pressure data accurately, stably, and in real time; the sensor can also determine the content and status of the blood flow to some extent. Therefore, the fiber sensor can obtain

  14. Biomechanical Analysis and Evaluation Technology Using Human Multi-Body Dynamic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Shin, June Ho; Khurelbaatar, Tsolmonbaatar [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents the biomechanical analysis and evaluation technology of musculoskeletal system by multi-body human dynamic model and 3-D motion capture data. First, medical image based geometric model and material properties of tissue were used to develop the human dynamic model and 3-D motion capture data based motion analysis techniques were develop to quantify the in-vivo joint kinematics, joint moment, joint force, and muscle force. Walking and push-up motion was investigated using the developed model. The present model and technologies would be useful to apply the biomechanical analysis and evaluation of human activities.

  15. Modeling, fabrication and plasma actuator coupling of flexible pressure sensors for flow separation detection and control in aeronautical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francioso, L; De Pascali, C; Siciliano, P; Pescini, E; De Giorgi, M G

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the flow separation could enhance the performance of propulsion systems and future civil aircraft. To this end, a fast detection of boundary layer separation is mandatory for a sustainable and successful application of active flow control devices, such as plasma actuators. The present work reports on the design, fabrication and functional tests of low-cost capacitive pressure sensors coupled with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to detect and then control flow separation. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were used to obtain information on the deflection and the stress distribution in different-shaped floating membranes. The sensor sensitivity as a function of the pressure load was also calculated by experimental tests. The results of the calibration of different capacitive pressure sensors are reported in this work, together with functional tests in a wind tunnel equipped with a curved wall plate on which a DBD plasma actuator was mounted to control the flow separation. The flow behavior was experimentally investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Statistical and spectral analysis, applied to the output signals of the pressure sensor placed downstream of the profile leading edge, demonstrated that the sensor is able to discriminate different ionic wind velocity and turbulence conditions. The sensor sensitivity in the 0–100 Pa range was experimentally measured and it ranged between 0.0030 and 0.0046 pF Pa −1 for the best devices. (paper)

  16. Modeling, fabrication and plasma actuator coupling of flexible pressure sensors for flow separation detection and control in aeronautical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francioso, L.; De Pascali, C.; Pescini, E.; De Giorgi, M. G.; Siciliano, P.

    2016-06-01

    Preventing the flow separation could enhance the performance of propulsion systems and future civil aircraft. To this end, a fast detection of boundary layer separation is mandatory for a sustainable and successful application of active flow control devices, such as plasma actuators. The present work reports on the design, fabrication and functional tests of low-cost capacitive pressure sensors coupled with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to detect and then control flow separation. Finite element method (FEM) simulations were used to obtain information on the deflection and the stress distribution in different-shaped floating membranes. The sensor sensitivity as a function of the pressure load was also calculated by experimental tests. The results of the calibration of different capacitive pressure sensors are reported in this work, together with functional tests in a wind tunnel equipped with a curved wall plate on which a DBD plasma actuator was mounted to control the flow separation. The flow behavior was experimentally investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Statistical and spectral analysis, applied to the output signals of the pressure sensor placed downstream of the profile leading edge, demonstrated that the sensor is able to discriminate different ionic wind velocity and turbulence conditions. The sensor sensitivity in the 0-100 Pa range was experimentally measured and it ranged between 0.0030 and 0.0046 pF Pa-1 for the best devices.

  17. One-Step Laser Patterned Highly Uniform Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Films for Circuit-Enabled Tattoo and Flexible Humidity Sensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowoon Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of graphene oxide (GO into reduced graphene oxide (rGO is imperative for the electronic device applications of graphene-based materials. Efficient and cost-effective fabrication of highly uniform GO films and the successive reduction into rGO on a large area is still a cumbersome task through conventional protocols. Improved film casting of GO sheets on a polymeric substrate with quick and green reduction processes has a potential that may establish a path to the practical flexible electronics. Herein, we report a facile deposition process of GO on flexible polymer substrates to create highly uniform thin films over a large area by a flow-enabled self-assembly approach. The self-assembly of GO sheets was successfully performed by dragging the trapped solution of GO in confined geometry, which consisted of an upper stationary blade and a lower moving substrate on a motorized translational stage. The prepared GO thin films could be selectively reduced and facilitated from the simple laser direct writing process for programmable circuit printing with the desired configuration and less sample damage due to the non-contact mode operation without the use of photolithography, toxic chemistry, or high-temperature reduction methods. Furthermore, two different modes of the laser operating system for the reduction of GO films turned out to be valuable for the construction of novel graphene-based high-throughput electrical circuit boards compatible with integrating electronic module chips and flexible humidity sensors.

  18. Evaluating the reliability of multi-body mechanisms: A method considering the uncertainties of dynamic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism reliability is defined as the ability of a certain mechanism to maintain output accuracy under specified conditions. Mechanism reliability is generally assessed by the classical direct probability method (DPM) derived from the first order second moment (FOSM) method. The DPM relies strongly on the analytical form of the dynamic solution so it is not applicable to multi-body mechanisms that have only numerical solutions. In this paper, an indirect probability model (IPM) is proposed for mechanism reliability evaluation of multi-body mechanisms. IPM combines the dynamic equation, degradation function and Kaplan–Meier estimator to evaluate mechanism reliability comprehensively. Furthermore, to reduce the amount of computation in practical applications, the IPM is simplified into the indirect probability step model (IPSM). A case study of a crank–slider mechanism with clearance is investigated. Results show that relative errors between the theoretical and experimental results of mechanism reliability are less than 5%, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method. - Highlights: • An indirect probability model (IPM) is proposed for mechanism reliability evaluation. • The dynamic equation, degradation function and Kaplan–Meier estimator are used. • Then the simplified form of indirect probability model is proposed. • The experimental results agree well with the predicted results.

  19. Multi-Body Ski Jumper Model with Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Muscle Control for Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Piprek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to model a ski jumper as a multi-body system for an optimal control application. The modeling is based on the constrained Newton-Euler-Equations. Within this paper the complete multi-body modeling methodology as well as the musculoskeletal modeling is considered. For the musculoskeletal modeling and its incorporation in the optimization model, we choose a nonlinear dynamic inversion control approach. This approach uses the muscle models as nonlinear reference models and links them to the ski jumper movement by a control law. This strategy yields a linearized input-output behavior, which makes the optimal control problem easier to solve. The resulting model of the ski jumper can then be used for trajectory optimization whose results are compared to literature jumps. Ultimately, this enables the jumper to get a very detailed feedback of the flight. To achieve the maximal jump length, exact positioning of his body with respect to the air can be displayed.

  20. Nonenzymatic flexible field-effect transistor based glucose sensor fabricated using NiO quantum dots modified ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da-Un-Jin; Ahmad, Rafiq; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2018-02-15

    Herein, we fabricated nonenzymatic flexible field-effect transistor (f-FET) based glucose sensor using nickel oxide quantum dots (NiO QDs) modified zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs). The ZnO NRs surfaces were coated with NiO QDs using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering to enhance the electrocatalytic feature and the surface area of ZnO NRs. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), the nonenzymatic f-FET glucose sensor shows two linear ranges of 0.001-10mM and 10-50mM with the high sensitivity of 13.14μAcm -2 mM -1 and 7.31μAcm -2 mM -1 , respectively, along with good selectivity, stability and repeatability during glucose detection. The examination of human whole blood and serum samples reveal that the nonenzymatic f-FET based glucose sensor is capable of measuring glucose concentration efficiently in the presence of interfering species and thus can be offered as a promising device for further applications in clinical and non-clinical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A flexibility-based method via the iterated improved reduction system and the cuckoo optimization algorithm for damage quantification with limited sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare Hosseinzadeh, Ali; Ghodrati Amiri, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Abdollah; Koo, Ki-Young

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel and effective damage diagnosis algorithm is proposed to localize and quantify structural damage using incomplete modal data, considering the existence of some limitations in the number of attached sensors on structures. The damage detection problem is formulated as an optimization problem by computing static displacements in the reduced model of a structure subjected to a unique static load. The static responses are computed through the flexibility matrix of the damaged structure obtained based on the incomplete modal data of the structure. In the algorithm, an iterated improved reduction system method is applied to prepare an accurate reduced model of a structure. The optimization problem is solved via a new evolutionary optimization algorithm called the cuckoo optimization algorithm. The efficiency and robustness of the presented method are demonstrated through three numerical examples. Moreover, the efficiency of the method is verified by an experimental study of a five-story shear building structure on a shaking table considering only two sensors. The obtained damage identification results for the numerical and experimental studies show the suitable and stable performance of the proposed damage identification method for structures with limited sensors. (paper)

  2. Integration of Sensor and Actuator Networks and the SCADA System to Promote the Migration of the Legacy Flexible Manufacturing System towards the Industry 4.0 Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Calderón Godoy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Networks of sensors and actuators in automated manufacturing processes are implemented using industrial fieldbuses, where automation units and supervisory systems are also connected to exchange operational information. In the context of the incoming fourth industrial revolution, called Industry 4.0, the management of legacy facilities is a paramount issue to deal with. This paper presents a solution to enhance the connectivity of a legacy Flexible Manufacturing System, which constitutes the first step in the adoption of the Industry 4.0 concept. Such a system includes the fieldbus PROcess FIeld BUS (PROFIBUS around which sensors, actuators, and controllers are interconnected. In order to establish effective communication between the sensors and actuators network and a supervisory system, a hardware and software approach including Ethernet connectivity is implemented. This work is envisioned to contribute to the migration of legacy systems towards the challenging Industry 4.0 framework. The experimental results prove the proper operation of the FMS and the feasibility of the proposal.

  3. Analysis and Design Tools for Fluid-Structure Interaction with Multi-Body Flexible Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this proposal (Phases I and II) is to develop a robust and accurate solver for fluid-structure interaction computations capable of...

  4. Attitude and vibration control of a satellite containing flexible solar arrays by using reaction wheels, and piezoelectric transducers as sensors and actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Rade, Domingos A.; Goes, Luiz C. S.; de Paula Sales, Thiago

    2017-10-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to provide insight into control-structure interaction for satellites comprising flexible appendages and internal moving components. The physical model considered herein aiming to attend such purpose is a rigid-flexible satellite consisting of a rigid platform containing two rotating flexible solar panels. The solar panels rotation is assumed to be in a sun-synchronous configuration mode. The panels contain surface-bonded piezoelectric patches that can be used either as sensors for the elastic displacements or as actuators to counteract the vibration motion. It is assumed that in the normal mode operation the satellite platform points towards the Earth while the solar arrays rotate so as to follow the Sun. The vehicle moves in a low Earth polar orbit. The technique used to obtain the mathematical model combines the Lagrangian formulation with the Finite Elements Method used to describe the dynamics of the solar panel. The gravity-gradient torque as well as the torque due to the interaction of the Earth magnetic field and the satellite internal residual magnetic moment is included as environmental perturbations. The actuators are three reaction wheels for attitude control and piezoelectric actuators to control the flexible motion of the solar arrays. Computer simulations are performed using the MATLAB® software package. The following on-orbit satellite operating configurations are object of analysis: i) Satellite pointing towards the Earth (Earth acquisition maneuver) by considering the initial conditions in the elastic displacement equal to zero, aiming the assessment of the flexible modes excitation by the referred maneuver; ii) the satellite pointing towards the Earth with the assumption of an initial condition different from zero for the flexible motion such that the attitude alterations are checked against the elastic motion disturbance; and iii) attitude acquisition accomplished by taking into account initial conditions

  5. A multi-body vehicle for moving inside cluttered nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littmann, F.; Chameaud, H.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the result of the TALOS (Technologies for Advanced locomotion Systems) programme. The general aim of the TALOS was to prove the feasibility of multi-body articulated vehicles for intervention missions in nuclear plant were high payload volume and mass are required, combined with great geometrical and obstacles constraints. This programme was based on one hand on the TLV (Train Like Vehicle) concept, developed by CEA ( Atomic Energy Commission) and on the other hand on the KfK experience on locomotion. The main difficulties of this programme were to find the mechanical linkage concept and the locomotion concept, and also to build an integrated mockup with linkage and locomotion concepts. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs

  6. Weak decays of doubly heavy baryons. Multi-body decay channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yu-Ji; Wang, Wei; Xing, Ye; Xu, Ji [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, MOE Key Laboratory for Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China)

    2018-01-15

    The newly-discovered Ξ{sub cc}{sup ++} decays into the Λ{sub c}{sup +}K{sup -}π{sup +}π{sup +}, but the experimental data has indicated that this decay is not saturated by any two-body intermediate state. In this work, we analyze the multi-body weak decays of doubly heavy baryons Ξ{sub cc}, Ω{sub cc}, Ξ{sub bc}, Ω{sub bc}, Ξ{sub bb} and Ω{sub bb}, in particular the three-body nonleptonic decays and four-body semileptonic decays. We classify various decay modes according to the quark-level transitions and present an estimate of the typical branching fractions for a few golden decay channels. Decay amplitudes are then parametrized in terms of a few SU(3) irreducible amplitudes. With these amplitudes, we find a number of relations for decay widths, which can be examined in future. (orig.)

  7. Error-transparent evolution: the ability of multi-body interactions to bypass decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vy, Os; Jacobs, Kurt; Wang Xiaoting

    2013-01-01

    We observe that multi-body interactions, unlike two-body interactions, can implement any unitary operation on an encoded system in such a way that the evolution is uninterrupted by noise that the encoding is designed to protect against. Such ‘error-transparent’ evolution is distinct from that usually considered in quantum computing, as the latter is merely correctable. We prove that the minimum body-ness required to protect (i) a qubit from a single type of Pauli error, (ii) a target qubit from a controller with such errors and (iii) a single qubit from all errors is three-body, four-body and five-body, respectively. We also discuss applications to computing, coherent feedback control and quantum metrology. Finally, we evaluate the performance of error-transparent evolution for some examples using numerical simulations. (paper)

  8. Investigation on pitch system loads by means of an integral multi body simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berroth, J.; Jacobs, G.; Kroll, T.; Schelenz, R.

    2016-09-01

    In modern horizontal axis wind turbines the rotor blades are adjusted by three individual pitch systems to control power output. The pitch system consists of either a hydraulic or an electrical actuator, the blade bearing, the rotor blade itself and the control. In case of an electrical drive a gearbox is used to transmit the high torques that are required for blade pitch angle adjustment. In this contribution a new integral multi body simulation approach is presented that enables detailed assessment of dynamic pitch system loads. The simulation results presented are compared and evaluated with measurement data of a 2 MW-class reference wind turbine. Major focus of this contribution is on the assessment of non linear tooth contact behaviour incorporating tooth backlash for the single gear stages and the impact on dynamic pitch system loads.

  9. Heading Control System for a Multi-body Vehicle with a Virtual Test Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTALCIOGLU OZGEN, S.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a Heading Control (HC system for a multi-body vehicle. HC system helps reducing the required torque from the driver and improves the lane keeping efficiency. HC system is important for safety and driver comfort in traffic. The controller performance is examined on a virtual test drive platform. The optimal control theory is applied to HC system and examined on a curved path and under a side wind disturbance. Different assistance levels are applied to see the characteristics of the controller with different virtual test drivers. The results are analyzed based on three performance indices; lane keeping performance (LKP index, assist torque performance (ATP index and driver torque performance (DTP index. As seen from the results while using HC system the lateral displacement decreases as the lane keeping performance increases and the driver torque performance decreases as the assist torque performance increases.

  10. A multi-body vehicle for moving inside cluttered nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littmann, F.; Chameaud, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Dorn, J. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The paper presents the result of the TALOS (Technologies for Advanced locomotion Systems) programme. The general aim of the TALOS was to prove the feasibility of multi-body articulated vehicles for intervention missions in nuclear plant were high payload volume and mass are required, combined with great geometrical and obstacles constraints. This programme was based on one hand on the TLV (Train Like Vehicle) concept, developed by CEA ( Atomic Energy Commission) and on the other hand on the KfK experience on locomotion. The main difficulties of this programme were to find the mechanical linkage concept and the locomotion concept, and also to build an integrated mockup with linkage and locomotion concepts. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Sub-discretized surface model with application to contact mechanics in multi-body simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S; Williams, J

    2008-02-28

    The mechanics of contact between rough and imperfectly spherical adhesive powder grains are often complicated by a variety of factors, including several which vary over sub-grain length scales. These include several traction factors that vary spatially over the surface of the individual grains, including high energy electron and acceptor sites (electrostatic), hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites (electrostatic and capillary), surface energy (general adhesion), geometry (van der Waals and mechanical), and elasto-plastic deformation (mechanical). For mechanical deformation and reaction, coupled motions, such as twisting with bending and sliding, as well as surface roughness add an asymmetry to the contact force which invalidates assumptions for popular models of contact, such as the Hertzian and its derivatives, for the non-adhesive case, and the JKR and DMT models for adhesive contacts. Though several contact laws have been offered to ameliorate these drawbacks, they are often constrained to particular loading paths (most often normal loading) and are relatively complicated for computational implementation. This paper offers a simple and general computational method for augmenting contact law predictions in multi-body simulations through characterization of the contact surfaces using a hierarchically-defined surface sub-discretization. For the case of adhesive contact between powder grains in low stress regimes, this technique can allow a variety of existing contact laws to be resolved across scales, allowing for moments and torques about the contact area as well as normal and tangential tractions to be resolved. This is especially useful for multi-body simulation applications where the modeler desires statistical distributions and calibration for parameters in contact laws commonly used for resolving near-surface contact mechanics. The approach is verified against analytical results for the case of rough, elastic spheres.

  12. Global sensitivity analysis of the joint kinematics during gait to the parameters of a lower limb multi-body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Habachi, Aimad; Moissenet, Florent; Duprey, Sonia; Cheze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2015-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a typical part of biomechanical models evaluation. For lower limb multi-body models, sensitivity analyses have been mainly performed on musculoskeletal parameters, more rarely on the parameters of the joint models. This study deals with a global sensitivity analysis achieved on a lower limb multi-body model that introduces anatomical constraints at the ankle, tibiofemoral, and patellofemoral joints. The aim of the study was to take into account the uncertainty of parameters (e.g. 2.5 cm on the positions of the skin markers embedded in the segments, 5° on the orientation of hinge axis, 2.5 mm on the origin and insertion of ligaments) using statistical distributions and propagate it through a multi-body optimisation method used for the computation of joint kinematics from skin markers during gait. This will allow us to identify the most influential parameters on the minimum of the objective function of the multi-body optimisation (i.e. the sum of the squared distances between measured and model-determined skin marker positions) and on the joint angles and displacements. To quantify this influence, a Fourier-based algorithm of global sensitivity analysis coupled with a Latin hypercube sampling is used. This sensitivity analysis shows that some parameters of the motor constraints, that is to say the distances between measured and model-determined skin marker positions, and the kinematic constraints are highly influencing the joint kinematics obtained from the lower limb multi-body model, for example, positions of the skin markers embedded in the shank and pelvis, parameters of the patellofemoral hinge axis, and parameters of the ankle and tibiofemoral ligaments. The resulting standard deviations on the joint angles and displacements reach 36° and 12 mm. Therefore, personalisation, customisation or identification of these most sensitive parameters of the lower limb multi-body models may be considered as essential.

  13. Efficient approach for simulating response of multi-body structure in reactor core subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongkun; Cen Song; Wang Haitao; Cheng Huanyu

    2012-01-01

    An efficient 3D approach is proposed for simulating the complicated responses of the multi-body structure in reactor core under seismic loading. By utilizing the rigid-body and connector functions of the software Abaqus, the multi-body structure of the reactor core is simplified as a mass-point system interlinked by spring-dashpot connectors. And reasonable schemes are used for determining various connector coefficients. Furthermore, a scripting program is also complied for the 3D parametric modeling. Numerical examples show that, the proposed method can not only produce the results which satisfy the engineering requirements, but also improve the computational efficiency more than 100 times. (authors)

  14. Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  15. Model Reduction in Co-Rotated Multi-Body Dynamics Based on the Dual Craig-Bampton Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerathunge Kadawathagedara, S.T.; Rixen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new reduction method for dynamical analsis of multi-body systems is presented in this paper. It fundamentally differs from the ones previously published in the way kinematical constraints are handled. Our approach is based on component mode synthesis, but the specificity of articulated mechanism,

  16. On the identifiability of inertia parameters of planar Multi-Body Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi-Chashmi, Seyed Yaser; Malaek, Seyed Mohammad-Bagher

    2018-04-01

    This work describes a new formulation to study the identifiability characteristics of Serially Linked Multi-body Space Systems (SLMBSS). The process exploits the so called "Lagrange Formulation" to develop a linear form of Equations of Motion w.r.t the system Inertia Parameters (IPs). Having developed a specific form of regressor matrix, we aim to expedite the identification process. The new approach allows analytical as well as numerical identification and identifiability analysis for different SLMBSSs' configurations. Moreover, the explicit forms of SLMBSSs identifiable parameters are derived by analyzing the identifiability characteristics of the robot. We further show that any SLMBSS designed with Variable Configurations Joint allows all IPs to be identifiable through comparing two successive identification outcomes. This feature paves the way to design new class of SLMBSS for which accurate identification of all IPs is at hand. Different case studies reveal that proposed formulation provides fast and accurate results, as required by the space applications. Further studies might be necessary for cases where planar-body assumption becomes inaccurate.

  17. Vehicle response-based track geometry assessment using multi-body simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Sönke; Causse, Julien; Coudert, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    The assessment of the geometry of railway tracks is an indispensable requirement for safe rail traffic. Defects which represent a risk for the safety of the train have to be identified and the necessary measures taken. According to current standards, amplitude thresholds are applied to the track geometry parameters measured by recording cars. This geometry-based assessment has proved its value but suffers from the low correlation between the geometry parameters and the vehicle reactions. Experience shows that some defects leading to critical vehicle reactions are underestimated by this approach. The use of vehicle responses in the track geometry assessment process allows identifying critical defects and improving the maintenance operations. This work presents a vehicle response-based assessment method using multi-body simulation. The choice of the relevant operation conditions and the estimation of the simulation uncertainty are outlined. The defects are identified from exceedances of track geometry and vehicle response parameters. They are then classified using clustering methods and the correlation with vehicle response is analysed. The use of vehicle responses allows the detection of critical defects which are not identified from geometry parameters.

  18. Graphene-Silver-Induced Self-Polarized PVDF-Based Flexible Plasmonic Nanogenerator Toward the Realization for New Class of Self Powered Optical Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Tridib Kumar; Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Maiti, Rishi; Jana, Santanu; Adhikari, Basudam; Mandal, Dipankar; Ray, Samit K

    2016-06-22

    Plasmonic characteristics of graphene-silver (GAg) nanocomposite coupled with piezoelectric property of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) have been utilized to realize a new class of self-powered flexible plasmonic nanogenerator (PNG). A few layer graphene has been prepared in a facile and cost-effective method and GAg doped PVDF hybrid nanocomposite (PVGAg) is synthesized in a one-pot method. The PNG exhibits superior piezoelectric energy conversion efficiency (∼15%) under the dark condition. The plasmonic behavior of GAg nanocomposite makes the PNG highly responsive to the visible light illumination that leads to ∼50% change in piezo-voltage and ∼70% change in piezo-current, leading to enhanced energy conversion efficiency up to ∼46.6%. The piezoelectric throughput of PNG (e.g., capacitor charging performance) has been monitored during the detection of the different wavelengths of visible light illumination and showed maximum selectivity to the green light. The simultaneous mechanical energy harvesting and visible-light detection capabilities of the PNG are attractive for futuristic self-powered optoelectronic smart sensors and devices.

  19. Sensor system for web inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleefe, Gerard E.; Rudnick, Thomas J.; Novak, James L.

    2002-01-01

    A system for electrically measuring variations over a flexible web has a capacitive sensor including spaced electrically conductive, transmit and receive electrodes mounted on a flexible substrate. The sensor is held against a flexible web with sufficient force to deflect the path of the web, which moves relative to the sensor.

  20. Gain in computational efficiency by vectorization in the dynamic simulation of multi-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, F. M. L.; Shareef, N. H.

    1991-01-01

    An improved technique for the identification and extraction of the exact quantities associated with the degrees of freedom at the element as well as the flexible body level is presented. It is implemented in the dynamic equations of motions based on the recursive formulation of Kane et al. (1987) and presented in a matrix form, integrating the concepts of strain energy, the finite-element approach, modal analysis, and reduction of equations. This technique eliminates the CPU intensive matrix multiplication operations in the code's hot spots for the dynamic simulation of the interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. A study of a simple robot with flexible links is presented by comparing the execution times on a scalar machine and a vector-processor with and without vector options. Performance figures demonstrating the substantial gains achieved by the technique are plotted.

  1. Enhancing the humidity sensitivity of Ga2O3 /SnO2 core/shell microribbon by applying mechanical strain and its application as a flexible strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kewei; Sakurai, Makoto; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-12-07

    The humidity sensitivity of a single β-Ga(2) O(3) /amorphous SnO(2) core/shell microribbon on a flexible substrate is enhanced by the application of tensile strain and increases linearly with the strain. The strain-induced enhancement originates from the increase in the effective surface area where water molecules are adsorbed. This strain dependence of humidity sensitivity can be used to monitor the external strain. The strain sensing of the microribbon device under various amounts of mechanical loading shows excellent reliability and reproducibility with a gauge factor of -41. The flexible device has high potential to detect both humidity and strain at room temperature. These findings and the mechanism involved are expected to pave the way for new flexible strain and multifunctional sensors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Development of Viscoelastic Multi-Body Simulation and Impact Response Analysis of a Ballasted Railway Track under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Nishiura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of a large number of deformable bodies is often difficult because complex high-level modeling is required to address both multi-body contact and viscoelastic deformation. This necessitates the combined use of a discrete element method (DEM and a finite element method (FEM. In this study, a quadruple discrete element method (QDEM was developed for dynamic analysis of viscoelastic materials using a simpler algorithm compared to the standard FEM. QDEM easily incorporates the contact algorithm used in DEM. As the first step toward multi-body simulation, the fundamental performance of QDEM was investigated for viscoelastic analysis. The amplitude and frequency of cantilever elastic vibration were nearly equal to those obtained by the standard FEM. A comparison of creep recovery tests with an analytical solution showed good agreement between them. In addition, good correlation between the attenuation degree and the real physical viscosity was confirmed for viscoelastic vibration analysis. Therefore, the high accuracy of QDEM in the fundamental analysis of infinitesimal viscoelastic deformations was verified. Finally, the impact response of a ballast and sleeper under cyclic loading on a railway track was analyzed using QDEM as an application of deformable multi-body dynamics. The results showed that the vibration of the ballasted track was qualitatively in good agreement with the actual measurements. Moreover, the ballast layer with high friction reduced the ballasted track deterioration. This study suggests that QDEM, as an alternative to DEM and FEM, can provide deeper insights into the contact dynamics of a large number of deformable bodies.

  3. Flexible Bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell J; Casal, Roberto F; Lazarus, Donald R; Ost, David E; Eapen, George A

    2018-03-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy has changed the course of pulmonary medicine. As technology advances, the role of the flexible bronchoscope for both diagnostic and therapeutic indications is continually expanding. This article reviews the historical development of the flexible bronchoscopy, fundamental uses of the flexible bronchoscope as a tool to examine the central airways and obtain diagnostic tissue, and the indications, complications, and contraindications to flexible bronchoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a multi-body nonlinear model for a seat-occupant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Yousof

    -degree of freedom foam-mass model which is also the simplest model of seat-occupant systems. The steady-state response of the system when it is subjected to harmonic base excitation was studied using the incremental harmonic balance method. The incremental harmonic balance method was used to reduce the time required to generate the steady-state response of the system. The incremental harmonic balance method was used to reduce the time required to generate the steady-state response of the system. Experiments are conducted on a single-degree of freedom foam-mass system subjected to harmonic base excitation. Initially, the simulated response predictions were found to deviate from the experimental results. The foam-mass model was then modified to incorporate rate dependency of foam parameters resulting in response predictions that were in good agreement with experimental results. In the second part of this research, the dynamic response of a seat-occupant system was examined through a more realistic planar multi-body seat-occupant model. A constraint Lagrangian formulation was used to derive the governing equations for the seat-occupant model. First, the governing equations were solved numerically to obtain the occupant transient response, the occupant's H-Point location and the interfacial pressure distribution. Variations in the H-Point location and the seat-occupant pressure distribution with changes in the seat-occupant parameters, including the seat geometry and the occupant's characteristics, were studied. The estimated pressure was also investigated experimentally and was found to match with the results obtained using the seat-occupant model. Next, the incremental harmonic balance method was modified and used to obtain the occupant's steady-state response when the seat-occupant system was subjected to harmonic base excitation at different frequencies. The system frequency response and mode shapes at different frequencies were also obtained and compared to the previously

  5. Path lumping: An efficient algorithm to identify metastable path channels for conformational dynamics of multi-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Luming; Sheong, Fu Kit; Zeng, Xiangze; Zhu, Lizhe; Huang, Xuhui

    2017-07-01

    Constructing Markov state models from large-scale molecular dynamics simulation trajectories is a promising approach to dissect the kinetic mechanisms of complex chemical and biological processes. Combined with transition path theory, Markov state models can be applied to identify all pathways connecting any conformational states of interest. However, the identified pathways can be too complex to comprehend, especially for multi-body processes where numerous parallel pathways with comparable flux probability often coexist. Here, we have developed a path lumping method to group these parallel pathways into metastable path channels for analysis. We define the similarity between two pathways as the intercrossing flux between them and then apply the spectral clustering algorithm to lump these pathways into groups. We demonstrate the power of our method by applying it to two systems: a 2D-potential consisting of four metastable energy channels and the hydrophobic collapse process of two hydrophobic molecules. In both cases, our algorithm successfully reveals the metastable path channels. We expect this path lumping algorithm to be a promising tool for revealing unprecedented insights into the kinetic mechanisms of complex multi-body processes.

  6. Wireless sensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  7. On flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Christoph R.; Briglauer, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    By building on theoretical work by Mills and Schumann (1985) and Ungern-Sternberg (1990) this paper provides evidence on the determinants of two dimensions of flexibility, the flexibility in adjusting aggregate output over time (tactical flexibility) as well as the ability to switch quickly between products (operational flexibility). Econometric analysis of a sample of 40.000 farms in Upper-Austria for the period 1980 to 1990 suggests that larger full-time farms operated by younger, better ed...

  8. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  9. Overview and Design of self-acting pitch control mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine using multi body simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Awareness about wind energy is constantly growing in the world. Especially a demand for small scale wind turbine is increasing and various products are available in market. There are mainly two types of wind turbines, horizontal axis wind turbine and vertical axis wind turbines. Horizontal axis wind turbines are suitable for high wind speed whereas vertical axis wind turbines operate relatively low wind speed area. Vertical axis wind turbines are cost effective and simple in construction as compared to the horizontal axis wind turbine. However, vertical axis wind turbines have inherent problem of self-start inability and has low power coefficient as compare to the horizontal axis wind turbine. These two problems can be eliminated by incorporating the blade pitching mechanism. So, in this paper overview of various pitch control systems is discussed and design of self-acting pitch mechanism is given. A pitch control linkage mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine is modeled by multi-body approach using MSC Software. Aerodynamic loads are predicted from a mathematical model based on double multiple stream tube method. An appropriate airfoil which works at low Reynolds number is selected for blade design. It is also focused on commercialization of the vertical axis wind turbine which incorporates the self-acting pitch control system. These aerodynamic load model will be coupled with the multi-body model in future work for optimization of the pitch control linkage mechanism. A 500 Watt vertical axis wind turbine is designed and it is planned to implement the self-acting pitch control mechanism in real model

  10. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Tactile Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2015-10-21

    A multifunctional biomimetic nanocomposite tactile sensor is developed that can detect shear and vertical forces, feel texture, and measure flow with extremely low power consumption. The sensor\\'s high performance is maintained within a wide operating range that can be easily adjusted. The concept works on rigid and flexible substrates and the sensors can be used in air or water without any modifications.

  11. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  12. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  13. Towards Sensor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes; Seshadri, Praveen

    2001-01-01

    . These systems lack flexibility because data is extracted in a predefined way; also, they do not scale to a large number of devices because large volumes of raw data are transferred regardless of the queries that are submitted. In our new concept of sensor database system, queries dictate which data is extracted...... from the sensors. In this paper, we define the concept of sensor databases mixing stored data represented as relations and sensor data represented as time series. Each long-running query formulated over a sensor database defines a persistent view, which is maintained during a given time interval. We...... also describe the design and implementation of the COUGAR sensor database system....

  14. Integration of car-body flexibility into train-track coupling system dynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Liang; Zhang, Qing; Xiao, Xinbiao; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2018-04-01

    The resonance vibration of flexible car-bodies greatly affects the dynamics performances of high-speed trains. In this paper, we report a three-dimensional train-track model to capture the flexible vibration features of high-speed train carriages based on the flexible multi-body dynamics approach. The flexible car-body is modelled using both the finite element method (FEM) and the multi-body dynamics (MBD) approach, in which the rigid motions are obtained by using the MBD theory and the structure deformation is calculated by the FEM and the modal superposition method. The proposed model is applied to investigate the influence of the flexible vibration of car-bodies on the dynamics performances of train-track systems. The dynamics performances of a high-speed train running on a slab track, including the car-body vibration behaviour, the ride comfort, and the running safety, calculated by the numerical models with rigid and flexible car-bodies are compared in detail. The results show that the car-body flexibility not only significantly affects the vibration behaviour and ride comfort of rail carriages, but also can has an important influence on the running safety of trains. The rigid car-body model underestimates the vibration level and ride comfort of rail vehicles, and ignoring carriage torsional flexibility in the curving safety evaluation of trains is conservative.

  15. Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Richard

    Full Text Available The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviour of which is described by a single stiffness matrix. The deformation energy, computed from the stiffness matrix and joint angles and displacements, is minimised within the MBO. Implemented as a "soft" constraint using a penalty-based method, this elastic joint description challenges the strictness of "hard" constraints. In this study, estimates of knee kinematics obtained using MBO embedding four different knee joint models (i.e., no constraints, spherical joint, parallel mechanism, and elastic joint were compared against reference kinematics measured using bi-planar fluoroscopy on two healthy subjects ascending stairs. Bland-Altman analysis and sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of variations in the stiffness matrix terms on the estimated kinematics substantiate the conclusions. The difference between the reference knee joint angles and displacements and the corresponding estimates obtained using MBO embedding the stiffness matrix showed an average bias and standard deviation for kinematics of 0.9±3.2° and 1.6±2.3 mm. These values were lower than when no joint constraints (1.1±3.8°, 2.4±4.1 mm or a parallel mechanism (7.7±3.6°, 1.6±1.7 mm were used and were comparable to the values obtained with a spherical joint (1.0±3.2°, 1.3±1.9 mm. The study demonstrated the feasibility of substituting an elastic joint for more classic joint constraints in MBO.

  16. Comparative assessment of knee joint models used in multi-body kinematics optimisation for soft tissue artefact compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Vincent; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël

    2017-09-06

    Estimating joint kinematics from skin-marker trajectories recorded using stereophotogrammetry is complicated by soft tissue artefact (STA), an inexorable source of error. One solution is to use a bone pose estimator based on multi-body kinematics optimisation (MKO) embedding joint constraints to compensate for STA. However, there is some debate over the effectiveness of this method. The present study aimed to quantitatively assess the degree of agreement between reference (i.e., artefact-free) knee joint kinematics and the same kinematics estimated using MKO embedding six different knee joint models. The following motor tasks were assessed: level walking, hopping, cutting, running, sit-to-stand, and step-up. Reference knee kinematics was taken from pin-marker or biplane fluoroscopic data acquired concurrently with skin-marker data, made available by the respective authors. For each motor task, Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the performance of MKO varied according to the joint model used, with a wide discrepancy in results across degrees of freedom (DoFs), models and motor tasks (with a bias between -10.2° and 13.2° and between -10.2mm and 7.2mm, and with a confidence interval up to ±14.8° and ±11.1mm, for rotation and displacement, respectively). It can be concluded that, while MKO might occasionally improve kinematics estimation, as implemented to date it does not represent a reliable solution to the STA issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Vincent; Lamberto, Giuliano; Lu, Tung-Wu; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO) to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviour of which is described by a single stiffness matrix. The deformation energy, computed from the stiffness matrix and joint angles and displacements, is minimised within the MBO. Implemented as a "soft" constraint using a penalty-based method, this elastic joint description challenges the strictness of "hard" constraints. In this study, estimates of knee kinematics obtained using MBO embedding four different knee joint models (i.e., no constraints, spherical joint, parallel mechanism, and elastic joint) were compared against reference kinematics measured using bi-planar fluoroscopy on two healthy subjects ascending stairs. Bland-Altman analysis and sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of variations in the stiffness matrix terms on the estimated kinematics substantiate the conclusions. The difference between the reference knee joint angles and displacements and the corresponding estimates obtained using MBO embedding the stiffness matrix showed an average bias and standard deviation for kinematics of 0.9±3.2° and 1.6±2.3 mm. These values were lower than when no joint constraints (1.1±3.8°, 2.4±4.1 mm) or a parallel mechanism (7.7±3.6°, 1.6±1.7 mm) were used and were comparable to the values obtained with a spherical joint (1.0±3.2°, 1.3±1.9 mm). The study demonstrated the feasibility of substituting an elastic joint for more classic joint constraints in MBO.

  18. Soft tissue artifact compensation in knee kinematics by multi-body optimization: Performance of subject-specific knee joint models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Julien; Dumas, Raphaël; Hagemeister, Nicola; de Guise, Jaques A

    2015-11-05

    Soft tissue artifact (STA) distort marker-based knee kinematics measures and make them difficult to use in clinical practice. None of the current methods designed to compensate for STA is suitable, but multi-body optimization (MBO) has demonstrated encouraging results and can be improved. The goal of this study was to develop and validate the performance of knee joint models, with anatomical and subject-specific kinematic constraints, used in MBO to reduce STA errors. Twenty subjects were recruited: 10 healthy and 10 osteoarthritis (OA) subjects. Subject-specific knee joint models were evaluated by comparing dynamic knee kinematics recorded by a motion capture system (KneeKG™) and optimized with MBO to quasi-static knee kinematics measured by a low-dose, upright, biplanar radiographic imaging system (EOS(®)). Errors due to STA ranged from 1.6° to 22.4° for knee rotations and from 0.8 mm to 14.9 mm for knee displacements in healthy and OA subjects. Subject-specific knee joint models were most effective in compensating for STA in terms of abduction-adduction, inter-external rotation and antero-posterior displacement. Root mean square errors with subject-specific knee joint models ranged from 2.2±1.2° to 6.0±3.9° for knee rotations and from 2.4±1.1 mm to 4.3±2.4 mm for knee displacements in healthy and OA subjects, respectively. Our study shows that MBO can be improved with subject-specific knee joint models, and that the quality of the motion capture calibration is critical. Future investigations should focus on more refined knee joint models to reproduce specific OA knee geometry and physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Military Applications of High-Altitude Satellite Orbits in a Multi-Body Dynamical Environment Using Numerical Methods and Dynamical Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    around a libration point in the Earth -Moon system are used as unpredictable transfer pathways when traveling from one Earth orbit to another...spacecraft traveling from one Earth orbit to another in a multi- body environment, as well as characterizing the potential motions in the vicinity of...an inspiring account of how using the gravity of the Moon assisted in placing the satellite in a favorable Earth orbit after a rocket malfunction left

  20. Workplace flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordato, C; Harris, J

    1990-01-01

    Whether your organization is in a growth pattern or downsizing, you are probably facing change. To gain some insight into your options, here is an in-depth look at the problems and benefits of some flexible work arrangements from a just published study by Catalyst.

  1. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  2. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Tactile Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    A multifunctional biomimetic nanocomposite tactile sensor is developed that can detect shear and vertical forces, feel texture, and measure flow with extremely low power consumption. The sensor's high performance is maintained within a wide operating range that can be easily adjusted. The concept works on rigid and flexible substrates and the sensors can be used in air or water without any modifications.

  3. Implicit gas-kinetic unified algorithm based on multi-block docking grid for multi-body reentry flows covering all flow regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ao-Ping; Li, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Jun-Lin; Jiang, Xin-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Based on the previous researches of the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) for flows from highly rarefied free-molecule transition to continuum, a new implicit scheme of cell-centered finite volume method is presented for directly solving the unified Boltzmann model equation covering various flow regimes. In view of the difficulty in generating the single-block grid system with high quality for complex irregular bodies, a multi-block docking grid generation method is designed on the basis of data transmission between blocks, and the data structure is constructed for processing arbitrary connection relations between blocks with high efficiency and reliability. As a result, the gas-kinetic unified algorithm with the implicit scheme and multi-block docking grid has been firstly established and used to solve the reentry flow problems around the multi-bodies covering all flow regimes with the whole range of Knudsen numbers from 10 to 3.7E-6. The implicit and explicit schemes are applied to computing and analyzing the supersonic flows in near-continuum and continuum regimes around a circular cylinder with careful comparison each other. It is shown that the present algorithm and modelling possess much higher computational efficiency and faster converging properties. The flow problems including two and three side-by-side cylinders are simulated from highly rarefied to near-continuum flow regimes, and the present computed results are found in good agreement with the related DSMC simulation and theoretical analysis solutions, which verify the good accuracy and reliability of the present method. It is observed that the spacing of the multi-body is smaller, the cylindrical throat obstruction is greater with the flow field of single-body asymmetrical more obviously and the normal force coefficient bigger. While in the near-continuum transitional flow regime of near-space flying surroundings, the spacing of the multi-body increases to six times of the diameter of the single

  4. Flexible licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.

  5. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  6. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  7. Flexible nanovectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugno, Nicola M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  8. Flexible nanovectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  9. Advanced Magnetoimpedance Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-02-01

    This thesis is concerned with the advanced topics of thin film magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors. The author proposes and develops novel MI sensors that target on the challenges arising from emerging applications such as flexible electronics, passive wireless sensing, etc. In the study of flexible MI sensor, the investigated sensors of NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layersare fabricated on three flexible substrates having different surface roughness: Kapton, standard and premiumphotopaper. Sensitivity versus substrate roughness analysis is carried out for the selection of optimal substrate material. The high magnetic sensing performance is achieved by using Kapton substrate. Stress simulation, incorporated with the theory of magnetostriction effect, reveals the material composition of Ni/Fe being as a key factor of the stress dependent MI effect for the flexible MI sensors. In the development of MI-SAW device for passive wireless magnetic field sensing, NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layersand interdigital transducers(IDT) are designed and fabricated on a single piece of LiNbO3substrate, providing a high degree of integration and the advantage of standard microfabrication. The double-electrodeIDT has been utilized and proven to have an optimal sensing performance in comparison to the bi-directional IDT design. The optimized high frequency performance of the thin film MI sensor results in a MI-SAW passive wireless magnetic sensor with high magnetic sensitivity comparing to the MI microwire approach. Benefiting from the high degree of integration of the MI thin film element, in the following study, two additional sensing elements are integrated to the SAW device to have a multifunctional passive wireless sensor with extended temperature and humidity sensing capabilities. Analytical models havebeen developed to eliminate the crossovers of different sensing signals through additional reference IDTs, resulting in a multifunctional passive wireless sensor with the capability of detecting all three

  10. Thermodynamics of mixtures of patchy and spherical colloids of different sizes: A multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Artee; Valiya Parambathu, Arjun; Asthagiri, D.; Cox, Kenneth R.; Chapman, Walter G.

    2017-04-01

    We present a theory to predict the structure and thermodynamics of mixtures of colloids of different diameters, building on our earlier work [A. Bansal et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 074904 (2016)] that considered mixtures with all particles constrained to have the same size. The patchy, solvent particles have short-range directional interactions, while the solute particles have short-range isotropic interactions. The hard-sphere mixture without any association site forms the reference fluid. An important ingredient within the multi-body association theory is the description of clustering of the reference solvent around the reference solute. Here we account for the physical, multi-body clusters of the reference solvent around the reference solute in terms of occupancy statistics in a defined observation volume. These occupancy probabilities are obtained from enhanced sampling simulations, but we also present statistical mechanical models to estimate these probabilities with limited simulation data. Relative to an approach that describes only up to three-body correlations in the reference, incorporating the complete reference information better predicts the bonding state and thermodynamics of the physical solute for a wide range of system conditions. Importantly, analysis of the residual chemical potential of the infinitely dilute solute from molecular simulation and theory shows that whereas the chemical potential is somewhat insensitive to the description of the structure of the reference fluid, the energetic and entropic contributions are not, with the results from the complete reference approach being in better agreement with particle simulations.

  11. Structure and thermodynamics of a mixture of patchy and spherical colloids: A multi-body association theory with complete reference fluid information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Artee; Asthagiri, D.; Cox, Kenneth R.; Chapman, Walter G., E-mail: wgchap@rice.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    A mixture of solvent particles with short-range, directional interactions and solute particles with short-range, isotropic interactions that can bond multiple times is of fundamental interest in understanding liquids and colloidal mixtures. Because of multi-body correlations, predicting the structure and thermodynamics of such systems remains a challenge. Earlier Marshall and Chapman [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104904 (2013)] developed a theory wherein association effects due to interactions multiply the partition function for clustering of particles in a reference hard-sphere system. The multi-body effects are incorporated in the clustering process, which in their work was obtained in the absence of the bulk medium. The bulk solvent effects were then modeled approximately within a second order perturbation approach. However, their approach is inadequate at high densities and for large association strengths. Based on the idea that the clustering of solvent in a defined coordination volume around the solute is related to occupancy statistics in that defined coordination volume, we develop an approach to incorporate the complete information about hard-sphere clustering in a bulk solvent at the density of interest. The occupancy probabilities are obtained from enhanced sampling simulations but we also develop a concise parametric form to model these probabilities using the quasichemical theory of solutions. We show that incorporating the complete reference information results in an approach that can predict the bonding state and thermodynamics of the colloidal solute for a wide range of system conditions.

  12. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-05-06

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and integration into microsystems. In5 addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the high elasticity and easy patterning of the polymer-based material, leading to a corrosion-resistant, flexible material that can be used to realize extreme sensitivity. In combination with magnetic sensor elements patterned underneath the nanocomposite, the nanocomposite device realizes highly sensitive and power efficient flexible artificial cilia sensors for flow measurement or tactile sensing.

  13. High-Performance Flexible Magnetic Tunnel Junctions for Smart Miniaturized Instruments

    KAUST Repository

    Amara, Selma.; Sevilla, Gallo. A. Torres; Hawsawi, Mayyada.; Mashraei, Yousof.; Mohammed, Hanan .; Cruz, Melvin E.; Ivanov, Yurii. P.; Jaiswal, Samridh.; Jakob, Gerhard.; Klä ui, Mathias.; Hussain, Muhammad.; Kosel, Jurgen.

    2018-01-01

    , where size and weight are critical parameters. Given their prevalence on the sensors market, flexible magnetic sensors play a major role in this progress. For many high-performance applications, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have become the first

  14. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  15. Leakage warning system for flexible underwater pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E; Bernstein, L

    1985-08-01

    Underwater pipelines for unloading oil tankers, e.g. in 30 km distance from the harbour site, are required to be flexible and require supervision. This is done by implementation of oil sensitive sensors between the inner rubber tube and the following impregnated textile layer. The generated sensor signals, influenced by leak oil, have to be wireless transmitted from 150 meters under water to the supervisory station at the coast. Sensor configurations are described, to derive the point of the leakage from the topologized warning signals.

  16. NextFlex Flexible Hybrid Electronics Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    of the power of silicon and the economies and unique capabilities of printed circuitry to form a new class of devices for the Internet of Things (IoT...innovative medical devices that can take Processor* Display* Memory + Polymer Solar Cell # Flexible Substrate Sensors* Antenna #Thin Film Battery

  17. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2018-01-30

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  18. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  19. Flexible graphene bio-nanosensor for lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroo, Pratima; Cui, Yue

    2013-03-15

    The development of a flexible nanosensor for detecting lactate could expand opportunities for using graphene, both in fundamental studies for a variety of device platforms and in practical applications. Graphene is a delicate single-layer, two-dimensional network of carbon atoms with ultrasensitive sensing capabilities. Lactic acid is important for clinical analysis, sports medicine, and the food industry. Recently, wearable and flexible bioelectronics on plastics have attracted great interest for healthcare, sports and defense applications due to their advantages of being light-weight, bendable, or stretchable. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the development of a flexible graphene-based bio-nanosensor to detect lactate. Our results show that flexible lactate biosensors can be fabricated on a variety of plastic substrates. The sensor can detect lactate sensitively from 0.08 μM to 20 μM with a fast steady-state measuring time of 2s. The sensor can also detect lactate under different mechanical bending conditions, the sensor response decreased as the bending angle and number of bending repetitions increased. We anticipate that these results could open exciting opportunities for fundamental studies of flexible graphene bioelectronics by using other bioreceptors, as well as a variety of wearable, implantable, real-time, or on-site applications in fields ranging from clinical analysis to defense. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Kei; Yokoyama, Naoto; Obara, Takuya; Kitamura, Masahiko; Hirai, Norio; Iima, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange’s method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. (paper)

  1. Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Kei; Obara, Takuya; Kitamura, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Naoto; Hirai, Norio; Iima, Makoto

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange's method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability.

  2. CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor using glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Takashi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Uejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Keita; Kawamura, Toshikazu; Ohta, Yasumi; Motoyama, Mayumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Okitsu, Teru; Takeuchi, Shoji; Ohta, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor based on an optical-sensing scheme is proposed and experimentally verified. A glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel is used as the mediator in the measurement scheme. The wired implantable glucose sensor was realized by integrating a CMOS image sensor, hydrogel, UV light emitting diodes, and an optical filter on a flexible polyimide substrate. Feasibility of the glucose sensor was verified by both in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  3. Modeling and control of flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, B.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of actuator and sensor locations on transfer function zeros are investigated, using uniform bars and beams as generic models of flexible space structures. It is shown how finite element codes may be used directly to calculate transfer function zeros. The impulse response predicted by finite-dimensional models is compared with the exact impulse response predicted by the infinite dimensional models. It is shown that some flexible structures behave as if there were a direct transmission between actuator and sensor (equal numbers of zeros and poles in the transfer function). Finally, natural damping models for a vibrating beam are investigated since natural damping has a strong influence on the appropriate active control logic for a flexible structure.

  4. Plasma jet printing for flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Singh, Eric; Diaz-Cartagena, Diana C.; Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M. [Center for Nanotechnology, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Recent interest in flexible electronics and wearable devices has created a demand for fast and highly repeatable printing processes suitable for device manufacturing. Robust printing technology is critical for the integration of sensors and other devices on flexible substrates such as paper and textile. An atmospheric pressure plasma-based printing process has been developed to deposit different types of nanomaterials on flexible substrates. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were deposited on paper to demonstrate site-selective deposition as well as direct printing without any type of patterning. Plasma-printed nanotubes were compared with non-plasma-printed samples under similar gas flow and other experimental conditions and found to be denser with higher conductivity. The utility of the nanotubes on the paper substrate as a biosensor and chemical sensor was demonstrated by the detection of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, and ammonia, respectively.

  5. Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2012-09-01

    Flexible microelectronics has shown tremendous promise in a broad spectrum of applications, especially those that cannot be addressed by conventional microelectronics in rigid materials and constructions. These unconventional yet important applications range from flexible consumer electronics to conformal sensor arrays and biomedical devices. A recent paradigm shift in implementing flexible electronics is to physically transfer highly integrated devices made in high-quality, crystalline semiconductors on to plastic substrates. Here we demonstrate a flexible form of silicon photonics using the transfer-and-bond fabrication method. Photonic circuits including interferometers and resonators have been transferred onto flexible plastic substrates with preserved functionalities and performance. By mechanically deforming, the optical characteristics of the devices can be tuned reversibly over a remarkably large range. The demonstration of the new flexible photonic systems based on the silicon-on-plastic (SOP) platform could open the door to many future applications, including tunable photonics, optomechanical sensors and biomechanical and bio-photonic probes.

  6. Flexible structured high-frequency film bulk acoustic resonator for flexible wireless electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Changjian; Shu, Yi; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Jin, Hao; Dong, Shu-Rong; Chan, Mansun

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics have inspired many novel and very important applications in recent years and various flexible electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, circuits, sensors, and radiofrequency (RF) passive devices including antennas and inductors have been reported. However, the lack of a high-performance RF resonator is one of the key bottlenecks to implement flexible wireless electronics. In this study, for the first time, a novel ultra-flexible structured film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is proposed. The flexible FBAR is fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate using piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride (AlN) for acoustic wave excitation. Both the shear wave and longitudinal wave can be excited under the surface interdigital electrodes configuration we proposed. In the case of the thickness extension mode, a flexible resonator with a working frequency as high as of 5.2325 GHz has been realized. The resonators stay fully functional under bending status and after repeated bending and re-flattening operations. This flexible high-frequency resonator will serve as a key building block for the future flexible wireless electronics, greatly expanding the application scope of flexible electronics. (paper)

  7. Balance and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  8. Distributed pressure sensors for a urethral catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Rajamani, Rajesh; Timm, Gerald; Sezen, A S

    2015-01-01

    A flexible strip that incorporates multiple pressure sensors and is capable of being fixed to a urethral catheter is developed. The urethral catheter thus instrumented will be useful for measurement of pressure in a human urethra during urodynamic testing in a clinic. This would help diagnose the causes of urinary incontinence in patients. Capacitive pressure sensors are fabricated on a flexible polyimide-copper substrate using surface micromachining processes and alignment/assembly of the top and bottom portions of the sensor strip. The developed sensor strip is experimentally evaluated in an in vitro test rig using a pressure chamber. The sensor strip is shown to have adequate sensitivity and repeatability. While the calibration factors for the sensors on the strip vary from one sensor to another, even the least sensitive sensor has a resolution better than 0.1 psi.

  9. Polymer Thick-Film Sensors: Possibilities for Smartcard Biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; Papakostas, T.V.; White, N.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    In this paper the potential of polymer thick-film sensors are assessed for use as biometric sensors on smartcards. Piezoelectric and piezoresistive sensors have been printed on flexible polyester, then bonded to smartcard blanks. The tactile interaction of a person with these sensors has been

  10. Polymer temperature sensor for textronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielska, Sylwia; Sibinski, Maciej; Lukasik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present research work of designing prototype textile sensors dedicated to human body temperature measurements. The sensor construction was especially elaborated to be integrated into protective clothing as a practical realization of intelligent e-textile concept. These types of sensors should be easily incorporable in clothing structures without disturbance of fabric flexibility (Carpi and De Rossi). The construction of the new type functional sensor testing is presented and illustrated by its parameters and thermal characteristics.

  11. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  12. Combining the Vortex Particle-Mesh method with a Multi-Body System solver for the simulation of self-propelled articulated swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Caroline; Gazzola, Mattia; Ronsse, Renaud; Chatelain, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    We present a 2D fluid-structure interaction simulation method with a specific focus on articulated and actuated structures. The proposed algorithm combines a viscous Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method based on a penalization technique and a Multi-Body System (MBS) solver. The hydrodynamic forces and moments acting on the structure parts are not computed explicitly from the surface stresses; they are rather recovered from the projection and penalization steps within the VPM method. The MBS solver accounts for the body dynamics via the Euler-Lagrange formalism. The deformations of the structure are dictated by the hydrodynamic efforts and actuation torques. Here, we focus on simplified swimming structures composed of neutrally buoyant ellipses connected by virtual joints. The joints are actuated through a simple controller in order to reproduce the swimming patterns of an eel-like swimmer. The method enables to recover the histories of torques applied on each hinge along the body. The method is verified on several benchmarks: an impulsively started elastically mounted cylinder and free swimming articulated fish-like structures. Validation will be performed by means of an experimental swimming robot that reproduces the 2D articulated ellipses.

  13. The Use of IMMUs in a Water Environment: Instrument Validation and Application of 3D Multi-Body Kinematic Analysis in Medicine and Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangia, Anna Lisa; Cortesi, Matteo; Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2017-04-22

    The aims of the present study were the instrumental validation of inertial-magnetic measurements units (IMMUs) in water, and the description of their use in clinical and sports aquatic applications applying customized 3D multi-body models. Firstly, several tests were performed to map the magnetic field in the swimming pool and to identify the best volume for experimental test acquisition with a mean dynamic orientation error lower than 5°. Successively, the gait and the swimming analyses were explored in terms of spatiotemporal and joint kinematics variables. The extraction of only spatiotemporal parameters highlighted several critical issues and the joint kinematic information has shown to be an added value for both rehabilitative and sport training purposes. Furthermore, 3D joint kinematics applied using the IMMUs provided similar quantitative information than that of more expensive and bulky systems but with a simpler and faster setup preparation, a lower time consuming processing phase, as well as the possibility to record and analyze a higher number of strides/strokes without limitations imposed by the cameras.

  14. Multi-body simulation of various falling scenarios for determining resulting loads at the prosthesis interface of transfemoral amputees with osseointegrated fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welke, Bastian; Schwarze, Michael; Hurschler, Christof; Calliess, Tilman; Seehaus, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Conventionally, transfemoral amputees are treated with a shaft prosthesis fitted over the residual limb. To improve the quality of life of such patients, in particular those with complications relating to conventional attachment (e.g., skin irritation, stump ulcers, and poor motor-control with short stumps), osseointegrated prosthesis fixation implants have been developed and implanted in a limited population of patients. To assess possible damage to the implant/prosthesis during falling scenarios, the loads in high-risk situations were estimated using a multi-body simulation of motion. Five falling scenarios were identified and performed by healthy volunteer wearing safety equipment. Kinematic data and ground reaction forces were captured as input for the inverse-dynamics-based simulations, from which the forces and moments at a typical implant-prosthesis interface location were computed. The estimated peak loads in all five scenarios were of a magnitude that could lead to bone fracture. The largest peak force observed was 3274 ± 519 N, with an associated resultant moment of 176 ± 55 Nm on the prosthesis-implant interface. A typical femur is prone to fracture under this load, thus illustrating the need for a safety-release element in osseointegrated prosthesis fixation. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Wearable and flexible electronics for continuous molecular monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiran; Gao, Wei

    2018-04-03

    Wearable biosensors have received tremendous attention over the past decade owing to their great potential in predictive analytics and treatment toward personalized medicine. Flexible electronics could serve as an ideal platform for personalized wearable devices because of their unique properties such as light weight, low cost, high flexibility and great conformability. Unlike most reported flexible sensors that mainly track physical activities and vital signs, the new generation of wearable and flexible chemical sensors enables real-time, continuous and fast detection of accessible biomarkers from the human body, and allows for the collection of large-scale information about the individual's dynamic health status at the molecular level. In this article, we review and highlight recent advances in wearable and flexible sensors toward continuous and non-invasive molecular analysis in sweat, tears, saliva, interstitial fluid, blood, wound exudate as well as exhaled breath. The flexible platforms, sensing mechanisms, and device and system configurations employed for continuous monitoring are summarized. We also discuss the key challenges and opportunities of the wearable and flexible chemical sensors that lie ahead.

  16. Flexible Carpooling: Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dorinson, Diana; Gay, Deanna; Minett, Paul; Shaheen, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption could be reduced if more people shared rides rather than driving alone yet carpooling represents a small proportion of all potential carpoolers. Prior research has found that many who might carpool were concerned about reduced flexibility with carpooling. If flexibility is one of the barriers how could carpooling be organized to be more flexible? In Northern Virginia a flexible system has evolved where there are 3,500 single-use carpools per day. In another example there ...

  17. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Monitoring of Vital Signs with Flexible and Wearable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasser; Ostfeld, Aminy E; Lochner, Claire M; Pierre, Adrien; Arias, Ana C

    2016-06-01

    Advances in wireless technologies, low-power electronics, the internet of things, and in the domain of connected health are driving innovations in wearable medical devices at a tremendous pace. Wearable sensor systems composed of flexible and stretchable materials have the potential to better interface to the human skin, whereas silicon-based electronics are extremely efficient in sensor data processing and transmission. Therefore, flexible and stretchable sensors combined with low-power silicon-based electronics are a viable and efficient approach for medical monitoring. Flexible medical devices designed for monitoring human vital signs, such as body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, pulse oxygenation, and blood glucose have applications in both fitness monitoring and medical diagnostics. As a review of the latest development in flexible and wearable human vitals sensors, the essential components required for vitals sensors are outlined and discussed here, including the reported sensor systems, sensing mechanisms, sensor fabrication, power, and data processing requirements. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: Contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Quevedo-López, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2011-06-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers.

  20. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: Contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Wondmagegn, Wudyalew T.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Ramí rez-Bon, Rafael; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers.

  1. Joint kinematics estimation using a multi-body kinematics optimisation and an extended Kalman filter, and embedding a soft tissue artefact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Vincent; Richard, Vincent; Camomilla, Valentina; Venture, Gentiane; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël

    2017-09-06

    To reduce the impact of the soft tissue artefact (STA) on the estimate of skeletal movement using stereophotogrammetric and skin-marker data, multi-body kinematics optimisation (MKO) and extended Kalman filters (EKF) have been proposed. This paper assessed the feasibility and efficiency of these methods when they embed a mathematical model of the STA and simultaneously estimate the ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics and the model parameters. A STA model was used that provides an estimate of the STA affecting the marker-cluster located on a body segment as a function of the kinematics of the adjacent joints. The MKO and the EKF were implemented with and without the STA model. To assess these methods, intra-cortical pin and skin markers located on the thigh, shank, and foot of three subjects and tracked during the stance phase of running were used. Embedding the STA model in MKO and EKF reduced the average RMS of marker tracking from 12.6 to 1.6mm and from 4.3 to 1.9mm, respectively, showing that a STA model trial-specific calibration is feasible. Nevertheless, with the STA model embedded in MKO, the RMS difference between the estimated and the reference joint kinematics determined from the pin markers slightly increased (from 2.0 to 2.1deg) On the contrary, when the STA model was embedded in the EKF, this RMS difference was slightly reduced (from 2.0 to 1.7deg) thus showing a better potentiality of this method to attenuate STA effects and improve the accuracy of joint kinematics estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Office flexible cystoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, L R; Clayman, R V

    1988-11-01

    Since the development of the first purpose-built flexible cystoscope in 1984, flexible cystoscopy has become an accepted diagnostic and therapeutic modality. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 10 per cent of practicing urologists are already familiar with this technology. The flexible cystoscope has markedly extended the urologist's ability to examine the bladder, and it has become a valuable adjunct to the rigid cystoscope. Although the operation of this instrument is vastly different from that of its rigid counterpart, with practice, the technique can be learned. After experience is obtained with diagnostic flexible cystoscopy, the urologist will likely prefer this new instrument for bladder inspection, as it provides for a more thorough yet less morbid and less expensive examination. In the future, the development of improved and smaller instrumentation will further extend the therapeutic indications for flexible cystoscopy. Indeed, advances in laser technology are already providing the urologist with 300- to 600-micron (0.9 to 1.8F) flexible probes capable of incision (KTP laser), fulguration (Nd:YAG laser), and stone disintegration (tunable dye laser). Lastly, the skills obtained in using the flexible cystoscope are all readily applicable to the development of dexterity with the already available flexible nephroscope and the more recently developed flexible ureteroscope.

  3. Underwater Animal Monitoring Magnetic Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Kaidarova, Altynay

    2017-01-01

    solid-state sensors today, coupled with flexible magnetic composites. The TMR sensors are composed of CoFeB free layers and MgO tunnel barriers, patterned using standard optical lithography and ion milling procedures. The short and long-term stability

  4. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  5. Organic semiconductors in sensor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malliaras, George; Owens, Róisín

    2008-01-01

    Organic semiconductors offer unique characteristics such as tunability of electronic properties via chemical synthesis, compatibility with mechanically flexible substrates, low-cost manufacturing, and facile integration with chemical and biological functionalities. These characteristics have prompted the application of organic semiconductors and their devices in physical, chemical, and biological sensors. This book covers this rapidly emerging field by discussing both optical and electrical sensor concepts. Novel transducers based on organic light-emitting diodes and organic thin-film transistors, as well as systems-on-a-chip architectures are presented. Functionalization techniques to enhance specificity are outlined, and models for the sensor response are described.

  6. Decoupled Multicamera Sensing for Flexible View Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any sensing paradigm has three important components, namely, the actor, the sensor, and the environment. Traditionally, the sensors have been attached to either the actor or the environment. This restricts the kind of sensing that can be undertaken. We study a newer decoupled sensing paradigm, which separates the sensors from both the actor and the environment and tremendously increases the flexibility with which the scenes can be viewed. For example, instead of showing just one view, “how the environment sees the actor” or “how the actor sees the environment,” a viewer can choose to see either one or both of these views and even choose to see the scene from any desired position in any desired direction. We describe a methodology using mobile autonomous sensors to undertake such decoupled sensing and study the feasible number as well as the placement of such sensors. Also, we describe how the sensors can coordinate their movements around a moving actor so as to continue capturing the required views with minimum overall cost. The practical results obtained demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach.

  7. Organizational flexibility estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Komarynets, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    By the help of parametric estimation the evaluation scale of organizational flexibility and its parameters was formed. Definite degrees of organizational flexibility and its parameters for the Lviv region enterprises were determined. Grouping of the enterprises under the existing scale was carried out. Special recommendations to correct the enterprises behaviour were given.

  8. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  9. Flexibility within Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Philip C.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The authors address concerns regarding manual-based treatments, highlighting the role of flexibility and creativity. A cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety called the Coping Cat program demonstrates the flexible application of manuals and emphasizes the importance of a child-centered, personalized approach that involves the child in the…

  10. Flexible position probe assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of a plurality of tubular transducer sections and a flexible supporting member extending through the tubular transducer sections forms a flexible elongated probe of a design suitable for monitoring the level of an element, such as a nuclear magnetically permeable control rod or liquid. 3 claims, 23 figures

  11. Active vibration control of spatial flexible multibody systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Maria Augusta, E-mail: augusta.neto@dem.uc.pt [Universidade de Coimbra (Polo II), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Portugal); Ambrosio, Jorge A. C., E-mail: jorge@dem.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica (Portugal); Roseiro, Luis M., E-mail: lroseiro@isec.pt [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Portugal); Amaro, A., E-mail: ana.amaro@dem.uc.pt [Universidade de Coimbra (Polo II), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Portugal); Vasques, C. M. A., E-mail: cvasques@inegi.up.pt [Universidade do Porto, INEGI-Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    In this work a flexible multibody dynamics formulation of complex models including elastic components made of composite materials is extended to include piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The only limitation for the deformation of a structural member is that they must remain elastic and linear when described in a coordinate frame fixed to a material point or region of its domain. The flexible finite-element model of each flexible body is obtained referring the flexible body nodal coordinates to the body fixed frame and using a diagonalized mass description of the inertia in the mass matrix and on the gyroscopic force vector. The modal superposition technique is used to reduce the number of generalized coordinates to a reasonable dimension for complex shaped structural models of flexible bodies. The active vibration control of the flexible multibody components is implemented using an asymmetric collocated piezoelectric sensor/actuator pair. An electromechanically coupled model is taken into account to properly consider the surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers and their effects on the time and spatial response of the flexible multibody components. The electromechanical effects are introduced in the flexible multibody equations of motion by the use of beam and plate/shell elements, developed to this purpose. A comparative study between the classical control strategies, constant gain and amplitude velocity feedback, and optimal control strategy, linear quadratic regulator (LQR), is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness to suppress vibrations in structures with piezoelectric sensing and actuating patches.

  12. Active vibration control of spatial flexible multibody systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Maria Augusta; Ambrósio, Jorge A. C.; Roseiro, Luis M.; Amaro, A.; Vasques, C. M. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work a flexible multibody dynamics formulation of complex models including elastic components made of composite materials is extended to include piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The only limitation for the deformation of a structural member is that they must remain elastic and linear when described in a coordinate frame fixed to a material point or region of its domain. The flexible finite-element model of each flexible body is obtained referring the flexible body nodal coordinates to the body fixed frame and using a diagonalized mass description of the inertia in the mass matrix and on the gyroscopic force vector. The modal superposition technique is used to reduce the number of generalized coordinates to a reasonable dimension for complex shaped structural models of flexible bodies. The active vibration control of the flexible multibody components is implemented using an asymmetric collocated piezoelectric sensor/actuator pair. An electromechanically coupled model is taken into account to properly consider the surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers and their effects on the time and spatial response of the flexible multibody components. The electromechanical effects are introduced in the flexible multibody equations of motion by the use of beam and plate/shell elements, developed to this purpose. A comparative study between the classical control strategies, constant gain and amplitude velocity feedback, and optimal control strategy, linear quadratic regulator (LQR), is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness to suppress vibrations in structures with piezoelectric sensing and actuating patches.

  13. A New Kind of Bend Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new kind of bend sensor is introduced.It can be used to detect the bend angle of an object or inclination between two objects.It has characteristics of small size, lightweight, high reliability, fine flexibility and plasticity.When this bend sensor is used with a proper converting circuit, it can implement dynamic measuring the bend angle of an object conveniently.The application of the bend sensor in dataglove is also described.

  14. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  15. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  16. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  17. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa(-1), a fast response time of 15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  18. Graphene based strain sensor with LCP substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, M.; Yang, H. S.; Xia, Y. H.

    2018-02-01

    A flexible strain sensor constructed by an efficient, low-cost fabrication strategy is presented in this paper. It is assembled by adhering grid-like graphene on LCP substrate. Kinds of measurement setup have been designed to verify that the proposed flexible sensor device is suitable to be used in health monitoring system. From the experiment results, it can be proved that the sensor exhibits the following features: ultra-light, relatively good sensitivity, high reversibility, superior physical robustness, easy fabrication. With the great performance of this flexible strain sensor, it is considered to play an important role in body monitoring, structural health monitoring system, fatigue detection and healthcare systems in the near future.

  19. Dynamic modeling and hierarchical compound control of a novel 2-DOF flexible parallel manipulator with multiple actuation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Song, Yimin; Sun, Tao; Jin, Xueying

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of rigid-flexible coupling dynamic modeling and active control of a novel flexible parallel manipulator (PM) with multiple actuation modes. Firstly, based on the flexible multi-body dynamics theory, the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model (RFDM) of system is developed by virtue of the augmented Lagrangian multipliers approach. For completeness, the mathematical models of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and piezoelectric transducer (PZT) are further established and integrated with the RFDM of mechanical system to formulate the electromechanical coupling dynamic model (ECDM). To achieve the trajectory tracking and vibration suppression, a hierarchical compound control strategy is presented. Within this control strategy, the proportional-differential (PD) feedback controller is employed to realize the trajectory tracking of end-effector, while the strain and strain rate feedback (SSRF) controller is developed to restrain the vibration of the flexible links using PZT. Furthermore, the stability of the control algorithm is demonstrated based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation case studies are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that, under the redundant actuation mode, the hierarchical compound control strategy can guarantee the flexible PM achieves singularity-free motion and vibration attenuation within task workspace simultaneously. The systematic methodology proposed in this study can be conveniently extended for the dynamic modeling and efficient controller design of other flexible PMs, especially the emerging ones with multiple actuation modes.

  20. A Structured Light Scanner for Hyper Flexible Industrial Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kent; Pedersen, Jeppe; Sølund, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A current trend in industrial automation implies a need for doing automatic scene understanding, from optical 3D sensors, which in turn imposes a need for a lightweight and reliable 3D optical sensor to be mounted on a collaborative robot e.g., Universal Robot UR5 or Kuka LWR. Here, we empirically...... contribute to the robustness of the system. Hereby, we demonstrate that structured light scanning is a technology well suited for hyper flexible industrial automation, by proposing an appropriate system....

  1. Low-Cost Planar PTF Sensors for the Identity Verification of Smartcard Holders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; Papakostas, T.V.; White, N.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    The properties of mechanical flexibility, low-cost and planar geometry make polymer thick film (PTF) sensors attractive for embedded smartcard biometrics. PTF piezoelectric and piezoresistive pressure sensors are investigated for their potential to capture spatial human characteristics. However, it

  2. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  3. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent

  4. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.

  5. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D

    2018-01-30

    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  6. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs.......Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  7. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  8. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  9. Biomimetic actuator and sensor for robot hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Baekchul; Chung, Jinah; Cho, Hanjoung; Shin, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyoungsuk; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon

    2012-01-01

    To manufacture a robot hand that essentially mimics the functions of a human hand, it is necessary to develop flexible actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose the design, manufacture, and performance verification of flexible actuators and sensors based on Electro Active Polymer (EAP). EAP is fabricated as a type of film, and it moves with changes in the voltage because of contraction and expansion in the polymer film. Furthermore, if a force is applied to an EAP film, its thickness and effective area change, and therefore, the capacitance also changes. By using this mechanism, we produce capacitive actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose an EAP based capacitive sensor and evaluate its use as a robot hand sensor

  10. Biomimetic actuator and sensor for robot hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Baekchul; Chung, Jinah; Cho, Hanjoung; Shin, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyoungsuk; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To manufacture a robot hand that essentially mimics the functions of a human hand, it is necessary to develop flexible actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose the design, manufacture, and performance verification of flexible actuators and sensors based on Electro Active Polymer (EAP). EAP is fabricated as a type of film, and it moves with changes in the voltage because of contraction and expansion in the polymer film. Furthermore, if a force is applied to an EAP film, its thickness and effective area change, and therefore, the capacitance also changes. By using this mechanism, we produce capacitive actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose an EAP based capacitive sensor and evaluate its use as a robot hand sensor.

  11. High-Performance Flexible Force and Temperature Sensing Array with a Robust Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Song, Han-Wook; Park, Yon-Kyu

    We have developed a flexible tactile sensor array capable of sensing physical quantities, e.g. force and temperature with high-performances and high spatial resolution. The fabricated tactile sensor consists of 8 × 8 force measuring array with 1 mm spacing and a thin metal (copper) temperature sensor. The flexible force sensing array consists of sub-millimetre-size bar-shaped semi-conductor strain gage array attached to a thin and flexible printed circuit board covered by stretchable elastomeric material on both sides. This design incorporates benefits of both materials; the semi-conductor's high performance and the polymer's mechanical flexibility and robustness, while overcoming their drawbacks of those two materials. Special fabrication processes, so called “dry-transfer technique” have been used to fabricate the tactile sensor along with standard micro-fabrication processes.

  12. SPOT-A SENSOR PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION TOOL FOR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    journal article This paper presents SPOT, a Sensor Placement Optimization Tool. SPOT provides a toolkit that facilitates research in sensor placement optimization and enables the practical application of sensor placement solvers to real-world CWS design applications. This paper provides an overview of SPOT’s key features, and then illustrates how this tool can be flexibly applied to solve a variety of different types of sensor placement problems.

  13. Organic Thin-Film Transistor (OTFT-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elkington

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin film transistors have been a popular research topic in recent decades and have found applications from flexible displays to disposable sensors. In this review, we present an overview of some notable articles reporting sensing applications for organic transistors with a focus on the most recent publications. In particular, we concentrate on three main types of organic transistor-based sensors: biosensors, pressure sensors and “e-nose”/vapour sensors.

  14. Multibody Dynamic Stress Simulation of Rigid-Flexible Shovel Crawler Shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Frimpong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric shovels are used in surface mining operations to achieve economic production capacities. The capital investments and operating costs associated with the shovels deployed in the Athabasca oil sands formation are high due to the abrasive conditions. The shovel crawler shoes interact with sharp and abrasive sand particles, and, thus, are subjected to high transient dynamic stresses. These high stresses cause wear and tear leading to crack initiation, propagation and premature fatigue failure. The objective of this paper is to develop a model to characterize the crawler stresses and deformation for the P&H 4100C BOSS during propel and loading using rigid-flexible multi-body dynamic theory. A 3-D virtual prototype model of the rigid-flexible crawler track assembly and its interactions with oil sand formation is simulated to capture the model dynamics within multibody dynamics software MSC ADAMS. The modal and stress shapes and modal loads due to machine weight for each flexible crawler shoes are generated from finite element analysis (FEA. The modal coordinates from the simulation are combined with mode and stress shapes using modal superposition method to calculate real-time stresses and deformation of flexible crawler shoes. The results show a maximum von Mises stress value of 170 MPa occurring in the driving crawler shoe during the propel motion. This study provides a foundation for the subsequent fatigue life analysis of crawler shoes for extending crawler service life.

  15. Movable MEMS Devices on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sally

    2013-05-05

    Flexible electronics have gained great attention recently. Applications such as flexible displays, artificial skin and health monitoring devices are a few examples of this technology. Looking closely at the components of these devices, although MEMS actuators and sensors can play critical role to extend the application areas of flexible electronics, fabricating movable MEMS devices on flexible substrates is highly challenging. Therefore, this thesis reports a process for fabricating free standing and movable MEMS devices on flexible silicon substrates; MEMS flexure thermal actuators have been fabricated to illustrate the viability of the process. Flexure thermal actuators consist of two arms: a thin hot arm and a wide cold arm separated by a small air gap; the arms are anchored to the substrate from one end and connected to each other from the other end. The actuator design has been modified by adding etch holes in the anchors to suit the process of releasing a thin layer of silicon from the bulk silicon substrate. Selecting materials that are compatible with the release process was challenging. Moreover, difficulties were faced in the fabrication process development; for example, the structural layer of the devices was partially etched during silicon release although it was protected by aluminum oxide which is not attacked by the releasing gas . Furthermore, the thin arm of the thermal actuator was thinned during the fabrication process but optimizing the patterning and etching steps of the structural layer successfully solved this problem. Simulation was carried out to compare the performance of the original and the modified designs for the thermal actuators and to study stress and temperature distribution across a device. A fabricated thermal actuator with a 250 μm long hot arm and a 225 μm long cold arm separated by a 3 μm gap produced a deflection of 3 μm before silicon release, however, the fabrication process must be optimized to obtain fully functioning

  16. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  17. Education for Flexible Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Novak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible personality transforms both cultural environment and itself. Post-modern personality is both contemplative and active. On one hand, it is subject to inner imagination of a creative act, and on the other hand, to creation of a tangible product What is more, flexible personality is also autonomous, mature, healthy and well balanced, as well as stable and responsive to the demand for change. Due to ever quicker changes, flexible personality is a must. And it is a task. The impact of professional work of adults on the education of children, however, is being conditioned by the exrigid family and rigid enterprises or institutions in which adults are employed. Nevertheless, flexible educational style is not repressive, as it used to be, nor permissive and totally concentrated on the child. It is a choice between the two qualities. The educators' style is dependent on their attitude towards life (play and self-education and not only towards work. Nowadays, flexibility is a way towards quality management of social and personal changes.

  18. Flexible Foam Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Werner, Brian T.; Scherzinger, William M.; Lo, Chi S.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of a 15 pcf flexible polyurethane foam to large deformation at different strain rates and temperatures. Results from these experiments indicated that at room temperature, flexible polyurethane foams exhibit significant nonlinear elastic deformation and nearly return to their original undeformed shape when unloaded. However, when these foams are cooled to temperatures below their glass transition temperature of approximately -35 o C, they behave like rigid polyurethane foams and exhibit significant permanent deformation when compressed. Thus, a new model which captures this dramatic change in behavior with temperature was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Flex_Foam to describe the mechanical response of both flexible and rigid foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments. Next, development of the Flex Foam model for flexible polyurethane and other flexible foams is described. Selection of material parameters are discussed and finite element simulations with the new Flex Foam model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this new model.

  19. A study of the kinematic characteristic of a coupling device between the buffer system and the flexible pipe of a deep-seabed mining system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae-Won

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the kinematic characteristics of a coupling device in a deep-seabed mining system. This coupling device connects the buffer system and the flexible pipe. The motion of the buffer system, flexible pipe and mining robot are affected by the coupling device. So the coupling device should be considered as a major factor when this device is designed. Therefore, we find a stable kinematic device, and apply it to the design coupling device through this study. The kinematic characteristics of the coupling device are analyzed by multi-body dynamics simulation method, and finite element method. The dynamic analysis model was built in the commercial software DAFUL. The Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is applied to build the deep-seabed environment. Hydrodynamic force and moment are applied in the dynamic model for the FSI method. The loads and deformation of flexible pipe are estimated for analysis results of the kinematic characteristics

  20. A study of the kinematic characteristic of a coupling device between the buffer system and the flexible pipe of a deep-seabed mining system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Oh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the kinematic characteristics of a coupling device in a deep-seabed mining system. This coupling device connects the buffer system and the flexible pipe. The motion of the buffer system, flexible pipe and mining robot are affected by the coupling device. So the coupling device should be considered as a major factor when this device is designed. Therefore, we find a stable kinematic device, and apply it to the design coupling device through this study. The kinematic characteristics of the coupling device are analyzed by multi-body dynamics simulation method, and finite element method. The dynamic analysis model was built in the commercial software DAFUL. The Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is applied to build the deep-seabed environment. Hydrodynamic force and moment are applied in the dynamic model for the FSI method. The loads and deformation of flexible pipe are estimated for analysis results of the kinematic characteristics.

  1. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  3. Fully Printed Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suoming

    Through this thesis proposal, the author has demonstrated series of flexible or stretchable sensors including strain gauge, pressure sensors, display arrays, thin film transistors and photodetectors fabricated by a direct printing process. By adopting the novel serpentine configuration with conventional non-stretchable materials silver nanoparticles, the fully printed stretchable devices are successfully fabricated on elastomeric substrate with the demonstration of stretchable conductors that can maintain the electrical properties under strain and the strain gauge, which could be used to measure the strain in desired locations and also to monitor individual person's finger motion. And by investigating the intrinsic stretchable materials silver nanowires (AgNWs) with the conventional configuration, the fully printed stretchable conductors are achieved on various substrates including Si, glass, Polyimide, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Very High Bond (VHB) tape with the illustration of the capacitive pressure sensor and stretchable electroluminescent displays. In addition, intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated logic circuits are directly printed on elastomeric PDMS substrates. The printed devices utilize carbon nanotubes and a type of hybrid gate dielectric comprising PDMS and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles. The BaTiO3/PDMS composite simultaneously provides high dielectric constant, superior stretchability, low leakage, as well as good printability and compatibility with the elastomeric substrate. Both TFTs and logic circuits can be stretched beyond 50% strain along either channel length or channel width directions for thousands of cycles while showing no significant degradation in electrical performance. Finally, by applying the SWNTs as the channel layer of the thin film transistor, we successfully fabricate the fully printed flexible photodetector which exhibits good electrical characteristics and the transistors exhibit

  4. Open architecture of smart sensor suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wilmuth; Kuwertz, Achim; Grönwall, Christina; Petersson, Henrik; Dekker, Rob; Reinert, Frank; Ditzel, Maarten

    2017-10-01

    Experiences from recent conflicts show the strong need for smart sensor suites comprising different multi-spectral imaging sensors as core elements as well as additional non-imaging sensors. Smart sensor suites should be part of a smart sensor network - a network of sensors, databases, evaluation stations and user terminals. Its goal is to optimize the use of various information sources for military operations such as situation assessment, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, target recognition and tracking. Such a smart sensor network will enable commanders to achieve higher levels of situational awareness. Within the study at hand, an open system architecture was developed in order to increase the efficiency of sensor suites. The open system architecture for smart sensor suites, based on a system-of-systems approach, enables combining different sensors in multiple physical configurations, such as distributed sensors, co-located sensors combined in a single package, tower-mounted sensors, sensors integrated in a mobile platform, and trigger sensors. The architecture was derived from a set of system requirements and relevant scenarios. Its mode of operation is adaptable to a series of scenarios with respect to relevant objects of interest, activities to be observed, available transmission bandwidth, etc. The presented open architecture is designed in accordance with the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF). The architecture allows smart sensor suites to be part of a surveillance network, linked e.g. to a sensor planning system and a C4ISR center, and to be used in combination with future RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems) for supporting a more flexible dynamic configuration of RPAS payloads.

  5. Software industrial flexible

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Araya, Daniel; Muñoz, Leandro; Sirerol, Daniel; Oviedo, Sandra; Ibáñez, Francisco S.

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende investigar y proponer técnicas, métodos y tecnologías que permitan el desarrollo de software flexible en ambientes industriales. El objetivo es generar métodos y técnicas para facilitar el desarrollo de software flexible en ambientes industriales. Las áreas de investigación son los sistemas de scheduling de producción, la generación de software para plataformas de hardware abiertas y la innovación.

  6. Production Flexibility and Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dionne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We extend the analysis on hedging with price and output uncertainty by endogenizing the output decision. Specifically, we consider the joint determination of output and hedging in the case of flexibility in production. We show that the risk-averse firm always maintains a short position in the futures market when the futures price is actuarially fair. Moreover, in the context of an example, we show that the presence of production flexibility reduces the incentive to hedge for all risk averse agents.

  7. The flexibility of flexicurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2011-01-01

    by a special relation between flexibility, social security and active labour market policy, where a high level of social security is seen as a precondition for a labour market characterized by flexibility. In this article it is argued that the Danish labour market is characterized by having not just one model...... of flexicurity, but two. These two models cover different parts of the labour market and different segments of employees. The first model (the blue-collar flexicurity model) – the one that is often focused on in the literature – covers primarily skilled and unskilled workers on the labour market. The second...

  8. Analyzing Responses of Chemical Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a third-generation electronic nose (ENose) capable of continuous monitoring of the International Space Station s cabin atmosphere for specific, harmful airborne contaminants. Previous generations of the ENose have been described in prior NASA Tech Briefs issues. Sensor selection is critical in both (prefabrication) sensor material selection and (post-fabrication) data analysis of the ENose, which detects several analytes that are difficult to detect, or that are at very low concentration ranges. Existing sensor selection approaches usually include limited statistical measures, where selectivity is more important but reliability and sensitivity are not of concern. When reliability and sensitivity can be major limiting factors in detecting target compounds reliably, the existing approach is not able to provide meaningful selection that will actually improve data analysis results. The approach and software reported here consider more statistical measures (factors) than existing approaches for a similar purpose. The result is a more balanced and robust sensor selection from a less than ideal sensor array. The software offers quick, flexible, optimal sensor selection and weighting for a variety of purposes without a time-consuming, iterative search by performing sensor calibrations to a known linear or nonlinear model, evaluating the individual sensor s statistics, scoring the individual sensor s overall performance, finding the best sensor array size to maximize class separation, finding optimal weights for the remaining sensor array, estimating limits of detection for the target compounds, evaluating fingerprint distance between group pairs, and finding the best event-detecting sensors.

  9. Sensor Development for Active Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Seun K.; Gorton, Susan A.; Mau, Johnney C.; Soto, Hector L.; Hernandez, Corey D.

    2001-01-01

    Presented are the developmental efforts for MEMS sensors for a closed-loop active flow control in a low-speed wind tunnel evaluation. The MEMS sensors are designed in-house and fabricated out of house, and the shear sensors are a thermal type that are collocated with temperature and pressure sensors on a flexible polyimide sheet, which conforms to surfaces of a simple curvature. A total of 6 sensors are located within a 1.5 by 3 mm area as a cluster with each sensor being 300 pm square. The thickness of this sensor cluster is 75 pm. Outputs from the shear sensors have been compared with respect to those of the Preston tube for evaluation of the sensors on a flat plate. Pressure sensors are the absolute type and have recorded pressure measurements within 0.05 percent of the tunnel ESP pressure sensor readings. The sensors and signal conditioning electronics have been tested on both a flat plate and a ramp in Langley s 15-Inch Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The system configuration and control PC is configured with LabView, where calibration constants are stored for desired compensation and correction. The preliminary test results are presented within.

  10. Control systems using modal domain optical fiber sensors for smart structure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Reichard, Karl M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a new class of sensors has emerged for structural control which respond to environmental changes over a significant gauge length; these sensors are called distributed-effect sensors. These sensors can be fabricated with spatially varying sensitivity to the distributed measurand, and can be configured to measure a variety of structural parameters which can not be measured directly using point sensors. Examples of distributed-effect sensors include piezoelectric film, holographic sensors, and modal domain optical fiber sensors. Optical fiber sensors are particularly attractive for smart structure applications because they are flexible, have low mass, and can easily be embedded directly into materials. In this paper we describe the implementation of weighted modal domain optical fiber sensors. The mathematical model of the modal domain optical fiber sensor model is described and used to derive an expression for the sensor sensitivity. The effects of parameter variations on the sensor sensitivity are demonstrated to illustrate methods of spatially varying the sensor sensitivity.

  11. Real time control of the flexible dynamics of orbital launch vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, van den J.; Steinbuch, M.; Gutierrez, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    During this traineeship the flexible dynamics of orbital launch vehicles are estimated and controlled in real time, using distributed fiber-Bragg sensor arrays for motion estimation and cold gas thrusters for control. The use of these cold-gas thrusters to actively control flexible modes is the main

  12. Mechanical and electrical properties of ultra-thin chips and flexible electronics assemblies during bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, D.A.; Van De Wiel, H.J.; Kusters, R.H.L.; Sridhar, A.; Schram, J.F.M.; Cauwe, M.; Van Den Brand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips of less than 20 μm become flexible, allowing integration of silicon IC technology with highly flexible electronics such as food packaging sensor systems or healthcare and sport monitoring tags as wearable patches or even directly in clothing textile. The ultra-thin chips in these

  13. Flexibility as a service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Adams, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Pesic, M.; Schonenberg, H.; Chen, L.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Deng, K.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of flexibility is often seen as an inhibitor for the successful application of workflow technology. Many researchers have proposed different ways of addressing this problem and some of these ideas have been implemented in commercial systems. However, a "one size fits all" approach is likely

  14. Valuing Flexibility. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    Quarterly (2): 38-49. Cormier, P., Olewnik, A., and Lewis, K. 2008. An Approach to Quantifying Design Flexibility for Mass Customization in Early...C. Clarkson, P., and Zanker, W. 2004. Change and customisation in complex engineering domains, Res Eng Des 15(1), 1–21. Ekstrom, M. and Bjornsson, H

  15. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  16. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  17. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  18. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  19. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  20. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  1. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  2. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  3. A Tactile Sensor Network System Using a Multiple Sensor Platform with a Dedicated CMOS-LSI for Robot Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenzhong; Tanaka, Shuji; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki; Bartley, Travis; Nonomura, Yutaka; Muroyama, Masanori

    2017-08-28

    Robot tactile sensation can enhance human-robot communication in terms of safety, reliability and accuracy. The final goal of our project is to widely cover a robot body with a large number of tactile sensors, which has significant advantages such as accurate object recognition, high sensitivity and high redundancy. In this study, we developed a multi-sensor system with dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Large-Scale Integration (LSI) circuit chips (referred to as "sensor platform LSI") as a framework of a serial bus-based tactile sensor network system. The sensor platform LSI supports three types of sensors: an on-chip temperature sensor, off-chip capacitive and resistive tactile sensors, and communicates with a relay node via a bus line. The multi-sensor system was first constructed on a printed circuit board to evaluate basic functions of the sensor platform LSI, such as capacitance-to-digital and resistance-to-digital conversion. Then, two kinds of external sensors, nine sensors in total, were connected to two sensor platform LSIs, and temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing data were acquired simultaneously. Moreover, we fabricated flexible printed circuit cables to demonstrate the multi-sensor system with 15 sensor platform LSIs operating simultaneously, which showed a more realistic implementation in robots. In conclusion, the multi-sensor system with up to 15 sensor platform LSIs on a bus line supporting temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  4. A Tactile Sensor Network System Using a Multiple Sensor Platform with a Dedicated CMOS-LSI for Robot Applications †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenzhong; Tanaka, Shuji; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hata, Yoshiyuki; Bartley, Travis; Muroyama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Robot tactile sensation can enhance human–robot communication in terms of safety, reliability and accuracy. The final goal of our project is to widely cover a robot body with a large number of tactile sensors, which has significant advantages such as accurate object recognition, high sensitivity and high redundancy. In this study, we developed a multi-sensor system with dedicated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Large-Scale Integration (LSI) circuit chips (referred to as “sensor platform LSI”) as a framework of a serial bus-based tactile sensor network system. The sensor platform LSI supports three types of sensors: an on-chip temperature sensor, off-chip capacitive and resistive tactile sensors, and communicates with a relay node via a bus line. The multi-sensor system was first constructed on a printed circuit board to evaluate basic functions of the sensor platform LSI, such as capacitance-to-digital and resistance-to-digital conversion. Then, two kinds of external sensors, nine sensors in total, were connected to two sensor platform LSIs, and temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing data were acquired simultaneously. Moreover, we fabricated flexible printed circuit cables to demonstrate the multi-sensor system with 15 sensor platform LSIs operating simultaneously, which showed a more realistic implementation in robots. In conclusion, the multi-sensor system with up to 15 sensor platform LSIs on a bus line supporting temperature, capacitive and resistive sensing was successfully demonstrated. PMID:29061954

  5. MoveBots - Flexible Object Handling using Dexterous Grippers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison

    .This dissertation present work that focus on increasing flexibility ofrobotic grasping by using simulation tools, dexterous hands and tactile sensors.The work is centered on development of tools and methods for graspplanning, analysis and simulation.Overall the research contributes with valuable tools......Within recent years there has been an increased focus in flexible automationin industrial production. This focus is strongly related to the demandfor small product batches and individually customized products. To enablesuch flexibility large machinery is exchanged or upgraded with high degreeof...... freedom robot manipulators. These manipulators are programmable andmultipurpose and often only limited by their gripper systems. These limitationsare significant since the design and flexibility of the gripper determineswhich objects the system can handle.Current gripper systems are typically simple...

  6. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors......), with the discussion of the stakeholders’ roles and their interrelation in delivering energy flexibility with the influential factors to the actual implementation of energy flexible operation of their buildings. Based on a literature analysis, the results cover stakeholders’ types and roles, perceptions (drivers......, barriers, and benefits), energy management activities and technology adoptions, and the stakeholders’ interaction for the energy flexibility in retail buildings....

  7. Wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.; Mata, Carlos T.

    2006-05-01

    Current and future requirements of aerospace sensors and transducers demand the design and development of a new family of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors and transducers will possess a certain degree of intelligence in order to provide the end user with critical data in a more efficient manner. Communication between networks of traditional or next-generation sensors can be accomplished by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) developed by NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC Aerospace Corporation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), consisting of at least one central station and several remote stations and their associated software. The central station is application-dependent and can be implemented on different computer hardware, including industrial, handheld, or PC-104 single-board computers, on a variety of operating systems: embedded Windows, Linux, VxWorks, etc. The central stations and remote stations share a similar radio frequency (RF) core module hardware that is modular in design. The main components of the remote stations are an RF core module, a sensor interface module, batteries, and a power management module. These modules are stackable, and a common bus provides the flexibility to stack other modules for additional memory, increased processing, etc. WSN can automatically reconfigure to an alternate frequency if interference is encountered during operation. In addition, the base station will autonomously search for a remote station that was perceived to be lost, using relay stations and alternate frequencies. Several wireless remote-station types were developed and tested in the laboratory to support different sensing technologies, such as resistive temperature devices, silicon diodes, strain gauges, pressure transducers, and hydrogen leak detectors.

  8. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  9. Probabilistic Bandwidth Assignment in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Khan , Dawood; Nefzi , Bilel; Santinelli , Luca; Song , Ye-Qiong

    2012-01-01

    International audience; With this paper we offer an insight in designing and analyzing wireless sensor networks in a versatile manner. Our framework applies probabilistic and component-based design principles for the wireless sensor network modeling and consequently analysis; while maintaining flexibility and accuracy. In particular, we address the problem of allocating and reconfiguring the available bandwidth. The framework has been successfully implemented in IEEE 802.15.4 using an Admissi...

  10. Calculations of flexibility module in measurements instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Baier, A.

    2017-08-01

    Piezoelectricity has found a lot of applications since it were discovered in 1880 by Pierre and Jacques Curie. There are many applications of the direct piezoelectric effect - the production of an electric potential when stress is applied to the piezoelectric material, as well as the reverse piezoelectric effect - the production of strain when an electric field is applied. This work presents a mathematical model of a new model of vibration sensor. The principle of operation of currently used sensors is based on the idea: changes in thickness of the piezoelectric plates cause the vibration of the mechanical element, so-called “fork”. If the “forks” are not buried by the material deformation of the full tiles broadcasting is transmitted to receiver piezoelectric plate. As a result of vibration of receiver plates the cladding is formed on the potential difference proportional to the force. The value of this voltage is processed by an electronic circuit. In the case of backfilling “forks” the electric signal is lower. At the same time is not generated the potential for cladding tiles. Such construction have a lot of drawbacks, for example: need to use several piezoelectric plates, with the increase in number of components is increased failure of sensors, sensors have now produced two forks resonance, using these sensors in moist materials is often the case that the material remains between the forks and at the same time causes a measurement error. Mentioned disadvantages do not appear in the new proposed sensor design. The Galerkin method of the analysis of considered systems will be presented started from development of the mathematical model, to determine the graphs of flexibility and confirm two methods: exact and approximate. Analyzed beam is a part of the vibration level sensor and the results will be used to identify the electrical parameters of the generator. Designing of technical systems containing piezoelectric transducers is a complex process

  11. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  12. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament

  13. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  14. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  15. Avoiding obstacles by using a proximity infrared sensor skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhengcai; Fu Yili; Wu Qidi; Wang Shuguo; Wang Guangguo

    2007-01-01

    Placement and wiring of vast amount of sensor elements on the 3-dimensionally configured robot surface to form soft sensor skin is very difficult with the traditional technology, hi this paper we propose a new method to realize such a skin. By implanting infrared sensors array in an elastic body, we obtain an elastic and tough sensor skin that can be shaped freely. The developed sensor skin is a large-area, flexible array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities. Depending on the skin electronics, it endows its carrier with an ability to sense its surroundings. The structure, the method of infrared sensor signal processing, and basic experiments of sensor skin are presented. The validity of the infrared sensor skin is investigated by preliminary obstacle avoidance trial.

  16. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  17. Flexible weapons architecture design

    OpenAIRE

    Pyant, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilia...

  18. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  19. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  20. PTFE films with improved flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. F.; Koch, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development and application of flexible polytetrafluroethylene films for expulsion bladders in spacecraft propellant tanks are described. Flexibility of material is obtained by reducing crystallinity through annealing and quenching in water. Physical and mechanical properties of material are presented.

  1. Optical temperature sensing on flexible polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stanislav; Xiao, Yanfen; Hofmann, Meike; Schmidt, Thomas; Gleissner, Uwe; Zappe, Hans

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to established semiconductor waveguide-based or glass fiber-based integrated optical sensors, polymerbased optical systems offer tunable material properties, such as refractive index or viscosity, and thus provide additional degrees of freedom for sensor design and fabrication. Of particular interest in sensing applications are fully-integrated optical waveguide-based temperature sensors. These typically rely on Bragg gratings which induce a periodic refractive index variation in the waveguide so that a resonant wavelength of the structure is reflected.1,2 With broad-band excitation, a dip in the spectral output of the waveguide is thus generated at a precisely-defined wavelength. This resonant wavelength depends on the refractive index of the waveguide and the grating period, yet both of these quantities are temperature dependent by means of the thermo-optic effect (change in refractive index with temperature) and thermal expansion (change of the grating period with temperature). We show the design and fabrication of polymer waveguide-integrated temperature sensors based on Bragggratings, fabricated by replication technology on flexible PMMA foil substrates. The 175 μm thick foil serves as lower cladding for a polymeric waveguide fabricated from a custom-made UV-crosslinkable co-monomer composition. The fabrication of the grating structure includes a second replication step into a separate PMMA-foil. The dimensions of the Bragg-gratings are determined by simulations to set the bias point into the near infrared wavelength range, which allows Si-based detectors to be used. We present design considerations and performance data for the developed structures. The resulting sensor's signal is linear to temperature changes and shows a sensitivity of -306 nm/K, allowing high resolution temperature measurements.

  2. Flexible automated manufacturing for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube Hansen, David; Bilberg, Arne; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2017-01-01

    SMEs are in general highly flexible and agile in order to accommodate the customer demands in the paradigm of High Mix-Low Volume manufacturing. The flexibility and agility have mainly been enabled by manual labor, but as we are entering the technology and data driven fourth industrial revolution......, where augmented operators and machines work in cooperation in a highly flexible and productive manufacturing system both an opportunity and a need has raised for developing highly flexible and efficient automation....

  3. Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.

    2015-09-01

    Flexibility, low cost, versatility, miniaturization and multi-functionality are key aspects driving research and innovation in many branches of the electronics industry. With many anticipated emerging applications, like wearable, transparent and biocompatible devices, interest among the research community in pursuit for novel multifunctional miniaturized materials have been amplified. In this context, multiferroic polymer-based nanocomposites, possessing both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, are highly appealing. Most importantly, these nanocomposites possess tunable ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties based on the parameters of their constituent materials as well as the magnetoelectric effect, which is the coupling between electric and magnetic properties. This tunability and interaction is a fascinating fundamental research field promising tremendous potential applications in sensors, actuators, data storage and energy harvesting. This dissertation work is devoted to the investigation of a new class of multiferroic polymer-based flexible nanocomposites, which exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature, with the goal of understanding and optimizing the origin of their magnetoelectric coupling. The nanocomposites consist of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer, poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE) matrix. First, electrochemical deposition of ferromagnetic NWs inside anodic aluminum oxide membranes is discussed. Characterization of electrodeposited iron, nickel and highly magnetostrictive iron-gallium alloy NWs was done using XRD, electron and magnetic force microscopy. Second, different nanocomposite films have been fabricated by means of spin coating and drop casting techniques. The effect of incorporation of NWs inside the ferroelectric polymer on its electroactive phase is discussed. The remanent and saturation polarization as well

  4. Recent Progress on Flexible and Wearable Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qi; Sun, Jinfeng; Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Yukun; Li, Na; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-12-01

    Recently, wearable electronic devices including electrical sensors, flexible displays, and health monitors have received considerable attention and experienced rapid progress. Wearable supercapacitors attract tremendous attention mainly due to their high stability, low cost, fast charging/discharging, and high efficiency; properties that render them value for developing fully flexible devices. In this Concept, the recent achievements and advances made in flexible and wearable supercapacitors are presented, especially highlighting the promising performances of yarn/fiber-shaped and planar supercapacitors. On the basis of their working mechanism, electrode materials including carbon-based materials, metal oxide-based materials, and conductive polymers with an emphasis on the performance-optimization method are introduced. The latest representative techniques and active materials of recently developed supercapacitors with superior performance are summarized. Furthermore, the designs of 1D and 2D electrodes are discussed according to their electrically conductive supporting materials. Finally, conclusions, challenges, and perspective in optimizing and developing the electrochemical performance and function of wearable supercapacitors for their practical utility are addressed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  6. Global Analysis of Flexible Risers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Flexible pipes are often a technically attractive alternative to the traditional steel pipe. Often commercial utilisation of oil/gas fields depends on the use of flexible pipes. An example is when floating production vessels are used, where the flexible pipe follows the wave induced motions...

  7. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-07-19

    Recent progress in the development of artificial skin concepts is a result of the increased demand for providing environment perception such as touch and flow sensing to robots, prosthetics and surgical tools. Tactile sensors are the essential components of artificial skins and attracted considerable attention that led to the development of different technologies for mimicking the complex sense of touch in humans. This dissertation work is devoted to the development of a bioinspired tactile sensing technology that imitates the extremely sensitive hair-like cilia receptors found in nature. The artificial cilia are fabricated from permanent magnetic, biocompatible and highly elastic nanocomposite material, and integrated on a giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor to measure the stray field. A force that bends the cilia changes the stray field and is therefore detected with the magnetic sensor, providing high performance in terms of sensitivity, power consumption and versatility. The nanocomposite is made of Fe nanowires (NWs) incorporated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fe NWs have a high remanent magnetization, due the shape anisotropy; thus, they are acting as permanent nano-magnets. This allows remote device operation and avoids the need for a magnetic field to magnetize the NWs, benefiting miniaturization and the possible range of applications. The magnetic properties of the nanocomposite can be easily tuned by modifying the NWs concentration or by aligning the NWs to define a magnetic anisotropy. Tactile sensors are realized on flexible and rigid substrates that can detect flow, vertical and shear forces statically and dynamically, with a high resolution and wide operating range. The advantage to operate the sensors in liquids and air has been utilized to measure flows in different fluids in a microfluidic channel. Various dynamic studies were conducted with the tactile sensor demonstrating the detection of moving objects or the texture of objects. Overall

  8. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  9. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  10. Localisation system in wireless sensor networks using ns-2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abu-Mahfouz, Adnan M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available -1 /************************************************************************** ********** * * File: readme.asn * * Author: Adnan Abu-Mahfouz * * Date: March 2012 * * Description: Localisation system in wireless sensor networks using ns-2... *************************************************************************** *********/ /************************************************************************** *************************************************************************** *****/ 1. Introduction: ns-2 contains several flexible features that encourage researchers to use ns-2 to investigate the characteristics of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, to implement and evaluate localisation algorithms, the current ns- 2...

  11. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Simple Floating Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Nakamura, Junichi; Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel image sensor integrated circuit features simple floating-gate structure, with metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as active circuit element in each pixel. Provides flexibility of readout modes, no kTC noise, and relatively simple structure suitable for high-density arrays. Features desirable for "smart sensor" applications.

  12. Results from bonding of the SALT primary mirror edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, Ockert J.; Love, Jonathan; Gajjar, Hitesh

    2016-07-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope has till recently operated without active closed loop control of its Primary Mirror. The reason for this was that there were no suitable edge sensor system available on the market. Recently a system became available and SALT form Fogale Nanotech. The system consist of a sensor, cables and control electronics. The system was still under development and SALT was responsible for the integration of the sensors before deployment on the Telescope. Several issues still had to be addressed. One of these issues was the integration of the sensors at an appropriate production rate. The sensors was supplied as flexible pc boards with different types making up the transmitters and receivers. These flexible boards were bonded to ClearCeram Z L-Brackets before the appropriate connectors were installed. This paper describes the process used to integrate and test the sensors.

  13. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  14. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Hutter, F.; Edelhaeuser, R.

    1992-01-01

    WO 2010040565 A1 UPAB: 20100506 NOVELTY - The integrated optical sensor comprises a first waveguide (4), a second waveguide (5) optically coupled to the first waveguide via a directional coupler, a substrate, which carries the first and the second waveguides, a single waveguide coupled with a light source, and an output waveguide coupled with a light-sensitive element. The sensor has a functional surface in the region of the directional coupler for depositing or deposition of the substance to...

  15. Wireless sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  16. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  17. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...... are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human...

  18. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  19. Flexible Polymer Sensor for Space Suits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Perception Robotics has developed an innovative new type of compliant tactile sensing solution, a polymeric skin (PolySkinTM) that can be molded into any form...

  20. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  1. Graphene Squeeze-Film Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; van der Zant, Herre S J; Steeneken, Peter G

    2016-01-13

    The operating principle of squeeze-film pressure sensors is based on the pressure dependence of a membrane's resonance frequency, caused by the compression of the surrounding gas which changes the resonator stiffness. To realize such sensors, not only strong and flexible membranes are required, but also minimization of the membrane's mass is essential to maximize responsivity. Here, we demonstrate the use of a few-layer graphene membrane as a squeeze-film pressure sensor. A clear pressure dependence of the membrane's resonant frequency is observed, with a frequency shift of 4 MHz between 8 and 1000 mbar. The sensor shows a reproducible response and no hysteresis. The measured responsivity of the device is 9000 Hz/mbar, which is a factor 45 higher than state-of-the-art MEMS-based squeeze-film pressure sensors while using a 25 times smaller membrane area.

  2. [The recent development of fiber-optic chemical sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wei, Jian-ping; Yang, Bo; Gao, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Li-wei; Yang, Xue-feng

    2014-08-01

    The present article provides a brief review of recent research on fiber-optic chemical sensor technology and the future development trends. Especially, fiber-optic pH chemical sensor, fiber-optic ion chemicl sensor, and fiber-optic gas chemical sensor are introduced respectively. Sensing film preparation methods such as chemical bonding method and sol-gel method were briefly reviewed. The emergence of new type fiber-microstructured optical fiber opened up a new development direction for fiber-optic chemical sensor. Because of its large inner surface area, flexible design of structure, having internal sensing places in fibers, it has rapidly become an important development direction and research focus of the fiber-optic chemical sensors. The fiber-optic chemical sensor derived from microstructured optical fiber is also discussed in detail. Finally, we look to the future of the fiber-optic chemical sensor.

  3. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts......This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word...

  4. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive......, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...

  5. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...... of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based...

  6. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... independently of the authors in neighbouring township areas of Cape Town, we offer insights into patterns of victimization among young men not involved in crime who live and attend school in the townships. Young men WHO perform decent cultural repertoires are highly exposed to victimization due to their moral...... rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...

  7. Flexible helical yarn swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A P; Leshansky, A M; Pismen, L M

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the motion of a flexible Stokesian flagellar swimmer realised as a yarn made of two intertwined elastomer fibres, one active, that can reversibly change its length in response to a local excitation causing transition to the nematic state or swelling, and the other one, a passive isotropic elastomer with identical mechanical properties. A propagating chemical wave may provide an excitation mechanism ensuring a constant length of the excited region. Generally, the swimmer moves along a helical trajectory, and the propagation and rotation velocity are very sensitive to the ratio of the excited region to the pitch of the yarn, as well as to the size of a carried load. External excitation by a moving actuating beam is less effective, unless the direction of the beam is adjusted to rotation of the swimmer.

  8. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  9. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  11. Water Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  12. Applying Sensor Web Technology to Marine Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirka, Simon; del Rio, Joaquin; Mihai Toma, Daniel; Nüst, Daniel; Stasch, Christoph; Delory, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we present two activities illustrating how Sensor Web technology helps to enable a flexible and interoperable sharing of marine observation data based on standards. An important foundation is the Sensor Web Architecture developed by the European FP7 project NeXOS (Next generation Low-Cost Multifunctional Web Enabled Ocean Sensor Systems Empowering Marine, Maritime and Fisheries Management). This architecture relies on the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework. It is an exemplary solution for facilitating the interoperable exchange of marine observation data within and between (research) organisations. The architecture addresses a series of functional and non-functional requirements which are fulfilled through different types of OGC SWE components. The diverse functionalities offered by the NeXOS Sensor Web architecture are shown in the following overview: - Pull-based observation data download: This is achieved through the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS) 2.0 interface standard. - Push-based delivery of observation data to allow users the subscription to new measurements that are relevant for them: For this purpose there are currently several specification activities under evaluation (e.g. OGC Sensor Event Service, OGC Publish/Subscribe Standards Working Group). - (Web-based) visualisation of marine observation data: Implemented through SOS client applications. - Configuration and controlling of sensor devices: This is ensured through the OGC Sensor Planning Service 2.0 interface. - Bridging between sensors/data loggers and Sensor Web components: For this purpose several components such as the "Smart Electronic Interface for Sensor Interoperability" (SEISI) concept are developed; this is complemented by a more lightweight SOS extension (e.g. based on the W3C Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) format). To further advance this architecture, there is on-going work to develop dedicated profiles of selected OGC

  13. Rapid synthesis of flexible conductive polymer nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, C O; Sotiriou, G A; Pratsinis, S E

    2015-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposite films with nanoparticle-specific properties are sought out in novel functional materials and miniaturized devices for electronic and biomedical applications. Sensors, capacitors, actuators, displays, circuit boards, solar cells, electromagnetic shields and medical electrodes rely on flexible, electrically conductive layers or films. Scalable synthesis of such nanocomposite films, however, remains a challenge. Here, flame aerosol deposition of metallic nanosliver onto bare or polymer-coated glass substrates followed by polymer spin-coating on them leads to rapid synthesis of flexible, free-standing, electrically conductive nanocomposite films. Their electrical conductivity is determined during their preparation and depends on substrate composition and nanosilver deposition duration. Accordingly, thin (<500 nm) and flexible nanocomposite films are made having conductivity equivalent to metals (e.g. 5  × 10 4 S cm −1 ), even during repetitive bending. (paper)

  14. Flexible Sensory Platform Based on Oxide-based Neuromorphic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhu, Li Qiang; Feng, Ping; Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2015-12-11

    Inspired by the dendritic integration and spiking operation of a biological neuron, flexible oxide-based neuromorphic transistors with multiple input gates are fabricated on flexible plastic substrates for pH sensor applications. When such device is operated in a quasi-static dual-gate synergic sensing mode, it shows a high pH sensitivity of ~105 mV/pH. Our results also demonstrate that single-spike dynamic mode can remarkably improve pH sensitivity and reduce response/recover time and power consumption. Moreover, we find that an appropriate negative bias applied on the sensing gate electrode can further enhance the pH sensitivity and reduce the power consumption. Our flexible neuromorphic transistors provide a new-concept sensory platform for biochemical detection with high sensitivity, rapid response and ultralow power consumption.

  15. Flexible Sensory Platform Based on Oxide-based Neuromorphic Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhu, Li Qiang; Feng, Ping; Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the dendritic integration and spiking operation of a biological neuron, flexible oxide-based neuromorphic transistors with multiple input gates are fabricated on flexible plastic substrates for pH sensor applications. When such device is operated in a quasi-static dual-gate synergic sensing mode, it shows a high pH sensitivity of ~105 mV/pH. Our results also demonstrate that single-spike dynamic mode can remarkably improve pH sensitivity and reduce response/recover time and power consumption. Moreover, we find that an appropriate negative bias applied on the sensing gate electrode can further enhance the pH sensitivity and reduce the power consumption. Our flexible neuromorphic transistors provide a new-concept sensory platform for biochemical detection with high sensitivity, rapid response and ultralow power consumption. PMID:26656113

  16. Implementation of a robotic flexible assembly system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the Intelligent Task Automation program, a team developed enabling technologies for programmable, sensory controlled manipulation in unstructured environments. These technologies include 2-D/3-D vision sensing and understanding, force sensing and high speed force control, 2.5-D vision alignment and control, and multiple processor architectures. The subsequent design of a flexible, programmable, sensor controlled robotic assembly system for small electromechanical devices is described using these technologies and ongoing implementation and integration efforts. Using vision, the system picks parts dumped randomly in a tray. Using vision and force control, it performs high speed part mating, in-process monitoring/verification of expected results and autonomous recovery from some errors. It is programmed off line with semiautomatic action planning.

  17. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-01

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  18. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-15

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  19. Flexible circuits with integrated switches for robotic shape sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, C. K.

    2016-05-01

    Digital switches are commonly used for detecting surface contact and limb-position limits in robotics. The typical momentary-contact digital switch is a mechanical device made from metal springs, designed to connect with a rigid printed circuit board (PCB). However, flexible printed circuits are taking over from the rigid PCB in robotics because the circuits can bend while carrying signals and power through moving joints. This project is motivated by a previous work where an array of surface-mount momentary contact switches on a flexible circuit acted as an all-digital shape sensor compatible with the power resources of energy harvesting systems. Without a rigid segment, the smallest commercially-available surface-mount switches would detach from the flexible circuit after several bending cycles, sometimes violently. This report describes a low-cost, conductive fiber based method to integrate electromechanical switches into flexible circuits and other soft, bendable materials. Because the switches are digital (on/off), they differ from commercially-available continuous-valued bend/flex sensors. No amplification or analog-to-digital conversion is needed to read the signal, but the tradeoff is that the digital switches only give a threshold curvature value. Boundary conditions on the edges of the flexible circuit are key to setting the threshold curvature value for switching. This presentation will discuss threshold-setting, size scaling of the design, automation for inserting a digital switch into the flexible circuit fabrication process, and methods for reconstructing a shape from an array of digital switch states.

  20. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.