WorldWideScience

Sample records for flexible metering systems

  1. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  2. Informatics Solutions for Smart Metering Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects regarding smart metering systems integration have been depicted. Smart metering systems, renewable energy sources integration and advanced tariff systems implementation require informatics solution that could automatically collect and process data, forecast the behavior of electricity consumers, analyze trends regarding electricity prices, optimize the consumption of consumers, provide friendly interfaces, etc. They are advanced technologies that represent solutions for insufficient conventional primary energy sources, gas emissions, dependency on energy sources located outside European Union and issues related to energy efficiency. This paper mainly describes several informatics solutions correlated with operational requirements for smart metering system and our proposal for simplified architecture of smart metering systems, with three distinct levels (base level, middle level and top level and load profile calculation methods.

  3. A microcomputer based system for current-meter data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting current measurements as part of an interdisciplinary study of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system. The current meters used in the study record current speed, direction, temperature, and conductivity in digital codes on magnetic tape cartridges. Upon recovery of the current meters, the data tapes are translated by a tape reader into computer codes for further analyses. Quite often the importance of the data processing phase of a current-measurement program is underestimated and downplayed. In this paper a data-processing system which performs the complete data processing and analyses is described. The system, which is configured around an LSI-11 microcomputer, has been assembled to provide the capabilities of data translation, reduction, and tabulation and graphical display immediately following recovery of current meters. The flexibility inherent in a microcomputer has made it available to perform many other research functions which would normally be done on an institutional computer.

  4. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  5. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  6. Linking meters and markets: Roles and incentives to support a flexible demand side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    participants. The roll-out of smart metering to electricity consumers is an important precondition to establishing a flexible demand side and will provide essential information flows. On the basis of current incentive structures and related risks, however, the pass-through of information and value from...... wholesale market participants to the demand side is mostly infeasible, resulting in flexibility tasks being aggregated and delegated to balancing responsible wholesale traders. This analysis focuses on whether current incentives and roles are appropriate and where the design could be improved to establish...... a flexible demand side with a particular focus on the Danish case. Design-related barriers are identified that affect expected value, associated risks, and the distribution of responsibilities. This serves as a basis to define policy options in the context of Nordic electricity markets. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd...

  7. E-Park: Automated-Ticketing Parking Meter System

    OpenAIRE

    Kulesza, Mateusz J.

    2015-01-01

    E-Park is an electronic parking meter system which enables real-time ticketing of illegally parked vehicles. The system is a drop-in replacement for existing curb-side parking meters. It consists of lowpower front-end parking meter hardware and a back-end server that handles the information database management. Wireless network communication enables the parking meter to accept electronic payment, enforce parking regulation, and ticket parking violators by capturing an image of the vehicle lic...

  8. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  9. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  10. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans (comps.)

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  11. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture......, and validate its effectiveness to interact with smart meters....

  12. Microcontroller Based Single Phase Digital Prepaid Energy Meter for Improved Metering and Billing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mejbaul Haque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase digital prepaid energy meter based on two microcontrollers and a single phase energy meter IC. This digital prepaid energy meter does not have any rotating parts. The energy consumption is calculated using the output pulses of the energy meter chip and the internal counter of microcontroller (ATmega32. A microcontroller (ATtiny13 is used as a smart card and the numbers of units recharged by the consumers are written in it. A relay system has been used which either isolates or establishes the connection between the electrical load and energy meter through the supply mains depending upon the units present in the smart card.Energy consumption (kWh, maximum demand (kW, total unit recharged (kWh and rest of the units (kWh are stored in the ATmega32 to ensure the accurate measurement even in the event of an electrical power outage that can be easily read from a 20×4 LCD. As soon as the supply is restored, energy meter restarts with the stored values. A single phase prepaid energy meter prototype has been implemented to provide measurement up to 40A load current and 230V line to neutral voltage.Necessary program for microcontrollers are written in c-language and compiled by Win-AVR libc compiler.

  13. Design and Implementation of Intel ligent Water Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao-tao

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of intelligent residential housing project and the implement of intelligent meter reading system, the four become the typical representative at the same time , they also become the short board of the old residential intelligent direction and constraints .As one of the four meter is an important measurement tool to save water resources .In the process of the development of society and technology , different types of meter reading methods have been derived , but there are still many problems , such as difficulty , time consuming , error copy , misreading .With the current mature image processing technology , the Internet technology and the rapid development of handheld intelligent terminal , the paper develop a meter reading system base on the Android system.The system can reduce the work intensity and the cost of meter reading , and it can make up the blank which old district and the mechanical meter reading can not be intelligent .

  14. Automatic Meter Reading and Theft Control System by Using GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rakesh Malhotra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system in energy meter. Current transformer is used to measure the total power consumption for house or industrial purpose. This recorded reading is transmitted to the electricity board for every 60 days once. For transmitting the reading of energy meter GSM module is used. To avoid theft, infrared sensor is placed in the screw portion of energy meter seal. If the screw is removed from the meter a message is sent to the electricity board. The measuring of energy meter and monitoring of IR sensor is done with a PIC microcontroller.The informative system will be helpful for the electricity board to monitor the entire supply and the correct billing accordingly without any mishap. This model reduces the manual manipulation work andtheft control.

  15. Dual-frequency feed system for 26-meter antenna conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    New cassegrain feed cone assemblies were designed as part of the upgrade of three 26-meter diameter antennas to 34-meter diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) will provide both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers, with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas. Tasks involved in adding the X-band receiving capability and improving the S-band feed performance in support of Voyager and later missions described in.

  16. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T

    2010-12-07

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices.

  17. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  18. CT reclassification system cuts costs of grid metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doig, P. [Schneider Electric, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    New regulatory requirements demand that utilities meter previously un-metered locations on the power network with accurate revenue metering equipment. Utilities are now exploring the possibility of re-using existing relay-class transformers (CTs) for metering applications. However, the true accuracy of the existing CTs is often unknown. This paper presented details of a new CT reclassification system. The system uses a highly accurate current sensor for use in live-line methods in a high voltage environment. The system analyzes the accuracy of an existing CT and calculates its characteristic performance. Corresponding error correction parameters are then obtained and programmed into an advanced revenue meter in order to enable dynamic accuracy reclassification of the existing CT while it is operational. The sensor is based on a split-core active CT design. In a typical installation, 3 primary sensors are installed on the high-side bus in a high voltage substation in series with the circuit breaker containing the existing relay-class CTs under test. The sensors each wirelessly stream data to a computer workstation in a nearby substation control building. The sensors and the advanced revenue meter are equipped with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver that support accurate time-stamping and synchronization of all data sent to the computer for analysis. Software is used to compare data from the sensors to the respective 3-phase data collected from the meter and to calculate the appropriate ratio correction factors and phase angle correction factors for each test point. Correction parameters are then programmed into the revenue meter which provides dynamic correction for the ratio and phase angle errors of the relay-class CT over its operational range. The revenue meter is left in place after the sensors are removed in order to measure highly accurate energy data which is reported back to the utility data collection and billing system. Details of a test conducted

  19. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech;

    2016-01-01

    the proposed benchmark using five representative platforms: a traditional numeric computing platform (Matlab), a relational DBMS with a built-in machine learning toolkit (PostgreSQL/MADlib), a main-memory column store (“System C”), and two distributed data processing platforms (Hive and Spark/Spark Streaming......Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......). We compare the five platforms in terms of application development effort and performance on a multicore machine as well as a cluster of 16 commodity servers....

  20. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...... the adoption of the flexibility solutions, such as flexible electricity generation, demand-response, and electricity storage. This paper tries to analyze the current energy flexibility solutions and the factors that can influence the energy flexibility adoption. This paper takes Philippines as case study...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper....

  1. Implementation of Flexible Access System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Hsiang; Peng, Jan-Wen; Shao, Shou-Kuo; Chen, Tzooming E.; Chen, Shih Chang; Lee, Meng-Shu; Yen, K.-Y.; Chen, Tsung-Mao; Wang, Ching Sheu; Tu, Yuan-Kuang

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we present the architecture, operation, and the implementation of a prototype system, flexible access system (FAS), developed by CHT T.L. for FITL applications. FAS adopts fiber to the curb (FTTC) topology and provides POTS, ISDN BRA, and T1 services. The system consists of three main parts, namely, fiber central office terminal (FCOT) at switch side, fiber nodes (FN) at customer side, and a monitor station. FCOT and FNs are connected through an STM-1 fiber distribution ring. The hardware structure and the operation principle for each module are described. FAS contains the mux-demux module, POTS, ISDN, and T1 central office/customer service modules, operation modules, and power module. In the design, each central office service module in FCOT simulates as a CPE to terminate signals from switch, and will separate the data and signaling and map them into DS1 format. Mux/demux module will add/drop these DS1, put the operation information in data communication channel (DCC), and convert them to STM-1 optical link. Each customer service module in FN simulates switch line cart to regenerate the signal for customers. The prototype system implementation confirms the benefits of introducing SDH add/drop technologies to FITL system to provide basic telecommunication services. The design experience reveals that the clock synchronization method and noise reduction technique can significantly influence the performance in such a system. The test results that demonstrate and verify the designed functionality and the service quality of the prototype system will be presented.

  2. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  3. Segment handling system prototype progress for Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuku, Satoru; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Haruna, Masaki; Kim, Ieyoung; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Domae, Yukiyasu; Hatta, Toshiyuki; Yoshitake, Shinya; Hoshino, Hayato

    2016-07-01

    Segment Handling System (SHS) is the subsystem that is planned to be permanently implemented on Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) telescope structure that enables fast, efficient, semi-automatic exchange of M1 segments. TMT plans challenging segment exchange (10 segments per 10 hours a day). To achieve these, MELCO develops innovative SHS by accommodating Factory Automation (FA) technology such as force control system and machine vision system into the system. Force control system used for install operation, achieves soft handling by detecting force exerted to mirror segment and automatically compensating the position error between handling segments and primary mirror. Machine vision system used for removal operation, achieves semi-automatic positioning between SHS and mirror segments to be handled. Prototype experience proves soft (extraneous force 300N) and fast ( 3 minutes) segment handling. The SHS will provide upcoming segmented large telescopes for cost-efficient, effortless, and safe segment exchange operation.

  4. LLNL current meter array--concept and system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantrom, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A measurement capability using a horizontal array of 10 S4 current meters mounted on a stiff floating structure with 35 m aperture has been developed to support interpretation of radar imaging of surface effects associated with internal waves. This system has been fielded three times and most recently, has collected data alongside the sea-surface footprint of a land-fixed radar imaging ship-generated internal waves. The underlying need for this measurement capability is described. The specifications resulting from this need are presented and the engineering design and deployment procedures of the platform and systems that resulted are described The current meter data are multiplexed along with meteorological and system status data on board the floating platform and are telemetered to a shore station and on to a data acquisition system. The raw data are recorded, and are then processed to form space-time images of current and strain rate (a spatial derivative of the current field). Examples of raw and processed data associated with ship-generated internal waves are presented.

  5. The development of a metering and remote checking system using a light sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S.Y.; Ahn, S.H.; Lee, K.J. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea); Choi, W.Y.; Lee, B.C.; Song, J.C.; Park, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Park, K.L.; Kim, K.Y.; Kim, J.Y [Venture Korea Corporation (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The light sensing technology developed in this project can apply all the conventional mechanical meters using only attaching a light sensor set. The technology is available to the majority of small scale consumption such as households, restaurants and offices rather than the minority of large scale consumption such as industry use. When the light sensing technology is practically in use, the expense of the remote checking system can be below 30,000 won per household, and unnecessary national loss can be prevented due to replacement of the conventional meters. If the remote checking system can be constructed using low-priced expenses, all the city gas companies can not only settle all the inconveniences of consumers due to unexpected visit of a gas meterman and communication problems in their absence fundamentally but expect economic profit such as curtailment of the expenses of inspection of meters and early retrieval of gas usage charge. Especially, by inspecting all the households in the midnight of every month simultaneously, civil petitions can be reduced by eliminating causes of bottleneck for flexible rate of natural gas, thus it is expected that general management expenses can be curtailed to a great extent. 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Methane metering devices and systems for continuous measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gralewski, K.; Krupa, M.

    1982-01-01

    Brief characteristics are presented for the advantages and shortcomings of the existing methane devices and systems developed in the Polish People's Republic, FRG, Great Britain, United States, CSSR and USSR. Among the main requirements made for the modern methane metering devices designed for continuous measurements of methane concentration in the coal mines, requirements such as rapid reaction to the spasmodic change in methane concentration, resistance to contamination of the catalyst, low consumed power etc. are named. Trends are outlined for improvement in the coal industry of the Polish People's Republic.

  7. Business Models for Power System Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    2016-01-01

    -enabling business models, adding new activities to the existing supply chain. Ranging from technological to market-based innovation, this chapter reviews the latest developments in these emerging models. The main conclusion is that when flexibility becomes scarce in the system, new players with their innovative......As intermittent, renewable resources gain more share in the generation mix, the need for power system flexibility increases more than ever. Parallel to this, technological change and the emergence of new players bringing about innovative solutions are boosting the development of flexibility...... business models will play an important role in ensuring sufficiency and efficiency of flexibility services....

  8. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Deploying a smart grid without adequate security might result in serious consequences such as grid instability, utility fraud, and loss of user information and energy-consumption data. Due to the heterogeneous communication architecture of smart grids, it is quite a challenge to design sophisticated and robust security mechanisms that can be easily deployed to protect communications among different layers of the smart grid-infrastructure. In this article, we focus on the communication-security aspect of a smart-grid metering and control system from the perspective of cryptographic techniques, and we discuss different mechanisms to enhance cybersecurity of the emerging smart grid. We aim to provide a comprehensive vulnerability analysis as well as novel insights on the cybersecurity of a smart grid.

  9. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  10. On Quantification of Flexibility in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, Matthias A.; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Heussen, Kai;

    2015-01-01

    Large scale integration of fluctuating and nondispatchablegeneration and variable transmission patterns inducehigh uncertainty in power system operation. In turn,transmission system operators (TSOs) need explicit informationabout available flexibility to maintain a desired reliability level ata r...

  11. NFIRAOS First Facility AO System for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Herriot, Glen; Atwood, Jenny; Boyer, Corinne; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Hill, Alexis; Ljusic, Zoran; Pazder, John; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wevers, Ivan; Wang, Lianqi; Wooff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NFIRAOS, the Thirty Meter Telescope's first adaptive optics system is an order 60x60 Multi-Conjugate AO system with two deformable mirrors. Although most observing will use 6 laser guide stars, it also has an NGS-only mode. Uniquely, NFIRAOS is cooled to -30 C to reduce thermal background. NFIRAOS delivers a 2-arcminute beam to three client instruments, and relies on up to three IR WFSs in each instrument. We present recent work including: robust automated acquisition on these IR WFSs; trade-off studies for a common-size of deformable mirror; real-time computing architectures; simplified designs for high-order NGS-mode wavefront sensing; modest upgrade concepts for high-contrast imaging.

  12. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature....... However, the focus has been on what can be done with the data rather than how to do it efficiently. In this paper, we examine smart meter analytics from a software performance perspective. First, we design a performance benchmark that includes common smart meter analytics tasks. These include off......-line feature extraction and model building as well a framework for on-line anomaly detection that we propose. Second, since obtaining real smart meter data is difficult due to privacy issues, we present an algorithm for generating large realistic data sets from a small seed of real data. Third, we implement...

  13. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System: Task 1 Report: Document existing Fission Meter neutron IB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only red/green ‘lights’ are displayed in the software. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  14. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  15. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  16. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  17. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    in laboratory. In this paper a method is described to read the real time current meter data and display/print/store on cartridge. For this, binary coded electrical signal available at the top end plate of the current meter is connectEd. by underwater cable...

  18. Flexible Developing System for Modern Instrument Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The modern instrument manufacturing has many features, such as high technologies, multiple varieties and small quantities. Aiming at those features, an instrumentation flexible developing system (IFDS) is presented. It constitutes a kind of opening, compatible, extensible and upgradeable flexible developing system, and it will offer a kind of technology equipment for the research and development of new modern instrument products. Its flexible mechanism is able to be suited for different and special requirements of many instrument systems, and its system integrated mechanism is able to adapt to common technological features of most instrument systems. It is IFDS that makes it easy to accomplish a quick system integration of instrument products. IFDS solves key technological problems related to modern instruments development, develops multiple systems for modern instrument development and accomplishes rapid development of series of new products.

  19. Flexible alternatives to constant frequency systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Wilson, John

    The use of hybrid systems in which variable frequency is used as generated, with a proportion being converted to constant frequency by electronic conversion, is examined as a flexible alternative to constant frequency systems. Here, some practical solutions to the technical issues raised by adopting the more flexible approach to electrical system generation are presented. In particular, attention is given to the frequency ranges used, impact on aircraft equipment, motor-driven equipment, transformer rectifier units, lighting, and avionics. The discussion also covers fan-assisted galley ovens, system architecture, special airworthiness requirements, and power quality.

  20. Flexible ERP: Enterprise Information System Under the Agile Manufacture Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xuanliang; CHENG Guoping; WANG Mingquan

    2006-01-01

    Flexibility is the demand of management revolution, and also the milestone of management development. The flexible ERP system is the information system to orientate variety and handle uncertainties. The market with rapid change and agile manufacture need a flexible ERP system.The article elaborates the meanings and characteristics about flexibility, the flexibility of ERP and the flexible ERP system; it discussed the necessity, the possibility and the related condition of setting up the flexible ERP system; and puts forward the strategy and the approaches of setting up the flexible ERP system.

  1. Design of a Calibration System for Heat Flux Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, F.; Dell'Isola, M.; Ficco, G.; Iacomini, L.; Fernicola, V.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate heat flux measurements are needed to gain a better knowledge of the thermal performance of buildings and to evaluate the heat exchange among various parts of a building envelope. Heat flux meters (HFMs) are commonly used both in laboratory applications and in situ for measuring one-dimensional heat fluxes and, thus, estimating the thermal transmittance of material samples and existing buildings components. Building applications often requires heat flux measurements below 100 W · m-2. However, a standard reference system generating such a low heat flux is available only in a few national metrology institutes (NMIs). In this work, a numerical study aimed at designing an HFM calibration apparatus operating in the heat flux range from 5 W·m-2 to 100 W · m-2 is presented. Predictions about the metrological performance of such a calibration system were estimated by numerical modeling exploiting a commercial FEM code (COMSOL®). On the basis of the modeling results, an engineered design of such an apparatus was developed and discussed in detail. The system was designed for two different purposes: (i) for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulators and (ii) for calibrating an HFM with an absolute method (i.e., by measuring the applied power from the heater and its active cross section) or by a relative method (i.e., by measuring the temperature drop across a reference material of known thickness and thermal conductivity). The numerical investigations show that in order to minimize the uncertainty of the generated heat flux, a fine temperature control on the thermal guard is needed. The predicted standard uncertainty is within 2% at 10W·m-2 and within 0.5% at 100 W · m-2.

  2. Decision models in designing flexible production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florescu Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible production system is a complex whole that raise some issues in terms of its design and in relation to the conditions for implementing it. To implement a flexible production system configuration must be found that satisfies both economic and system performance requirements. The configuration which best meet the objectives of introducing a flexible production system must be sought in the set of alternatives defined and evaluated. In this paper we present a methodology of realising the configuration and complex evaluation of the analyzed system. It will be developed models which generate new alternative configurations, optimization and evaluation models of the performance of the flexible production system. This will create a framework for interactive decision support, user-oriented that can be used by management to solve this selection problem. The applicative character of the study consist in tracking of the technological process in real time using the developed software package on the designed system, based on mathematical models for configuration and optimization of the system.

  3. Flexible Query Answering Systems 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -classical Logics, Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing, Multimedia Information Systems, and Human--Computer Interaction, including reports of interesting applications. We wish to thank the contributors for their excellent papers and the referees, publisher, and sponsors for their effort...

  4. Flexible Query Answering Systems 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    submissions, relating to the topic of users posing queries and systems producing answers. The papers cover the fields: Database Management, Information Retrieval, Domain Modeling, Knowledge Representation and Ontologies, Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Artificial Intelligence, Classical and Non......-classical Logics, Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing, Multimedia Information Systems, and Human--Computer Interaction, including reports of interesting applications. We wish to thank the contributors for their excellent papers and the referees, publisher, and sponsors for their effort...

  5. A system-on-chip digital pH meter for use in a wireless diagnostic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Paul A; Ali, Danish; Cumming, David R S

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a system-on-chip digital pH meter, for use in a wireless capsule application. The system is organized around an 8-bit microcontroller, designed to be functionally identical to the Motorola 6805. The analog subsystem contains a floating-electrode ISFET, which is fully compatible with a commercial CMOS process. On-chip programmable voltage references and multiplexors permit flexibility with the minimum of external connections. The chip is designed in a modular fashion to facilitate verification and component re-use. The single-chip pH meter can be directly connected to a personal computer, and gives a response of 37 bits/pH, within an operating range of 7 pH units.

  6. Flexible Manufacturing System--The procurement phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    A method has been developed for procuring a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). The method includes preparation of a functional specification that defines equipment and system requirements; development of relationships between the potential suppliers and purchasers; proposal evaluation and selection in a competitive bid environment; and a technique to minimize misunderstandings between buyer requirements and supplier offerings. Methods established during this development effort have permitted successful procurement of a multimillion-dollar FMS. Techniques used will be helpful to procurement of other systems.

  7. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setter, D.L.

    1993-02-01

    The applicability of the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) concept to automate machining and inspecting a family of stainless steel and aluminum hardware for electrical components has been evaluated. FMS was found to be appropriate and justifiable and a project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. System specifications and procurement methodologies were developed that resulted in a conventional competitive bid procurement A proposal evaluation technique was developed consisting of 40% price, 40% technical compliance, and 20% supplier management capabilities.

  8. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  9. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  10. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  11. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS): The investigative phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setter, D.L.

    1992-02-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the feasibility of using flexible manufacturing system (FMS) technology to machine and inspect a family of stainless steel and aluminum parts for electrical components. The investigation was conducted by a user-oriented team of KCD personnel with the help of an outside consultant. The investigation showed that FMS was appropriate and justifiable for the KCD application. A project was initiated to purchase and implement an FMS system. 1 ref.

  12. The impact of enterprise systems on process flexibility and organisational flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen Guang; Ding, Yajing; Shou, Yongyi; Zhou, Honggeng; Du, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In light of the current dynamic business environment, companies nowadays need to respond rapidly to changes. Companies often invest heavily in enterprise systems in the hope that these can improve their flexibility in coping with such changes. However, previous studies have shown that the impact of enterprise systems on flexibility can be either positive or negative. To resolve this inconsistency in the existing research, this paper suggests that a company's flexibility should be distinguished between process level and organisational level. Specifically, this paper proposes that enterprise systems will affect process flexibility negatively but affect organisational flexibility positively. The analysis results show that enterprise systems have different effects on process and organisational flexibility. Furthermore, industry clockspeed sets a boundary for the effect on process flexibility but not for that on organisational flexibility. Research and practical implications of this study are discussed.

  13. Design and Realization of a Condition Management System for the Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of firm and intelligent power grid in China, it is difficult for the traditional management method of electrical energy metering device to meet the prospecting requirements. Using the computer and internet techniques to realize the information and intelligentization of the electrical energy metering management has become a necessary guarantee of improving power supply ability, marketing control, and customer service. This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of the gateway electrical energy metering device. The key technologies and realize process were analyzed. Moreover, a detailed description of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point was presented. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicated that, the condition management system is very open, safety and efficient. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improved the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improved the prevention ability of electricity filching, realized the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.

  14. Unlocking Flexibility: Energy Systems Integration [Guest Editorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Mark; Kroposki, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The articles in this special section focus on energy systems integration (ESI). Electric power systems around the world are experiencing great changes, including the retirement of coal and nuclear plants along with a rapid increase in the use of natural gas turbines and variable renewable technologies such as wind and solar. There is also much more use of information and communications technologies to enhance the visibility and controllability of the grid. Flexibility of operation, the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply, is critical to enable higher levels of variable generation. One way to unlock this potential flexibility is to tap into other energy domains. This concept of interconnecting energy domains is called ESI. ESI is the process of coordinating the operation and planning of energy systems across multiple pathways and/or geographical scales to deliver reliable, cost-effective energy services with minimal impact on the environment. Integrating energy domains adds flexibility to the electrical power system. ESI includes interactions among energy vectors and with other large-scale infrastructures including water, transport, and data and communications networks, which are an enabling technology for ESI.

  15. Study on the system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Min; Hu, Juan; Li, Fuchao; Luo, Ruixi; Li, Jinsong; Ai, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the test methods of digital metering system in smart substation are used to test and evaluate the performance of a single device, but these methods can only effectively guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the measurement results of a digital metering device in a single run, it does not completely reflect the performance when each device constitutes a complete system. This paper introduced the shortages of the existing test methods. A system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation was proposed, and the feasibility of the method was proved by the actual test.

  16. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  17. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE MULTIBODY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Y.T.Leung; WuGuorong; ZhongWeifang

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic equations of a multibody system composed of flexible beams are derived by using the Lagrange multiplier method. The nonlinear Euler beam theory with inclusion of axial deformation effect is employed and its deformation field is described by exact vibration modes. A numerical procedure for solving the dynamic equations is presented based on the Newmark direct integration method combined with Newton-Raphson iterative method. The results of numerical examples prove the correctness and efficiency of the method proposed.

  18. Simulation approach towards energy flexible manufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides in-depth analysis and methods for aligning electricity demand of manufacturing systems to VRE supply. The book broaches both long-term system changes and real-time manufacturing execution and control, and the author presents a concept with different options for improved energy flexibility including battery, compressed air and embodied energy storage. The reader will also find a detailed application procedure as well as an implementation into a simulation prototype software. The book concludes with two case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of green manufacturing systems. .

  19. Dynamical flexibility of discretecontinuous vibrating mechatronic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buchacz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The application of approximate method for solving the task of assignment the frequency-modal analysis and characteristics of flexibly vibrating mechatronic system, because for considered case of boundary conditions exact and approximate methods for the coordinates are equivalent.Design/methodology/approach: Formulate and solve the problem in the form of a set of differential equations of motion and state equations of the considered mechatronic model of an object Galerkin’s method was used. The considered flexibly vibrating mechanical system is a continuous beam, clamped at one of its ends. An integral part of the mechatronic system is a transducer perfectly bonded to the beam surface.Findings: The parameters of the transducer exert an important influence on the values of natural frequencies and on the form of the characteristics of the discussed mechatronic system.Research limitations/implications: The linear mechanical subsystem and linear electrical subsystem of the mechatronic system were analyzed and the theory Euler-Bernoulli is used for the beam; however, this approach is sufficient for such systems.Practical implications: Global approach is presented in the domain of frequency spectrum analysis. The methods of analysis and the obtained results my give grounds for designing and investigating this type of mechatronic systems.Originality/value: The mechatronic system created from mechanical and electric subsystems with electromechanical bondage has been considered. This approach is different from those considered so far.

  20. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  1. Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years of the project. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed. A theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modelling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide a embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  2. Tilt meters for the Alignment System of the CMS Experiment: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-09-27

    We present the instructions for the use of the electrolytic tilt meters installed in the link alignments system of the CMS experimental and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 16 refs.

  3. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  4. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  5. Designing Flexible E-Business Workflow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Silvestru

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment organizations must cope with complex interactions between actors adapt fast to frequent market changes and be innovative. In this context, integrating knowledge with processes and Business Intelligenceis a major step towards improving organization agility. Therefore, traditional environments for workflow design have been adapted to answer the new business models and current requirements in the field of collaborative processes. This paper approaches the design of flexible and dynamic workflow management systems for electronic businesses that can lead to agility.

  6. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  7. 计量泵柔性调控的技术改造%The technical modification of metering pumps flexible regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉军; 夏玲

    2015-01-01

    Tinkering with existing spinning polyester FDY such winding equipment right amount,function set by the frequency converter to realize automatic metering pump flexible discharge,reduce metering pump in shovel board, the output of the first stage,achieve the goal of reducing waste consumption.Practice shows that good reliability,me-tering pump flexible regulation input-output ratio is high,can make tons of yarn consumption by about 4 kg.%对现有的涤纶 FDY纺丝卷绕设备进行适量改造,通过变频器功能设定使计量泵实现自动柔性化出料,减少计量泵在铲板、生头阶段的输出,达到减少废丝消耗的目的。实践表明,计量泵柔性调控可靠性好,投入产出比高,可使吨丝废丝消耗降低约4 kg。

  8. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    information, collective agreements and interviews with representatives from tradeunions and employers' associations in Germany and Denmark. Based on our preliminary findings three explanatory theses for further research are developed in the article: 1) The level of specification, i.e. the level where...... response to this pressure from the company level can be described as a form of organised decentralisation in both countries, the response within the Danish collective bargaining system can be characterised as a proactive organised decentralisation while the response of the German system should rather...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...

  9. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    information, collective agreements and interviews with representatives from tradeunions and employers' associations in Germany and Denmark. Based on our preliminary findings three explanatory theses for further research are developed in the article: 1) The level of specification, i.e. the level where...... response to this pressure from the company level can be described as a form of organised decentralisation in both countries, the response within the Danish collective bargaining system can be characterised as a proactive organised decentralisation while the response of the German system should rather...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...

  10. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits When Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15 Meter Class System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, G. T.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) deployable aeroshell technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD project's second generation (Gen-2) aeroshell system. The HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested stacked-torus inflatable structures (IS) with flexible thermal protection systems (F-TPS) ranging in diameters from 3-6 meters, with cone angles of 60 and 70 degrees. To meet NASA and commercial near-term objectives, the HIAD team must scale the current technology up to 12-15 meters in diameter. Therefore, the HIAD project's experience in scaling the technology has reached a critical juncture. Growing from a 6-meter to a 15-meter class system will introduce many new structural and logistical challenges to an already complicated manufacturing process. Although the general architecture and key aspects of the HIAD design scale well to larger vehicles, details of the technology will need to be reevaluated and possibly redesigned for use in a 15-meter-class HIAD system. These include: layout and size of the structural webbing that transfers load throughout the IS, inflatable gas barrier design, torus diameter and braid construction, internal pressure and inflation line routing, adhesives used for coating and bonding, and F-TPS gore design and seam fabrication. The logistics of fabricating and testing the IS and the F-TPS also become more challenging with increased scale. Compared to the 6-meter aeroshell (the largest HIAD built to date), a 12-meter aeroshell has four times the cross-sectional area, and a 15-meter one has over six times the area. This means that fabrication and test procedures will need to be reexamined to account for the sheer size and weight of the aeroshell components. This will affect a variety of steps in the manufacturing process, such as: stacking the tori during assembly, stitching the

  11. 自动抄表系统中电能表的设计%Design of Energy Meter in Automatic Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宇

    2011-01-01

    Automatic meter reading system is an integral part of automation for the electricity sector, and energy meter plays an important part of the terminal equipment in the system. Using electricity metering technologies, embedded control technology, power line carrier communication technology and infrared communication technology, a multi-function energy meter is designed. The energy meter can measure accurately, with a remote meter reading and meter-reading function of the infrared proximity to the structure of the balance between a variety of power line carrier, easy to choose a different approach to realize long-distance carrier communications, and higher development efficiency of energy meter under a different means of communication are achieved.%自动抄表系统是电力部门实现自动化的组成部分,电能表又是该系统中重要的终端设备.利用电量计量技术、嵌入式控制技术、电力线载波通信技术和红外通信技术,完成了多功能电能表的设计.该电能表计量准确,具有远程抄表和近距离红外抄表功能,在结构上兼顾多种电力线载波方式,便于选择不同载波方式来实现远程通信,提高了不同通信方式下电能表的开发效率.

  12. Implementation of a robotic flexible assembly system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the Intelligent Task Automation program, a team developed enabling technologies for programmable, sensory controlled manipulation in unstructured environments. These technologies include 2-D/3-D vision sensing and understanding, force sensing and high speed force control, 2.5-D vision alignment and control, and multiple processor architectures. The subsequent design of a flexible, programmable, sensor controlled robotic assembly system for small electromechanical devices is described using these technologies and ongoing implementation and integration efforts. Using vision, the system picks parts dumped randomly in a tray. Using vision and force control, it performs high speed part mating, in-process monitoring/verification of expected results and autonomous recovery from some errors. It is programmed off line with semiautomatic action planning.

  13. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  14. Development and evaluation of an automated system for testing current meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Saretta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Current meters are equipment widely used for estimating flow velocity in rivers and streams. Periodic calibrations of current meters are important to ensure the quality of measurements, but the required testing facilities are complex and only available in a few institutions. However, advances in electronics and automation may contribute to developing simple and reliable calibration systems. Thus, this study aimed to develop an automated system for testing current meters, which consisted of a trapezoidal channel, a step motor, a tow car and a management system, composed of a supervisory application and microprocessed modules to control the motor and the data acquisition. Evaluations of the displacement velocity showed that it matched the reference value up to 1.85 m s-1 for a vertical-axis current meter and 2.3 m s-1 for a horizontal-axis one. The developed system showed reliability during tests, for both current meter movement and data acquisition. The management of the system based on the developed modules and the supervisory application improved its user interface, turning all the procedure into a simple task.

  15. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  16. MULTI-FLEXIBLE SYSTEM DYNAMIC MODELING THEORY AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲昕; 周兵; 杨汝清

    2001-01-01

    The flexible body modeling theory was demonstrated. An example of modeling a kind of automobile's front suspension as a multi-flexible system was shown. Finally, it shows that the simulation results of multi-flexible dynamic model more approach the road test data than those of multi-rigid dynamic model do. Thus, it is fully testified that using multi-flexible body theory to model is necessary and effective.

  17. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). Sources of flexibility exist--and can be enhanced--across all of the physical and institutional elements of the power system, including system operations and markets, demand side resources and storage; generation; and transmission networks. Accessing flexibility requires significant planning to optimize investments and ensure that both short- and long-time power system requirements are met.

  18. AUTOMATED METERING SYSTEM FOR CONTROL OF THE SPATIAL-ANGULAR DEVIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Zvetkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic metering system using devices and instruments for inertial navigation has been elaborated. The system allows more accurate measurement of angular deviation of installation sites for scientific equipment. Enhanced functionality is achieved by additional measuring of the azimuth angle error.

  19. Multispectral light metering system for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Matteo; Melis, Marcello

    2013-05-01

    In the world of Cultural Heritage the first concern is all about Conservation of the works of art. A piece of art in bad shape is meant to deteriorate to an irreversible stage. To avoid this, quite often it's needed to go through one or more cycles of restoration to clean and consolidate the various elements of the piece. The very second concern, once the work of art is restored and in good and stable shape, is its fruition. At the end of the day why one should do all that restoration work if nobody then can access and view? Yet viewing and enjoying an artwork means that a visitor would be able to see it at its best, and this means, almost always, to have a good lighting system. Today, both restoration and fruition can greatly benefit of all the available technologies, and achieve very high level quality. The goal of this paper is the development of an exposimetric system suitable to be extremely useful as a tool for the the non invasive analysis, as well as for the lighting design and lighting systems monitoring. Many diagnosis techniques that are used before the restoration stage, require a suitable lighting system to allow to extract from the painting the maximum amount of information through the acquisition of images in the range of visible as well as UV and IR light. A standard exposimeter is for its own nature, sensitive only to the visible light, constrained by the standard photometric sensitivity curve V(lambda). A wide band exposimeter would be, on the other hand, an invaluable tool to get higher precision and to speed up multispectral wide band images acquisition, avoiding time wasting fail and try cycles to record the subject under wide spectrum conditions. The same equipment can be used to monitor the quality of the light in a expo lighting system at, for example, a museum or a gallery. The light hitting a piece of art has to allow the visitor to see and appreciate all the color shades, and to appreciate the contrast of dark and bright areas due only to

  20. HIGH IMPEDANCE SURFACES FOR FLEXIBLE AND CONFORMAL WIRELESS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider R. Khaleel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a great deal of interest from both scientific and academic communities in the field of flexible electronic systems. Most flexible electronic systems require the integration of flexible antennas operating in specific frequency bands to provide wireless connectivity which is highly demanded by today’s network oriented society. On the other hand, High Impedance Surfaces have become very popular in the design of contemporary antenna and micro-wave devices due to their wide range of applications derived from their unique electromagnetic properties which significantly enhance the performance of antennas and RF systems. Accordingly, the integration of HIS structures within flexible wireless systems is very beneficial in this growing field of research. In this paper, a systematic review of flexible HIS structures reported in the literature is conducted, which provides the reader with a thorough description and a complete list of state of the art designs intended for flexible wireless systems.

  1. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  2. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E.; Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 separate, independent system design and development hardware demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L'Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter ground demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators. Descriptions of the system designs for both the ATK and L'Garde systems will be presented. Changes, additions and evolution of the system designs will be highlighted. A description of the modeling and analyses activities performed by both teams, as well as testing conducted to raise the TRL of solar sail technology will be presented. A summary of the results of model correlation activities will be presented. Finally, technology gaps identified during the assessment and gap closure plans will be presented, along with "lessons learned", subsequent planning activities and validation flight opportunities for solar sail propulsion technology.

  3. Design of the Remote Wireless Meter Reading System Based on GPRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid is the focus development direction of the national power grid construction, and remote power information collection is the important part of smart grid. The existing automatic meter reading system of remote electric power information collection has such problems as high cost, big power consumption, small networking and big line interference etc. Aim at these features, this paper proposes a new scheme of wireless meter reading based on GPRS, that is, the wireless communication module MC55 of SIMENS and STC89C58RD single chip are adopted as the core to develop a set of remote wireless meter reading system. The paper mainly introduces the overall design of the system, the hardware circuit and software design of each component, and the major software flow chart is given. The system has the characteristic of low cost, low power consumption, ad-Hoc network, self adaption, etc, and it has the strong portability and compatibility. Field test results show that the wireless meter reading system can finish the data collection and transmission task quickly and accurately, and has strong anti-interference ability and wide applicability.

  4. Empowering Variable Renewables - Options for Flexible Electricity Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Hugo [Renewable Energy Unit, International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    A flexible electricity system is one that can respond reliably, and rapidly, to large fluctuations in supply and demand. Flexibility is already present in all power systems, in order to manage fluctuations in demand, and it is crucial for high performance and economic and reliable operation. This paper looks at measures to increase flexibility. but careful cost/benefit analysis is essential, and specific national and regional circumstances will influence the choice of option(s).

  5. Evaluation of a metering, mixing, and dispensing system for mixing polysulfide adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kurt B.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate whether a metered mixing system can mix PR-1221 polysulfide adhesive as well as or better than batch-mixed adhesive; also, to evaluate the quality of meter-mixed PR-1860 and PS-875 polysulfide adhesives. These adhesives are candidate replacements for PR-1221 which will not be manufactured in the future. The following material properties were evaluated: peel strength, specific gravity and adhesive components of mixed adhesives, Shore A hardness, tensile adhesion strength, and flow rate. Finally, a visual test called the butterfly test was performed to observe for bubbles and unmixed adhesive. The results of these tests are reported and discussed.

  6. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone?s lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector was

  7. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone's lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector

  8. Use of Medical Metered Dose Inhalers for Functionality Testing of Bioaerosol Detection and Identification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    BIOAEROSOL DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS ECBC-TR-964 Jana Kesavan Deborah R. Schepers Jerold R. Bottiger RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY...Testing Of Bioaerosol Detection And Identification Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Medical Metered Dose Inhalers for Functionality Testing of Bioaerosol Detection and Identification Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. Flexible sliding frame for gait enhancing mechatronic system (GEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younbaek Lee; Byungjung Choi; Jongwon Lee; Minhyung Lee; Se-Gon Roh; Jeonghun Kim; Hyundo Choi; Yong-Jae Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel flexible sliding thigh frame for a gait enhancing mechatronic system. With its two-layered unique structure, the frame is flexible in certain locations and directions, and stiff at certain other locations, so that it can fît well to the wearer's thigh and transmit the assisting torque without joint loading. The paper describes the basic mechanics of this 3D flexible frame and its stiffness characteristics. We implemented the 3D flexible frame on a gait enhancing mechatronic system and conducted experiments. The performance of the proposed mechanism is verified by simulation and experiments.

  10. Flexible Architecture for FPGAs in Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duane I.; Lim, Chester N.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) being developed in cPCI embedded systems include the bus interface in the FPGA. This complicates the development because the interface is complicated and requires a lot of development time and FPGA resources. In addition, flight qualification requires a substantial amount of time be devoted to just this interface. Another complication of putting the cPCI interface into the FPGA being developed is that configuration information loaded into the device by the cPCI microprocessor is lost when a new bit file is loaded, requiring cumbersome operations to return the system to an operational state. Finally, SRAM-based FPGAs are typically programmed via specialized cables and software, with programming files being loaded either directly into the FPGA, or into PROM devices. This can be cumbersome when doing FPGA development in an embedded environment, and does not have an easy path to flight. Currently, FPGAs used in space applications are usually programmed via multiple space-qualified PROM devices that are physically large and require extra circuitry (typically including a separate one-time programmable FPGA) to enable them to be used for this application. This technology adds a cPCI interface device with a simple, flexible, high-performance backend interface supporting multiple backend FPGAs. It includes a mechanism for programming the FPGAs directly via the microprocessor in the embedded system, eliminating specialized hardware, software, and PROM devices and their associated circuitry. It has a direct path to flight, and no extra hardware and minimal software are required to support reprogramming in flight. The device added is currently a small FPGA, but an advantage of this technology is that the design of the device does not change, regardless of the application in which it is being used. This means that it needs to be qualified for flight only once, and is suitable for one-time programmable devices or an application

  11. Component-based Control Software Design for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炳海; 奚立峰; 曹永上

    2003-01-01

    A new method that designs and implements the component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control software is described with a component concept in this paper. The proposed method takes aim at improving the flexibility and reliability of the control system. On the basis of describing the concepts of component-based software and the distributed object technology, the architecture of the component-based software of the control system is suggested with the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). And then, we propose a design method for component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control system. Finally, to verify the software design method, a prototype flexible manufacturing control system software has been implemented in Orbix 2. 3c, VC++6.0 and has been tested in connection with the physical flexible ranufacturing shop at the WuXi Professional Institute.

  12. System Reduction and Damping of Flexible Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Riess; Krenk, Steen

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of flexible structures such as cable-stayed bridges, pedestrian bridges and high-rise buildings are fitted with local dampers to mitigate vibration problems. In principle the effect of local dampers can be analyzed by use of complex modes, e.g. in conjunction with an averaging...... frequency - containing the resulting modal damping via the imaginary part - is given by an explicit formula. For very flexible structures, e.g. cables, only moderate damping is involved, and the explicit approximation is very accurate. However, even for stiffer structures the explicit form gives a quite...

  13. Layout design optimization of dynamic environment flexible manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Abu Qudeiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The proper positioning of machine tools in flexible manufacturing system is one of the factors that lead to increase in production efficiency. Choosing the optimum position of machine tools curtails the total part handling cost between machine tools within the flexible manufacturing system. In this article, a two-stage approach is presented to investigate the best locations of the machine tools in flexible manufacturing system. The location of each machine tool is selected from the available specific and fixed locations in such a way that it will result in best throughput of the flexible manufacturing system. In the first stage of the two-stage approach, the throughput of randomly selected locations of the machine tool in flexible manufacturing system is computed by proposing a production simulation system. The production simulation system utilizes genetic algorithms to find the locations of the machine tools in flexible manufacturing system that achieve the maximum throughput of the flexible manufacturing system. In the second stage, the generated locations are fed into artificial neural network to find a relation between a machine tool’s location and the throughput that can be used to predict the throughput for any other set of locations. Artificial neural network will result in mitigating the computational time.

  14. Development of the Field of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Theoretical and technological development of large capacity power electronics and flexible AC transmission systems are one of the most important projects developed by Tsinghua University. The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology which uses power electronics to improve the efficiency and quality of the electrical generation, transmission and distribution system is considered to be one of the most significant technological innovations for power systems in the 20th century. The advanced static var generator (ASVG) is a key FACTS device.

  15. On Quantification of Flexibility in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, Matthias A.; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Heussen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    reasonable cost. In this paper, locational flexibility is defined anda unified framework to compare it against forecast uncertaintyis introduced. Both metrics are expressed in terms of rampingrate, power and energy and consider the network constraints.This framework is integrated into the operational...

  16. Quality Evaluation in Flexible Manufacturing Systems: A Markovian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2007-01-01

    to illustrate the applicability of the method. The results of this study suggest a possible approach to investigate the impact of flexibility on product quality and, finally, with extensions and enrichment of the model, may lead to provide production engineers and managers a better understanding of the quality implications and to summarize some general guidelines of operation management in flexible manufacturing systems.

  17. System modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope alignment and phasing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a system model using the System Modeling Language (SysML) for the Alignment and Phasing System (APS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). APS is a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor that will be used to measure the alignment and phasing of the primary mirror segments, and the alignment of the secondary and tertiary mirrors. The APS system model contains the ow-down of the Level 1 TMT requirements to APS (Level 2) requirements, and from there to the APS sub-systems (Level 3) requirements. The model also contains the operating modes and scenarios for various activities, such as maintenance alignment, post-segment exchange alignment, and calibration activities. The requirements ow-down is captured in SysML requirements diagrams, and we describe the process of maintaining the DOORS database as the single-source-of-truth for requirements, while using the SysML model to capture the logic and notes associated with the ow-down. We also use the system model to capture any needed communications from APS to other TMT systems, and between the APS sub-systems. The operations are modeled using SysML activity diagrams, and will be used to specify the APS interface documents. The modeling tool can simulate the top level activities to produce sequence diagrams, which contain all the communications between the system and subsystem needed for that activity. By adding time estimates for the lowest level APS activities, a robust estimate for the total time on-sky that APS requires to align and phase the telescope can be obtained. This estimate will be used to verify that the time APS requires on-sky meets the Level 1 TMT requirements.

  18. Flexibility and Control : An empirical study relating production flexibility to the design of performance management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen-Dirks, P.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    A critical challenge facing organizations is the design of management control systems, which play a key role in evaluating the achievement of organizational and individual objectives. This thesis addresses the design of management control (performance management) systems in the current flexible busi

  19. Flexibility and Control : An empirical study relating production flexibility to the design of performance management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen-Dirks, P.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    A critical challenge facing organizations is the design of management control systems, which play a key role in evaluating the achievement of organizational and individual objectives. This thesis addresses the design of management control (performance management) systems in the current flexible busi

  20. A FLEXIBLE PRECONDITIONED ARNOLDI METHOD FOR SHIFTED LINEAR SYSTEMS'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.-D.Gu; X.-L.Zhou; Lei Lin

    2007-01-01

    We are interested in the numerical solution of the large nonsymmetric shifted linear system,(A+αI)x=b,for many different values of the shift α in a wide range.We apply the Saad's flexible preconditioning technique[14]to the solution of the shifted systems.Such flexible preconditioning with a few parameters could probably cover all the shifted systems with the shift in a wide range.Numerical experiments report the effectiveness of our approach on some problems.

  1. A Scheme for the Application of Smart Message Language in a Wireless Meter Reading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Homa Keshav

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless automation in almost all the fields of power, gas and water generation, distribution and billing has come of age. Here with the inclusion of wireless communication with the automation may lead to paradigm change in the current trend. The design presents a new methodology for avoiding the high construction and maintenance costs in the existing meter reading technology. Apart the use of wireless meter reading with network technologies has become need of the day. The designed system avoids the human intervention in Power Management. The Consumer has to pay the bill in time, if couldn’t, the power connection may be disconnected automatically from the remote server. It displays the corresponding billing information on LCD and data is sent to the server through the GSM Module. The ARM7 based hardware system consists of a processor core board and the peripheral board. The entire programming for microcontroller operation is based on Embedded C Language. This system provides efficient meter reading, avoiding the billing error and reduces the maintenance cost. This paper also addresses advantages of implementing the GSM communication module and design detail and discusses the advanced security of the data communications.

  2. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  3. REVIEW OF FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM BASED ON MODELING AND SIMULATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAREN, Sanjib Kumar; TIBERIU, Vesselenyi

    2016-01-01

    This paper focused on the literature survey of the use of flexible manufacturing system design and operation problems on the basis of simulation tools and their methodology which has been widely used...

  4. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers,...

  5. Novel metamaterial based antennas for flexible wireless systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleel, Haider Raad

    Recent years have witnessed a great deal of interest from both academia and industry in the field of flexible electronic systems. This research topic tops the pyramid of research priorities requested by many national research agencies. Consistently, flexible electronic systems require the integration of flexible antennas operating in specific frequency bands to provide wireless connectivity which is highly demanded by today's information oriented society. On the other hand, metamaterials have become very popular in the design of contemporary antenna and microwave devices due to their wide range of applications derived from their unique properties which significantly enhances the performance of antennas and RF systems. Accordingly, the integration of metamaterial structures within flexible wireless systems is very beneficial in this growing field of research. A systematic approach to the analysis and design of flexible and conformal antennas and metamaterials is ultimately needed. The research reported in this thesis focuses on developing flexible low profile antennas and metamaterial structures in addition to characterizing their performance when integrated within flexible wireless systems. Three flexible, compact, and extremely low profile (50.8 microm) antennas intended for WLAN, Bluetooth and Ultra Wide Band (UWB) applications are presented. Next, a novel miniaturized Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) and a new technique to enhance the bandwidth of micro-Negative (MNG) metamaterial are reported. Furthermore, the effect of bending on the AMC and MNG metamaterial is investigated in this thesis for the first time. Finally, the findings of this research are utilized in practical applications with specific design constraints including mutual coupling reduction between radiating elements in antenna arrays and MIMO systems and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) reduction in telemedicine systems.

  6. Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

    2013-12-15

    Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project.

  7. Design and optimization of flexible multi-generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst

    term energy system development; biomass supply chains and local resource availability; combined with global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The methodology includes a novel method for aggregating external operating condition datasets, named the CHOP method. In addition, three case studies...... of variable renewable energy sources in a cost-effective way by linking the different sectors in the energy system with local energy supply systems. A key challenge faced in the development of flexible multi-generation system is the knowledge gap between process design practices, which simplify energy system...... of flexible multi-generation system. In addition, the case study results emphasize the importance of considering flexible operation, systematic process integration, and systematic assessment of uncertainties in the design optimization. It is recommended that future research focus on assessing system impacts...

  8. Safety analysis of flexible manufacturing system. Flexible seisan system no anzen kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, T.; Sato, H.; Masuda, Y.; Onikubo, I.; Nagaoka, T. (Numazu Industrial Research Institute of Shizuoka Prefecture, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1993-03-01

    The fault tree method is used recently as a representative method to operate more efficiently the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) becoming increasingly larger in scale and more complex and evaluate the system safety and reliability in design stages. This paper describes attempts to analyze FMS safety using the method. The fault tree method pursuits summit events and important anomalies in an object system retroactively along the cause direction, and links anomalies to causes using such logic gates as and-gate and or-gate. The model structure of an FMS comprises automatic warehouses, unmanned transportation vehicles, NC lathes, machining centers, robots and stations, centrally controlled by a computer. Failures in the constituting components are dealt with hardwares and softwares given safety redundancy and programs. Since the trees are for cause factors derived from empirical failures, not all of abnormal events can be handled with the present status of the method. Future requirements may include component failure processing functions and bypass processing in the softwares for the FMS. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Service-based flexible workflow system for virtual enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shao-fei

    2008-01-01

    Using the services provided by virtual enterprises, we presented a solution to implement flexible inter-enterprise workflow management. Services were the responses of events that can be accessed programmatically on the Internet by HTTP protocol. Services were obtained according to some standardized service templates. The workflow engine's flexible control to a request was bound to appropriate services and their providers by using a constraint-based, dynamic binding mechanism. Hence, a flexible and collaborative business was achieved. The workflow management system supports virtual enterprise, and the styles of virtual enterprises can be adjusted readily to adapt various situations.

  10. Meters and systems for future. Meters fit for retrofitting with a communication module; Zaehler und Systeme fuer die Zukunft. Mit Kommunikationsmodul nachruestbare Zaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Martin [Itron GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany). Marketing Gas Germany; Sievers, Marco [Allmess GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany). Marketing und Vertrieb Systeme, Wasser- und Waermewirtschaft

    2011-04-18

    The contribution looks at the situation of smart meters in view of the German government's decision of 2007, which required that smart meters should be installed within a period of six years. However, there is no market-compatible strategy for their introduction, and legal regulations are still lacking. For example, the EnWG demands the obligatory installation of smart meters from 1 January 2010 only in newly constructed or extensively modernized buildings and also on the user's demand.

  11. An IoT Based Tamper Prevention System for Electricity Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Ogu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an IoT based Tamper Prevention System for Electricity Meters (IoTETPS. The power sector in Nigeria is an untapped gold mine for investors, because of the huge population without access to stable electricity. However, electricity theft is one of the challenges facing the power companies; it makes the infrastructure needed for effective operations to be unsustainable because power companies cannot make adequate profit from the electricity they generate and distribute. This work has developed an embedded system that will help in prevention of electricity theft using Internet of Things technology. The system comprises of an Arduino WiFi Shield 101 mounted on top of Arduino Mega 2560 board for the connectivity and controller functions, while a Passive Infrared Sensor and Solid State Relay were used for sensing and actuation. The result of this work is a functional Internet of Things based system that is capable of detecting tamper and disconnecting the consumer; this is in addition to sending the GPS location of the meter to the distribution company portal. The incorporation of this system will reduce electricity theft, make the Grid smart and subsequently lead to a vibrant profitable power sector.

  12. System identification of mechanomyograms detected with an acceleration sensor and a laser displacement meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Shinohara, Keita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the transfer functions of mechanomyograms (MMGs) detected with an acceleration sensor and a laser displacement meter. The MMGs evoked by electrical stimulation to the peroneal nerve were recorded on the skin of the tibial anterior muscle. The displacement MMG (DMMG) and the acceleration MMG (AMMG) systems were identified using a singular value decomposition method. The appropriate order of the AMMG system was six and that of the DMMG system was four. The undamped natural frequencies of the systems were compared to resonance frequencies of human soft tissue. Some of the undamped natural frequencies estimated from the AMMG systems agreed with the resonance frequencies in the literature but others were lower than the resonance frequencies. The undamped natural frequencies estimated from the DMMG systems were lower than the resonance frequencies.

  13. Surface control system for the 15 meter hoop-column antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James B.; Ahl, Elvin L., Jr.; Butler, David H.; Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The 15-meter hoop-column antenna fabricated by the Harris Corporation under contract to the NASA Langley Research Center is described. The antenna is a deployable and restowable structure consisting of a central telescoping column, a 15-meter-diameter folding hoop, and a mesh reflector surface. The hoop is supported and positioned by 48 quartz cords attached to the column above the hoop, and by 24 graphite cords from the base of the antenna column. The RF reflective surface is a gold plated molybdenum wire mesh supported on a graphite cord truss structure which is attached between the hoop and the column. The surface contour is controlled by 96 graphite cords from the antenna base to the rear of the truss assembly. The antenna is actually a quadaperture reflector with each quadrant of the surface mesh shaped to produce an offset parabolic reflector. Results of near-field and structural tests are given. Controls structures and electromagnetics interaction, surface control system requirements, mesh control adjustment, surface control system actuator assembly, surface control system electronics, the system interface unit, and control stations are discussed.

  14. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boley, A. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, M. A. [Center for Meteorite Studies, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe, AZ 88287-6004 (United States); Ford, E. B. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  15. Analog/digital pH meter system I.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Paul; Park, Jea

    1992-01-01

    The project utilizes design automation software tools to design, simulate, and fabricate a pH meter integrated circuit (IC) system including a successive approximation type seven-bit analog to digital converter circuits using a 1.25 micron N-Well CMOS MOSIS process. The input voltage ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 V derived from a special type pH sensor, and the output is a three-digit decimal number display of pH with one decimal point.

  16. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2010-01-01

    of the system and the coupling between the two cylinder chambers. Based on the described controllers the different control strategies are evaluated through via simulations and experimentally on a scale model of an excavator arm. Based on the findings, the performance of the different controllers are discussed...

  17. A methodology for designing flexible multi-generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Viana Ensinas, Adriano; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    An FMG (flexible multi-generation system) consists of integrated and flexibly operated facilities that provide multiple links between the various layers of the energy system. FMGs may facilitate integration and balancing of fluctuating renewable energy sources in the energy system in a cost...... is based on consideration of the following points: Selection, location and dimensioning of processes; systematic heat and mass integration; flexible operation optimization with respect to both short-term market fluctuations and long-term energy system development; global sensitivity and uncertainty...... analysis; biomass supply chains; variable part-load performance; and multi-objective optimization considering economic and environmental performance. Tested in a case study, the methodology is proved effective in screening the solution space for efficient FMG designs, in assessing the importance...

  18. REVIEW OF FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM BASED ON MODELING AND SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAREN Sanjib Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the literature survey of the use of flexible manufacturing system design and operation problems on the basis of simulation tools and their methodology which has been widely used for manufacturing system design and analysis. During this period, simulation has been proving to be an extremely useful analysis and optimization tool, and many articles, papers, and conferences have focused directly on the topic. This paper presents a scenario the use of simulation tools and their methodology in flexible manufacturing system from a period 1982 to 2015.

  19. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  20. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Dynamical flexibility of torsionally vibrating mechatronic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buchacz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is the application of the approximate method called Galerkin’s method to solve the task of assigning the frequency-modal analysis and characteristics of a mechatronic system.Design/methodology/approach: was the formulated and solved as a problem in the form of a set of differential equations of the considered mechatronic model of an object. To obtain the solution, Galerkin’s method was used. The discussed torsionally vibrating mechatronic system consists of mechanical system, which is a continuous bar of circular cross-section, clamped on its ends. The electrical subsystem of the considered mechatronic system is a ring transducer to be perfectly bonded to the bar surface.Findings: this study is that the parameters of the transducer have an important influence on the values of natural frequencies and on the form of the characteristics of the said mechatronic system. The results of the calculations were not only presented in a mathematical form but also as transients of the examined dynamical characteristic which are a function of frequency of the assumed excitation.Research limitations/implications: is that the linear mechatronic system was considered, for this type of systems, such approach is sufficient.Practical implications: of this researches was that another approach is presented, that means in the domain of frequency spectrum analysis. The method used and the obtained results can be of some value for designers of mechatronic systems.Originality/value: of this paper is that the mechatronic system, created from mechanical and electrical subsystems with electromechanical bondage was examined. This approach is other than those considered elsewhere.

  2. The development of the 15-Meter Hoop Column deployable antenna system with structural and electromagnetic performance results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Belvin, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the technical results obtained during the development and engineering tests of a 15-Meter Hoop Column deployable antenna system. An important element of the 15-meter antenna program was the structural tests and the characterization of the surface accuracy of the deployed mesh surface. The overall system performance of the 15-meter antenna was obtained during radio frequency tests conducted in the Martin Marietta Near Field Test Laboratory in Denver, CO. The near field tests verified the electromagnetic performance of the structure which exhibited a surface accuracy of 0.061 in (RMS). Radio frequency tests were conducted at 2.3, 4.3, 7.7, and 11.6 GHz. The experiment and analytical results obtained through the 15-meter antenna program will provide new opportunities for the application of large space antennas for future missions.

  3. A Flexible Recommendation System for Cable TV

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, Diogo; Costa, Miguel; Couto, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    Recommendation systems are being explored by Cable TV operators to improve user satisfaction with services, such as Live TV and Video on Demand (VOD) services. More recently, Catch-up TV has been introduced, allowing users to watch recent broadcast content whenever they want to. These services give users a large set of options from which they can choose from, creating an information overflow problem. Thus, recommendation systems arise as essential tools to solve this problem by helping users ...

  4. Flexible logistic concepts for assembly systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Logistics is a crucial issue for small and medium sized enterprises (SME. This paper deals with logistical concepts for assembly systems. The IPH is currently conducting a project with the aim of developing a method to combine allocation and delivery concepts for assembly systems to increase the logistical efficiency of SME. Via this method SME are able to adapt quickly to changing market environments.

  5. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  6. Enhancing Power System Operational Flexibility With Flexible Ramping Products: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-08-01

    With the increased variability and uncertainty of net load induced from high penetrations of renewable energy resources and more flexible interchange schedules, power systems are facing great operational challenges in maintaining balance. Among these, the scarcity of ramp capability is an important culprit of power balance violations and high scarcity prices. To address this issue, market-based flexible ramping products (FRPs) have been proposed in the industry to improve the availability of ramp capacity. This paper presents an in-depth review of the modeling and implementation of FRPs. The major motivation is that although FRPs are widely discussed in the literature, it is still unclear to many how they can be incorporated into a co-optimization framework that includes energy and ancillary services. The concept and a definition of power system operational flexibility as well as the needs for FRPs are introduced. The industrial practices of implementing FRPs under different market structures are presented. Market operation issues and future research topics are also discussed. This paper can provide researchers and power engineers with further insights into the state of the art, technical barriers, and potential directions for FRPs.

  7. Flexible high-performance IR camera systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelter, Theodore R.; Petronio, Susan M.; Carralejo, Ronald J.; Frank, Jeffery D.; Graff, John H.

    1999-07-01

    Indigo Systems Corporation has developed a family of standard readout integrated circuits (ROIC) for use in IR focal plane arrays (FPAs) imaging systems. These standard ROICs are designed to provide a compete set of operating features for camera level FPA control, while also providing high performance capability with any of several detector materials. By creating a uniform electrical interface for FPAs, these standard ROICs simplify the task of FPA integration with imaging electronics and physical packages. This paper begins with a brief description of the features of four Indigo standard ROICs and continues with a description of the features, design, and measured performance of indium antimonide, quantum well IR photo- detectors and indium gallium arsenide imaging system built using the described standard ROICs.

  8. Multifunctional, flexible electronic systems based on engineered nanostructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyunhyub; Kapadia, Rehan; Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Zhang, Xiaobo; Javey, Ali

    2012-08-31

    The development of flexible electronic systems has been extensively researched in recent years, with the goal of expanding the potential scope and market of modern electronic devices in the areas of computation, communications, displays, sensing and energy. Uniquely, the use of soft polymeric substrates enables the incorporation of advanced features beyond mechanical bendability and stretchability. In this paper, we describe several functionalities which can be achieved using engineered nanostructured materials. In particular, reversible binding, self-cleaning, antireflective and shape-reconfigurable properties are introduced for the realization of multifunctional, flexible electronic devices. Examples of flexible systems capable of spatial mapping and/or responding to external stimuli are also presented as a new class of user-interactive devices.

  9. Flexible Thermal Protection System Development for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dec, John A.; Rezin, Marc D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Guo, Haiquan; Fletcher, Douglas G.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Cheatwood, McNeil

    2012-01-01

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD) project has invested in development of multiple thermal protection system (TPS) candidates to be used in inflatable, high downmass, technology flight projects. Flexible TPS is one element of the HIAD project which is tasked with the research and development of the technology ranging from direct ground tests, modelling and simulation, characterization of TPS systems, manufacturing and handling, and standards and policy definition. The intent of flexible TPS is to enable large deployable aeroshell technologies, which increase the drag performance while significantly reducing the ballistic coefficient of high-mass entry vehicles. A HIAD requires a flexible TPS capable of surviving aerothermal loads, and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction, handling, high density packing, long duration exposure to extrinsic, in-situ environments, and deployment. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of key work being performed within the Flexible TPS element of the HIAD project. Included in this paper is an overview of, and results from, each Flexible TPS research and development activity, which includes ground testing, physics-based thermal modelling, age testing, margins policy, catalysis, materials characterization, and recent developments with new TPS materials.

  10. Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Flexible Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-26

    Proceedings of the American Control Conference , pp. 547-551, San Francisco, June 1993. 3 2 1.3 Personnel Dr. Robert Kosut and Dr. M. Giintekin Kabuli worked on...Control of Nonlinear Systems Under Matching Conditions," Proceedings of the American Control Conference , pp. 549-555, San Diego, CA, May 1990. [10] I...Poolla, P. Khargonekar, A. Tikku, J. Krause and K. Nagpal, "A time-domain ap- proach to model validation," Proceedings

  11. Virtual and flexible digital signal processing system based on software PnP and component works

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Wu, Qinghua; Zhong, Fei; Li, Wei

    2005-05-01

    An idea about software PnP (Plug & Play) is put forward according to the hardware PnP. And base on this idea, a virtual flexible digital signal processing system (FVDSPS) is carried out. FVDSPS is composed of a main control center, many sub-function modules and other hardware I/O modules. Main control center sends out commands to sub-function modules, and manages running orders, parameters and results of sub-functions. The software kernel of FVDSPS is DSP (Digital Signal Processing) module, which communicates with the main control center through some protocols, accept commands or send requirements. The data sharing and exchanging between the main control center and the DSP modules are carried out and managed by the files system of the Windows Operation System through the effective communication. FVDSPS real orients objects, orients engineers and orients engineering problems. With FVDSPS, users can freely plug and play, and fast reconfigure a signal process system according to engineering problems without programming. What you see is what you get. Thus, an engineer can orient engineering problems directly, pay more attention to engineering problems, and promote the flexibility, reliability and veracity of testing system. Because FVDSPS orients TCP/IP protocol, through Internet, testing engineers, technology experts can be connected freely without space. Engineering problems can be resolved fast and effectively. FVDSPS can be used in many fields such as instruments and meter, fault diagnosis, device maintenance and quality control.

  12. Flexible Early Warning Systems with Workflows and Decision Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, F.; Chaves, F.; Zeiner, H.

    2012-04-01

    An essential part of early warning systems and systems for crisis management are decision support systems that facilitate communication and collaboration. Often official policies specify how different organizations collaborate and what information is communicated to whom. For early warning systems it is crucial that information is exchanged dynamically in a timely manner and all participants get exactly the information they need to fulfil their role in the crisis management process. Information technology obviously lends itself to automate parts of the process. We have experienced however that in current operational systems the information logistics processes are hard-coded, even though they are subject to change. In addition, systems are tailored to the policies and requirements of a certain organization and changes can require major software refactoring. We seek to develop a system that can be deployed and adapted to multiple organizations with different dynamic runtime policies. A major requirement for such a system is that changes can be applied locally without affecting larger parts of the system. In addition to the flexibility regarding changes in policies and processes, the system needs to be able to evolve; when new information sources become available, it should be possible to integrate and use these in the decision process. In general, this kind of flexibility comes with a significant increase in complexity. This implies that only IT professionals can maintain a system that can be reconfigured and adapted; end-users are unable to utilise the provided flexibility. In the business world similar problems arise and previous work suggested using business process management systems (BPMS) or workflow management systems (WfMS) to guide and automate early warning processes or crisis management plans. However, the usability and flexibility of current WfMS are limited, because current notations and user interfaces are still not suitable for end-users, and workflows

  13. System Reduction and Damping of Flexible Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Riess; Krenk, Steen

    2007-01-01

    technique for local linearization of the damper characteristics. However, the complex mode shapes and frequencies depend on the magnitude of the damper and therefore are less suitable for design of the damper system. An efficient alternative consists in the use of a two-component representation...... good estimate for use in design calculations. The efficiency of the damper configuration depends on damper placement as well as damper properties. Thus a stiffness component in the damper characteristic leads to a decrease in damping efficiency. The method is illustrated by some simple examples, also...

  14. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulevitch, Peter [Pleasanton, CA; Polla, Dennis L [Roseville, MN; Maghribi, Mariam N [Davis, CA; Hamilton, Julie [Tracy, CA; Humayun, Mark S [La Canada, CA; Weiland, James D [Valencia, CA

    2012-01-28

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  15. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulevitch, Peter; Polla, Dennis L.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Hamilton, Julie; Humayun, Mark S.; Weiland, James D.

    2010-10-12

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  16. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Humayun, Mark S. (La Canada, CA); Weiland, James D. (Valencia, CA)

    2010-10-12

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  17. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Humayun, Mark S. (La Canada, CA); Weiland, James D. (Valencia, CA)

    2012-01-28

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  18. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakan Yilmaz; Mark Christie; Anna Stefanopoulou

    2010-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a true Flex Fuel Vehicle capable of running on any blend of ethanol from 0 to 85% with reduced penalty in usable vehicle range. A research and development program, targeting 10% improvement in fuel economy using a direct injection (DI) turbocharged spark ignition engine was conducted. In this project a gasoline-optimized high-technology engine was considered and the hardware and configuration modifications were defined for the engine, fueling system, and air path. Combined with a novel engine control strategy, control software, and calibration this resulted in a highly efficient and clean FFV concept. It was also intended to develop robust detection schemes of the ethanol content in the fuel integrated with adaptive control algorithms for optimized turbocharged direct injection engine combustion. The approach relies heavily on software-based adaptation and optimization striving for minimal modifications to the gasoline-optimized engine hardware system. Our ultimate objective was to develop a compact control methodology that takes advantage of any ethanol-based fuel mixture and not compromise the engine performance under gasoline operation.

  19. Methods for Procuring Power System Flexibility, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin; Miller, Mackay

    2015-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, introduces administrative and incentive-based mechanisms for procuring a cost-effective mix of flexibility sources.

  20. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during the engagement on power system flexibility. By design, the focus is on flexibility options used in the United States. Exploration of whether and how U.S. experiences can inform Chinese energy planning will be part of the continuing project, and will benefit from the knowledge base provided by this report. We believe the initial stage of collaboration represented in this report has successfully started a process of mutual understanding, helping Chinese researchers to begin evaluating how lessons learned in other countries might translate to China's unique geographic, economic, social, and political contexts.

  1. Flexibility of Supply Chain in Industrialised Building System (IBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is irrefutable that the construction industry is in need of a highly technological construction method or system for the simple aim of giving it a push it deserves. In Malaysia this technologically enhanced method is known as the Indutrialised Building System (IBS. Concerted efforts have been made for the past decade by various responsible parties especially by the government. Therefore, the IBS ‘Road Map’ 2003–2010 was introduced and now continues with the IBS ‘road map’ 2011-2015. However, its performance is still at its infancy, which target is only at an initial stage. This study seeks to identify and analyse the factor of the IBS’ system’s supply chain flexibility as a factor on the success of the system itself. It has been a suspicion that there exists a condition and situation where the supply chain is too rigid and is not flexible in fulfilling the needs and demands of the IBS development in Malaysia. This inflexible situation has brought about a broad range of problems and has stood in the way of the development of the industrialised building system, despite it being introduced since 1964, or 49 years ago. Flexibility in the IBS supply chain is very important and is associated with other industries like transportation, manufacturing industry, and others. Up until now, we have yet to discover any special studies related to the flexibility in the IBS supply chain in this country. Responding to this challenge, this research is hoped to be able to provide sufficient feedback to the solution to the IBS supply chain flexibility issue. The researcher is confident that the poor system flow of supply chain has impeded the advancement of the Industrialised Building System that has long been open to debate.

  2. Towards Flexible Self-powered Micro-scale Integrated Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-04-01

    Today’s information-centered world leads the ever-increasing consumer demand for more powerful, multifunctional portable devices. Additionally, recent developments on long-lasting energy sources and compliant, flexible systems, have introduced new required features to the portable devices industry. For example, wireless sensor networks are in urgent need of self-sustainable, easy-to-deploy, mobile platforms, wirelessly interconnected and accessible through a cloud computing system. The objective of my doctoral work is to develop integration strategies to effectively fabricate mechanically flexible, energy-independent systems, which could empower sensor networks for a great variety of new exciting applications. The first module, flexible electronics, can be achieved through several techniques and materials. Our main focus is to bring mechanical flexibility to the state-of-the-art high performing silicon-based electronics, with billions of ultra-low power, nano-sized transistors. Therefore, we have developed a low-cost batch fabrication process to transform standard, rigid, mono-crystalline silicon (100) wafer with devices, into a thin (5-20 m), mechanically flexible, optically semi-transparent silicon fabric. Recycling of the remaining wafer is possible, enabling generation of multiple fabrics to ensure lowcost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We have shown mono, amorphous and poly-crystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabrics, featuring industry’s most advanced high-/metal-gate based capacitors and transistors. The second module consists on the development of efficient energy scavenging systems. First, we have identified an innovative and relatively young technology, which can address at the same time two of the main concerns of human kind: water and energy. Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are capable of producing energy out the metabolism of bacteria while treating wastewater. We have developed two micro-liter MFC designs, one with carbon

  3. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  4. Discussion of Intelligent Ultrasonic Water Meter Remote Meter-reading System based on ZigBee%基于ZigBee的智能超声波水表远程抄表系统探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海波

    2014-01-01

    文章介绍了ZigBee技术的特点和智能超声波水表的计量原理,并对ZigBee技术在智能超声波水表远程抄表系统的应用进行了探讨。该抄表方案借助ZigBee技术在无线通信方面的优势,具有组网迅速、网络容量大、传输可靠、数据安全、实时性强等特点,非常适合智能超声波水表无线组网。该抄表方案也可应用于电表和气表。%This paper introduces the characteristics of ZigBee technology and the measurement principle of intelligent ultrasonic water meter,and the application of ZigBee technology in the intelligent ultrasonic water meter and remote meter-reading system were discussed.The meter-reading scheme using the ZigBee technology in wireless communication advantages, having the characteristics of networking quickly,large network capacity,transmission reliability,data security,real-time,very suitable for intelligent ultrasonic water meter wireless networking.The meter-reading scheme can also be applied to the electric meter and gas meter.

  5. Flexible Process Notations for Cross-organizational Case Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slaats, Tijs

    2016-01-01

    frustration and inefficiency because they do not allow workers to use their expert experience to make the best judgements on how to solve the unique challenges they are faced with. However some structuring of their work is still required to ensure that laws and business rules are being followed. IT Systems...... for process control have a large role to play in structuring and organizing such processes, however most of these systems have been developed with a focus on production work and fail to support the more flexible processes required by knowledge workers. The problem arises at the core of these systems...... of the process and techniques for runtime adaptation. This dissertation reports on the results of the Technologies for Flexible Cross-organizational Case Management Systems (FLExCMS) research project which was started in cooperation between ITU and the company Exformatics A/S. The goals of the project were...

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF MATERIAL FLOW IN FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V.S. BHASKAR,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible manufacturing systems have evolved as a solution to efficient mid-volume production of a variety of part types with low setup time, low work-in-process, low inventory, short manufacturing lead time, high machine utilization and high quality. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS is a computer controlled manufacturing system composed of separate workstations that are inter-connected by automatic material handling system. FMS can produce a number of different parts concurrently. Each part requires different operations in a certain sequence and workstations can typically perform a variety of operations. In this work, a material and information flow analysis as well as an analysis of the department and machines layout is made using genetic algorithm and Tabu search. This method reduces the manufacturing lead-time to produce the components and in-turn gives monetary benefits to the industry.

  7. Flexible Workflow Management in Agile Supply Chain System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the vehement development of global competition , Agile Supply Chain (ASC) becomes an effective approach that supports dynamic ent erprise alliance and realizes agile manufacturing, as for the enterprises to cap ture market opportunities rapidly and strengthen their anti-risk ability. As Ag ile Supply Chain System (ASCS) is dynamic and distributed, the realization of it 's processes needs to be much flexible. Often in Agile Supply Chain System (ASCS ), there are many dynamic tasks, many changes of the ...

  8. A flexible microprocessor system for the measurement of cell size.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A flexible system for the measurement of length and area is described. The system consists of the Reichert Jung MOP-1 area measuring device interfaced with a Commodore PET computer. Its use is illustrated by the planimetric measurement of cross sectional areas in histochemical preparations of normal and diseased muscle. While measurements are being made data can be displayed on the computer screen either in numerical form or as a frequency histogram together with simple statistical analyses. ...

  9. Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.

  10. A computational procedure for multibody systems including flexible beam dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, J. D.; Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure suitable for the solution of equations of motions for flexible multibody systems has been developed. The flexible beams are modeled using a fully nonlinear theory which accounts for both finite rotations and large deformations. The present formulation incorporates physical measures of conjugate Cauchy stress and covariant strain increments. As a consequence, the beam model can easily be interfaced with real-time strain measurements and feedback control systems. A distinct feature of the present work is the computational preservation of total energy for undamped systems; this is obtained via an objective strain increment/stress update procedure combined with an energy-conserving time integration algorithm which contains an accurate update of angular orientations. The procedure is demonstrated via several example problems.

  11. Wind Power Ramping Product for Increasing Power System Flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2016-05-05

    With increasing penetrations of wind power, system operators are concerned about a potential lack of system flexibility and ramping capacity in real-time dispatch stages. In this paper, a modified dispatch formulation is proposed considering the wind power ramping product (WPRP). A swinging door algorithm (SDA) and dynamic programming are combined and used to detect WPRPs in the next scheduling periods. The detected WPRPs are included in the unit commitment (UC) formulation considering ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. The modified formulation is solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulations on a modified PJM 5-bus System show the effectiveness of the model considering WPRP, which not only reduces the production cost but also does not affect the generation schedules of thermal units.

  12. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  13. A data oriented framework for developing flexible information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Dařena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of a rapidly changing environment, the success of organizations is dependent upon the ongoing and immediate adjustments of their information systems as reactions to these changes. Therefore, flexibility becomes one of the most crucial features in information systems. This paper specifies a data model oriented framework for the development of flexible information systems. The result of such process is a system that is sufficiently general and flexible in relation to solving problems related to changing environment. From general requirements related to data layer of information systems the paper discusses the definition of major elements of logical data model (entities and their hierarchical arrangement, attributes of the entities and their important characteristics, relationships among entities and their characteristics as well as possibilities of implementation and definition of application logic and data presentation. Proposed framework enables the organization to specify its own database structure, which best matches the situation of the organization and its environment. Because an approach similar to meta-data approaches is applied, methods for information sharing and interchange can be easily specified as well as program logic for manipulation with the data base on the application layer and data presentation.

  14. Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of papers presented at the Fourth NASA Workshop on Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems is given. The papers address modeling, systems identification, and control of flexible aircraft, spacecraft and robotic systems.

  15. Flexible surveillance system architecture for prototyping video content analysis algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, R. G. J.; Jaspers, E. G. T.; de With, P. H. N.

    2006-01-01

    Many proposed video content analysis algorithms for surveillance applications are very computationally intensive, which limits the integration in a total system, running on one processing unit (e.g. PC). To build flexible prototyping systems of low cost, a distributed system with scalable processing power is therefore required. This paper discusses requirements for surveillance systems, considering two example applications. From these requirements, specifications for a prototyping architecture are derived. An implementation of the proposed architecture is presented, enabling mapping of multiple software modules onto a number of processing units (PCs). The architecture enables fast prototyping of new algorithms for complex surveillance applications without considering resource constraints.

  16. Developing of robot flexible processing system for shipbuilding profile steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚舜; 邱涛; 楼松年; 王宏杰

    2003-01-01

    A robot flexible processing system of shipbuilding profile steel was developed. The system consists of computer integrated control and robot. An off-line programming robot was used for marking and cutting of shipbuilding profile steel. In the system the deformation and position error of profile steel can be detected by precise sensors, and figure position coordinate error resulted from profile steel deformation can be compensated by modifying traveling track of robotic arm online. The practical operation results show that the system performance can meet the needs of profile steel processing.

  17. Scalable and Flexible heterogeneous multi-core system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-core system has wide utility in today’s applications due to less power consumption and high performance. Many researchers are aiming at improving the performance of these systems by providing flexible multi-core architecture. Flexibility in the multi-core processors system provides high throughput for uniform parallel applications as well as high performance for more general work. This flexibility in the architecture can be achieved by scalable and changeablesize window micro architecture. It uses the concept of execution locality to provide large-window capabilities. Use of high memory-level parallelism (MLP reduces the memory wall. Micro architecture contains a set of small and fast cache processors which execute high locality code. A network of small in-order memory engines use low locality code to improve performance by using instruction level parallelism (ILP. Dynamic heterogeneous multi-core architecture is capable of reconfiguring itself to fit application requirements. Study of different scalable and flexible architectures of heterogeneous multi-core system has been carried out and has been presented.

  18. Flexible Lyapunov Functions and Applications to Fast Mechatronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Lazar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The property that every control system should posses is stability, which translates into safety in real-life applications. A central tool in systems theory for synthesizing control laws that achieve stability are control Lyapunov functions (CLFs. Classically, a CLF enforces that the resulting closed-loop state trajectory is contained within a cone with a fixed, predefined shape, and which is centered at and converges to a desired converging point. However, such a requirement often proves to be overconservative, which is why most of the real-time controllers do not have a stability guarantee. Recently, a novel idea that improves the design of CLFs in terms of flexibility was proposed. The focus of this new approach is on the design of optimization problems that allow certain parameters that define a cone associated with a standard CLF to be decision variables. In this way non-monotonicity of the CLF is explicitly linked with a decision variable that can be optimized on-line. Conservativeness is significantly reduced compared to classical CLFs, which makes flexible CLFs more suitable for stabilization of constrained discrete-time nonlinear systems and real-time control. The purpose of this overview is to highlight the potential of flexible CLFs for real-time control of fast mechatronic systems, with sampling periods below one millisecond, which are widely employed in aerospace and automotive applications.

  19. The Integrated Waste Tracking System - A Flexible Waste Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2001-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has fully embraced a flexible, computer-based tool to help increase waste management efficiency and integrate multiple operational functions from waste generation through waste disposition while reducing cost. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS)provides comprehensive information management for containerized waste during generation,storage, treatment, transport, and disposal. The IWTS provides all information necessary for facilities to properly manage and demonstrate regulatory compliance. As a platformindependent, client-server and Web-based inventory and compliance system, the IWTS has proven to be a successful tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of management flexibility.

  20. Flexible Calibration Method for 3D Laser Scanner System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中东; 王鹏; 李晓慧; 孙长库

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a flexible high-precision calibration method suitable for industrial field was proposed. The complexity of the coordinate transformation was simplified by choosing the camera coordinate system as the unified reference coordinate system. A flexible planar calibration pattern was introduced to the calibration process, which can be arbitrarily placed and from which the known feature points can be extracted to construct other unknown feature points. With the known intrinsic parameters, the laser projector plane equation was fitted by the multi-noncollinear points, which were acquired through the principle of triangulation and the projective invariance of cross ratio. With this method, the strict alignment and multiple times of coordinate transformation can be avoided. Experimental results showed that the arithmetic mean of the root mean square (RMS) error of distance was 0.000 7 mm.

  1. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs) in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainabili...

  2. Thirty Meter Telescope narrow-field infrared adaptive optics system real-time controller prototyping results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Chapin, Edward L.; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-07-01

    Prototyping and benchmarking was performed for the Real-Time Controller (RTC) of the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). To perform wavefront correction, NFIRAOS utilizes two deformable mirrors (DM) and one tip/tilt stage (TTS). The RTC receives wavefront information from six Laser Guide Star (LGS) Shack- Hartmann WaveFront Sensors (WFS), one high-order Natural Guide Star Pyramid WaveFront Sensor (PWFS) and multiple low-order instrument detectors. The RTC uses this information to determine the commands to send to the wavefront correctors. NFIRAOS is the first light AO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The prototyping was performed using dual-socket high performance Linux servers with the real-time (PREEMPT_RT) patch and demonstrated the viability of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware approach to large scale AO reconstruction. In particular, a large custom matrix vector multiplication (MVM) was benchmarked which met the required latency requirements. In addition all major inter-machine communication was verified to be adequate using 10Gb and 40Gb Ethernet. The results of this prototyping has enabled a CPU-based NFIRAOS RTC design to proceed with confidence and that COTS hardware can be used to meet the demanding performance requirements.

  3. Pounds room metering management system%磅房计量管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高路

    2012-01-01

    针对企业磅房原物料过磅入库和产品出磅计量管理中出现的问题,提出了一种结合计算机网络技术、视频监控和红外定位等技术,建立远程网络磅房计量管理系统的方案。介绍了系统的结构组成、工作流程和软件实现的功能。作为企业信息化管理的重要组成部分,该系统的运行实践表明,对节约企业管理成本、提高企业工作效率和经营效益具有积极的作用。%Aiming at the problem of the management of the enterprise pound raw material put in storage and product leave factory.a scheme of establishing remote network pounds room metering management system with is put forward combination of the computer network,video monitoring and infrared positioning technology.Then introduce the sytsem structure and composition,workflow and software function.Operating practice of the system show that it has positive effects on the enterprise administrative cost savings,the working efficiency and business operation improvement as the important parts of the corporate information management.

  4. Integration of Behind-the-Meter PV Fleet Forecasts into Utility Grid System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Thomas Hoff [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States); Kankiewicz, Adam [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Four major research objectives were completed over the course of this study. Three of the objectives were to evaluate three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models. The fourth objective was to improve the California Independent System Operator’s (ISO) load forecasts by integrating behind-the-meter (BTM) PV forecasts. The three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models included: the infrared (IR) satellite-based cloud motion vector (CMV) model; the WRF-SolarCA model and variants; and the Optimized Deep Machine Learning (ODML)-training model. The first two forecasting models targeted known weaknesses in current operational solar forecasts. They were benchmarked against existing operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts, visible satellite CMV forecasts, and measured PV plant power production. IR CMV, WRF-SolarCA, and ODML-training forecasting models all improved the forecast to a significant degree. Improvements varied depending on time of day, cloudiness index, and geographic location. The fourth objective was to demonstrate that the California ISO’s load forecasts could be improved by integrating BTM PV forecasts. This objective represented the project’s most exciting and applicable gains. Operational BTM forecasts consisting of 200,000+ individual rooftop PV forecasts were delivered into the California ISO’s real-time automated load forecasting (ALFS) environment. They were then evaluated side-by-side with operational load forecasts with no BTM-treatment. Overall, ALFS-BTM day-ahead (DA) forecasts performed better than baseline ALFS forecasts when compared to actual load data. Specifically, ALFS-BTM DA forecasts were observed to have the largest reduction of error during the afternoon on cloudy days. Shorter term 30 minute-ahead ALFS-BTM forecasts were shown to have less error under all sky conditions, especially during the morning time periods when traditional load forecasts often experience their largest

  5. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  6. PASSIVE-ACTIVE CONTROL OF A FLEXIBLE ISOLATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Kongjie; Zhang Bing; Sun Lingling; Sun Yuguo

    2003-01-01

    Passive-active control of a flexible isolation system is investigated from the viewpoint of power flow. Dynamic transfer equations of the system are deduced based on a matrix method which uses mobility or impedance representations of three substructures: the source of vibration, the receiver and the mounting system which connects the source to the receiver. The cancellation of axial input forces to the receiver is considered as the active control strategy and its effects are discussed. The results of the study show that the strategy adopted herein can effectively reduce the power transmitted to the receiver.

  7. Wireless Centralized Meter Reading System Based on Short Distance Wireless Communication and 3G%基于短距无线通信与3G的无线集中抄表系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩浩; 屈玉贵

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the shortcomings of existing meter reading systems, proposes a wireless centralized meter reading system based on short distance wireless communication and 3G.The system combines the short distance wireless communication and 3G technology together with the data's collection and transmission through a wireless manner.The collected data of meter are transmitted through the 3G network to the billing department of the data management center.When compared with existing meter reading systems, this system has a more flexible layout, larger coverage, lower power consumption, higher real-time features, less interference and gets better results in practical application.%分析现有抄表系统存在的不足,介绍基于短距无线通信与3G的无线集中抄表系统.结合短距无线通信与3G技术,数据的汇聚与转发均通过无线方式进行.将采集到的计量表数据通过3G网络转发到计费部门的数据管理中心.与现有的抄表系统相比,该系统具有布置灵活、抄表范围大、功耗低、实时性好、干扰小等特点,在实际应用中有较好效果.

  8. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64864. This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during the engagement on power system flexibility. By design, the focus is on flexibility options used in the United States. Exploration of whether and how U.S. experiences can inform Chinese energy planning will be part of the continuing project, and will benefit from the knowledge base provided by this report. We believe the initial stage of collaboration represented in this report has successfully started a process of mutual understanding, helping Chinese researchers to begin evaluating how lessons learned in other countries might translate to China's unique geographic, economic, social, and political contexts.

  9. Indirect control of flexible demand for power system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    demand is addressed. We investigate the subject considering both how to achieve a shift in the consumption of the single DSRs, and how to generate the indirect control signal for a population of DSRs in order to support the operation of the grid. In the former case, we develop algorithms that achieve...... a shift in the consumption according to an indirect control signal. We present from simple control algorithms with a few requirements up to model predictive control strategies. The performance of the indirect control algorithms are compared by means of hardware-in-the-loop simulations using Power...... Flexhouse, a facility of DTU Elektro for testing demand side management strategies, as experimental site. In the latter case, we develop four applications where flexible demand is required to support power system operations. The applications are: integration of the operation of flexible demand...

  10. Lumped mass formulations for modeling flexible body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampalli, Rajiv

    1989-01-01

    The efforts of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. in obtaining a general formulation for flexible bodies in a multibody setting are discussed. The efforts being supported by MDI, both in house and externally are summarized. The feasibility of using lumped mass approaches to modeling flexibility in a multibody dynamics context is examined. The kinematics and kinetics for a simple system consisting of two rigid bodies connected together by an elastic beam are developed in detail. Accuracy, efficiency and ease of use using this approach are some of the issues that are then looked at. The formulation is then generalized to a superelement containing several nodes and connecting several bodies. Superelement kinematics and kinetics equations are developed. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method is illustrated by the use of some examples illustrating phenomena common in the context of spacecraft motions.

  11. A Combinatorial Auction Based Algorithm for Flexible Seat Reservation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otomura, Kazutoshi; Tomii, Norio

    We present algorithms for flexible seat distribution problems, which is defined as a problem to give an appropriate travel plan to each passenger after receiving their requests concerning their travel demands. Seat distribution problems occur when a flexible seat reservation system is implemented in which passengers are allowed to reserve seats by submitting their demands instead of specifying trains. To solve the seat distribution problem, we have formalized it as a winner determination problem of the combinatorial auction mechanism. It should be noted that difficulty of the seat distribution problem varies depending on instances of the problem, because the number of demands often varies and users' requests sometimes converge on particular trains. This suggests that in order to get solutions with high quality, algorithms that appropriately control the search space are indispensable. In this paper, we present three kinds of such algorithms for the seat distribution problem together with the results of several experiments.

  12. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 – Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Turner, W. J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-11-12

    Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must be measured so that energy is not wasted with over ventilation and occupants’ health is not compromised by under ventilation. Flow hoods are used to measure these ventilation flows, but there is currently no standard specifying the measurement procedure and measurement devices that should be used. This study evaluates the accuracy of six commercially available flow hoods under laboratory conditions configured to emulate a residential mechanical ventilation duct system. The measurements taken with the flow hoods were compared to simultaneous measurements taken by an in-line reference flow meter having a known uncertainty. Results indicate that powered flow hoods yield more accurate measurements than non-powered flow hoods, and that a majority of the flow hoods measured inlet flows more accurately than outlet flows. In several cases, there was little resemblance between the manufacturers’ stated accuracy and the accuracy we found in our laboratory measurements. It is clear that current flow hood calibration procedures may not consider field application variables such as flow asymmetry, flow angle, and flow direction. A new flow hood measurement standard that takes these ‘real world’ conditions into account should be developed to ensure that residential buildings receive the intended ventilation flows.

  13. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 – Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J. Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Turner, W. J. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2012-11-30

    Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must be measured so that energy is not wasted with over ventilation and occupants’ health is not compromised by under ventilation. Flow hoods are used to measure these ventilation flows, but there is currently no standard specifying the measurement procedure and measurement devices that should be used. This study evaluates the accuracy of six commercially available flow hoods under laboratory conditions configured to emulate a residential mechanical ventilation duct system. The measurements taken with the flow hoods were compared to simultaneous measurements taken by an in-line reference flow meter having a known uncertainty. Results indicate that powered flow hoods yield more accurate measurements than non-powered flow hoods, and that a majority of the flow hoods measured inlet flows more accurately than outlet flows. In several cases, there was little resemblance between the manufacturers’ stated accuracy and the accuracy we found in our laboratory measurements. It is clear that current flow hood calibration procedures may not consider field application variables such as flow asymmetry, flow angle, and flow direction. A new flow hood measurement standard that takes these ‘real world’ conditions into account should be developed to ensure that residential buildings receive the intended ventilation flows.

  14. Isothermal calorimetry: a predictive tool to model drug-propellant interactions in pressurized metered dose systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Gaisford, Simon; Boyd, Ben J; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate gas perfusion isothermal calorimetry (ITC) as a method to characterize the physicochemical changes of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) intended to be formulated in pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) after exposure to a model propellant. Spray dried samples of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and salbutamol sulphate (SS) were exposed to controlled quantities of 2H,3H-decafluoropentane (HPFP) to determine whether ITC could be used as a suitable analytical method for gathering data on the behavioural properties of the powders in real time. The crystallization kinetics of BDP and the physiochemical properties of SS were successfully characterized using ITC and supported by a variety of other analytical techniques. Correlations between real and model propellant systems were also established using hydrofluoroalkane (HFA-227) propellant. In summary, ITC was found to be suitable for gathering data on the crystallization kinetics of BDP and SS. In a wider context, this work will have implications on the use of ITC for stability testing of APIs in HFA-based pMDIs.

  15. FLEXIBLE SERVICE BINDING IN DISTRIBUTED AUTOMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana VOICAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.Particular emphasis was placed on the dynamic lease-based binding of services which on the one hand provides flexible and loose coupling of system components but on the other hand has to ensure reliable communication and cooperation. The guidelines were applied to the experimental implementation of a manufacturing cell control system using a real-time version of the Java Runtime Environment. The Device Profi.le for Web Services (DPWS was used as basic infrastructure technology. Test and evaluation were performed under distributed simulation of technical processes and devices

  16. Novel method for heuristic modelling of flexible manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payyalore R. Venkateswaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS play an important role in industrial automation. They belong to a class of systems known as discrete event systems (DES representing varying events with time. The modeling and control of such systems poses a challenge of handling uncertainties in resources and sequences for optimization. Presently the tools used for modeling such systems including Petri nets are constrained in the face of uncertainties in the system. A modified approach using new fuzzy logic formalism in Petri nets is proposed in this paper as a solution to overcome the problem. The utility of this formulation is that apart from the validity, it is adaptable to practical implementation in sequence controllers normally employed in FMS.

  17. Building Flexible Manufacturing Systems Based on Peer-Its

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hechinger

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer computing principles have started to pervade into mechanical control systems, inducing a paradigm shift from centralized to autonomic control. We have developed a self-contained, miniaturized, universal and scalable peer-to-peer based hardware-software system, the peer-it platform, to serve as a stick-on computer solution to raise real-world artefacts like, for example, machines, tools, or appliances towards technology-rich, autonomous, self-induced, and context-aware peers, operating as spontaneously interacting ensembles. The peer-it platform integrates sensor, actuator, and wireless communication facilities on the hardware level, with an object-oriented, component-based coordination framework at the software level, thus providing a generic platform for sensing, computing, controlling, and communication on a large scale. The physical appearance of a peer-it supports pinning it to real-world artefacts, while at the same time integrating those artefacts into a mobile ad hoc network of peers. Peer-it networks thus represent ensembles of coordinated artefacts, exhibiting features of autonomy like self-management at the node level and self-organization at the network level. We demonstrate how the peer-it system implements the desired flexibility in automated manufacturing systems to react in the case of changes, whether intended or unexpectedly occuring. The peer-it system enables machine flexibility in that it adapts production facilities to produce new types of products, or change the order of operation executed on parts instantaneously. Secondly, it enables routing flexibility, that is, the ability to use multiple machines to spontaneously perform the same operation on one part alternatively (to implement autonomic fault tolerance or to absorb large-scale changes in volume, capacity, or capability (to implement autonomic scalability.

  18. Building Flexible Manufacturing Systems Based on Peer-Its

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dos Santos Rocha M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peer-to-peer computing principles have started to pervade into mechanical control systems, inducing a paradigm shift from centralized to autonomic control. We have developed a self-contained, miniaturized, universal and scalable peer-to-peer based hardware-software system, the peer-it platform, to serve as a stick-on computer solution to raise real-world artefacts like, for example, machines, tools, or appliances towards technology-rich, autonomous, self-induced, and context-aware peers, operating as spontaneously interacting ensembles. The peer-it platform integrates sensor, actuator, and wireless communication facilities on the hardware level, with an object-oriented, component-based coordination framework at the software level, thus providing a generic platform for sensing, computing, controlling, and communication on a large scale. The physical appearance of a peer-it supports pinning it to real-world artefacts, while at the same time integrating those artefacts into a mobile ad hoc network of peers. Peer-it networks thus represent ensembles of coordinated artefacts, exhibiting features of autonomy like self-management at the node level and self-organization at the network level. We demonstrate how the peer-it system implements the desired flexibility in automated manufacturing systems to react in the case of changes, whether intended or unexpectedly occuring. The peer-it system enables machine flexibility in that it adapts production facilities to produce new types of products, or change the order of operation executed on parts instantaneously. Secondly, it enables routing flexibility, that is, the ability to use multiple machines to spontaneously perform the same operation on one part alternatively (to implement autonomic fault tolerance or to absorb large-scale changes in volume, capacity, or capability (to implement autonomic scalability.

  19. Animation of multi-flexible body systems and its use in control system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengst, Carl; Stahlberg, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Animation can greatly assist the structural dynamicist and control system analyst with better understanding of how multi-flexible body systems behave. For multi-flexible body systems, the structural characteristics (mode frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) change, sometimes dramatically with large angles of rotation between bodies. With computer animation, the analyst can visualize these changes and how the system responds to active control forces and torques. A characterization of the type of system we wish to animate is presented. The lack of clear understanding of the above effects was a key element leading to the development of a multi-flexible body animation software package. The resulting animation software is described in some detail here, followed by its application to the control system analyst. Other applications of this software can be determined on an individual need basis. A number of software products are currently available that make the high-speed rendering of rigid body mechanical system simulation possible. However, such options are not available for use in rendering flexible body mechanical system simulations. The desire for a high-speed flexible body visualization tool led to the development of the Flexible Or Rigid Mechanical System (FORMS) software. This software was developed at the Center for Simulation and Design Optimization of Mechanical Systems at the University of Iowa. FORMS provides interactive high-speed rendering of flexible and/or rigid body mechanical system simulations, and combines geometry and motion information to produce animated output. FORMS is designed to be both portable and flexible, and supports a number of different user interfaces and graphical display devices. Additional features have been added to FORMS that allow special visualization results related to the nature of the flexible body geometric representations.

  20. Implications of flexible work systems for work studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    1997-12-01

    The relationship between changing work systems and work study methods is discussed by focusing on a recent trend toward more flexible work systems in different countries. These systems are commonly characterized by (a) uncoupling of working hours from business hours, (b) combining different atypical work forms and (c) individualized work patterns. Increased flexibility in working patterns is demanded because business hours may be covered by different workers and because special arrangements become necessary for unpopular shifts or linking separate jobs. Changes in work systems seem more successful when they are associated with (a) multiskilled work, (b) independent task implementation, (c) networked communication, (d) balanced or adjusted workload, and (e) accommodation of workers' preferences. Special attention is drawn to safety and health concerns and work-life effects. Many intervention studies done for work improvement are paying attention to multifaceted work aspects, locally available options, and participation by people. All these elements are important because prepackaged solutions do not exist. The following three views seem especially useful for action-oriented work studies: 1) Look at multiple aspects of the work, including work content and atypical work forms; 2) Know worker preferences and available options; and 3) Take into account work elements that may not be well defined, but important from local points of view. It is envisioned that these studies can provide support for a well-informed participatory process of work system changes in each local context.

  1. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime, thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime.

  2. A flexible micro fluid transport system featuring magnetorheological elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Majid; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a flexible magnetically-actuated micro fluid transport system utilizing an isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). Theoretical modeling and analysis of this system is presented for a two-dimensional model. This fluid transport system can propel the fluid by applying a fluctuating magnetic field on the MRE. The magneto-fluid-structure interaction analysis is employed to determine movement of the solid domain and the velocity of the fluid under a controllable magnetic field. The effects of key material, geometric, and magnetic parameters on the behavior of this system are examined. It is demonstrated that the proposed system can propel the fluid unidirectionally, and the volume of the transported fluid is significantly affected by some of the design parameters.

  3. Design of Storage and Distribution Network for Electricity Metering Devices with Flexibility Consideration%考虑柔性服务的电能计量装置仓储配送网络设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解岩; 刘茜茜; 王国华; 卞文良

    2016-01-01

    为了提升天津电网计量装置仓储配送网络的整体效率,将柔性配送服务模式考虑到网络布局之中,并结合物流一体化理论,建立了一体化物流网络设计模型(ILND).模型在综合考虑设施能力约束和柔性配送模式选择影响的前提下,以网络建设费用、仓储费用和运输费用构成的网络总成本最小为优化目标,并通过模拟退火算法进行求解,实现对计量分库的选址、辐射范围以及周转站的柔性配送方案地决策.最后通过数值算例说明了模型和算法的可靠性及有效性.%In this paper, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the electricity metering devices storage and distribution network of State Grid Tianjin Company, we incorporated the flexible distribution service mode into the layout of the network, and then in connection with the logistics integration theory, built the integrated logistics network model (ILND). After comprehensively considering the capacity constraint of the facilities and the influence of the flexible distribution mode selected, we set the minimal total cost of network construction, storage and transportation as the multiple objectives of the model, and then solved it using the simulated annealing algorithm to determine the flexible distribution plan concerning the location allocation, covering radius and turnover point of the metering device warehouse. At the end, we demonstrated the reliability and validity of the model and algorithm through a numerical example.

  4. Control of flexible rotor systems with active magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuliang; Palazzolo, Alan

    2008-07-01

    An approach is presented for the analysis and design of magnetic suspension systems with large flexible rotordynamics models including dynamics, control, and simulation. The objective is to formulate and synthesize a large-order, flexible shaft rotordynamics model for a flywheel supported with magnetic bearings. A finite element model of the rotor system is assembled and then employed to develop a magnetic suspension compensator to provide good reliability and disturbance rejection. Stable operation over the complete speed range and optimization of the closed-loop rotordynamic properties are obtained via synthesis of eigenvalue analysis, Campbell plots, waterfall plots, and mode shapes. The large order of the rotor model and high spin speed of the rotor present a challenge for magnetic suspension control. A flywheel system is studied as an example for realizing a physical controller that provides stable rotor suspension and good disturbance rejection in all operating states. The baseline flywheel system control is determined from extensive rotordynamics synthesis and analysis for rotor critical speeds, mode shapes, frequency responses, and time responses.

  5. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  6. Sufficient conditions for a flexible manufacturing system to be deadlocked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Deering

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have been interested in scheduling algorithms to avoid deadlock in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS. FMS are discrete event systems characterized by the availability of resources to produce a set of products. Raw parts, which belong to various product types, enter the system at discrete times and are processed concurrently while sharing a limited number of resources. In such systems, a situation may occur in which parts become permanently block. This is called deadlock. This paper presents the sufficient conditions for deadlock to exist in a FMS; it models a FMS using digraphs to calculate slack, knot, order and space; it identifies three types of circuits that are fundamental in determining if a FMS is in deadlock.

  7. Introduction to Flexible Manufacturing Systems: their applications, classification, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, G.P.

    1983-09-20

    A Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is an automatic manufacturing system consisting of several types of automated fabrication equipment and a common material handling system, supervised by a common computer and designed to randomly manufacture or assemble products belonging to a common part family. The FMSs are essentially limited in their applications to discrete mechanical type hardware, such as the fabrication of metal parts, the assembly of components, or the manufacture and inspection of hard goods. The FMS grouping can be classified in various ways into modules, cells or work cells, and more complex systems. Two kinds of opportunities are discussed: the opportunity to design and acquire an FMS so it gives the maximum benefits to the user, and the opportunities for the FMS builders to take advantage of a growing market. (LEW)

  8. Numerical Solution for Stiff Dynamic Equations of Flexible Multibody System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Yan-ping; WU Guo-rong

    2008-01-01

    A nonlinear numerical integration method, based on forward and backward Euler integration methods, is proposed for solving the stiff dynamic equations of a flexible multibody system, which are transformed from the second order to the first order by adop- ring state variables. This method is of A0 stability and infinity stability. The numerical solutions violating the constraint equations are corrected by Blajer's modification approach. Simulation results of a slider-crank mechanism by the proposed method are in good a- greement with ones from other literature.

  9. Flexible applicator systems for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic tumors; Flexible Applikatoren zur Radiofrequenzablation (RFA) bei Lebertumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, B.; Gaffke, G.; Felix, R.; Stroszczynski, C. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Robert-Roessle-Klinik, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde; Huenerbein, M. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Robert-Roessle-Klinik, Klinik fuer Chirurgie und chirurgische Onkologie

    2003-12-01

    Purpose: To report our experience with flexible applicators in radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic tumors. Materials and Methods: In 6 liver tumors in 6 patients, a flexible RFA-applicator system (RITA StarBurst FLEX, RITA Medical Systems, Mountain View, CA, USA) was placed under CT guidance. The Seldinger technique with an 11G access system (RITA StarBurst Access) was used to place the application system into the liver. Before and within a week after the ablation, all tumors were investigated with contrast-enhanced MRI. Results: The Seldinger technique accommodated the placement of a thin 17.5-gauge needle for the initial puncture, enabling easy adjustment of the position of the needle. The flexible applicator of the RFA system could be placed in 4.5 ({+-}1.8) minutes on average. Conclusion: Flexible applicators facilitate CT-guided RFA and can be placed using the Seldinger technique. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Wir berichten ueber unsere Erfahrungen mit neuartigen flexiblen Applikatorsystemen bei der Radiofrequenzablation (RFA) von Leberturmoren. Material und Methode: Unter computertomographischer (CT) Kontrolle wurde bei 6 Patienten mit insgesamt 6 Tumoren eine RFA mit einem flexiblen Applikatorsystem (RITA StarBurst FLEX 13 G 25 cm, RITA Medical Systems, Mountain View, USA) durchgefuehrt. Dabei wurde das flexible Applikatorsystem in Seldinger-Technik ueber eine 11-G-Schleuse (RITA StarBurst Access) in die Leber eingebracht. Vor und nach Ablation wurde eine kontrastmittelgestuetzte Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Durch die Seldinger-Technik konnte fuer die initiale Punktion eine vergleichsweise duenne (17,5 G) Nadel verwendet werden, was Lagekorrekturen erleichterte. Das flexible Applikatorsystem in Verbindung mit der Seldinger-Technik erlaubte die Platzierung des Applikators in durchschnittlich 4,5 ({+-}1,8) Minuten. Schlussfolgerung: Flexible Applikatorsysteme erleichtern die RFA in der CT und erlauben eine Platzierung mittels

  10. Flexible procurement systems is key to supply chain sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this dynamic business environment, manufacturers are focusing primarily on delivery performance and competitive pricing to win orders. It is essential that manufacturers adopt flexible procurement systems (FPSs in such an uncertain environment for business sustainability.Objectives: The purpose of the study is to identify the elements of FPSs and model the interrelationships between elements of FPSs and, finally, to understand how FPSs are linked with supply chain sustainability.Method: Besides providing a brief conceptual review of FPSs, the study largely illustrates the use of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making approach called total interpretive structural modelling (TISM.Results: The total interpretive structural modelling–based model evaluates the causality and illustrates elements with interpretation of relations and suggests that bottom-level elements are vital for sustainability in FPSs and avert risks. Secondly, strategic sourcing is positively influencing supplier integration. Thirdly, supplier integration positively influences supplier responsiveness. Fourthly, skills of flexible procurement workforce positively influence supplier integration. Fifthly, it is found that supplier integration positively influences flexible transportation. The sixth finding suggests that supplier integration positively influences eco-friendly packaging. The seventh finding highlights that supplier integration positively influences ISO 14001 certifications. The eighth finding explains that supplier responsiveness positively influences customer satisfaction. It is also observed that flexible transport reduces operational cost and environmental costs. The second last finding explains eco-friendly packaging and reduction in environmental cost by careful selection of packing material and chemicals. Lastly, it is found that ISO 14001/environmental certifications reduce environmental costs by greening suppliers and pressurises them to

  11. Flexible Reconfiguration of Existing Urban Water Infrastructure Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Lina Sela; Allen, Michael; Preis, Ami; Iqbal, Mudasser; Whittle, Andrew J

    2015-11-17

    This paper presents a practical methodology for the flexible reconfiguration of existing water distribution infrastructure, which is adaptive to the water utility constraints and facilitates in operational management for pressure and water loss control. The network topology is reconfigured into a star-like topology, where the center node is a connected subset of transmission mains, that provides connection to water sources, and the nodes are the subsystems that are connected to the sources through the center node. In the proposed approach, the system is first decomposed into the main and subsystems based on graph theory methods and then the network reconfiguration problem is approximated as a single-objective linear programming problem, which is efficiently solved using a standard solver. The performance and resiliency of the original and reconfigured systems are evaluated through direct and surrogate measures. The methodology is demonstrated using two large-scale water distribution systems, showing the flexibility of the proposed approach. The results highlight the benefits and disadvantages of network decentralization.

  12. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  13. A flexible microprocessor system for the measurement of cell size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J M; Jones, D A; Edwards, R H

    1982-06-01

    A flexible system for the measurement of length and area is described. The system consists of the Reichert Jung MOP-1 area measuring device interfaced with a Commodore PET computer. Its use is illustrated by the planimetric measurement of cross sectional areas in histochemical preparations of normal and diseased muscle. While measurements are being made data can be displayed on the computer screen either in numerical form or as a frequency histogram together with simple statistical analyses. Hard copy can be obtained from an attached printer. Mean values for fibre area in normal human skeletal muscle are reported. An alternative, widely used method of calculating fibre area from the lesser diameter was found to give a consistent underestimate of approximately 30% when compared with our planimetric method. In diseased muscle with abnormally shaped fibres the discrepancy is even larger; such fibres can be identified using a "form factor" which relates the area of a cell to its perimeter. This rapid, accurate and flexible system is also suitable for the measurement of many different types of graphical record.

  14. Financial Flexibility as a Phenomenon of Manifestation of Flexibility of the Financial System at the Micro-level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laktionova Oleksandra A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers financial flexibility of economic subjects in the context of specific features of manifestation of this property at the micro-level of the financial system. It generalises various theoretical approaches to understanding the essence of the financial flexibility in the context of motives of its formation, sources and instruments of realisation. It specifies criteria of financial flexibility: manoeuvrability, efficiency and economy. It studies interrelation between the financial flexibility and financial restrictions at the micro-level and, consequently, factors that determine them: capital market imperfection, development level and structure of the financial system, cyclicity of economy, and company characteristics (including financial architecture. The article describes their distinguishing features. It states that apart from maintaining the financial flexibility during formation of money reserves and debt load resource the companies can be guided by other motives. It offers classification of types of financial flexibility based on the sources and goals of formation, influence upon the financial potential, stages of reproduction of financial resources, the instruments used, engaged elements of the financial mechanism, stages of the business cycle and types of the used financial resources.

  15. Optimal Scheduling for the Complementary Energy Storage System Operation Based on Smart Metering Data in the DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokyung Ko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG sources in low-voltage grid feeders causes problems concerning voltage regulation. The penetration of DG sources such as photovoltaics (PVs in the distribution system can significantly impact the power flow and voltage conditions on the customer side. As the DG sources are more commonly connected to low-voltage distribution systems, voltage fluctuations in the distribution system are experienced because of the DG fluctuation and uncertainty. Therefore, the penetration of DGs in distribution systems is often limited by the required operating voltage ranges. By using an energy storage system (ESS, voltage fluctuation can be compensated for, thus satisfying the voltage regulation requirements. This paper presents an ESS scheduling algorithm based on the power injection data obtained from a smart metering system. The proposed ESS scheduling algorithm is designed for use within a direct current (DC distribution grid, which comprises customers, each with a PV and an ESS system. The purpose of this ESS scheduling algorithm is to optimize the ESS scheduling by considering the complementary operation among all the ESSs.

  16. Prototyping low-cost and flexible vehicle diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol GARCÍA-VALLS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic systems are software and hardware-based equipment that interoperate with an external monitored system. Traditionally, they have been expensive equipment running test algorithms to monitor physical properties of, e.g., vehicles, or civil infrastructure equipment, among others. As computer hardware is increasingly powerful (whereas its cost and size is decreasing and communication software becomes easier to program and more run-time efficient, new scenarios are enabled that yield to lower cost monitoring solutions. This paper presents a low cost approach towards the development of a diagnostic systems relying on a modular component-based approach and running on a resource limited embedded computer. Results on a prototype implementation are shown that validate the presented design, its flexibility, performance, and communication latency.

  17. Efficient industrial burner control of a flexible burner management system; Effiziente industrielle Brennertechnik durch Einsatz flexibler Feuerungsautomaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Saenger, Peter [Siemens AG, Rastatt (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Compactness and flexibility of a burner control system is a very important issue. With a few types a wide range in different industrial applications should be covered. This paper presents different applications of a new burner control system: heating of cooling lines in glass industry, steam generation and air heating for a pistachio roastery and in grain dryers. (orig.)

  18. A Multiphase Flow Measurement System Comprising an Impedance Cross Correlation (ICC) Device and an Imaging Electromagnetic Flow Meter (IEF).

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Flow measurements are playing increasingly important roles in many different application areas, such as manufacturing processes and the oil & gas industry. Multiphase flow measurement in particular is becoming increasingly important to the oil industry. This project concerns the design and implementation of a two-phase flow measurement system which integrates an impedance cross correlation (ICC) flow meter - which can be utilized for measuring the local dispersed phase volume fraction distrib...

  19. Puoko-nui: a flexible high-speed photometric system

    CERN Document Server

    Chote, P; Brown, R; Harrold, S T; Winget, D E; Chandler, D W

    2014-01-01

    We describe a portable CCD-based instrumentation system designed to efficiently undertake high time precision fast photometry. The key components of the system are (1) an externally triggered commercial frame-transfer CCD, (2) a custom GPS-derived time source, and (3) flexible software for both instrument control and online analysis/display. Two working instruments that implement this design are described. The New Zealand based instrument employs a Princeton Instruments (PI) 1k x 1k CCD and has been used with the 1 m telescope at Mt John University Observatory, while the other uses a newer 1k x 1k electron-multiplying CCD supplied by PI and is based at the University of Texas at Austin. We include some recent observations that illustrate the capabilities of the instruments.

  20. Application of queuing theory in inventory systems with substitution flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhoseini, S. M.; Rashid, Reza; Kamalpour, Iman; Zangeneh, Erfan

    2015-01-01

    Considering the competition in today's business environment, tactical planning of a supply chain becomes more complex than before. In many multi-product inventory systems, substitution flexibility can improve profits. This paper aims to prepare a comprehensive substitution inventory model, where an inventory system with two substitute products with ignorable lead time has been considered, and effects of simultaneous ordering have been examined. In this paper, demands of customers for both of the products have been regarded as stochastic parameters, and queuing theory has been used to construct a mathematical model. The model has been coded by C++, and it has been analyzed due to a real example, where the results indicate efficiency of proposed model.

  1. Electricity for Road Transport, Flexible Power Systems and Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, Hans; Meibom, Peter;

    -vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid...... (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power......The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles...

  2. Flexible engine control systems for the development of innovative combustion processes; Flexibles Motorsteuerungssystem fuer die Entwicklung innovativer Brennverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuer, Josef; Mladek, Michael; Dengler, Christian; Mayer, Werner [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Kracke, Thomas; Jakubek, Peter [IAV, Gifhorn (Germany); Brune, Andreas; Rick, Ralf [Etas GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Daimler AG (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany), IAV GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) and Etas Deutschland GmbH (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) present a flexible motor control system for the development of innovative fuel procedures. With this, the functionality of conventional indicating systems is merged into a high-dynamic real time control circuit and implemented, tested and used algorithms for the pressure evaluation of combustion chambers flexibly - an important step in order to make progress with the development of new fuel procedures.

  3. Research of Remote Wireless Meter Reading System%远程无线抄表系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益祥; 牛江平

    2011-01-01

    The traditional manual meter reading method has many shortcomings such as low efficiency, hard sledding, low accuracy, and not promptly.Based on GPRS network and ZigBee wireless communication technology, the wireless meter reading system is constructed.The system avoids long distance wiring and complicated circuitry intefference, the real-time data can be read and transferred rapidly, and the data transmission is reliable.The result shows that this wireless meter reading system is able to precisely and reliably accomplish data acquisition,processing, and transmission, and fully meets the requirements.%针对传统的手工抄表方式费时、费力,以及准确性和及时性都得不到保障的缺点,基于GPRS网络和ZigBee无线通信技术,构建了一种无线抄表系统.该系统避免了长距离布线和复杂的线路干扰,可以快速抄写并实时上传表上的数据,且数据传输可靠.结果表明,此无线抄表系统能够准确、可靠地完成数据的采集、处理以及传输等功能,完全满足要求.

  4. A hardware-software system for the automation of verification and calibration of oil metering units secondary equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarnikov, A. V.; Boyarnikova, L. V.; Kozhushko, A. A.; Sekachev, A. F.

    2017-08-01

    In the article the process of verification (calibration) of oil metering units secondary equipment is considered. The purpose of the work is to increase the reliability and reduce the complexity of this process by developing a software and hardware system that provides automated verification and calibration. The hardware part of this complex carries out the commutation of the measuring channels of the verified controller and the reference channels of the calibrator in accordance with the introduced algorithm. The developed software allows controlling the commutation of channels, setting values on the calibrator, reading the measured data from the controller, calculating errors and compiling protocols. This system can be used for checking the controllers of the secondary equipment of the oil metering units in the automatic verification mode (with the open communication protocol) or in the semi-automatic verification mode (without it). The peculiar feature of the approach used is the development of a universal signal switch operating under software control, which can be configured for various verification methods (calibration), which allows to cover the entire range of controllers of metering units secondary equipment. The use of automatic verification with the help of a hardware and software system allows to shorten the verification time by 5-10 times and to increase the reliability of measurements, excluding the influence of the human factor.

  5. A miniaturized and flexible optoelectronic sensing system for tactile skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, L.; Corradi, P.; Beccai, L.; Laschi, C.

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a hybrid sensing module consisting of a general purpose electro-optical converter and three MEMS force sensors integrated into flexible substrates for tactile skin applications. The features of the converter, namely its flexible and thin substrate and small dimensions, programmability, optical coding and transmission of the information allow this versatile device to host different sensors, locally preprocess signals, translate this diverse information into a 'common language', and transmit it in a parallel, efficient and robust way to the processing unit. After discussing the major technical requirements, the design of the sensing, electrical and optical subsystems is illustrated, as well as the whole process for the module fabrication. A first characterization of a working prototype, hosting three MEMS force sensors and nine independent optical channels was performed. The global performance in terms of sensitivity, bandwidth and spatial sensing resolution make the presented module suitable to be used as basic element of a complete tactile system, conceived for robotic grasping and manipulation. Several solutions for mass production, improved optical properties and more efficient optical transmission are discussed.

  6. Geometric feasibility of flexible cask transportation system for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, P.; Ribeiro, M.I.; Aparicio, P. [Instituto Superior Tecnico-Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1998-07-01

    One of the remote operations that has to be carried out in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the transportation of sealed casks between the various ports of the Tokamak Building (TB) and the Hot Cell Building (HCB). The casks may contain different in-vessel components (e.g. blanket modules, divertors) and are designed for a maximum load of about 80 ton. To improve the safety and flexibility of ITER Remote Handling (RH) transport vehicles, the cask is not motorized by itself, but instead, a motorized platform carrying the cask was proposed. This paper addresses the geometric feasibility of the flexible cask transportation system, taking into account the vehicle kinematics. The feasibility issues studied include planning smooth paths to increase safety, the discussion of building constraints by the evaluation of the vehicle spanned areas when following a planned path, and the analysis of the clearance required to remove the platform from underneath the cask at different possible failure locations. Simulation results are presented for the recommended trajectory, the spanned area and the rescue manoeuvres at critical locations along the path. (authors)

  7. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  8. CliniProteus: A flexible clinical trials information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathura, Venkatarajan S; Rangareddy, Mahendiranath; Gupta, Pankaj; Mullan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Clinical trials involve multi-site heterogeneous data generation with complex data input-formats and forms. The data should be captured and queried in an integrated fashion to facilitate further analysis. Electronic case-report forms (eCRF) are gaining popularity since it allows capture of clinical information in a rapid manner. We have designed and developed an XML based flexible clinical trials data management framework in .NET environment that can be used for efficient design and deployment of eCRFs to efficiently collate data and analyze information from multi-site clinical trials. The main components of our system include an XML form designer, a Patient registration eForm, reusable eForms, multiple-visit data capture and consolidated reports. A unique id is used for tracking the trial, site of occurrence, the patient and the year of recruitment. Availability http://www.rfdn.org/bioinfo/CTMS/ctms.html. PMID:21670796

  9. Fault Isolation for Nonlinear Systems Using Flexible Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While support vector regression is widely used as both a function approximating tool and a residual generator for nonlinear system fault isolation, a drawback for this method is the freedom in selecting model parameters. Moreover, for samples with discordant distributing complexities, the selection of reasonable parameters is even impossible. To alleviate this problem we introduce the method of flexible support vector regression (F-SVR, which is especially suited for modelling complicated sample distributions, as it is free from parameters selection. Reasonable parameters for F-SVR are automatically generated given a sample distribution. Lastly, we apply this method in the analysis of the fault isolation of high frequency power supplies, where satisfactory results have been obtained.

  10. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  11. A process monitoring strategy for a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F.; Hebble, T.L.; Williams, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    For a number of years, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in an endeavor which is described as a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System (PFMS). The objective of this project is to enhance the existing manufacturing operations for the production of precision hemispherical workpieces. The present fabrication process uses T-base lathes, similar to the one shown in figure 1, which are equipped with a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) system. The CNC systems are coupled to a host computer over a local area network (LAN). Currently, this link is used to download machining part programs and upload limited process information. While the enhanced system will use the same machine tools and LAN, additional capabilities will be provided to perform automatic tool changing, part and fixture handling, on-machine gagging, and chip control. The project's quality goals are to automatically manufacture workpieces to tolerances of +/- 0.0005 in. on contour and +/- 0.001 in. on wall thickness with a 3 to 5 sigma level of confidence. The parts will range from 4 to 10 in. in diameter with a wall thickness as large as one inch. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Development of a flexible trigger system for FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penschuck, Manuel; Michel, Jan; Stroth, Joachim [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Traxler, Michael [GSI Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In the scope of experimental set-ups for the upcoming FAIR experiments, a general purpose trigger and read-out board (TRB3) has been developed which is already in use in several detector set-ups. For on- and off-board communication between the DAQ's subsystems, TrbNet, a specialized high-speed, low-latency network protocol developed for the DAQ system of the HADES detector, is used. Communication with any computer infrastructure is provided by Gigabit Ethernet. The TRB3 can be operated as a stand-alone board for small detectors, in combination with other TrbNet-enabled front-ends, or as a subsystem of an existing DAQ infrastructure. In order to support these different scenarios, a flexible and modular central trigger system was developed. Trigger criteria can range from basic trigger strobes, internal pulser signals to complex data streams from other, foreign trigger systems. Additional features include detection of coincidence from several input signals with adjustable time delays and windows. A precise time information of all input signals with 20 ps precision is foreseen in the design. In this contribution the design of the new trigger system and its web-based control and monitoring tools are presented.

  13. API testing program - calibration of microprocessor based flowmeters for integrated metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, Kenneth D. [Omni Flow Computers, Inc., Stafford, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Microprocessor based flowmeter technologies for liquids, such as Coriolis mass meters, and Ultrasonic flowmeters hold great promise. These technologies offer many advantages, such as no rotating parts, self-diagnostic checks, which can help anticipate and warn of impending failures before they have a major impact on the measurement. These meters are substantially different though than other primary devices due to their heavy reliance on the accompanying secondary electronics. One method to prove that they are accurate would be proving the flowmeter, using a pipe prover or small volume prover (SVP), but these proving methods are designed to count 'real time' pulses from a turbine or PD meter between a known volume, they are not designed to count 'time delayed' 'manufactured pulses' from a microprocessor. There are limitations of the manufactured pulse train and it affects the ability of the flowmeter to be proved using current proving technology. The author of this paper, a chairman of an American Petroleum Institute working group, investigated how the 'microprocessor generated pulses' produced by these types of flowmeters, interacted with the existing measurement technologies in use today. Several microprocessor based flowmeter technologies have been tested, including; Ultrasonic, Coriolis, and Helical Turbine with pulse multiplying preamplifier. Wherever possible, flowmeters of various sizes, and from several vendors have been tested. A significant amount of data has been collected which sheds light into why these types of flowmeters are sometimes difficult to prove. This paper describes the API testing program, and the methodology behind it. It presents results and findings, and offers specific recommendations that may eventually be incorporated into API documents and/or standards in the future. (author)

  14. Mechanically Flexible Active Silicon Chips and Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using innovative chip thinning technology married with recently available packaging technology, this effort will produce Mechanically Flexible Multifunctional Active...

  15. 300 GHz Imaging System with 8 Meter Stand-off Distance and One-Dimensional Synthetic Image Reconstruction for Remote Detection of Material Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Andreas; Peuser, Jörn; Loeffler, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    An active stand-off imaging system operating at 230–320 GHz is presented. Imaging is achieved by combining a line array consisting of 8 sources and 16 detectors with a scanning cylindrical mirror system. The stand-off distance is 8 meters and the effective aperture of the system is 0.5 meters by 0.......5 meters. Range and intensity information of the object are obtained using an active FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) radar principle. Data acquisition time for one line is as short as 1 ms. Synthetic image reconstruction is achieved in real-time by an embedded GPU (Graphical Processing Unit...

  16. Increasing flexibility of coal power plant by control system modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Ante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanding implementation of intermittent renewable energy sources has already started to change the role of thermal power plants in energy systems across Europe. Traditionally base load plants are now forced to operate as peaking plants. A familiar transition in upcoming years is expected in Croatia and coal power plant operators are preparing accordingly. To evaluate cycling capabilities and control system operation for flexible operation of selected 210 MW coal plant, series of tests with different load gradients were performed and results were thoroughly analyzed. Two possible “bottlenecks” are identified, thermal stress in superheater header, and achievable ramping rate considering operational limitations of coal feeders, firing system and evaporator dynamics. Several unexpected readings were observed, usually caused by malfunctioning sensors and equipment, resulting in unexpected oscillations of superheated steam temperature. Based on superheater geometry and experimental data, maximal steam temperature gradient during ramping was evaluated. Since thermal stress was well inside the safety margins, the simulation model of the whole boiler was used to evaluate achievable ramping on electric side.

  17. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, H.; Meibom, P. (and others)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power system and the transport sector. (Author)

  18. Designing Flexible Neuro-Fuzzy System Based on Sliding Mode Controller for Magnetic Levitation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohammadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel controller of magnetic levitation system by using new neuro-fuzzy structures which called flexible neuro-fuzzy systems. In this type of controller we use sliding mode control with neuro-fuzzy to eliminate the Jacobian of plant. At first, we control magnetic levitation system with Mamdanitype neuro-fuzzy systems and logical-type neuro-fuzzy systems separately and then we use two types of flexible neuro-fuzzy systems as controllers. Basic flexible OR-type neuro-fuzzy inference system and basic compromise AND-type neuro-fuzzy inference system are two new flexible neuro-fuzzy controllers which structure of fuzzy inference system (Mamdani or logical is determined in the learning process. We can investigate with these two types of controllers which of the Mamdani or logical type systems has better performance for control of this plant. Finally we compare performance of these controllers with sliding mode controller and RBF sliding mode controller.

  19. A Robotic System for Actively Stiffening Flexible Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschak, Paul M.; Burke, Stephen F.; Zumbro, Emiko; Forelli, Alexandra R.; Howe, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    A system for actively changing the stiffness of a long, thin, flexible robotic manipulator has been designed for cardiologists to use in a range of diagnosis and treatment procedures. Low-stiffness manipulators, such as catheters, are ideal for steering through vasculature with low risk of tissue injury. However, such instruments are not well-suited for applying force to tissue. The proposed system solves this problem by using a series of bead-shaped vertebrae containing pull wires to actively change the stiffness of the catheter, similar to gooseneck surgical retractors. Individual wires steer the catheter to a desired location. All wires are then tensioned to create friction between each vertebra and prevent sliding, therefore resisting motion. While this design concept has been implemented manually in various settings for decades, fine robotic control of the friction and stiffness of the system relies on a thorough understanding of the friction properties between vertebral segments. We have developed an analytical model to understand the interactions between vertebrae and determine the relationships between system parameters and the overall stiffness of the catheter. Experiments validated the calculations from the model and the functionality of the system by applying known loads to the tip of the catheter and measuring the catheter displacement. The catheter stiffness was measured to range from 100 N/m to 800 N/m, which is sufficient for performing many surgical tasks on tissue. This system can be useful in minimally invasive procedures involving direct instrument contact with tissue by improving accuracy, safety, and work flow. PMID:26709364

  20. A Robotic System for Actively Stiffening Flexible Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschak, Paul M; Burke, Stephen F; Zumbro, Emiko; Forelli, Alexandra R; Howe, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    A system for actively changing the stiffness of a long, thin, flexible robotic manipulator has been designed for cardiologists to use in a range of diagnosis and treatment procedures. Low-stiffness manipulators, such as catheters, are ideal for steering through vasculature with low risk of tissue injury. However, such instruments are not well-suited for applying force to tissue. The proposed system solves this problem by using a series of bead-shaped vertebrae containing pull wires to actively change the stiffness of the catheter, similar to gooseneck surgical retractors. Individual wires steer the catheter to a desired location. All wires are then tensioned to create friction between each vertebra and prevent sliding, therefore resisting motion. While this design concept has been implemented manually in various settings for decades, fine robotic control of the friction and stiffness of the system relies on a thorough understanding of the friction properties between vertebral segments. We have developed an analytical model to understand the interactions between vertebrae and determine the relationships between system parameters and the overall stiffness of the catheter. Experiments validated the calculations from the model and the functionality of the system by applying known loads to the tip of the catheter and measuring the catheter displacement. The catheter stiffness was measured to range from 100 N/m to 800 N/m, which is sufficient for performing many surgical tasks on tissue. This system can be useful in minimally invasive procedures involving direct instrument contact with tissue by improving accuracy, safety, and work flow.

  1. Active vibration control of spatial flexible multibody systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Maria Augusta, E-mail: augusta.neto@dem.uc.pt [Universidade de Coimbra (Polo II), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Portugal); Ambrosio, Jorge A. C., E-mail: jorge@dem.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica (Portugal); Roseiro, Luis M., E-mail: lroseiro@isec.pt [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Portugal); Amaro, A., E-mail: ana.amaro@dem.uc.pt [Universidade de Coimbra (Polo II), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Portugal); Vasques, C. M. A., E-mail: cvasques@inegi.up.pt [Universidade do Porto, INEGI-Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    In this work a flexible multibody dynamics formulation of complex models including elastic components made of composite materials is extended to include piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The only limitation for the deformation of a structural member is that they must remain elastic and linear when described in a coordinate frame fixed to a material point or region of its domain. The flexible finite-element model of each flexible body is obtained referring the flexible body nodal coordinates to the body fixed frame and using a diagonalized mass description of the inertia in the mass matrix and on the gyroscopic force vector. The modal superposition technique is used to reduce the number of generalized coordinates to a reasonable dimension for complex shaped structural models of flexible bodies. The active vibration control of the flexible multibody components is implemented using an asymmetric collocated piezoelectric sensor/actuator pair. An electromechanically coupled model is taken into account to properly consider the surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers and their effects on the time and spatial response of the flexible multibody components. The electromechanical effects are introduced in the flexible multibody equations of motion by the use of beam and plate/shell elements, developed to this purpose. A comparative study between the classical control strategies, constant gain and amplitude velocity feedback, and optimal control strategy, linear quadratic regulator (LQR), is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness to suppress vibrations in structures with piezoelectric sensing and actuating patches.

  2. Pump-lockage ore transportation system for deep sea flexible mining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-liang; YIN Ping-wei; XU Shao-jun; YANG Fang-qiong

    2008-01-01

    Based on characteristics of deep sea flexible mining system, a new pump-lockage ore transportation system was designed. According to Bernoulli equation and two-phase hydrodynamics theory, parameters of the new system were obtained and four ore transportation systems were analyzed. The results indicate that the pump head of 1000 m mining system is 100-150 m and that of 5 000 m mining system is 660-750 m. In addition, based on similarity theory, a model of the new transportation system was made,which can simulate more than 5 000 m actual ore transportation system. So both theory and experiment prove that the new pump-lockage ore transportation system is an ideal design for deep sea flexible mining system.

  3. DANOS MECÂNICOS OCASIONADOS POR SISTEMAS DOSADORES DE SEMENTES MECHANICAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY SEED METERING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alcanfor Ximenes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados por cinco sistemas dosadores de sementes, em quatro culturas. Amostras das sementes foram coletadas antes e após passarem pelos sistemas dosadores e foram submetidas a testes de pureza, germinação e vigor. Não houve diferença entre os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados pelos sistemas dosadores empregados nas sementes de milho. Para as sementes de feijão, menores efeitos foram verificados quando da utilização dos dosadores pneumático a vácuo e copo dosador. O sistema rotor acanalado causou menores danos às sementes de arroz e os sistemas disco  horizontal perfurado e copo dosador foram os que menos danificaram as sementes de soja. O sistema dosador pneumático a vácuo ocasionou o maior índice de dano mecânico nas sementes de soja.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Semeadoras; distribuidores de sementes; rotor acanalado.

    Effects of mechanical damage caused by five seed metering systems were evaluated in four crops. Seed samples were collected before and after passing through the measuring systems and submitted to tests of purity, germination and vigor. There was no difference in the level of mechanical damage caused by the metering systems used for maize seeds. For common bean seeds, minor effects were verified when using the vacuum metering disk and the feed cup. The fluted feed system showed the best performance for rice seeds, and the horizontal perforated disk and feed cup systems exhibited the best results for soybean seeds. The vacuum metering disk system caused the highest level of mechanical damage to soybean seeds.

    KEY-WORDS: Planter machine; seed distributor; fluted feed.

  4. Batch process. Flexible paint production system using movable tanks; Idoso wo mochiita toryo no flexible seisan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, S. [Kansai Paint Co. Ltd., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Central Lab.

    1997-09-05

    In the paint manufacturing industry, there are many kinds of product depending on the use, and there are few kinds of paint which can be manufactured by a large facility capable of producing several tens of kL of paint. An average working ratio of facility in this industry is limited to between 60 to 70%, and the ratio of the personnel expense to the cost has recently increased. The changing to an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) for increasing the working ratio of the facility and the changing of the system to greatly improve the operation efficiency have been demanded. The concrete means for these requirements include changing the facility to a pipeless one. The paint manufacturing facility comprises four sections, i.e. a premixing section, dispersing section, mixing section and canning section. If the mixing tank is made movable and the equipment on the preceding and succeeding stages of the mixing tank is made pipeless, the facility can be changed to the one not substantially restricted by the quality of products from the dispersing section to the filtration section which can be formed. However, the drawbacks of this system include the following: a failure, if it occurs, influences the whole production line; learning the system operating method requires much time, causing many initial failure occur; and great expansion of the facility is difficult. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Wireless Communication with a Microprocessor Based Ultrasonic Meter for Flow Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the traditional metering system and method for controlling flow is generally safe, reliable and robust, it does suffer certain drawbacks, such as limited accuracy and the ability to implement complex reactive rate designs. Hence, there is a need for a circuit and method of increasing metering accuracy, as well as the position control accuracy for variable flow rates, without further reliance on mechanical tolerances. An essential component for an electronic meter is a database and method of communication to obtain the required measurements and to program the meter for any additional needed values. Flexibility is added to such meters by using wireless communication circuits and protocols, which will enable reading of multi-devices from the same source point. Approach: To collect data, critical quality of service and carry out analysis, wireless flow meter reading system is designed, tested and implemented. The hardware and software in the designed system work together, to wirelessly receive readings from meters and then process it in order to obtain an accurate reading for the measured flow. The system makes use of modern communication algorithms and techniques. Also, the system allows for history tracing and analysis. The interfacing hardware uses two-way wireless optical interface to flow meter device. Results: The Hardware and Communication Protocol tested successfully and provided sufficient and accurate data for flow measurements analysis, presented in this research. Conclusion: Such hardware-software arrangement is considered a core for mobile meter reading and control with possibility to add intelligent security algorithms.

  6. Hardware Design of Remote Meter Reading System Based on Zigbee Technology%基于Zigbee技术的远程抄表系统的硬件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the design scheme of the remote meter reading system based on Zigbee technology and Zigbee technology, and describes the hardware design and implementation of the meter and the transceiver in the meter reading system.%该文介绍了Zigbee技术及基于Zigbee技术的远程抄表系统设计方案,详细叙述了抄表系统中电能表和集中收发器的硬件设计实现.

  7. Eye-safe projection system with flexible architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirov, Viacheslav

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays multimedia projectors of various types are widely used in many areas of human life. Significant part of all projector devices are used in two main areas: education (e. g. on lectures) and business (e. g. on all sorts of meetings). What makes projector a demanded device? It provides a user with high quality full color large diagonal image for a much lower price than display devices that based on other popular non-projecting technologies. However the absolute majority of projectors share a significant disadvantage. If human steps into the beam two major negative effects appear: a distorted image appears on human's body and human's eyes become glared by bright light. The first effect is undesirable by the audience and the second effect is undesirable by the presenter. To avoid the abovementioned effects short throw projectors can be used but they are more expensive than regular ones and have significant limitations on the placement spot: usually the lens of a short-throw projector is designed so that it has to be placed on a fixed distance to the screen. We propose a different solution of similar problem: instead of moving the projector towards the screen let us black out the human (or other obstacle) from it. To do so our system must know the exact position of human. In this paper we propose a system with flexible architecture that realizes the above-mentioned solution.

  8. Model updating in flexible-link multibody systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, R.; Caneva, G.; Palomba, I.; Richiedei, D.; Trevisani, A.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic response of flexible-link multibody systems (FLMSs) can be predicted through nonlinear models based on finite elements, to describe the coupling between rigid- body and elastic behaviour. Their accuracy should be as high as possible to synthesize controllers and observers. Model updating based on experimental measurements is hence necessary. By taking advantage of the experimental modal analysis, this work proposes a model updating procedure for FLMSs and applies it experimentally to a planar robot. Indeed, several peculiarities of the model of FLMS should be carefully tackled. On the one hand, nonlinear models of a FLMS should be linearized about static equilibrium configurations. On the other, the experimental mode shapes should be corrected to be consistent with the elastic displacements represented in the model, which are defined with respect to a fictitious moving reference (the equivalent rigid link system). Then, since rotational degrees of freedom are also represented in the model, interpolation of the experimental data should be performed to match the model displacement vector. Model updating has been finally cast as an optimization problem in the presence of bounds on the feasible values, by also adopting methods to improve the numerical conditioning and to compute meaningful updated inertial and elastic parameters.

  9. Flexible Lyapunov Functions and Applications to Fast Mechatronic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, M

    2010-01-01

    The property that every control system should posses is stability, which translates into safety in real-life applications. A central tool in systems theory for synthesizing control laws that achieve stability are control Lyapunov functions (CLFs). Classically, a CLF enforces that the resulting closed-loop state trajectory is contained within a cone with a fixed, predefined shape, and which is centered at and converges to a desired converging point. However, such a requirement often proves to be overconservative, which is why most of the real-time controllers do not have a stability guarantee. Recently, a novel idea that improves the design of CLFs in terms of flexibility was proposed. The focus of this new approach is on the design of optimization problems that allow certain parameters that define a cone associated with a standard CLF to be decision variables. In this way non-monotonicity of the CLF is explicitly linked with a decision variable that can be optimized on-line. Conservativeness is significantly ...

  10. Control system design for flexible structures using data models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R. Dennis; Frazier, W. Garth; Mitchell, Jerrel R.; Medina, Enrique A.; Bukley, Angelia P.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics and control of flexible aerospace structures exercises many of the engineering disciplines. In recent years there has been considerable research in the developing and tailoring of control system design techniques for these structures. This problem involves designing a control system for a multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) system that satisfies various performance criteria, such as vibration suppression, disturbance and noise rejection, attitude control and slewing control. Considerable progress has been made and demonstrated in control system design techniques for these structures. The key to designing control systems for these structures that meet stringent performance requirements is an accurate model. It has become apparent that theoretically and finite-element generated models do not provide the needed accuracy; almost all successful demonstrations of control system design techniques have involved using test results for fine-tuning a model or for extracting a model using system ID techniques. This paper describes past and ongoing efforts at Ohio University and NASA MSFC to design controllers using 'data models.' The basic philosophy of this approach is to start with a stabilizing controller and frequency response data that describes the plant; then, iteratively vary the free parameters of the controller so that performance measures become closer to satisfying design specifications. The frequency response data can be either experimentally derived or analytically derived. One 'design-with-data' algorithm presented in this paper is called the Compensator Improvement Program (CIP). The current CIP designs controllers for MIMO systems so that classical gain, phase, and attenuation margins are achieved. The center-piece of the CIP algorithm is the constraint improvement technique which is used to calculate a parameter change vector that guarantees an improvement in all unsatisfied, feasible performance metrics from iteration to iteration. The paper also

  11. A manufacturing planning and control system for a flexible manufacturing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; Slomp, J.; Slomp, J.

    1993-01-01

    A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) can offer important advantages in terms of more efficient production, shorter throughput times, lower stocks and a higher quality of work. To realize these advantages, a well designed manufacturing planning and control system (MPCS) is a key condition. In

  12. Research and implementation of flexible coding system oriented multi-view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuhui; ZHANG Xu; NING Ruxin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the requirements of a product data management system (PDM) for the flexible coding system,the principle of the flexible coding system oriented multiview is analyzed. Generation and utilization of coding should be associated with the context of the object. The architecture of the flexible coding system oriented multi-view is studied and the implementation class diagram of the system is designed. The system can support the establishment of five types of code segments, provide the tools of flexible defining coding rules and drive the automatic generation of object coding in different views (contexts). On the foundation of the characteristics of the system, coding for parts is taken as a sample to validate and elaborate the flexible coding process of the system.

  13. RF Design and Predicted Performance for a Future 34-meter Shaped Dual-reflector Antenna System Using the Common Aperture X-S Feedhorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Networks Consolidation Program (NCP) will utilize 34-meter shaped dual-reflector Cassegrain antennas. The shaping calculations, the X/S-band feedhorn to be used, and the predicted RF performance of this antenna system are discussed.

  14. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  15. Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation: Incentivizing Flexibility in System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, Erik; Milligan, Michael; Bloom, Aaron; Botterud, Audun; Townsend, Aaron; Levin, Todd; Frew, Bethany A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the importance and challenges of incentivizing flexibility during short-term operations of the bulk power system due to the increasing variability and uncertainty from growing penetrations of variable generation (VG). Operational flexibility can refer to many aspects of a resource's capability to support the power system, such as the speed, range, and duration of power output, as well as the ability to autonomously respond to frequency or voltage changes. Inefficient utilization of existing flexibility, or unwillingness of resources to provide flexibility, can compromise system reliability by not meeting the changing net load, and it can also lead to higher costs when an inefficient use of flexibility resources occurs. There are many existing characteristics of market design that incentivize flexibility in some manner. How they incentivize the provision of flexibility as well as the level of flexibility is still debated. We explore some of these existing market designs, as well as new market mechanisms, such as pay-for-performance regulating reserve and flexible ramping products, that aim to explicitly incentivize the provision of more flexibility to the system, particularly as a result of increasing VG penetration levels.

  16. Articulated Lifting System Modeling Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-Body Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In lifting sub-system of deep-sea mining system, spherical joint is used to connect lifting pipes to replace fixed joint. Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-body systems, the mechanics model of articulated lifting system is established. Under the four-grade and six-grade oceanic condition, dynamic responses of lifting system are simulated and experiment verified. The simulation results are consistent with experimental ones. The maximum moment of flexion is 322 kN-m on the first pipe under six-grade sea condition. It is seen that the articulated connection can reduce the moment of flexion. The bending deformation of pipe center is researched, and the maximum is 0.000479 m on the first pipe. Deformation has a little effect on the motion of system. It is feasible to analyze articulated lifting system by applying the theory of flexible multi-body dynamics. The articulated lifting system is obviously better than the fixed one.

  17. Adaption of the power distribution system to a sustainable energy system - Smart meters and intelligent nets; Anpassning av elnaeten, till ett uthaalligt energisystem - Smarta maetare och intelligenta naet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Math

    2010-11-15

    The conversion of the energy system towards sustainability is a major challenge for society. The conversion includes a large-scale introduction of renewable electricity and the electrification of transport. Adaptations of the grid are needed in order to cope with this development: - Facilitate an increased introduction of renewable electricity; - Enabling power reduction at peak load; - Improve incentives for energy efficiency; - Creating conditions for more active purchasers of electricity. Security of supply must be high, although the new production affects the electricity grid in a different way than today. Therefore, new technical solutions, a so-called smart grid, is necessary in order to, inter alia, prevent congestion and over voltages, but also to enhance the operational safety in general. There is new technology that can help adjust the grid in an efficient and flexible way. Intelligent networks, or smart grids, is the collection of new technology, function and regulatory framework in the electricity market, etc. that cost-effectively facilitate introduction and utilization of renewable electricity generation, leading to reduced energy consumption, contributes to power reduction in peak load and creates conditions for active electricity customers. Sweden is one of the countries that score high in terms of active electricity customers and feedback of consumption for electricity customers. There is a direct consequence of introduction of the metering reform and installation of the AMR, in which Sweden was one of the first countries in Europe. As for modern technology to increase transmission capacity of transmission networks such as HVDC and FACTS technology, Sweden is a world leader. This technology will play an important role in enabling large-scale use of renewable electricity generation on European level. The investigation has resulted in the following proposals: - A knowledge platform created to be collect and disseminate relevant knowledge of research

  18. Robust Control of Collaborative Manipulators - Flexible Object System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Esakki

    2013-05-01

    stability analysis is performed for both subsystems. Focusing on two three‐link manipulators holding a flexible beam, simulations are performed and simulation results demonstrate the versatility of the proposed robust composite control scheme.

  19. Criteria of benchmark selection for efficient flexible multibody system formalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valášek M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection process of benchmarks for testing and comparing efficient flexible multibody formalisms. The existing benchmarks are briefly summarized. The purposes for benchmark selection are investigated. The result of this analysis is the formulation of the criteria of benchmark selection for flexible multibody formalisms. Based on them the initial set of suitable benchmarks is described. Besides that the evaluation measures are revised and extended.

  20. 21-cm Observations with the NASA ADAS 18-meter Antenna System: Baseline Astronomical Observations and Measurements of Performance Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2001-12-01

    Herein we report astronomical observations made with the NASA Advanced Data Acquisition System (ADAS). The NASA ADAS antenna, located at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia, is an 18-meter X-band antenna system that has been primarily used for satellite tracking and served as the telecommunication station for the NASA IUE satellite until ca. 1997. A joint NASA-Morehead State University (MSU)-Kentucky NSF EPSCoR venture has been initiated to upgrade and relocate the antenna system to MSU's Astrophysics Laboratory where it will provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate students as well as be engaged in satellite tracking missions. As part of the relocation efforts, many systems will be upgraded including replacement of a hydrostatic azimuth bearing with a high-precision electromechanical bearing, a new servo system, and Ku-capable reflector surface. It is widely believed that there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make utilizing three primary observing strategies: 1.) longitudinal studies of RF variations in cosmic phenomena, 2.) surveys of large areas of sky, and 3.) fast reactions to transient phenomena. MSU faculty and staff along with NASA engineers re-outfitted the ADAS system with RF systems and upgraded servo controllers during the spring and summer of 2001. Empirical measurements of primary system performance characteristics were made including G/T (at S- and L bands), noise figures, pointing and tracking accuracies, and drive speeds and accelerations. Baseline astronomical observations were made with the MSU L-band receiver using a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm) and observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz, tunable over the 6 MHz window) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. Baseline observations of radio sources herein reported include Cygnus A, 3C 157, 3C 48 and the Andromeda

  1. Economic and ecological outcomes of flexible biodiversity offset systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Thomas J; Farr, Daniel R; Schneider, Richard R; Boutin, Stan

    2013-12-01

    The commonly expressed goal of biodiversity offsets is to achieve no net loss of specific biological features affected by development. However, strict equivalency requirements may complicate trading of offset credits, increase costs due to restricted offset placement options, and force offset activities to focus on features that may not represent regional conservation priorities. Using the oil sands industry of Alberta, Canada, as a case study, we evaluated the economic and ecological performance of alternative offset systems targeting either ecologically equivalent areas (vegetation types) or regional conservation priorities (caribou and the Dry Mixedwood natural subregion). Exchanging dissimilar biodiversity elements requires assessment via a generalized metric; we used an empirically derived index of biodiversity intactness to link offsets with losses incurred by development. We considered 2 offset activities: land protection, with costs estimated as the net present value of profits of petroleum and timber resources to be paid as compensation to resource tenure holders, and restoration of anthropogenic footprint, with costs estimated from existing restoration projects. We used the spatial optimization tool MARXAN to develop hypothetical offset networks that met either the equivalent-vegetation or conservation-priority targets. Networks that required offsetting equivalent vegetation cost 2-17 times more than priority-focused networks. This finding calls into question the prudence of equivalency-based systems, particularly in relatively undeveloped jurisdictions, where conservation focuses on limiting and directing future losses. Priority-focused offsets may offer benefits to industry and environmental stakeholders by allowing for lower-cost conservation of valued ecological features and may invite discussion on what land-use trade-offs are acceptable when trading biodiversity via offsets. Resultados Económicos y Ecológicos de Sistemas de Compensación de

  2. Metrology System for a Large, Somewhat Flexible Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Bartman, Randall; Cook, Walter; Craig, William

    2009-01-01

    A proposed metrology system would be incorporated into a proposed telescope that would include focusing optics on a rigid bench connected via a deployable mast to another rigid bench holding a focal-plane array of photon counting photodetectors. Deformations of the deployable mast would give rise to optical misalignments that would alter the directions (and, hence, locations) of incidence of photons on the focal plane. The metrology system would measure the relative displacement of the focusing- optics bench and the focal-plane array bench. The measurement data would be used in post-processing of the digitized photodetector outputs to compensate for the mast-deformation-induced changes in the locations of incidence of photons on the focal plane, thereby making it possible to determine the original directions of incidence of photons with greater accuracy. The proposed metrology system is designed specifically for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) a proposed spaceborne x-ray telescope. The basic principles of design and operation are also applicable to other large, somewhat flexible telescopes, both terrestrial and spaceborne. In the NuSTAR, the structural member connecting the optical bench and the photodetector array would be a 10-m-long deployable mast, and there is a requirement to keep errors in measured directions of incidence of photons below 10 arc seconds (3 sigma). The proposed system would include three diode lasers that would be mounted on the focusing-optics bench. For clarity, only one laser is shown in the figure, which is a greatly simplified schematic diagram of the system. Each laser would be aimed at a position-sensitive photodiode that would be mounted on the detector bench alongside the aforementioned telescope photodetector array. The diode lasers would operate at a wavelength of 830 nm, each at a power of 200 mW. Each laser beam would be focused to a spot of .1-mm diameter on the corresponding position-sensitive photodiode. To

  3. Strategic flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, KiHyung

    2014-01-01

    A flexible system is defined as one that can change the entity's stance, capability or status reacting to a change of the entity's environment. Flexibility has gathered the attention of academic researchers and industry practitioners as an efficient approach to cope with today's volatile environment. As the environments become more unpredictable and volatile, it is imperative for a flexible system to respond quickly to a change in its circumstance. How much flexibility is embedded into the sy...

  4. On the Formulation of Flexible Multibody Systems with Constant Mass Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    1997-01-01

    A flexible body in a multibody system isdescribed only by the position of the nodes in theinertial frame. With this description we can formulatethe mass matrix of the flexible multibody as aconstant matrix. This matrix can be inverted in apreprocessing stage which yields a more efficientaccelerat...... of this formulation is that neither thecentrifugal nor the Coriolis forces appear in theequations due to the description of the flexible body....

  5. Harnessing Flexibility from Hot and Cold: Heat Storage and Hybrid Systems Can Play a Major Role

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Heinen, Steve; Qazi, Hassan; Madsen, Henrik; Strbac, Goran; Kang, Chongqing; Zhang, Ning; Patteeuw, Dieter; Naegler, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    As has been often reported, electricity systems with high levels of variable wind and solar power generation would benefit from demand flexibility. What is not as often mentioned is that electrification of the transport and heat sectors could exacerbate the need for flexibility, if they are implemented as inflexible loads. This demand could also be made more flexible, but it comes with a cost. The main issue is to identify the cases in which the benefits will outweigh those costs, a matter th...

  6. StakeMeter: value-based stakeholder identification and quantification framework for value-based software systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muhammad Imran; Ghazali, Masitah; Jawawi, Dayang N A; Bin Zaheer, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS). Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ) approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called 'StakeMeter'. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error.

  7. StakeMeter: value-based stakeholder identification and quantification framework for value-based software systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Babar

    Full Text Available Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS. Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called 'StakeMeter'. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error.

  8. Compact Active Vibration Control System for a Flexible Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A diamond-shaped actuator for a flexible panel has an inter-digitated electrode (IDE) and a piezoelectric wafer portion positioned therebetween. The IDE and/or the wafer portion are diamond-shaped. Point sensors are positioned with respect to the actuator and measure vibration. The actuator generates and transmits a cancelling force to the panel in response to an output signal from a controller, which is calculated using a signal describing the vibration. A method for controlling vibration in a flexible panel includes connecting a diamond-shaped actuator to the flexible panel, and then connecting a point sensor to each actuator. Vibration is measured via the point sensor. The controller calculates a proportional output voltage signal from the measured vibration, and transmits the output signal to the actuator to substantially cancel the vibration in proximity to each actuator.

  9. Screening of Stepping Forces in an Arthritic Rat Model Using a Novel Analgesic Meter and Data Acquisition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusliza Basir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The stepping forces of normal and Freund Complete Adjuvant (FCA-induced arthritic rats were studied in vivo using a proposed novel analgesic meter. An infrared charge-coupled device (CCD camera and a data acquisition system were incorporated into the analgesic meter to determine and measure the weight of loads on the right hind paw before and after induction of arthritis by FCA injection into the paw cavity. FCA injection resulted in a significant reduction in the stepping force of the affected hind paw. The stepping force decreased to the minimum level on day 4 after the injection and then gradually increased up to day 25. Oral administration of prednisolone significantly increased the stepping forces of FCA-induced arthritic rats on days 14 and 21. These results suggest that the novel device is an effective tool for measuring the arthritic pain in in vivo studies even though walking is a dynamic condition.

  10. Competitiveness Level of Photovoltaic Solar Systems in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso: Study Based on the Domestic Electric Meters Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Lambert Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean cost price of electricity in Burkina Faso at the end of the last quarter of 2012 was 158 FCFA/kWh for a country where more than 46% of the population lives below the national poverty threshold. To look for solution to that problem, the resort to photovoltaic solar energy is justified for that country. The purpose of this study is to promote the integration of both technical and economical surveys in solar energy preliminary projects in Ouagadougou. To reach that, investigations were carried out in some households and attention was paid from the calibration of the domestic electric meters. Energy demands collected within each household allow us to design a corresponding solar kit through optimization rules. An estimate was edited and financial viability study for each household was also carried out thereafter. In this study, only households using the national electricity network calibration meter on their disadvantage favorably answered to all financial indicators and appear as the only one that could profit from such project. This work is helpful to note that photovoltaic solar energy still stays at a primitive level of competitiveness compared to conventional energy resources for small systems in Ouagadougou.

  11. Signal Separation and Reconstruction Method for Simultaneously Received Multi-System Signals in Flexible Wireless System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Lee, Doohwan; Shiba, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yo; Akabane, Kazunori; Uehara, Kazuhiro

    We previously proposed a unified wireless system called “Flexible Wireless System”. Comprising of flexible access points and a flexible signal processing unit, it collectively receives a wideband spectrum that includes multiple signals from various wireless systems. In cases of simultaneous multiple signal reception, however, reception performance degrades due to the interference among multiple signals. To address this problem, we propose a new signal separation and reconstruction method for spectrally overlapped signals. The method analyzes spectral information obtained by the short-time Fourier transform to extract amplitude and phase values at each center frequency of overlapped signals at a flexible signal processing unit. Using these values enables signals from received radio wave data to be separated and reconstructed for simultaneous multi-system reception. In this paper, the BER performance of the proposed method is evaluated using computer simulations. Also, the performance of the interference suppression is evaluated by analyzing the probability density distribution of the amplitude of the overlapped interference on a symbol of the received signal. Simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Discrete time transfer matrix method for dynamics of multibody system with flexible beams moving in space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ting Rui; Edwin Kreuzer; Bao Rong; Bin He

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,by defining new state vectors and developing new transfer matrices of various elements moving in space,the discrete time transfer matrix method of multi-rigid-flexible-body system is expanded to study the dynamics of muhibody system with flexible beams moving in space.Formulations and numerical example of a rigidflexible-body three pendulums system moving in space are given to validate the method. Using the new method to study the dynamics of multi-rigid-flexible-body system mov ing in space,the global dynamics equations of system are not needed,the orders of involved matrices of the system are very low and the computational speed is high,irrespective of the size of the system.The new method is simple,straightforward,practical,and provides a powerful tool for multi-rigid-flexible-body system dynamics.

  13. Modelling and Performance Analysis of a Flexible Manipulator System Using Symbolic Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Mohamed; Tokhi, M.O.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a symbolic manipulation approach for modelling and performance analysis of a flexible manipulator system using finite element methods. A constrained planar single-link flexible manipulator is considered. A symbolic algorithm characterising the dynamic behaviour of the system is developed using a symbolic language. Using this approach, the system transfer functions are obtained in symbolic forms. Analyses and investigations in terms of system stability, time response to an ...

  14. FLEXIBILITY OF INDUSTRIAL “PRODUCT-SERVICE” SYSTEM: IMPLEMENTATION AND MEANS OF MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panteleev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the analysis of the flexibility of industrial “product-service” systems (hereafter IPSS, meaning provision of adaptability to the changing needs of users along the life-cycle of IPSS. Flexibility of the system gives company-producer of the industrial equipment competitive advantages on the b-to-b market. Due to this reason development and improvement of the means of valuation of flexibility is an important field of study. Aim of the article is IPSS flexibility analysis and development of efficient means of flexibility valuation.Article tasks. Research the advantages of the IPSS flexibility; analyze problems that arise as the result of flexibility implementation; propose ways to solve these problems.Methodology. Methodological base of the article are the following scientific methods: deduction, comparative and individual analysis, methods of systematization and generalization of theoretical materials.Results. Conclusions / importance. Article proposes to use IPSS concept model that takes into consideration IPSS resources, actions and functions. With the help of this model switching options, that reflect the flexibility of IPSS, can be defi ned. Economic and technological aspects of changes should be taken into consideration with the help of integrated, iterative approach, that compares supplier costs on flexibility implementation and the clients desire to pay for it. At the same time supplier can calculate the potential profi t from provision of fl exibility. Thus, the basis for efficient decision making when the IPSS is structures is made.

  15. Module and System Design in Flexible Automated Assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.A.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    There is an ongoing trend of increasing variety of products and a decreasing time-to-market of new products. These trends require flexibility in the production and extensive control of the production processes. This is especially true for the assembly: the joining of parts to form a product. These

  16. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Models for Force Prediction of a Mechatronic Flexible Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, S.; Shlechtingen, M.; Raison, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a research work investigating the performance of different Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models developed to predict excitation forces on a dynamically loaded flexible structure. For this purpose, a flexible structure is equipped with ...

  17. A flexible computerized system for environmental data acquisition and transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalà, G.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years increasing importance has been addressed to the knowledge of the marine environment, either to help detecting and understanding global climate change phenomena, or to protect and preserve those coastal areas, where multiple interests converge (linked to the tourism, recreational or productive activities…) and which suffer greater impact from anthropogenic activities; this has in turn stimulated the start of research programs devoted to the monitoring and surveillance of these particular zones, coupling the needs for knowledge, sustainable development and exploitation of natural resources. There is an increasing need to have data available in real time or near real time in order to intervene in emergency situations. Cabled or wireless data transmission can be used. The first allows the transmission of a higher amount of data only in coastal sites, while the second gives a bigger flexibility in terms of application to different environments; more, using mobile phone services (either terrestrial or satellite), it is possible to allocate the data centre in the most convenient place, without any need of proximity to the sea. Traditional oceanographic techniques, based on ship surveys, hardly fit the needs of operational oceanography, because of their high cost and fragmentary nature, both in spatial and temporal domains. To obtain a good synopticity, it is necessary to complement traditional ship observations with measurements from fixed stations (buoys moored in sites chosen to be representative of wider areas, or to constitute a sentinel against the arrival of pollutants), satellite observations, use of ships of opportunity and of newly developed instruments, like the gliders, or towed sliding devices, like the SAVE. Modern instruments rely on an electronic heart; an integrated hardware-software system developed in Messina is here presented, used in various versions to control data acquisition and transmission on buoys or on ship

  18. Development of wide range current signal data acquisition system for reactivity meter using Keithley electrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, S. H.; Kim, H. K.; Chio, Y. S.; Kim, M. J.; Woo, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    The reactivity worth of control rods is measured to ensure safety every refueling phase in HANARO, the research reactor in KAERI. Two compensated ion chambers are installed around the outer core to measure the reactor power. The signals from CICs enter the reactivity computer system. The reactivity computer system operated on MS-DOS was developed during the commissioning phase. But it is not so user-friendly, is so outdated and difficult to aquire spare parts. Hence we decided to upgrade the system to utilize MS-Windows {sup TM} operating system and object oriented visual program language. This paper describes the data acquisition system developed for the new reactivity computer system operated on MS-Windows{sup TM} operating system. This data acquisition system uses electrometers for converting low current signal to voltage and measures the current signal accurately even though the electrometer change the range of the output automatically. We verified that the system was stable and acquired the input signals accurately.

  19. Chaotic Behavior in a Flexible Assembly Line of a Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to study the chaotic behavior in a flexible assembly line of a manufacturing system. A flexible assembly line can accommodate a variety of product types. Result analysis is performed to obtain time persistent data. The behavior of the system is observed for Work-In-Process, as assembling systems are sensitive during processing. It is found that the average Lyapunov exponent is positive in the considered case, and thus chaotic behavior may be present in flexible assembly lines.

  20. The Intelligent Measuring Sub-system in the Computer Integrated and Flexible Laser Processing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the computer integrated and flexible laser p rocessing system, we developed an intelligent measuring sub-system. A novel mod el has been built to compensate the deviations of the main frame-structure, and a laser tracker system is applied to calibrate the accuracy of the system. Anal yzing the characteristics of all kind surfaces of automobile outer penal moulds and dies, the surface and border to be measured and processed are classified int o four types. A 2-D adaptive measuring method based ...

  1. ON NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RIGID MOTOR FLEXIBLE BASE DYNAMIC COUPLED SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yuguo; Song Kongjie

    2004-01-01

    In shipping and aircraft engineering,the vibrating motor or instrumentation is usually mounted on a non-rigid base.To apply isolation design effectively,it is necessary to investigate the nature vibration characteristics of the rigid motor,flexible base coupled system.A universal dynamic express for the coupled system is derived.A PC-based measurement solution is presented.And the system's dynamic behavior is then investigated numerically and experimentally.The results show that a strong interaction will exist between the motor's rigid mode and the flexible base's mode when the motor's mounting frequency is close to the flexible base's first natural frequency.The first natural frequency of the coupled system is generally lower than the motor's rigid mode frequency.At high frequency,the flexible base's modes are the dominant modes of the coupled system.

  2. Task Space Division and Trajectory Planning for a Flexible Macro-Micro Manipulator System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with a flexible macro-micro manipulator system, which includes a long flexible manipulator and a relatively short rigid manipulator attached to the tip of the macro manipulator. A flexible macro manipulator possesses the advantages of wide operating range, high speed, and low energy consumption, but the disadvantage of a low tracking precision. The macro-micro manipulator system improves tracking performance by compensating for the endpoint tracking error while maintaining the advantages of the flexible macro manipulator. A trajectory planning scheme was built utilizing the task space division method. The division point is chosen to optimize the error compensation and energy consumption for the whole system. Then movements of the macro-micro manipulator can be determined using separate inverse kinematic models. Simulation results for a planar 4-DOF macro-micro manipulator system are presented to show the effectiveness of the control system.

  3. Wireless MSEB Meter Reading Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja U.Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The electricity is very essential in day to day life. Most of industries are running with electricity. In commercial areas also electricity plays very vital role and hence electricity is backbone of any developing nation. To measure the consumed electricity and generate Electricity bill, the energy meters are provided to each and every consumer. This project is use to take meter reading wirelessly by using transceiver which provides accuracy and speed in MSEB meter reading. In this work, Micro controller plays the main role. This circuit contains the LCD, RF transmitter, RF receiver, Energy meter, switch, RS 232 etc. This project uses one Microcontroller, LCD, RF transceiver module, energy meter and relay for connecting load. Meter reading is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy meter and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This saves employee trips and means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy. The Transmitter is connected to the meter and it counts the pulses from it and displays it over the LCD. It transmits the data over radio frequency. This network technology overcome all the difficulties of earlier billing system and become more advantageous and accurate.

  4. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning Impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmintier, Bryan S.

    This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or strict carbon policies. Operational flexibility describes a power system's ability to respond to predictable and unexpected changes in generation or demand. Planning and policy models have traditionally not directly captured the technical operating constraints that determine operational flexibility. However, as demonstrated in this dissertation, this capability becomes increasingly important with the greater flexibility required by significant renewables (>= 20%) and the decreased flexibility inherent in some low-carbon generation technologies. Incorporating flexibility can significantly change optimal generation and energy mixes, lower system costs, improve policy impact estimates, and enable system designs capable of meeting strict regulatory targets. Methodologically, this work presents a new clustered formulation that tractably combines a range of normally distinct power system models, from hourly unit-commitment operations to long-term generation planning. This formulation groups similar generators into clusters to reduce problem size, while still retaining the individual unit constraints required to accurately capture operating reserves and other flexibility drivers. In comparisons against traditional unit commitment formulations, errors were generally less than 1% while run times decreased by several orders of magnitude (e.g., 5000x). Extensive numerical simulations, using a realistic Texas-based power system show that ignoring flexibility can underestimate carbon emissions by 50% or result in significant load and wind shedding to meet environmental regulations. Contributions of this dissertation include: 1. Demonstrating that operational flexibility can have an important impact on power system planning, and describing when and how these

  5. Designing Capital-Intensive Systems with Architectural and Operational Flexibility Using a Screening Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jijun; de Weck, Olivier; de Neufville, Richard; Robinson, Bob; MacGowan, David

    Development of capital intensive systems, such as offshore oil platforms or other industrial infrastructure, generally requires a significant amount of capital investment under various resource, technical, and market uncertainties. It is a very challenging task for development co-owners or joint ventures because important decisions, such as system architectures, have to be made while uncertainty remains high. This paper develops a screening model and a simulation framework to quickly explore the design space for complex engineering systems under uncertainty allowing promising strategies or architectures to be identified. Flexibility in systems’ design and operation is proposed as a proactive means to enable systems to adapt to future uncertainty. Architectural and operational flexibility can improve systems’ lifecycle value by mitigating downside risks and capturing upside opportunities. In order to effectively explore different flexible strategies addressing a view of uncertainty which changes with time, a computational framework based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed in this paper. This framework is applied to study flexible development strategies for a representative offshore petroleum project. The complexity of this problem comes from multi-domain uncertainties, large architectural design space, and structure of flexibility decision rules. The results demonstrate that architectural and operational flexibility can significantly improve projects’ Expected Net Present Value (ENPV), reduce downside risks, and improve upside gains, compared to adopting an inflexible strategy appropriate to the view of uncertainty at the start of the project. In this particular case study, the most flexible strategy improves ENPV by 85% over an inflexible base case.

  6. The One-Meter Dash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mattie J.

    1977-01-01

    A game for two teams employs dice, meter sticks, and Cuisenaire rods. The game gives practice in number facts, regrouping, and use of rods; it can also serve as an introduction to the metric system. (SD)

  7. High Accuracy Attitude Control System Design for Satellite with Flexible Appendages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the high accuracy attitude control of satellite with flexible appendages, attitude control system consisting of the controller and structural filter was designed. When the low order vibration frequency of flexible appendages is approximating the bandwidth of attitude control system, the vibration signal will enter the control system through measurement device to bring impact on the accuracy or even the stability. In order to reduce the impact of vibration of appendages on the attitude control system, the structural filter is designed in terms of rejecting the vibration of flexible appendages. Considering the potential problem of in-orbit frequency variation of the flexible appendages, the design method for the adaptive notch filter is proposed based on the in-orbit identification technology. Finally, the simulation results are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design techniques.

  8. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-10-14

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  9. Flexible scheduling ensuring inter-ONU-group fairness in 1G/10G EPON coexistence system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; LI Hui; JI Yue-feng

    2009-01-01

    er-ONU and intra-ONU fairness. Most importantly, it can flexibly adapt to the system composition variations and save efforts needed to modify the bandwidth scheduling mechanism during the migration process from GEPON to 10G EPON.

  10. Operational parameters estimation for a flexible manufacturing system. A case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florescu Adriana; Barabaş Sorin; Sârbu Flavius

    2017-01-01

    The complex structure of flexible manufacturing systems and rapid changes currently taking place with the evolution of the market and increase product diversity involves a detailed analysis of manufacturing processes...

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Molecular Dynamics Sampling for Flexible Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Mike; Hoffmann, Daniel

    2017-02-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a natural method for the study of flexible molecules but at the same time is limited by the large size of the conformational space of these molecules. We ask by how much the MD sampling quality for flexible molecules can be improved by two means: the use of diverse sets of trajectories starting from different initial conformations to detect deviations between samples and sampling with enhanced methods such as accelerated MD (aMD) or scaled MD (sMD) that distort the energy landscape in controlled ways. To this end, we test the effects of these approaches on MD simulations of two flexible biomolecules in aqueous solution, Met-Enkephalin (5 amino acids) and HIV-1 gp120 V3 (a cycle of 35 amino acids). We assess the convergence of the sampling quantitatively with known, extensive measures of cluster number Nc and cluster distribution entropy Sc and with two new quantities, conformational overlap Oconf and density overlap Odens, both conveniently ranging from 0 to 1. These new overlap measures quantify self-consistency of sampling in multitrajectory MD experiments, a necessary condition for converged sampling. A comprehensive assessment of sampling quality of MD experiments identifies the combination of diverse trajectory sets and aMD as the most efficient approach among those tested. However, analysis of Odens between conventional and aMD trajectories also reveals that we have not completely corrected aMD sampling for the distorted energy landscape. Moreover, for V3, the courses of Nc and Odens indicate that much higher resources than those generally invested today will probably be needed to achieve convergence. The comparative analysis also shows that conventional MD simulations with insufficient sampling can be easily misinterpreted as being converged.

  12. Motion control and vibration suppression of flexible lumped systems via sensorless LQR control

    OpenAIRE

    Çelebi, Beşir; Celebi, Besir; Çevik, Gülnihal; Cevik, Gulnihal; Mehmet, Berkem; Shoukry Mohammed Khalil, Islam; ŞABANOVIÇ, Asif; SABANOVIC, Asif

    2011-01-01

    This work attempts to achieve motion control along with vibration suppression of flexible systems by developing a sensorless closed loop LQR controller. Vibration suppression is used as a performance index that has to be minimized so that motion control is achieved with zero residual vibration. An estimation algorithm is combined with the regular LQR to develop sensorless motion and vibration controller that is capable of positioning multi degrees of freedom flexible system point of interest ...

  13. Flexible Work Systems and the Structure of Wages: Evidence from Matched Employer- Employee Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Thomas K.; Bender, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    A growing literature is concerned with the effects of flexible workplace systems or High Performance Work Organizations (HPWOs) on wages. This paper makes use of a new employer-employee-linked panel data set for Germany to examine the effects of adopting HPWOs on wages as well as on the wage structure within firms. The empirical results suggest that, depending on the particular practice, flexible workplace systems benefit employees through higher wages. HPWOs further increase within firm wage...

  14. Composite Sliding Mode Control for a Free-Floating Space Rigid-Flexible Coupling Manipulator System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Congqing; Wu Pengfei; Zhou Xin; Pei Xiwu

    2013-01-01

    The flexible space manipulator is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamic system. This paper proposes a novel composite sliding mode control to deal with the vibration suppression and trajectory tracking of a free‐floating space rigid‐flexible coupling manipulator with a rigid payload. First, the dynamic equations of this system are established by using Lagrange and assumed mode methods and in the meantime this dynamic modelling allows consideration of the modelling errors, the external distur...

  15. Microwave photonics technologies supporting high capacity and flexible wireless communications systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Tatarczak, Anna; Rommel, Simon;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging 5G wireless systems require technologies for increased capacity, guarantee robustness, low latency and flexibility. We review a number of approaches to provide the above based on microwave photonics and hybrid optical fiber-wireless communication techniques.......Emerging 5G wireless systems require technologies for increased capacity, guarantee robustness, low latency and flexibility. We review a number of approaches to provide the above based on microwave photonics and hybrid optical fiber-wireless communication techniques....

  16. Active Dihedral Control System for a Torisionally Flexible Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter R. (Inventor); Griecci, John A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A span-loaded, highly flexible flying wing, having horizontal control surfaces mounted aft of the wing on extended beams to form local pitch-control devices. Each of five spanwise wing segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other wing segments, to minimize inter-segment loads. Wing dihedral is controlled by separately controlling the local pitch-control devices consisting of a control surface on a boom, such that inboard and outboard wing segment pitch changes relative to each other, and thus relative inboard and outboard lift is varied.

  17. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  18. How to Represent 100-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Nathaniel; Shevliakova, Elena; Malyshev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems play a pivotal role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (~100 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing hyperresolution environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles or hydrologic response units (HRUs). The novel Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) LM3-TiHy-PPA land model is then used to simulate these HRUs and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  19. Web manage system based on intelligent electric meter%基于智能电表的web管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雷; 游向东; 邹晓佳; 张栩

    2014-01-01

    The management system designed to achieve the power management scheme for visualization, using B/S design mode, users need only a browser and can implement web management on electric power data. The system uses Oracle as the database, Tomcat as the web server, and SSH (struts2+spring+hibernate) as the framework, stable and reliable. The function of the system includes the privilege management for power users, the smart meter input, single distribution, fault management and so on.%本管理系统旨在实现可视化的电力管理方案,采用B/S设计模式,用户只需要一个浏览器,就可以实现对电力数据的web管理。本系统以oracle为数据库,tomcat为web服务器,采用SSH(struts2+spring+hibernate)框架,可以实现对电力用户的权限管理,智能电表的录入,工单的派发,故障的管理等功能。

  20. Flexibility-Based Evaluation of Variable Generation Acceptability in Korean Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Min

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an evaluation method for variable generation (VG acceptability with an adequate level of power system flexibility. In this method, a risk index referred to as the ramping capability shortage expectation (RSE is used to quantify flexibility. The RSE value of the current power system is selected as the adequate level of flexibility (i.e., RSE criterion. VG acceptability is represented by the VG penetration level for the RSE criterion. The proposed evaluation method was applied to the generation expansion plan in Korea for 2029 in order to examine the validity of the existing plan for VG penetration. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to analyze the effects of changes in system uncertainty on VG acceptability. The results show that the planned VG penetration level for 2029 can improve by approximately 12% while securing flexibility.

  1. Embedded solution for a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter is based on the free-space transmission measurement technique and uses low-intensity microwaves to measure the attenuation and p...

  2. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fangqiong; Hwang, Chiachi; LeChevallier, Mark W; Andersen, Gary L; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) harbor the microorganisms in biofilms and suspended communities, yet the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution have been studied mainly in the suspended communities. This study examined the diversity of biofilms in an urban DWDS, its relationship with suspended communities and its dynamics. The studied DWDS in Urbana, Illinois received conventionally treated and disinfected water sourced from the groundwater. Over a 2-year span, biomass were sampled from household water meters (n=213) and tap water (n=20) to represent biofilm and suspended communities, respectively. A positive correlation between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and occupancy was observed. Examined under a 'core-satellite' model, the biofilm community comprised 31 core populations that encompassed 76.7% of total 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequences. The biofilm communities shared with the suspended community highly abundant and prevalent OTUs, which related to methano-/methylotrophs (i.e., Methylophilaceae and Methylococcaceae) and aerobic heterotrophs (Sphingomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae), yet differed by specific core populations and lower diversity and evenness. Multivariate tests indicated seasonality as the main contributor to community structure variation. This pattern was resilient to annual change and correlated to the cyclic fluctuations of core populations. The findings of a distinctive biofilm community assemblage and methano-/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems.

  3. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  4. Hybrid Systems in Foil (HySiF) exploiting ultra-thin flexible chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harendt, Christine; Kostelnik, Jan; Kugler, Andreas; Lorenz, Enno; Saller, Stefan; Schreivogel, Alina; Yu, Zili; Burghartz, Joachim N.

    2015-11-01

    Electronics embedded in foil is an enabling technology for flexible electronics and for special form factors of electronic components. In contrast to strictly printed electronics, Hybrid Systems-in-Foil (HySiF), comprising thin flexible, embedded chips and large-area thin-film electronic elements, feature a versatile and reliable technological solution for industrial applications of flexible electronics. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of HySiF technology, including aspects of thin-chip fabrication, reliability and assembly. Also presented is an industrial demonstrator utilizing such a HySiF component.

  5. Anchoring FRP Composite Armor in Flexible Offshore Riser Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei

    things, they serve for the transportation of hydrocarbons from the subsea facilities to the production and drilling equipment at the sea surface. Flexible risers are the prime choice for connecting floating production, storage and offloading facilities, because they are specially designed for dynamic...... of composite materials. One of the problems related to the substitution of tensile steel members is that anchoring in the metallic end fittings of the pipe is very challenging.The purpose of this thesis is to ensure the transfer of tensile loads between a unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer and a metallic...... in the grip, and to measure the contact stresses distribution and evolution during pullout.The results of the experimental and numerical analysis show that it is possible to reliably anchor composite materials using a metallic grip. The models developed during the project show how to improve the efficiency...

  6. A flexible integration and visualisation system for biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, Mary; Calley, John; Qiang, Huahong; Su, Eric W; Liao, Birong

    2006-01-01

    Biological data have accumulated at an unprecedented pace as a result of improvements in molecular technologies. However, the translation of data into information, and subsequently into knowledge, requires the intricate interplay of data access, visualisation and interpretation. Biological data are complex and are organised either hierarchically or non-hierarchically. For non-hierarchically organised data, it is difficult to view relationships among biological facts. In addition, it is difficult to make changes in underlying data storage without affecting the visualisation interface. Here, we demonstrate a platform where non-hierarchically organised data can be visualised through the application of a customised hierarchy incorporating medical subject headings (MeSH) classifications. This platform gives users flexibility in updating and manipulation. It can also facilitate fresh scientific insight by highlighting biological impacts across different hierarchical branches. An example of the integration of biomarker information from the curated Proteome database using MeSH and the StarTree visualisation tool is presented.

  7. StakeMeter: Value-Based Stakeholder Identification and Quantification Framework for Value-Based Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muhammad Imran; Ghazali, Masitah; Jawawi, Dayang N. A.; Zaheer, Kashif Bin

    2015-01-01

    Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS). Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ) approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called ‘StakeMeter’. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error. PMID:25799490

  8. The flexible requirement system for grading of clinical performance of undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBadrawy, H; Korayem, M

    2007-11-01

    A new grading system is presented for evaluating and grading dental students' clinical competence and performance in paediatric dentistry at the undergraduate level. The Flexible Requirements System is a clinical competence evaluation system designed to address some of the common deficiencies of other requirements-based performance evaluation systems, by utilising a unique method of collecting and manipulating certain measurements of student performance in various groups of clinical procedures. The system aimed to incorporate adequate flexibility in its requirements to afford students fair and equal opportunities, whilst maintaining adherence to departmental clinical competence criteria and standards.

  9. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palchak, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Flexibility of traditional generators plays an important role in accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty of wind and solar on the electric power system. Increased flexibility can be achieved with changes to operational practices or upgrades to existing generation. One challenge is in understanding the value of increasing flexibility, and how this value may change given higher levels of variable generation. This study uses a commercial production cost model to measure the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators. We use a system that is based on two balancing areas in the western United States with a range of wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%, where instantaneous penetration of wind and solar is limited to 80%.

  10. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palchak, D.; Denholm, P.

    2014-07-01

    Flexibility of traditional generators plays an important role in accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty of wind and solar on the electric power system. Increased flexibility can be achieved with changes to operational practices or upgrades to existing generation. One challenge is in understanding the value of increasing flexibility, and how this value may change given higher levels of variable generation. This study uses a commercial production cost model to measure the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators. We use a system that is based on two balancing areas in the Western United States with a range of wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%, where instantaneous penetration of wind and solar is limited to 80%.

  11. Manufacturing Communication: DCOM-MMS-based Approach for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A design approach of manufacturing communication ispresented for flexible manufacturing system in this paper.The primary objective aims at making the flexible manufacturing control system provided with interoperability and rconfigurability.Based on describing manufacturing message specification (MMS) and distributed component object model (DCOM), a client/server manufacturing communication model is built with MMS standard and DCOM middleware, and thecommunication interfaces between MMS client and MMS server are designed with Microsoft interface definition language (MIDL) and abstract syntax notation one (ASN. 1) of MMS services. As a result, DCOM and MMS integration leads to such client/ server communication capabilities independent of different operating systems and manufacturing devices in flexible manufacturing automation environment. Finally, to verify the new design approach, a prototype system of robot control system has been implemented in MS 2000 Server/Professional Operating System and VC + + 6.0 Developer Environments.

  12. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel [Department of Energy Systems, SINTEF, Trondheim Norway; Farahmand, Hossein [Department of Electric Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim Norway; Holttinen, Hannele [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Kiviluoma, Juha [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Rinne, Erkka [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Söder, Lennart [Department of Electrical Engineering, KTH University, Stockholm Sweden; Milligan, Michael [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Ibanez, Eduardo [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Martínez, Sergio Martín [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Estanqueiro, Ana [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Rodrigues, Luis [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Carr, Luis [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; van Roon, Serafin [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; Orths, Antje Gesa [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Eriksen, Peter Børre [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Forcione, Alain [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada; Menemenlis, Nickie [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.

  13. Registration error study of digital watt-hour meters under distorted conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta-Hernandez, Manuel

    The increasing application of non-linear loads based on the use of converters, uninterruptible power supplies, and other solid-state switching devices has increased the harmonic content in voltage and current at metering points. One of many problems caused by the voltage and current distortion is the effect on the watt-hour meter performance. The digital watt-hour meter is replacing the old induction meter for measuring electric energy, obtaining additional flexibility and functionality. However, the digital meter performance can be deeply affected when a dc current component is added to the distorted conditions. This dissertation presents a study of the digital watt-hour meter's performance under different nonsinusoidal conditions, including a dc current component. The work is divided into two sections: experimental and analytical. The experimental section consists of accuracy testing on several models of digital meters, both single-phase and three-phase units, subjected to computer-controlled distortion. The system setup used for the measurements was designed by using 12-bits data acquisition hardware (DAQ) and virtual-instrument software (VI) installed in a personal computer. Additional testing on electromechanical watt-hour meters is included for comparison purposes.

  14. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems - The development of a domestic model of portable radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Koo; Choi, Kang; Kim, Jong Nam; Son, Keum Jong; Kim, Ji Kwang [Radiation Technology Research Lab., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The internal circuit board and operating program were developed for the portable radiation survey meter with a small GM tube, and then tested for the performance verification. The signal of GM tube in the detection unit is taken form the cathode and pulsed out to be a standard digital pulse by a signal processor. The control and operation unit counts the signals and also calculates the counting errors. The data of signal counts and errors are transferred to the display unit. The LCD panel of the display unit is manufactured as the design resulted from this work. The panel attached with EL back-light displays in multiplex mode. The whole circuit is designed to have a small power consumption sufficiently for the portable instrument. The operating program is coded by C language. The program is on-power performs a self-test on counting circuit and then operates the main functions of the pulse counting, switch scanning, LCD panel controlling and the battery voltage measuring of the detector system with the time-interrupter. The prototype board of the internal circuit is tested with respect to the functional operation, counting performance, signal response characteristics and battery life-time. It was founded that the circuit is operated as the design functions. Also, these test result shows that those performances of the prototype board are better than those of the existing foreign products. 23 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  15. STUDY ON DYNAMICS, STABILITY AND CONTROL OF MULTI-BODY FLEXIBLE STRUCTURE SYSTEM IN FUNCTIONAL SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建国; 贾军国

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics, stability and control problem of a kind of infinite dimensional system are studied in the functional space with the method of modern mathematics. First,the dynamical control model of the distributed parameter system with multi-body flexible and multi-topological structure was established which has damping, gyroscopic parts and constrained damping. Secondly, the necessary and sufficient condition of controllability and observability, the stability theory and asymptotic property of the system were obtained.These results expand the theory of the field about the dynamics and control of the system with multi-body flexible structure, and have important engineering significance.

  16. Flexibility, savings chief returns of new pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, G.E.; Williams, T. (Pipelines Authority of South Australia, Glenside (AU))

    1990-04-30

    This paper reports on the development of an optimization system for operation of a gas-pipeline network. The system employs a steady-state model to predict pipeline compressor configurations and setpoints. The system allowed greater accuracy in operations of the pipeline network even when subject to highly transient flows. This article provides a detailed description of the system.

  17. Operational parameters estimation for a flexible manufacturing system. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florescu Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure of flexible manufacturing systems and rapid changes currently taking place with the evolution of the market and increase product diversity involves a detailed analysis of manufacturing processes. Manufacturing systems analysis can be done using methods based on analytical models and simulation. By applying these techniques one can view, analyze and forecast the performance of a dynamic system or of a new implemented system. Performance is one of the main factors affecting the design, development and configuration of any flexible manufacturing system. In this context, the present research will be directed to flexible manufacturing system structure analysis, to assess its performance, as well as simulating and validating these systems. It will generate and analyze key performance parameters, for the designed system by the use of specific software. Thus, it will study: the influence of the initial conditions or parameters on the behaviour of the flexible manufacturing system, the influence of the developing commands and system states on output or the influence of changes in the system structure on its behaviour.

  18. 基于计算机视觉的电能表检测系统%Power Meter Detection System Based on Computer Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮春雷; 姚明海; 黄磊

    2013-01-01

      通过对计算机视觉模板匹配基本算法的研究,改进了基本的模板匹配算法.基于 OpenCV 开源平台,在VC++6.0的开发环境中设计了一套智能电表检测系统,该系统采用了改进的模板匹配算法,可在线有效检测电能表的多处信息,并对缺陷进行统计,有助于厂商改善产品质量,保证了电能表出厂的可靠性.实验表明系统检测速度快、实时性好.%This paper improved the template matching algorithm through the study of the basic algorithm of template matching on computer vision. Based on OpenCV open-source platform, a smart meter detection system is designed by VC++6.0. The system utilizes the improved template matching algorithm and detects multiple information of the power meter in effect and calculates defects. It’s very helpful to improve the quality of the power meter and ensure the reliability of the power meter. The experiments show that the system detects fast and real-time.

  19. Fault Diagnosis Technology Applied in Metering Automation Systems%故障诊断技术在计量自动化系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危阜胜; 肖勇; 陈锐民

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the development of the remote fault diagnosis technology and the metering automation system home and abroad, and analyzing some fault maintenance problems of the metering automation terminal, this paper puts forward a solution to the field operation metering automation terminal fault remote diagnostic, and independently develops an expert system of the metering automation terminal remote fault diagnosis. The system has realized the field large-scale measurement automation terminal remote fault diagnosis for the first time.%介绍国内外远程故障诊断技术研究的进展情况和计量自动化系统的发展历程,分析计量自动化终端故障维护面临的问题,提出一种现场运行计量自动化终端故障远程诊断的解决方案,自主开发计量自动化终端远程故障诊断专家系统,首次实现对现场大规模计量自动化终端的远程故障诊断。

  20. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  1. Momentum is increasing towards a flexible electricity system based on renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Total global energy use is rising, and remains based on fossil fuels. Yet, the challenge of climate change requires a deep decarbonization of our energy system. Here I argue that the global energy policy discourse is moving rapidly towards one of renewable, energy-efficient and flexible electricity systems. This is primarily because of a rapid take-up within a few countries of variable renewable electricity sources over the past decade, resulting from falling renewable electricity prices, new and more economic means of flexible system operation, and changing social preferences. This in turn has led to widespread and supportive public policy announcements. I also argue that a ‘no-regrets’ energy policy is one that increases the energy system flexibility. Although the changing discourse is welcome, it is not to say that the challenge of climate change has been met. Policy statements must be backed up by more effective governance support and pressure to speed up change.

  2. Research on rigid–flexible coupling dynamic characteristics of boom system in concrete pump truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pump truck plays an important role in infrastructure construction and national economic development. In recent years, its boom system becomes longer, and its dynamic and control become more complicated. In order to study the dynamic characteristics of boom system, three dynamic models such as multi-rigid-body model, rigid–flexible coupling model, and rigid–flexible coupling model with equivalent hydraulic cylinder were built in this work. Simulation analysis and experimental analysis were done, and they show that we should not only consider the large-range motion but also consider the small flexible deformation to study the dynamic characteristics of boom system precisely. It provides the theoretical basis to vibration control, trajectory prediction, and life assessment for boom system and such structures.

  3. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test and record how much sugar (called glucose) is in your ...

  4. Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) real-time controller preliminary architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Dan; Smith, Malcolm; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-08-01

    The Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) is the first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A critical component of NFIRAOS is the Real-Time Controller (RTC) subsystem which provides real-time wavefront correction by processing wavefront information to compute Deformable Mirror (DM) and Tip/Tilt Stage (TTS) commands. The National Research Council of Canada - Herzberg (NRC-H), in conjunction with TMT, has developed a preliminary design for the NFIRAOS RTC. The preliminary architecture for the RTC is comprised of several Linux-based servers. These servers are assigned various roles including: the High-Order Processing (HOP) servers, the Wavefront Corrector Controller (WCC) server, the Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server, the Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server, and additional testing and spare servers. There are up to six HOP servers that accept high-order wavefront pixels, and perform parallelized pixel processing and wavefront reconstruction to produce wavefront corrector error vectors. The WCC server performs low-order mode processing, and synchronizes and aggregates the high-order wavefront corrector error vectors from the HOP servers to generate wavefront corrector commands. The Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server is the RTC interface to TMT and other subsystems. The TED server receives all external commands and dispatches them to the rest of the RTC servers and is responsible for aggregating several offloading and telemetry values that are reported to other subsystems within NFIRAOS and TMT. The TED server also provides the engineering GUIs and real-time displays. The Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server contains fault tolerant data storage that receives and stores telemetry data, including data for Point-Spread Function Reconstruction (PSFR).

  5. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Fangqiong

    2015-08-07

    © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) harbor the microorganisms in biofilms and suspended communities, yet the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution have been studied mainly in the suspended communities. This study examined the diversity of biofilms in an urban DWDS, its relationship with suspended communities and its dynamics. The studied DWDS in Urbana, Illinois received conventionally treated and disinfected water sourced from the groundwater. Over a 2-year span, biomass were sampled from household water meters (n=213) and tap water (n=20) to represent biofilm and suspended communities, respectively. A positive correlation between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and occupancy was observed. Examined under a ‘core-satellite’ model, the biofilm community comprised 31 core populations that encompassed 76.7% of total 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequences. The biofilm communities shared with the suspended community highly abundant and prevalent OTUs, which related to methano-/methylotrophs (i.e., Methylophilaceae and Methylococcaceae) and aerobic heterotrophs (Sphingomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae), yet differed by specific core populations and lower diversity and evenness. Multivariate tests indicated seasonality as the main contributor to community structure variation. This pattern was resilient to annual change and correlated to the cyclic fluctuations of core populations. The findings of a distinctive biofilm community assemblage and methano-/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 7 August 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.136.

  6. New Electronic Technology Applied in Flexible Organic Optical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and application of new organic materials, nanostructured, for developing technology based on organic devices, have been the main focus of the scientific community. In recent years, the first polymeric electronics products have entered the market (organic semiconductor materials and there are some electrochromic devices among them that have been called smart windows, once they control the passage of light or heat through a closed environment as an ordinary window. The main functional aspect of electrochromic devices, when being used in architectural and automotive industry, is to control the passage of light and temperature with thermal and visual comfort. These devices can be flexible and very thin, not containing heavy metals, and formed by layers of organic material deposited in several architectures. In this study, the electro-deposition of organic materials in the Polyaniline, PANI case, which provide stability in optical and electrical parameters, was utilized with the means of developing prototypes of organic electrochromic devices. These materials were characterized by: ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy absorption (UV-Vis, measurement of thickness (MT and electrical measurements (EM. This study aims to establish the relationship between the thickness of the active layer and the value of the electrical resistivity of the layer deposited through an electro-deposition technique. The experimental results enabled the equating of the electrical resistivity related to the thickness of the deposited layer. The linear fit of these results has expressed the thickness of the conducting layer, α, and the lowest value of the electrical resistivity, β, associated with the gap between the valence band and the conduction band. Thus, the results have demonstrated that, when the layer of organic material is completely conductive, we may obtain the thickness of the organic material deposited on the substrate.

  7. Transition-based deadlock control policy using reachability graph for flexible manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyan Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most existing deadlock prevention policies deal with deadlock problems arising in flexible manufacturing systems modeled with Petri nets by adding control places. Based on the reachability graph analysis, this article proposes a novel deadlock control policy that recovers the system from deadlock and livelock states to legal states and reaches the same number of states as the original plant model by adding control transitions. In order to reduce the structural complexity of the supervisor, a set covering approach is developed to minimize the number of control transitions. Finally, two flexible manufacturing system examples are presented to illustrate the proposed approach.

  8. 天然气长输管道计量系统设计%Design of Metering System in Long-Distance Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋

    2016-01-01

    计量系统是天然气长输管道中的重要组成部分,介绍了长输管道计量系统中常用流量计特点,给出了计量系统仪表选型及设计的一般过程,详细说明了精度考虑、口径考虑、流速计算及回路配置等问题的设计原则及计算方法。给出了以气体超声流量计、在线气体色谱分析仪、流量计算机等构建的体积流量和能量流量的计量系统的典型配置。%Flow measurement system is an important component in long-distance natural gas transportation pipe; flowmeters usually used in gas metering are introduced and compared in this paper. Meter selection and general design procedure are also given out including accuracy consideration,diameter consideration,velocity calculation,loop configration,etc.A typical metering system based on ultrasonic meter,online chromatographic analyzer,flow computer is constructed.

  9. A service-oriented approach for flexible process support within enterprises: application on PLM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Safa; Gzara, Lilia; Verjus, Hervé

    2013-02-01

    Manufacturing industries collaborating to develop new products need to implement an effective management of their design processes (DPs) and product information. Unfortunately, product lifecycle management (PLM) systems which are dedicated to support design activities are not efficient as it might be expected. Indeed, DPs are changing, emergent and non deterministic, due to the business environment under which they are carried out. PLM systems are currently based on workflow technology which does not support process agility. So, needs in terms of process support flexibility are necessary to facilitate the coupling with the environment reality. Furthermore, service-oriented approaches (SOA) enhances flexibility and adaptability of composed solutions. Systems based on SOA have the ability to inherently being evolvable. So, we can say that SOA can promote a support of flexible DPs. The aim of this work is to propose an alternative approach for flexible process support within PLM systems. The objective is to specify, design and implement business processes (BPs) in a very flexible way so that business changes can rapidly be considered in PLM solutions. Unlike existing approaches, the proposed one deal with a service-oriented perspectives rather than an activity-oriented one.

  10. Control System Simulation for a Single-Link Flexible Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    17 2.5 A n overall Plant .................................................. 22 3.1 A Schematic Diagram of the Feedback Control System .................. 27...tip is not measured for the simple feedback control system . The tip displacement V(O) is the only generalized coordinate chosen for small motions. Then...incorporated into the main computer program for solving the dynamic equation of motion. 23 III. CONTROL SCHEME A. REQUIRED TORQUE In feedback control system , desired

  11. Unlocking Flexibility: Integrated Optimization and Control of Multienergy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Mancarella, Pierluigi; Monti, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Electricity, natural gas, water, and dis trict heating/cooling systems are predominantly planned and operated independently. However, it is increasingly recognized that integrated optimization and control of such systems at multiple spatiotemporal scales can bring significant socioeconomic, operational efficiency, and environmental benefits. Accordingly, the concept of the multi-energy system is gaining considerable attention, with the overarching objectives of 1) uncovering fundamental gains (and potential drawbacks) that emerge from the integrated operation of multiple systems and 2) developing holistic yet computationally affordable optimization and control methods that maximize operational benefits, while 3) acknowledging intrinsic interdependencies and quality-of-service requirements for each provider.

  12. Dynamic Model and Vibration Power Flow of a Rigid-Flexible Coupling and Harmonic-Disturbance Exciting System for Flexible Robotic Manipulator with Elastic Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic of a flexible robotic manipulator (FRM which consists of rigid driving base, flexible links, and flexible joints. With considering the motion fluctuations caused by the coupling effect, such as the motor parameters and mechanism inertias, as harmonic disturbances, the system investigated in this paper remains a parametrically excited system. An elastic restraint model of the FRM with elastic joints (FRMEJ is proposed, which considers the elastic properties of the connecting joints between the flexible arm and the driving base, as well as the harmonic disturbances aroused by the electromechanical coupling effect. As a consequence, the FRMEJ accordingly remains a flexible multibody system which conveys the effects of rigid-flexible couple and electromechanical couple. The Lagrangian function and Hamilton’s principle are used to establish the dynamic model of the FRMEJ. Based on the dynamic model proposed, the vibration power flow is introduced to show the vibration energy distribution. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the effect of the joint elasticities and the disturbance excitations, and the influences of the structure parameters and motion parameters on the vibration power flow are studied. The results obtained in this paper contribute to the structure design, motion optimization, and vibration control of FRMs.

  13. Operational flexibility and economics of power plants in future low-carbon power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    Future power systems will require large shares of low-carbon generators such as renewables and power plants with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to keep global warming below 2. °C. Intermittent renewables increase the system-wide demand for flexibility and affect the operation of thermal power plan

  14. Essays on the Design of Contracts and Markets for Power System Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis

    This PhD thesis consists of five essays on the economics of Power System Flexibility, a topic that has traditionally been addressed from a technical perspective by engineers, system planners, electricity industry stakeholders and energy policymakers interested in the integration of Variable...

  15. Operational flexibility and economics of power plants in future low-carbon power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    Future power systems will require large shares of low-carbon generators such as renewables and power plants with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to keep global warming below 2. °C. Intermittent renewables increase the system-wide demand for flexibility and affect the operation of thermal power

  16. The Development of Australia's National Training System: A Dynamic Tension between Consistency and Flexibility. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kaye; McKenna, Suzy

    2016-01-01

    This occasional paper provides an overview of the development of Australia's national training system and is a key knowledge document of a wider research project "Consistency with flexibility in the Australian national training system." This research project investigates the various approaches undertaken by each of the jurisdictions to…

  17. Power System Integration of Flexible Demand in the Low Voltage Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders

    , it is natural to consider electricity consumption from households as an integrated part of a potential flexible demand side in the future power system. However, as an individual unit a single household is not able to generate a large impact in the power system. Therefore, a mechanism is needed which can......Flexible demand for electric power is expected to play an increasing role in the future power system where an increased share of the power generation will come from renewable energy sources. In Denmark,households accounts for approximately one third of the total electricity consumption; thus...... coordinate the response from numerous of small entities: in other words, we need a tool for aggregation of a large number of small units and coordinate the electricity consumption among them. This thesis investigates the possibilities of utilising flexible demand from small household entities connected...

  18. Comparative Analysis of Possible Designs for Flexible Distribution System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jeremy; Knezovic, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    A massive amount of distributed energy resources will be connected to the distribution system in the near future. This emerging phenomenon will pose significant challenges to the traditional operation of distribution systems. This clearly calls for a growing need to develop novel grid designs...

  19. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  20. Test of Seal System for Flexible Pipe End Fitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars; Jensen, Thomas Gregers

    1999-01-01

    by compression of the gaskets, thus using the geometry to establish a seal towards the inner liner of the pipe and the steel sleeve of the end fitting. This paper describes how the seal system of an end fitting can be tested using an autoclave. By regulating temperature and pressure, the seal system can...

  1. Flexible UL/DL in Small Cell TDD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catania, Davide; Gatnau, Marta; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio;

    2015-01-01

    Time division duplex (TDD) systems offer a substantial amount of freedom to deal with downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) traffic asymmetries. Most TDD-based systems define either multiple static configurations or adaptive approaches to deal with such asymmetries. Our envisioned 5G concept embraces......, and for multi-cell scenarios where both DL and UL traffic are present....

  2. Flexible, Polarization-Diverse UWB Antennas for Implantable Neural Recording Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hadi; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Ameli, Reza; Rusch, Leslie A; Gosselin, Benoit

    2016-02-01

    Implanted antennas for implant-to-air data communications must be composed of material compatible with biological tissues. We design single and dual-polarization antennas for wireless ultra-wideband neural recording systems using an inhomogeneous multi-layer model of the human head. Antennas made from flexible materials are more easily adapted to implantation; we investigate both flexible and rigid materials and examine performance trade-offs. The proposed antennas are designed to operate in a frequency range of 2-11 GHz (having S11 below -10 dB) covering both the 2.45 GHz (ISM) band and the 3.1-10.6 GHz UWB band. Measurements confirm simulation results showing flexible antennas have little performance degradation due to bending effects (in terms of impedance matching). Our miniaturized flexible antennas are 12 mm×12 mm and 10 mm×9 mm for single- and dual-polarizations, respectively. Finally, a comparison is made of four implantable antennas covering the 2-11 GHz range: 1) rigid, single polarization, 2) rigid, dual polarization, 3) flexible, single polarization and 4) flexible, dual polarization. In all cases a rigid antenna is used outside the body, with an appropriate polarization. Several advantages were confirmed for dual polarization antennas: 1) smaller size, 2) lower sensitivity to angular misalignments, and 3) higher fidelity.

  3. On the relation between flexibility analysis and robust optimization for linear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-03-05

    Flexibility analysis and robust optimization are two approaches to solving optimization problems under uncertainty that share some fundamental concepts, such as the use of polyhedral uncertainty sets and the worst-case approach to guarantee feasibility. The connection between these two approaches has not been sufficiently acknowledged and examined in the literature. In this context, the contributions of this work are fourfold: (1) a comparison between flexibility analysis and robust optimization from a historical perspective is presented; (2) for linear systems, new formulations for the three classical flexibility analysis problems—flexibility test, flexibility index, and design under uncertainty—based on duality theory and the affinely adjustable robust optimization (AARO) approach are proposed; (3) the AARO approach is shown to be generally more restrictive such that it may lead to overly conservative solutions; (4) numerical examples show the improved computational performance from the proposed formulations compared to the traditional flexibility analysis models. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 3109–3123, 2016

  4. Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

  5. Knowledge-based decision support system for tool management in flexible manufacturing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炳海; 奚立峰; 蔡建国

    2004-01-01

    Tool management is not a single, simple activity, it is comprised of a complex set of functions, especially in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) environment. The issues associated with tool management include tool requirement planning, tool real-time scheduling, tool crib management, tool inventory control, tool fault diagnosis, tool tracking and tool monitoring. In order to make tools flow into/out of FMS efficiently, this work is aimed to design a knowledge-based decision support system (KBDSS) for tool management in FMS. Firstly an overview of tool management functions is described. Then the structure of KBDSS for tool management and the essential agents in the design of KBDSS are presented. Finally the individual agents of KBDSS are discussed for design and development.

  6. Modeling of a space flexible probe–cone docking system based on the Kane method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in micro- and nano-satellites have attracted the interest of the research community worldwide. Many colleges and corporations have launched their satellites in space. Meanwhile, the space flexible probe–cone docking system for micro- and nano-satellites has become an attractive topic. In this paper, a dynamic model of a space flexible probe–cone docking system, in which the flexible beam technology is applied, is built based on the Kane method. The curves of impact force versus time are obtained by the Lagrange model, the Kane model, and the experimental method. The Lagrange model was presented in the reference and verified by both finite element simulation and experiment. The results of the three methods show good agreements on the condition that the beam flexibility and the initial relative velocity change. It is worth mentioning that the introduction of vectorial mechanics and analytical mechanics in the Kane method leads to a large reduction of differential operations and makes the modeling process much easier than that of the Lagrange method. Moreover, the influences of the beam flexibility and the initial relative velocity are discussed. It is concluded that the initial relative velocity of space docking operation should be controlled to a certain value in order to protect the docking system.

  7. A flexible electro-mechanical design information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basson, Anton H.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Liu, Y.; Liu, Yang; Horvath, Imre; Xirouchakis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Design information systems are of increasing importance due to globalization of product development, increasing complexity of products (in terms of product variants and range of technologies employed) and increasing emphasis on improving product development efficiency (shortening times, reducing

  8. Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (IPAS) Flexible Systems Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — iPAS will develop several important technologies required to support system design and integration as well as space technology maturation. These services include:A...

  9. Geometric Approach and Taboo Search for Scheduling Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mati, Yazid; Rezg, Nidhal; Xie, Xiaolan

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the scheduling and deadlock avoidance of a class of automated manufacturing systems. In such systems, a set of jobs is to be performed on a set of resources and each job requires several operations- . An operation may require several types of resources with several units of each type. Further, upon the completion of an operation, its related resources cannot be released until resources needed for the next operation become available. One important characteristic of such sy...

  10. A Direct Derivation of the Equations of Motion for 3D-Flexible Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Pedersen, Mads Leergaard

    1998-01-01

    Equations of motion for rigid bodies with the body-fixed co-ordinate system placed at or away from the centre of mass are derived in a clear and direct way by making use of the two basic equations of mechanics (Newton's second law and the corresponding law of angular momentum). The dynamic...... equations for flexible mechanical systems are derived using the principle of virtual work, which introduces inertia in a straightforward manner, because this principle treats inertia as a force. The flexible formulation is exemplified by the use of circular beam elements and some basic matrices are derived...

  11. Capturing the Impact of Storage and Other Flexible Technologies on Electric System Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elaine Hale, Brady Stoll, and Trieu Mai

    2016-05-01

    Power systems of the future are likely to require additional flexibility due to the operating characteristics of many clean energy technologies, particularly those relying on renewable energy sources. This subject has been well studied from an operational perspective, but it has been more difficult to incorporate into capacity expansion models (CEMs) that study investment decisions on the decadal scale. The primary purpose of this report is to present new capabilities that were developed for a particular CEM, NREL's Resource Planning Model (RPM), to better reflect the impact of variable wind and solar generation on system operations and resource adequacy, and, complementarily, to model energy-constrained flexibility resources.

  12. Decision-making for flexible manufacturing systems using DEMATEL and SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Talebanpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible manufacturing system (FMS is an important component of competitive strategy, which could be used for improving organizational performance, productivity, and profitability. The goal of this research is to use DEMATEL approach for finding the intensity of influence of selected criteria. Then, in order to evaluate flexible manufacturing systems, the results of DEMATEL are used in SAW method. A questionnaire was developed and ten professional experts working in various departments of Aluminum Composite Panel Industry are asked to answer its questions. The obtained results reveal that in this case, it is a better choice not to implement and develop FMS.

  13. Digital factory concept implementation for flexible and reconfigurable manufacturing systems modelling and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Caggiano, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In modern manufacturing industry, the ever-changing turbulent environment as well as the strong competition among companies require manufacturing systems that are easily upgradable and into which new technologies can be readily integrated. Indispensable requirements for modern flexible and reconfigurable manufacturing systems are related to system responsiveness, that enables rapid launch of new product models, fast adjustment of the manufacturing system capacity to market demands, easy integ...

  14. Partition method for impact dynamics of flexible multibody systems based on contact constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玥晨; 章定国; 洪嘉振

    2013-01-01

    The impact dynamics of a flexible multibody system is investigated. By using a partition method, the system is divided into two parts, the local impact region and the region away from the impact. The two parts are connected by specific boundary conditions, and the system after partition is equivalent to the original system. According to the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic theory of multibody system, system’s rigid-flexible coupling dynamic equations without impact are derived. A local impulse method for establishing the initial impact conditions is proposed. It satisfies the compatibility con-ditions for contact constraints and the actual physical situation of the impact process of flexible bodies. Based on the contact constraint method, system’s impact dynamic equa-tions are derived in a differential-algebraic form. The contact/separation criterion and the algorithm are given. An impact dynamic simulation is given. The results show that system’s dynamic behaviors including the energy, the deformations, the displacements, and the impact force during the impact process change dramatically. The impact makes great effects on the global dynamics of the system during and after impact.

  15. Discussion and Design of Gas Ultrasonic Flow Metering System%气体超声波流量计量系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 刘少宇

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic flow metering (USM) system is one of the most popular metering systems used in long-distance natural gas transportation. Basic principle, characteristic and type of USM are introduced, and typical pipe configuration of USM loop is put forward. The elements including instrument and noise considered in USM loop system designing are deeply discussed. Noise reduction measure, typical configuration for the flow metering system, and some advices for USM system designing are given.%超声波流量计量系统是天然气长输管道中应用广泛的计量系统之一。介绍了超声波流量计的基本原理、特点、类型,给出了超声波流量计量回路的典型管路配置。探讨了超声波计量回路设计中应考虑的仪表、噪声因素。给出了降噪措施,流量计量系统的典型配置,超声波流量计系统设计中一些建议。

  16. 一种新型低压载波抄表系统的设计%A New Design of Low Voltage Carrier Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴庆辉; 王治超

    2011-01-01

    低压载波抄表系统以其高效、便捷的智能化管理,得到日益广泛的应用。低压载波抄表系统用现有的低压电力线作为传输介质,不必另外架设通信电缆,能够大大节省系统的运行成本。在分析低压抄表系统原理及实现方法的基础上,提出一种采用新型芯片的集中器的设计。这种自动抄表系统,大大提高了抄表成功率,实现了数据的实时采集与远程控制,解决了传统抄表技术的根本性问题。%With the excellence of great efficiency and cortvenience,the low voltage power fine carrier communication automatic meter reading system is applied more and more widely. The system uses low power line as corresponding medium to transmit information,there is no need to set up communication cable and save the system operating cost. On the basis of analyzing the principles and methods of traditional meter Reading System ,the design of a concentrator designed by new technology chip was provided. The system can improve the rate of reading meters, achieve real-time acquisition and centralizes control of data, and solve the essential problem for the technology of traditional meter reading system.

  17. Flexibility and explicit solvent in molecular-dynamics-based docking of protein-glycosaminoglycan systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, Sergey A; Gehrcke, Jan-Philip; Pisabarro, M Teresa

    2014-02-24

    We present Dynamic Molecular Docking (DMD), a novel targeted molecular dynamics-based protocol developed to address ligand and receptor flexibility as well as the inclusion of explicit solvent in local molecular docking. A class of ligands for which docking performance especially benefits from overcoming these challenges is the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs are periodic, highly flexible, and negatively charged polysaccharides playing an important role in the extracellular matrix via interaction with proteins such as growth factors and chemokines. The goal of our work has been to develop a proof of concept for an MD-based docking approach and to analyze its applicability for protein-GAG systems. DMD exploits the electrostatics-driven attraction of a ligand to its receptor, treats both as entirely flexible, and considers solvent explicitly. We show that DMD has high predictive significance for systems dominated by electrostatic attraction and demonstrate its capability to reliably identify the receptor residues contributing most to binding.

  18. Flexible Space-Filling Designs for Complex System Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Systems Engineering Approved by: _________________________________________________________ Peter Denning, Chair, Department of Computer Science... Kirby , 2001; and Baker, Mavris, & Schrage, 2002). These meta-models approximate the underlying dependencies of the simulation output responses to the...Journal of Graphical and Statistics, 12, 512–530. Kirby , M. R. (2001). A methodology for technology identification, evaluation, and selection in

  19. Implementation of Shape – Based Matching Vision System in Flexible Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. M. Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is regarding the application of a vision algorithm to monitor the operations of a system in order to control thedecision making concerning jobs and work pieces recognition that are to be made during system operation in real time. Thispaper stress on the vision algorithm used which mainly focus on the shape matching properties of the product. The mainfocus of this paper is on the development of an adaptive training phase of the vision system, which is the creation of a flexibleRegion of Interest capability that is able to adapt to various type of applications and purposes depending on the users’requirements. Additionally, an independent stand-alone control scheme was used to enable this system to be used in varioustypes of manufacturing configurations. The system was tested on a number of different images with various characteristicsand properties to determine the reliability and accuracy of the system in respect to different conditions and combination ofdifferent training traits.

  20. Patient Posture Monitoring System Based on Flexible Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring patients using vision cameras can cause privacy intrusion problems. In this paper, we propose a patient position monitoring system based on a patient cloth with unobtrusive sensors. We use flexible sensors based on polyvinylidene fluoride, which is a flexible piezoelectric material. Theflexiblesensorsareinsertedintopartsclosetothekneeandhipoftheloosepatientcloth. We measure electrical signals from the sensors caused by the piezoelectric effect when the knee and hip in the cloth are bent. The measured sensor outputs are transferred to a computer via Bluetooth. We use a custom-made program to detect the position of the patient through a rule-based algorithm and the sensor outputs. The detectable postures are based on six human motions in and around a bed. The proposed system can detect the patient positions with a success rate over 88 percent for three patients.

  1. Mathematic modeling on flexible cooling system in hot strip mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭良贵; 刘相华; 赵宪明; 吴迪

    2014-01-01

    A novel cooling system combining ultra fast cooling rigs with laminar cooling devices was investigated. Based on the different cooling mechanisms, a serial of mathematic models were established to describe the relationship between water flow and spraying pressure and the relationship between water spraying heat flux and layout of nozzles installed on the top and bottom cooling headers. Model parameters were validated by measured data. Heat transfer models including air convection model, heat radiation model and water cooling capacity model were detailedly introduced. In addition, effects on cooling capacity by water temperature and different valve patterns were also presented. Finally, the comparison results from UFC used or not have been provided with respect to temperature evolution and mechanical properties of Q235B steel grade with thickness of 7.8 mm. Since online application of the sophisticated CTC process control system based on these models, run-out table cooling control system has been running stably and reliably to produce resource-saving, low-cost steels with smaller grain size.

  2. Design of a Remote Meter Reading System Based on ZigBee and GPRS%基于ZigBee和GPRS的远程抄表系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蒙; 高仲合

    2014-01-01

    针对当前传统抄表效率低、成本高、劳动强度大等问题,提出了一种无线远程抄表方案。结合ZigBee无线短距离通信技术和GPRS技术设计了一套抄表系统,该系统广域网采用GPRS技术通信,局域网采用ZigBee无线短距离通信,该系统具有能耗低、稳定性强、成本低、通信安全可靠等特点。经现场试验测试,该系统能够完成数据采集、传输,抄表成功率高,同时该系统在医疗、环境监测等领域应用前景广阔。%Aiming at the problems of low efficiency, high cost, high labor intensity of traditional meter reading, this paper presents a wireless remote meter reading scheme. A set of automatic meter reading system design combining with ZigBee short distance wireless communication technology and GPRS technology. The wide area network of the system uses GPRS technology and the local area network uses ZigBee wireless short distance communication. The system is characterized by low energy consumption, high stability, low cost, safe and reliable communication. Through field test, the system proves being able to complete data acquisition and transmission for meter reading that has high success rate, at the same time, this system has the application prospect in the field of medical, environmental monitoring and so on.

  3. The Design of Intelligent Meter Reading System in Green Sensor Network%绿色传感网中智能抄表系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石彪; 林孝康; 张盛

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent application of electricity is an important aspect of green sensor network, of which AMI technology is the basic step to achieve smart grid. These make new requirements about meter's functionality and performance, so that smart meter technology takes a key part of the AMI technology. In this article, a smart meter design based on the solution of ST chips is proposed, with the measurement chip STPM01 and the controller using STM32F1O3. As for requirements of communications network in the smart metering, the design integrates transceiver based on wirelessHART protocol. This paper introduces the design of the meter system in AMI, gives a detailed description of parts of the circuit, and obtains the advantages of smart reading with integrated wirelessHART transceiver by comparing.%智能用电作为绿色传感器网应用的重要方面,其中的AMI是实现智能电网技术的基础性的一步,对电表的功用和性能提出了新的要求,使智能电表技术成为AMI技术的关键部分.本文基于ST公司的芯片方案,提出了一种智能电表设计方案,计量芯片采用STPM01,控制器采用STM32F103.针对智能抄表的通讯网络要求,该智能抄表方案集成了基于wirelessHART协议的收发模块.文章介绍了AMI中电表系统的设计,详细描述了方案的部分电路,并比较得出了wirelessHART协议抄表方案的优势.

  4. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gary H. Sanders

    2013-06-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy communities of India, Canada, China, Japan and the USA are shaping its science goals, suite of instrumentation and the system design of the TMT observatory. With large and open Nasmyth-focus platforms for generations of science instruments, TMT will have the versatility and flexibility for its envisioned 50 years of forefront astronomy. The TMT design employs the filled-aperture finely-segmented primary mirror technology pioneered with the W.M. Keck 10-meter telescopes. With TMT’s 492 segments optically phased, and by employing laser guide star assisted multi-conjugate adaptive optics, TMT will achieve the full diffraction limited performance of its 30-meter aperture, enabling unprecedented wide field imaging and multi-object spectroscopy. The TMT project is a global effort of its partners with all partners contributing to the design, technology development, construction and scientific use of the observatory. TMT will extend astronomy with extremely large telescopes to all of its global communities.

  5. Flexible mobile robot system for smart optical pipe inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampfer, Wolfram; Bartzke, Ralf; Ziehl, Wolfgang

    1998-03-01

    Damages of pipes can be inspected and graded by TV technology available on the market. Remotely controlled vehicles carry a TV-camera through pipes. Thus, depending on the experience and the capability of the operator, diagnosis failures can not be avoided. The classification of damages requires the knowledge of the exact geometrical dimensions of the damages such as width and depth of cracks, fractures and defect connections. Within the framework of a joint R&D project a sensor based pipe inspection system named RODIAS has been developed with two partners from industry and research institute. It consists of a remotely controlled mobile robot which carries intelligent sensors for on-line sewerage inspection purpose. The sensor is based on a 3D-optical sensor and a laser distance sensor. The laser distance sensor is integrated in the optical system of the camera and can measure the distance between camera and object. The angle of view can be determined from the position of the pan and tilt unit. With coordinate transformations it is possible to calculate the spatial coordinates for every point of the video image. So the geometry of an object can be described exactly. The company Optimess has developed TriScan32, a special software for pipe condition classification. The user can start complex measurements of profiles, pipe displacements or crack widths simply by pressing a push-button. The measuring results are stored together with other data like verbal damage descriptions and digitized images in a data base.

  6. The locomotory system of pearlfish Carapus acus: what morphological features are characteristic for highly flexible fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Cathrin; Parmentier, Eric; Wiehr, Stefan; Gemballa, Sven

    2012-05-01

    The body curvature displayed by fishes differs remarkably between species. Some nonmuscular features (e.g., number of vertebrae) are known to influence axial flexibility, but we have poor knowledge of the influence of the musculotendinous system (myosepta and muscles). Whereas this system has been described in stiff-bodied fishes, we have little data on flexible fishes. In this study, we present new data on the musculotendinous system of a highly flexible fish and compare them to existing data on rigid fishes. We use microdissections with polarized light microscopy to study the three-dimensional anatomy of myoseptal tendons, histology and immunohistology to study the insertion of muscle fiber types into tendons, and μ-CT scans to study skeletal anatomy. Results are compared with published data from stiff-bodied fishes. We identify four important morphological differences between stiff-bodied fishes and Carapus acus: (1) Carapus bears short tendons in the horizontal septum, whereas rigid fishes have elongated tendons. (2) Carapus bears short lateral tendons in its myosepta, whereas stiff-bodied fishes bear elongated tendons. Because of its short myoseptal tendons, Carapus retains high axial flexibility. In contrast, elongated tendons restrict axial flexibility in rigid fishes but are able to transmit anteriorly generated muscle forces through long tendons down to the tail. (3) Carapus bears distinct epineural and epipleural tendons in its myosepta, whereas these tendons are weak or absent in rigid fishes. As these tendons firmly connect vertebral axis and skin in Carapus, we consider them to constrain lateral displacement of the vertebral axis during extreme body flexures. (4) Ossifications of myoseptal tendons are only present in C. acus and other more flexible fishes but are absent in rigid fishes. The functional reasons for this remain unexplained.

  7. Discussion on duplex interactive system construction of smart meter%基于智能电能表双向交互系统构建探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宏宇; 刘冰岩

    2015-01-01

    在电网公司智能电能表应用和用电信息采集系统建设取得了成效的基础上,进一步挖掘智能电能表的支撑能力,实现智能电能表与用户直接交互用电信息,用户与电网的实时互动,满足电力用户日益增长的互动化需求。通过对双向交互内容、现有智能电能表的改造、通讯组网方式、智能用电信息系统的扩展几方面进行探讨,提出了一种依托现有用采系统构建双向交互系统的建设方案。%On basis of the achievemient on the application of smart meter and the construction of power information ac -quisition system , this paper deeply delves the supporting capacity of smart meter to realize the direct information inter -active between smart meter and its users , and the real-time interaction between users and grid , so as to meet the in-creasing interaction requirements of power users .By means of discussing duplex interactive contents , the existing smart meter modification , communication network mode , and the expansion of smart power information system , this paper proposed a construction scheme of building duplex interactive system relying on existing power information ac -quisition system .

  8. Towards an integration of process planning and production planning and control for flexible manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalman, GJC; Slomp, J; Suresh, NC

    1999-01-01

    This introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows that the performance of an FMS can be significantly improved and FMS capabilities more effecti

  9. A system perspective to the deployment of flexibility through aggregator companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; van den Broek, M.A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; van der Hoofd, Erik; Hommes, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the facilitation of aggregator companies for the provision of flexibility services to the electricity system by using large numbers of dispersed and distributed resources of small capacities. This initiative by TenneT TSO and Utrecht University is about identifying potential

  10. Towards an integration of process planning and production planning and control for flexible manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalman, GJC; Slomp, J; Suresh, NC

    This introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows that the performance of an FMS can be significantly improved and FMS capabilities more

  11. An Adaptable Robot Vision System Performing Manipulation Actions With Flexible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenhagen, Leon; Fugl, Andreas R.; Jordt, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptable system which is able to perform manipulation operations (such as Peg-in-Hole or Laying-Down actions) with flexible objects. As such objects easily change their shape significantly during the execution of an action, traditional strategies, e. g., for solve path-pl...

  12. Using soft constraints to guide users in flexible business process management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansen, Christian; Borch, Signe Ellegård

    2008-01-01

    Current Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) allow designers to specify processes in highly expressive languages supporting numerous control flow constructs, exceptions, complex predicates, etc., but process specifications are expressed in terms of hard constraints, and this leads to an unf...... the seriousness of their violations at runtime. We believe, this provides a combination of guidance and flexibility not otherwise attainable. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  13. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate ...

  14. A flexible GPS tracking system for studying bird behaviour at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, W.; Baaij, E.W.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking devices and bio-loggers provide crucial information on the ecology and behaviour of birds in their natural environment. An optimal tracking system should be lightweight, measure three-dimensional locations, enable flexible measurement schemes, transmit data remotely and measure

  15. Metalogue: A Multiperspective Multimodal Dialogue System with Metacognitive Abilities for Highly Adaptive and Flexible Dialogue Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandersson, Jan; Aretoulaki, Maria; Campbell, Nick; Gardner, Michael; Girenko, Andrey; Klakow, Dietrich; Koryzis, Dimitris; Petukhova, Volha; Specht, Marcus; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; Stricker, Alexander; Taatgen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This poster paper presents a high-level description of the Metalogue project that is developing a multi-modal dialogue system that is able to implement interactive behaviors that seem natural to users and is flexible enough to exploit the full potential of multimodal interaction. We provide an outli

  16. Monitoring system of depressurization valves of migrated gas in annular space of flexible risers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Luiz A.; Santos, Joilson M.; Carvalho, Antonio L.; Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    PETROBRAS Research and Development Center - CENPES developed an automatic system for monitoring pressure of annular space due to permeation of gas in flexible risers to inspect continuously integrity of such lines. To help maintaining physical integrity of flexible risers, two PSV's are installed to end fittings on top of riser, so that operation of any valve grants the maximum admissible gas pressure within the riser annular space, as overpressure might cause damages to external polymeric layer of flexible riser. Due to the fact that there is no mechanism allowing operation to verify correct PSV performance and frequency of valve's closings and openings, we felt to be necessary the development and implement an automatic instrumented system, integrated to platform's automation and control infrastructure. The objective of this instrumentation is to monitor and register pressure of annular space in flexible riser, as well as XV's depressurization frequency. Having such information registered and monitored, can infer some riser structural conditions, anticipating repairs and preventive maintenance. In this paper we present developed system details including instruments required, application, operation of associated screens that are used in the ECOS, with events, alarms and industrial automation services required (Application development and system integration). (author)

  17. Impact of Flexibility of Manufacturing System Components on Competitiveness of SMEs in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun Preet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present manufacturing environment is characterized by a number of changes which poses challenges to a typical manufacturing unit. Time demands a shift from the traditional manufacturing strategies as they do not fit to present market competition. A flexible systems strategy has to be designed for remaining competitive in the market and perform well. For designing strategies and policies it is important to know the factors that influence performance of the system. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the flexibility of manufacturing system components on competitiveness of SMEs in northern India. A questionnaire based survey was conducted in the SMEs across northern India analysing three sectors namely automotive, machine tool and light engineering (mechanical components and equipment. The study contributes to the existing literature by empirically investigating the impact of machine, material handling and worker flexibility on competitiveness of manufacturing firms. This paper presents a Structural Equation Model displaying the impact of flexibility of manufacturing system components on competitiveness of SMEs.

  18. A flexible GPS tracking system for studying bird behaviour at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, W.; Baaij, E.W.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking devices and bio-loggers provide crucial information on the ecology and behaviour of birds in their natural environment. An optimal tracking system should be lightweight, measure three-dimensional locations, enable flexible measurement schemes, transmit data remotely and measure environmenta

  19. A linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems for control synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jan B.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; van Dijk, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a linearized input–output representation of flexible multibody systems is proposed in which an arbitrary combination of positions, velocities, accelerations, and forces can be taken as input variables and as output variables. The formulation is based on a nonlinear finite element

  20. Control system design for flexible rotors supported by actively lubricated bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a methodology for calculating the gains of an output feedback controller for active vibration control of flexible rotors. The methodology is based on modal reduction. The proportional and derivative gains are obtained by adjusting the first two damping factors of the system...... and keeping the lengths of the two eigenvalues constant in the real-imaginary plane. The methodology is applied to an industrial gas compressor supported by active tilting-pad journal bearings. The unbalance response functions and mode shapes of the flexible rotor with and without active control are presented...

  1. 浅析电力计量自动化系统的综合应用%Superficial Analysis of Comprehensive Application of Electric Power Metering Automation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任辉

    2015-01-01

    The power metering automation system is a new mode of electric power measurement, is a fusion of modern advanced technology of the integrated system can be timely to electricity demand for collection, analysis and processing, so as to improve the quality and efficiency of the electric power metering. Therefore, a simple analysis of the integrated application of electric power metering automation system is carried out.%电力计量自动化系统是一种新型的电力计量方式,是融合了现代各种先进技术的综合性系统,可及时对用电需求进行采集、分析和处理,从而提高电力计量的工作质量和效率。因此,主要对电力计量自动化系统的综合应用进行了简单分析。

  2. Self-tuning pressure-feedback control by pole placement for vibration reduction of excavator with independent metering fluid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruqi; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Junhui; Cheng, Min

    2017-08-01

    Independent metering control systems are promising fluid power technologies compared with traditional valve controlled systems. By breaking the mechanical coupling between the inlet and outlet, the meter-out valve can open as large as possible to reduce energy consumptions. However, the lack of damping in outlet causes stronger vibrations. To address the problem, the paper designs a hybrid control method combining dynamic pressure-feedback and active damping control. The innovation resides in the optimization of damping by introducing pressure feedback to make trade-offs between high stability and fast response. To achieve this goal, the dynamic response pertaining to the control parameters consisting of feedback gain and cut-off frequency, are analyzed via pole-zero locations. Accordingly, these parameters are tuned online in terms of guaranteed dominant pole placement such that the optimal damping can be accurately captured under a considerable variation of operating conditions. The experiment is deployed in a mini-excavator. The results pertaining to different control parameters confirm the theoretical expectations via pole-zero locations. By using proposed self-tuning controller, the vibrations are almost eliminated after only one overshoot for different operation conditions. The overshoots are also reduced with less decrease of the response time. In addition, the energy-saving capability of independent metering system is still not affected by the improvement of controllability.

  3. Flexible Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection System for Inflatable Atmospheric Capture and Entry Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Andrews Space, Inc. proposes an innovative transpiration cooled aerobrake TPS design that is thermally protective, structurally flexible, and lightweight. This...

  4. Dynamic Study on Rigid and Flexible Coupling System for Terminally Sensitive Submunition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Rui; LIU Rong-zhong

    2007-01-01

    A kinetic model of the rigid and flexible coupling system for terminally sensitive submunition is set up with Kane's method. The parachute is considered as a flexible body, the flexible displacement is expressed with modal spread method, the position of the parachute is expressed with a hybrid coordinate method, and the kinematics of the terminally sensitive submunition is analyzed. Ten generalized coordinates relative to the attitude of the terminally sensitive submunition are chosen, and the correlative generalized active forces, the generalized inertial forces, the generalized internal forces are calculated in turn. On the base of the Kane's method, the ten degrees of freedom dynamic equations for the coupled terminally sensitive submunition are finally set up. This model can be used to expediently simulate and analyze accurately the exterior ballistic trajectory of terminally sensitive submunition, and provide the overall design of the terminally sensitive submunition with some helpful references.

  5. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  6. Flexible multi-electrode array with integrated bendable CMOS-chip for implantable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkin, N; Mokwa, W

    2012-01-01

    Micro-electrodes and micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) for stimulating neurons or recording action potentials are widely used in medical applications or biological research. For medical implants in many applications like brain implants or retinal implants there is a need for flexible MEAs with a large area and a large number of stimulation electrodes. In this work a flexible MEA with an embedded flexible silicon dummy CMOS-chip facing these challenges has been designed, manufactured and characterized. This approach offers the possibility by connecting and addressing several of these MEAs via a bus system, to increase the number and the density of electrodes significantly. This paper describes the design and fabrication process. Results on the mechanical and electrical behavior will be given and possible improvements for medical applications by this novel approach will be discussed.

  7. The Ergonomic Analysis and Back Injuries in Flexible Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Castillo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Back injuries identification and diagnoses in the transition of the Taylor model to the flexiblemodelof production organization, demands a parallel intervention of prevention actorsat work. This study uses simultaneously three intervention models (structured action analysis, muscle skeletal symptoms questionnaires and muscle skeletal assessment for work activitiesin a packaging plant. In this study seventy and two (72 operative workers participated (28 workers with muscle skeletal evaluation. In an intervention period of 10 months, the physical, cognitive, organizational components and productiveprocess dynamics were evaluated from the muscle skeletal demands issues. The differencesestablished between objective exposure at risk, back injury risk perception, appreciation and a vertebral spine evaluation, in prior and post intervention, determines the structure for a muscle skeletal risk management system. This study explains that back injury symptoms can be more efficiently reduced among operative workers combining measures registered and the adjustment between dynamics, the changes at work and efficient gestures development.Relevance: the results of this study can be used to prevent back injuries in workers of flexibleproduction processes.

  8. Flexible Morphogenesis based Formation Control for Multi-Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Carlo Barca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by how biological cells communicate with each other at a cell-to-cell level; morphogenesis emerged to be an effective way for local communication between homogenous robots in multi-robot systems. In this paper, we present the first steps towards a scalable morphogenesis style formation control technique, which address the drawbacks associated with current morphogenesis type formation control techniques, including their inability to distribute robots evenly across target shapes. A series of experiments, which demonstrate that the proposed technique enables groups of non-holonomic ground moving robots to generate formations in less than 9 seconds with three robots and less than 22 seconds with five robots, is also presented. These experiments furthermore reveal that the proposed technique enables groups of robots to generate formations without significantly increasing the total travel distance when faced with obstacles. This work is an important contribution to multi-robot control theory as history has shown that the success of groups often depends on efficient and robust formation control.

  9. Flexible proportional-rate scheduling for OFDMA system

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the sum-rate maximization algorithms for downlink and uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems under proportional-rate constraint (PRC) and minimum-rate constraint. We develop a low-complexity weighted channel signal-to-noise ratio (w-SNR)-based ranking scheme for user selection on each subchannel in OFDMA combined with waterfilling (WF) power allocation. Both offline and online optimization algorithms are developed to optimize the SNR weight vector to maximize the sum rate while satisfying several constraints, such as PRC. The offline weight optimization technique relies on the analytical throughput results developed in this paper, and the online weight adaptation method tracks the user rates and meets the PRC using a subgradient search. Furthermore, we introduce a novel SNR operating region test to enhance the multiuser diversity gain and the sum rate. The proposed schemes have a low complexity, which is linear to the numbers of users and subchannels. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the developed analytical rates and fairness formulas, and show that the proposed w-SNR schemes can achieve higher sum rates than several benchmark schemes that provide the PRC with either short-term or long-term fairness. © 2013 IEEE. © 2013 ESO.

  10. A flexible five-level cascaded H-bridge inverter for photovoltaic gird-connected systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Wu, Fengjiang; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid penetration of photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected system in industrial and commercial application, it is critical to improve the efficiency and enhance the utilization of PV power generation system. This paper proposes a flexible five-level topology based on cascaded multi-level inve......With the rapid penetration of photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected system in industrial and commercial application, it is critical to improve the efficiency and enhance the utilization of PV power generation system. This paper proposes a flexible five-level topology based on cascaded multi...... of PV arrays are lower, the proposed inverter works in CMI mode to widen the generation range. When output voltages of PV panels are higher, inverter works in HBI mode to increase the efficiency. Hence the system incorporate the low losses feature of HBI and low grid-connected current THD advantages...

  11. A linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems for control synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonker, J. B., E-mail: J.B.Jonker@utwente.nl; Aarts, R. G. K. M., E-mail: R.G.K.M.Aarts@utwente.nl; Dijk, J. van [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology (Netherlands)], E-mail: J.vanDijk@utwente.nl

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, a linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems is proposed in which an arbitrary combination of positions, velocities, accelerations, and forces can be taken as input variables and as output variables. The formulation is based on a nonlinear finite element approach in which a multibody system is modeled as an assembly of rigid body elements interconnected by joint elements such as flexible hinges and beams. The proposed formulation is general in nature and can be applied for prototype modeling and control system analysis of mechatronic systems. Application of the theory is illustrated through a detailed model development of an active vibration isolation system for a metrology frame of a lithography machine.

  12. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  13. Strategy for Synthesis of Flexible Heat Exchanger Networks Embedded with System Reliability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Dake; HAN Zhizhong; WANG Kefeng; YAO Pingjing

    2013-01-01

    System reliability can produce a strong influence on the performance of the heat exchanger network (HEN).In this paper,an optimization method with system reliability analysis for flexible HEN by genetic/simulated annealing algorithms (GA/SA) is presented.Initial flexible arrangements of HEN is received by pseudo-temperature enthalpy diagram.For determining system reliability of HEN,the connections of heat exchangers(HEXs) and independent subsystems in the HEN are analyzed by the connection sequence matrix(CSM),and the system reliability is measured by the independent subsystem including maximum number of HEXs in the HEN.As for the HEN that did not meet system reliability,HEN decoupling is applied and the independent subsystems in the HEN are changed by removing decoupling HEX,and thus the system reliability is elevated.After that,heat duty redistribution based on the relevant elements of the heat load loops and HEX areas are optimized in GA/SA.Then,the favorable network configuration,which matches both the most economical cost and system reliability criterion,is located.Moreover,particular features belonging to suitable decoupling HEX are extracted from calculations.Corresponding numerical example is presented to verify that the proposed strategy is effective to formulate optimal flexible HEN with system reliability measurement.

  14. Modular, flexible, and expandable high-performance image archiving and retrieving open-architecture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. P.

    1992-07-01

    In today''s economy, it takes significant funds to establish a high-performance image archival and retrieval system for any image application. One cost effective approach is to build the system in multiple phases but there is concern that technology is advancing rapidly and the original system may not be able to take advantage of new features. The concept of an open- architecture modular, flexible and expandable system is an essential element to achieving a high-performance image archival and retrieval system within a realistic short period of time. This paper introduces a proposal for a modular, flexible, and expandable image archival and retrieval open-architecture system to stimulate discussion and thinking. It will cover the following areas: (1) data archival and retrieval requirements such as storage capacity and data management, (2) data communication and distribution requirements using local area networks and/or wide area networks, (3) the architectural requirements such as adopting industry standards for hardware and software, and (4) an example of such open-architecture system to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a modular, flexible, and expandable high- performance image archival and retrieval system.

  15. Hybrid procedure for total laryngectomy with a flexible robot-assisted surgical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Patrick J; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Veit, Johannes A; Rotter, Nicole; Friedrich, Daniel T; Greve, Jens; Scheithauer, Marc O

    2017-06-01

    Total laryngectomy is a standard procedure in head-and-neck surgery for the treatment of cancer patients. Recent clinical experiences have indicated a clinical benefit for patients undergoing transoral robot-assisted total laryngectomy (TORS-TL) with commercially available systems. Here, a new hybrid procedure for total laryngectomy is presented. TORS-TL was performed in human cadavers (n = 3) using a transoral-transcervical hybrid procedure. The transoral approach was performed with a robotic flexible robot-assisted surgical system (Flex®) and compatible flexible instruments. Transoral access and visualization of anatomical landmarks were studied in detail. Total laryngectomy is feasible with a combined transoral-transcervical approach using the flexible robot-assisted surgical system. Transoral visualization of all anatomical structures is sufficient. The flexible design of the robot is advantageous for transoral surgery of the laryngeal structures. Transoral robot assisted surgery has the potential to reduce morbidity, hospital time and fistula rates in a selected group of patients. Initial clinical studies and further development of supplemental tools are in progress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Towards improving the performance of flexible manufacturing system: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singholi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global competition has evolved a manufacturing environment which gleans vast product variety, reduced manufacturing lead times, increased quality standards and competitive costs. Simultaneously, with a rising trend toward globalization, these manufacturing environments must be designed to cater new challenges to survive and grow in the marketplace. To deal with such multifaceted problems, new technologies support increased flexibility and automation. These objectives intended for the improvement of the manufacturing environment have been the key rationales for the introduction of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs. In this paper a case study of a firm is presented with a contribution to suggest some methods of performance improvement for a flexible system of manufacturing. The study is based on the mathematical models illustrated in literature to estimate possible performance parameters like maximum production rate, make span time and overall utilization. Through this study, an effort is also made to present the improved design for existing flexible manufacturing system employed in the company. Various design and performance parameters are then evaluated and compared for the existing and improved FMS.

  17. Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Karl Eric

    Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal

  18. Exploring the energy benefits of advanced water metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hans, Liesel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piscopo, Kate [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    , due to structural economic and regulatory barriers. In California, we see examples of deployed advanced metering systems with demonstrated embedded energy savings through water conservation and leak detection. Finally, we also see substantial untapped opportunity in the agricultural sector for enabling electric demand response for both traditional peak shaving and more complex flexible and ancillary services through improved water tracking and farm automation.

  19. Developing an Advanced Life Support System for the Flexible Path into Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit, such as a permanent lunar base, an asteroid rendezvous, or exploring Mars, will use recycling life support systems to preclude supplying large amounts of metabolic consumables. The International Space Station (ISS) life support design provides a historic guiding basis for future systems, but both its system architecture and the subsystem technologies should be reconsidered. Different technologies for the functional subsystems have been investigated and some past alternates appear better for flexible path destinations beyond low Earth orbit. There is a need to develop more capable technologies that provide lower mass, increased closure, and higher reliability. A major objective of redesigning the life support system for the flexible path is achieving the maintainability and ultra-reliability necessary for deep space operations.

  20. Seasonal neuroplasticity of the song control system in tropical, flexibly, and opportunistically breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Thomas W; Moore, Ignacio T

    2009-09-01

    The avian song control system is one of the primary models used to study neuroplasticity and neurogenesis in the adult vertebrate brain. A great deal of progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms controlling seasonal neuroplasticity of the song control system. However, relatively little work has been done to identify how prevalent this phenomenon is and if a diversity of environmental cues can regulate it. Photoperiod is the primary environmental cue used by mid- to high-latitude seasonally breeding birds to time growth of the song control system but many birds display flexible or opportunistic breeding patterns that are less reliant on photoperiodic cues. In addition, approximately 75% of birds are tropical and in only one such species has neuroplasticity of the song control system been studied. Our goal is to outline some of what is known and expand on the ways that studying tropical, flexibly, and opportunistically breeding birds can advance our understanding of plasticity in the song bird brain.

  1. 基于物联网的智能电表采集系统设计%Data Acquisition System of Smart Meter Based on IoT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢红波; 许宏科

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the monitoring of the electric meter,a data acquisition system of smart meter based on Internet of Things is de-signed,which consists of smart electric meter nodes,data acquisition terminal equipment and host computer.As the key part of the sys-tem,data acquisition terminal equipment can accomplish data acquisition of electric meter by supporting Modbus protocol,which has a complete TCP/IP network protocol stack and provides API functions interface.The terminal can also realize bidirectional communication and remote control between networks.The system is suitable for the power management of industry,building automation,intelligent home and other environments,which has good practical prospect.%针对智能电表的监控,设计了一种基于物联网的电表数据采集系统,由智能电表节点、数据采集终端设备及监控上位机组成。数据采集终端设备作为系统核心部分,支持Modbus通信协议,并拥有完全独立的TCP/IP网络协议栈,提供 API函数接口,从而完成智能电表数据的现场采集,实现双向网络传输与远程操控。此系统可适用于工业环境、楼宇自动化及智能家居等多种不同环境下的能耗管理,具有良好的应用前景。

  2. The concept of a flexible system for use in software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Marek; Mulawka, Jan

    2014-11-01

    This paper concerns one of the fundamental issues of software engineering. We consider the concept of software metrics based on attributes describing each line of a computer program source code. Furthermore we present a design for a flexible, plugin based system which allows to define and use such metrics. To show the practical utility of the solution we implemented a basic version of the system and conducted experimental verification. Some of tests results and final conclusions are also provided.

  3. An Improved Flexible Telemetry System to Autonomously Monitor Sub-Bandage Pressure and Wound Moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Mehmood; Alex Hariz; Sue Templeton; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an improved mobile-based telemetric dual mode sensing system to monitor pressure and moisture levels in compression bandages and dressings used for chronic wound management. The system is fabricated on a 0.2 mm thick flexible printed circuit material, and is capable of sensing pressure and moisture at two locations simultaneously within a compression bandage and wound dressing. The sensors are calibrated to sense both parameters accurately, and the data ...

  4. Flexible System Integration and Advanced Hierarchical Control Architectures in the Microgrid Research Laboratory of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the system integration and hierarchical control implementation in an inverter-based microgrid research laboratory (MGRL) in Aalborg University, Denmark. MGRL aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The structure of the laboratory...... system supervision, advanced secondary and tertiary management are realized in a microgrid central controller. The software and hardware schemes are described. Several example case studies are introduced and performed in order to achieve power quality regulation, energy management and flywheel energy...

  5. Study on rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of hub-plate system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feiyun; XIE Yongcheng; ZHANG Ming; HE Yinbiao

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic modeling of a rotating flexible hubplate system is investigated by using Jourdain's variation principle in which the finite element method (FEM) is used as discretization method for a flexible plate. Different from the previous modeling of a plate with a prescribed large overall motion, the coupling between large overall motion of the system and elastic deformation of the flexible plate is taken into account in the proposed coupling model. The quadratic terms are included in the strain-displacement expression,such that the dynamic stiffening terms are included. Simulation of a rotating hub-plate system indicates that the linear model based on linear strain-displacement assumption may lead to erroneous results in the case of high rotation speed. Conservation of energy verifies the validity of the proposed model. Furthermore, frequency analysis of a hub-plate system shows the difference between the frequencies of the system with free and prescribed large overall motion, and parameter analysis of the system reveals the coupling characteristics of the rotational motion and the deformation.

  6. Genome-wide system analysis reveals stable yet flexible network dynamics in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, M; Hörnquist, M; Björkegren, J; Tegnér, J

    2009-07-01

    Recently, important insights into static network topology for biological systems have been obtained, but still global dynamical network properties determining stability and system responsiveness have not been accessible for analysis. Herein, we explore a genome-wide gene-to-gene regulatory network based on expression data from the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisae (budding yeast). We recover static properties like hubs (genes having several out-going connections), network motifs and modules, which have previously been derived from multiple data sources such as whole-genome expression measurements, literature mining, protein-protein and transcription factor binding data. Further, our analysis uncovers some novel dynamical design principles; hubs are both repressed and repressors, and the intra-modular dynamics are either strongly activating or repressing whereas inter-modular couplings are weak. Finally, taking advantage of the inferred strength and direction of all interactions, we perform a global dynamical systems analysis of the network. Our inferred dynamics of hubs, motifs and modules produce a more stable network than what is expected given randomised versions. The main contribution of the repressed hubs is to increase system stability, while higher order dynamic effects (e.g. module dynamics) mainly increase system flexibility. Altogether, the presence of hubs, motifs and modules induce few flexible modes, to which the network is extra sensitive to an external signal. We believe that our approach, and the inferred biological mode of strong flexibility and stability, will also apply to other cellular networks and adaptive systems.

  7. Expanding the Use of Time-Based Metering: Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Steven J.; Farley, Todd; Hoang, Ty

    2005-01-01

    Time-based metering is an efficient air traffic management alternative to the more common practice of distance-based metering (or "miles-in-trail spacing"). Despite having demonstrated significant operational benefit to airspace users and service providers, time-based metering is used in the United States for arrivals to just nine airports and is not used at all for non-arrival traffic flows. The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor promises to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic management techniques. Not constrained to operate solely on arrival traffic, Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor is flexible enough to work in highly congested or heavily partitioned airspace for any and all traffic flows in a region. This broader and more general application of time-based metering is expected to bring the operational benefits of time-based metering to a much wider pool of beneficiaries than is possible with existing technology. It also promises to facilitate more collaborative traffic management on a regional basis. This paper focuses on the operational concept of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, touching also on its system architecture, field test results, and prospects for near-term deployment to the United States National Airspace System.

  8. Modal Analysis in Periodic, Time-Varying Systems with emphasis to the Coupling between Flexible Rotating Beams and Non-Rotating Flexible Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saracho, C. M.; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of dynamical response of a system built by a non-rotating structure coupled to flexible rotating beams is the purpose of this work. The effect of rotational speed upon the beam natural frequencies is well-known, so that an increase in the angular speeds leads to an increase in beam...

  9. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured...

  10. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  11. Statics and Dynamics of Offshore Cable and Flexible Pipe Systems Statique et dynamique des câbles flexibles en mer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyrot A. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the static and dynamic analysis of offshore cable structures is presented. These structures may consist of floating platform, buoys, weights, anchors, etc. interconnected by arbitrary arrangements of cables and flexible pipes. Displacements or forces can be specified at any number of nodal points and wave or current interaction be simulated. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by several applications: dynamic response of deep-water oil production platform, anchor drop, sonar towing, dynamic stiffness of mooring lines, tanker loading systems with flexible pipes, etc. Cet article présente une méthode de calcul pour les structures marines comportant des câbles et des tuyaux flexibles. La méthode est applicable à des réseaux de câbles ou de flexibles reliant des plates-formes flottantes, des bouées, des ancrages, etc. Des déplacements ou des forces peuvent être imposés en un nombre quelconque de nSuds. L'action du courant et de la houle est prise en compte. La méthode a été utilisée pour l'étude de nombreux systèmes de câbles et de flexibles. Les résultats indiquent une excellente performance des calculs proposés.

  12. An exact nonlinear hybrid-coordinate formulation for flexible multibody systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyang Liu; Jiazhen Hong; Lin Cui

    2007-01-01

    The previous low-order approximate nonlinear formulations succeeded in capturing the stiffening terms,but failed in simulation of mechanical systems with large deformation due to the neglect of the high-order deforma-tion terms. In this paper, a new hybrid-coordinate formu-lation is proposed, which is suitable for flexible multibody systems with large deformation. On the basis of exact strain-displacement relation, equations of motion for flexible multi-body system are derived by using virtual work principle. A matrix separation method is put forward to improve the efficiency of the calculation. Agreement of the present results with those obtained by absolute nodal coordinate formula-tion (ANCF) verifies the correctness of the proposed formu-lation. Furthermore, the present results are compared with those obtained by use of the linear model and the low-order approximate nonlinear model to show the suitability of the proposed models.

  13. Highly Flexible Multimode Digital Signal Processing Systems Using Adaptable Components and Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinu Vijay; Lach, John

    2006-12-01

    Multimode systems have emerged as an area- and power-efficient platform for implementing multiple timewise mutually exclusive digital signal processing (DSP) applications in a single hardware space. This paper presents a design methodology for integrating flexible components and controllers into primarily fixed logic multimode DSP systems, thereby increasing their overall efficiency and implementation capabilities. The components are built using a technique called small-scale reconfigurability (SSR) that provides the necessary flexibility for both intermode and intramode reconfigurabilities, without the penalties associated with general-purpose reconfigurable logic. Using this methodology, area and power consumption are reduced beyond what is provided by current multimode systems, without sacrificing performance. The results show an average of 7% reduction in datapath component area, 26% reduction in register area, 36% reduction in interconnect MUX cost, and 68% reduction in the number of controller signals, with an average 38% increase in component utilization for a set of benchmark 32-bit DSP applications.

  14. Highly Flexible Multimode Digital Signal Processing Systems Using Adaptable Components and Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vinu Vijay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimode systems have emerged as an area- and power-efficient platform for implementing multiple timewise mutually exclusive digital signal processing (DSP applications in a single hardware space. This paper presents a design methodology for integrating flexible components and controllers into primarily fixed logic multimode DSP systems, thereby increasing their overall efficiency and implementation capabilities. The components are built using a technique called small-scale reconfigurability (SSR that provides the necessary flexibility for both intermode and intramode reconfigurabilities, without the penalties associated with general-purpose reconfigurable logic. Using this methodology, area and power consumption are reduced beyond what is provided by current multimode systems, without sacrificing performance. The results show an average of 7% reduction in datapath component area, 26% reduction in register area, 36% reduction in interconnect MUX cost, and 68% reduction in the number of controller signals, with an average 38% increase in component utilization for a set of benchmark 32-bit DSP applications.

  15. Modeling and control of a flexible rotor system with AMB-based sustentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, I; Jugo, J; Etxebarria, V

    2008-01-01

    In this work the modeling and basic control design process of a rotary flexible spindle hovered by Active Magnetic Bearings (AMB) whose good capabilities for machine-tool industry extensively treated in the literature is presented. The modeling takes into account the three main behavioral characteristics of such magnetically-levitated rotor: the rigid dynamics, the flexible dynamics and the rotating unbalanced motion. Besides, the gyroscopic coupling is also studied proving that in this case, its effects are not significant and can be neglected. Using this model, a stabilizing controller based on symmetry properties is successfully designed for the system and a complete experimental analysis of its performance is carried out. Also, the predictions of the model are compared with the actual measured experimental results on a laboratory set-up based on the MBC500 Rotor Dynamics. Afterwards, a brief study about some nonlinear behavior observed in the system and its effect over the system stability at the critical speed is included.

  16. RCTS: A flexible environment for sensor integration and control of robot systems; the distributed processing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, R.; Mack, B.; Bayoumi, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Most robot systems lack a suitable hardware and software environment for the efficient research of new control and sensing schemes. Typically, engineers and researchers need to be experts in control, sensing, programming, communication and robotics in order to implement, integrate and test new ideas in a robot system. In order to reduce this time, the Robot Controller Test Station (RCTS) has been developed. It uses a modular hardware and software architecture allowing easy physical and functional reconfiguration of a robot. This is accomplished by emphasizing four major design goals: flexibility, portability, ease of use, and ease of modification. An enhanced distributed processing version of RCTS is described. It features an expanded and more flexible communication system design. Distributed processing results in the availability of more local computing power and retains the low cost of microprocessors. A large number of possible communication, control and sensing schemes can therefore be easily introduced and tested, using the same basic software structure.

  17. Flexible Time-Triggered Sampling in Smart Sensor-Based Wireless Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Wireless control systems (WCSs) often have to operate in dynamic environments where the network traffic load may vary unpredictably over time. The sampling in sensors is conventionally time triggered with fixed periods. In this context, only worse-than-possible quality of control (QoC) can be achieved when the network is underloaded, while overloaded conditions may significantly degrade the QoC, even causing system instability. This is particularly true when the bandwidth of the wireless network is limited and shared by multiple control loops. To address these problems, a flexible time-triggered sampling scheme is presented in this work. Smart sensors are used to facilitate dynamic adjustment of sampling periods, which enhances the flexibility and resource efficiency of the system based on time-triggered sampling. Feedback control technology is exploited for adapting sampling periods in a periodic manner. The deadline miss ratio in each control loop is maintained at/around a desired level, regardless of workl...

  18. A universal and flexible theodolite-camera system for making accurate measurements over large volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Zhu, Zhaokun; Yuan, Yun; Li, Lichun; Sun, Xiangyi; Yu, Qifeng; Ou, Jianliang

    2012-11-01

    Typically, optical measurement systems can achieve high accuracy over a limited volume, or cover a large volume with low accuracy. In this paper, we propose a universal way of integrating a camera with a theodolite to construct a theodolite-camera (TC) measurement system that can make measurements over a large volume with high accuracy. The TC inherits the advantages of high flexibility and precision from theodolite and camera, but it avoids the need to perform elaborate adjustments on the camera and theodolite. The TC provides a universal and flexible approach to the camera-on-theodolite system. We describe three types of TC based separately on: (i) a total station; (ii) a theodolite; and (iii) a general rotation frame. We also propose three corresponding calibration methods for the different TCs. Experiments have been conducted to verify the measuring accuracy of each of the three types of TC.

  19. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRODYNAMIC JOURNAL BEARING-FLEXIBLE ROTOR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yanjun; Yu Lie; Liu Heng

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of flexible rotor system with hydrodynamic bearing supports are analyzed. The shaft is modeled by using the finite element method that takes the effect of inertia and shear into consideration. According to the nonlinearity of the hydrodynamic journal bearing-flexible rotor system, a modified modal synthesis technique with free-interface is represented to reduce degrees-of-freedom of model of the flexible rotor system. According to physical character of oil film, variational constrain approach is introduced to continuously revise the variational form of Reynolds equation at every step of dynamic integration and iteration. Fluid lubrication problem with Reynolds boundary is solved by the isoparametric finite element method without the increasing of computing efforts. Nonlinear oil film forces and their Jacobians are simultaneously calculated and -Newton-Floquet (PNF) method. A method, combining the predictor-corrector mechanism to the PNF method, is presented to calculate the bifurcation point of periodic motions to be subject to change of system parameters. The local stability and bifurcation behaviors of periodic motions are obtained by Floquet theory. The chaotic motions of the beating-rotor system are investigated by power spectrum.The numerical examples show that the scheme of this study saves computing efforts but also is of good precision.

  20. Capturing the Impact of Storage and Other Flexible Technologies on Electric System Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Power systems of the future are likely to require additional flexibility. This has been well studied from an operational perspective, but has been more difficult to incorporate into capacity expansion models (CEMs) that study investment decisions on the decadal scale. There are two primary reasons for this. First, the necessary input data, including cost and resource projections, for flexibility options like demand response and storage are significantly uncertain. Second, it is computationally difficult to represent both investment and operational decisions in detail, the latter being necessary to properly value system flexibility, in CEMs for realistically sized systems. In this work, we extend a particular CEM, NREL's Resource Planning Model (RPM), to address the latter issue by better representing variable generation impacts on operations, and then adding two flexible technologies to RPM's suite of investment decisions: interruptible load and utility-scale storage. This work does not develop full suites of input data for these technologies, but is rather methodological and exploratory in nature. We thus exercise these new investment decisions in the context of exploring price points and value streams needed for significant deployment in the Western Interconnection by 2030. Our study of interruptible load finds significant variation by location, year, and overall system conditions. Some locations find no system need for interruptible load even with low costs, while others build the most expensive resources offered. System needs can include planning reserve capacity needs to ensure resource adequacy, but there are also particular cases in which spinning reserve requirements drive deployment. Utility-scale storage is found to require deep cost reductions to achieve wide deployment and is found to be more valuable in some locations with greater renewable deployment. Differences between more solar- and wind-reliant regions are also found: Storage

  1. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK PENCARIAN RUTE PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS is a manufacturing system that is formed from several Numerical Controlled Machines combine with material handling system, so that different jobs can be worked by different machines sequences. FMS combine the high productivity and flexibility of Transfer Line and Job Shop manufacturing system. In this reasearch, Activity-Based Costing(ABC approach was used as the weight to search the operation route in the proper machine, so that the total production cost can be optimized. The search method that was used in this experiment is Simulated Annealling, a variant form Hill Climbing Search method. An ideal operation time to proses a part was used as the annealling schedule. From the empirical test, it could be proved that the use of ABC approach and Simulated Annealing to search the route (routing process can optimize the Total Production Cost. In the other hand, the use of ideal operation time to process a part as annealing schedule can control the processing time well. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS adalah sistem manufaktur yang tersusun dari mesin-mesin Numerical Control (NC yang dikombinasi dengan Sistem Penanganan Material, sehingga job-job berbeda dikerjakan oleh mesin-mesin dengan alur yang berlainan. FMS menggabungkan produktifitas dan fleksibilitas yang tinggi dari Sistem Manufaktur Transfer Line dan Job Shop. Pada riset ini pendekatan Activity-Based Costing (ABC digunakan sebagai bobot / weight dalam pencarian rute operasi pada mesin yang tepat, untuk lebih mengoptimasi biaya produksi secara keseluruhan. Adapun metode Searching yang digunakan adalah Simulated Annealing yang merupakan varian dari metode searching Hill Climbing. Waktu operasi ideal untuk memproses sebuah part digunakan sebagai Annealing Schedulenya. Dari hasil pengujian empiris dapat dibuktikan bahwa penggunaan pendekatan ABC dan Simulated Annealing untuk proses pencarian rute (routing dapat lebih

  2. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and eliminating human errors due to manual readings which would ultimately reduce labour costs, diagnosis and instantaneous fault detection. This allows for predictive maintenance resulting in a more efficient and reliable distribution network.

  3. Design methodology for flexible energy conversion systems accounting for dynamic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Casati, Emiliano; Casella, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a methodology to help in the definition of the optimal design of power generation systems. The innovative element is the integration of requirements on dynamic performance into the system design procedure. Operational flexibility is an increasingly important specification...... of these simulations are used within the framework of a multi-objective optimization procedure to identify a number of equally optimal system configurations. A dynamic model of each of these systems is automatically parameterized, by inheriting its parameters values from the design model. Dynamic simulations allow...

  4. Analysis of actuating mechanics characteristics for a flexible miniature robot system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianzhi YU; Guozheng YAN; Guanying MA; Peng ZAN

    2008-01-01

    Based on the inchworm movement, a minia-ture endoscope inspection robot system with a flexible structure is designed. The system is actuated by a pneumatic rubber actuator with three degrees of free-dom, and it holds its position by air chambers. The actuating mechanics characteristics of the robot are analyzed. An electro-pneumatic pressure system is designed to control the motion of the robot. Results of the calculation and experiments are consistent, and the robot system can move smoothly in a soft tube.

  5. Ultrathin, transferred layers of thermally grown silicon dioxide as biofluid barriers for biointegrated flexible electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Zhao, Jianing; Yu, Ki Jun; Song, Enming; Barati Farimani, Amir; Chiang, Chia-Han; Jin, Xin; Xue, Yeguang; Xu, Dong; Du, Wenbo; Seo, Kyung Jin; Zhong, Yiding; Yang, Zijian; Won, Sang Min; Fang, Guanhua; Choi, Seo Woo; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Huang, Yonggang; Ashraful Alam, Muhammad; Viventi, Jonathan; Aluru, N. R.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Materials that can serve as long-lived barriers to biofluids are essential to the development of any type of chronic electronic implant. Devices such as cardiac pacemakers and cochlear implants use bulk metal or ceramic packages as hermetic enclosures for the electronics. Emerging classes of flexible, biointegrated electronic systems demand similar levels of isolation from biofluids but with thin, compliant films that can simultaneously serve as biointerfaces for sensing and/or actuation while in contact with the soft, curved, and moving surfaces of target organs. This paper introduces a solution to this materials challenge that combines (i) ultrathin, pristine layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) thermally grown on device-grade silicon wafers, and (ii) processing schemes that allow integration of these materials onto flexible electronic platforms. Accelerated lifetime tests suggest robust barrier characteristics on timescales that approach 70 y, in layers that are sufficiently thin (less than 1 μm) to avoid significant compromises in mechanical flexibility or in electrical interface fidelity. Detailed studies of temperature- and thickness-dependent electrical and physical properties reveal the key characteristics. Molecular simulations highlight essential aspects of the chemistry that governs interactions between the SiO2 and surrounding water. Examples of use with passive and active components in high-performance flexible electronic devices suggest broad utility in advanced chronic implants.

  6. 基于PLC的气表检定控制系统设计%Design of Gas Meter Calibration Control System Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍庆山

    2016-01-01

    Using sonic nozzle gas flow standard device to calibrate gas meter is a complex control process. When the instrument is verified under the action of water ring vacuum pump, air will respectively flow through the inlet pipe, detected flow meter, nozzle import pipeline, sonic nozzle, nozzle export pipeline, the buffer tank, and in the end the vacuum pump will discharge it.According to the size of the verification flow,choose different pneu-matic valve and different nozzle combination to determine the required verification flow. In order to realize accuracy verification of the gas meter, a set of gas meter calibration control system based on PLC was designed. Considering PLC as the basic control unit, workers can gather system parameters and apply the way of sequential control to realize gas meter calibra-tion process automation,instrument automatic computation coefficient,repeatability and er-rors of indication,and finally reduce workers’labor intensity and ensure accurate verification.%应用音速喷嘴法气体流量标准装置检定气体流量计是一项复杂的过程控制问题,检定仪表时,在水环真空泵的作用下,空气分别流经进气管线、被检流量计、喷嘴进口管线、音速喷嘴和喷嘴出口管线,最后经稳压罐,由真空泵排出。根据检定流量的大小,选择不同的气动阀和不同的喷嘴组合,确定所需的检定流量。为了实现气表精准检定,设计了一套基于PLC的气表检定控制系统。该系统以PLC作为基本控制单元,实时采集系统各项参数,应用顺序控制方式实现气表检定过程自动化,自动计算仪表系数、示值误差和重复性,可减轻操作的劳动强度,保证精准检定。

  7. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document

  8. Real time health monitoring and control system methodology for flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Sanjay

    This dissertation is concerned with the Near Real-time Autonomous Health Monitoring of Flexible Space Structures. The dynamics of multi-body flexible systems is uncertain due to factors such as high non-linearity, consideration of higher modal frequencies, high dimensionality, multiple inputs and outputs, operational constraints, as well as unexpected failures of sensors and/or actuators. Hence a systematic framework of developing a high fidelity, dynamic model of a flexible structural system needs to be understood. The fault detection mechanism that will be an integrated part of an autonomous health monitoring system comprises the detection of abnormalities in the sensors and/or actuators and correcting these detected faults (if possible). Applying the robust control law and the robust measures that are capable of detecting and recovering/replacing the actuators rectifies the actuator faults. The fault tolerant concept applied to the sensors will be in the form of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF is going to weigh the information coming from multiple sensors (redundant sensors used to measure the same information) and automatically identify the faulty sensors and weigh the best estimate from the remaining sensors. The mechanization is comprised of instrumenting flexible deployable panels (solar array) with multiple angular position and rate sensors connected to the data acquisition system. The sensors will give position and rate information of the solar panel in all three axes (i.e. roll, pitch and yaw). The position data corresponds to the steady state response and the rate data will give better insight on the transient response of the system. This is a critical factor for real-time autonomous health monitoring. MATLAB (and/or C++) software will be used for high fidelity modeling and fault tolerant mechanism.

  9. General Model to Predict Power Flow Transmitted into Laminated Beam Bases in Flexible Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Junchuan; GE Peiqi; HOU Cuirong; LIM C W; SONG Kongjie

    2009-01-01

    For estimating the vibration transmission accurately and performing vibration control efficiently in isolation systems, a novel general model is presented to predict the power flow transmitted into the complicate flexible bases of laminated beams. In the model, the laminated beam bases are simulated by the first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory, which is relatively simple and economic but accurate in predicting the vibration solutions of flexible isolation systems with laminated beam bases in comparison with classical laminated beam theories and higher order theories. On the basis of the presented model, substructure technique and variational principle are employed to obtain the governing equation of the isolation system and the power flow solution. Then, the vibration characteristics of the flexible isolation systems with laminated bases are investigated. Several numerical examples are given to show the validity and efficiency of the presented model. It is concluded that the presented model is the extension of the classical one and it can obtain more accurate power flow solutions.

  10. Development of OCDMA system based on Flexible Cross Correlation (FCC) code with OFDM modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Anuar, M. S.; Arief, A. R.; Rashidi, C. B. M.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of the OCDMA systems is governed by numerous quantitative parameters such as the data rate, simultaneous number of users, the powers of transmitter and receiver, and the type of codes. This paper analyzes the performance of the OCDMA system using OFDM technique to enhance the channel data rate, to save power and increase the number of user of OSCDMA systems compared with previous hybrid subcarrier multiplexing/optical spectrum code division multiplexing (SCM/OSCDM) system. The average received signal to noise ratio (SNR) with the nonlinearity of subcarriers is derived. The theoretical results have been evaluated based on BER and number of users as well as amount of power saved. The proposed system gave better performance and save around -6 dBm of the power as well as increase the number of users twice compare to SCM/OCDMA system. In addition it is robust against interference and much more spectrally efficient than SCM/OCDMA system. The system was designed based on Flexible Cross Correlation (FCC) code which is easier construction, less complexity of encoder/decoder design and flexible in-phase cross-correlation for uncomplicated to implement using Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) for the OCDMA systems for any number of users and weights. The OCDMA-FCC_OFDM improves the number of users (cardinality) 108% compare to SCM/ODCMA-FCC system.

  11. The bond graph model of planar flexible multibody mechanical systems and its dynamic principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency and reliability of the dynamic analysis for flexible planar linkage containing the coupling of multi-energy domains, a method based on bond graph is introduced. From the viewpoint of power conservation, the peculiar property of bond graph multiport element MTF is discussed. The procedure of modeling planar flexible multibody mechanical systems by bond graphs and its dynamic principle are described. To overcome the algebraic difficulty brought by differential causality and nonlinear junction structure, the constraint forces at joints can be considered as unknown effort sources and added to the corresponding O-junctions of system bond graph model. As a result, the automatic modeling on a computer is realized. The validity of the procedure is illustrated by a practical example.

  12. Optimization of a flexible multi-generation system based on wood chip gasification and methanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Algren, Loui;

    2016-01-01

    with an existing combined heat and power (CHP) unit and industrial energy utility supply in the Danish city of Horsens. The objective was to optimize economic performance and minimize total CO2 emission of the FMG while it was required to meet the local district heating demand plus the thermal utility demand......Flexible multi-generation systems (FMGs) consist of integrated and flexibly operated facilities that providemultiple links between the different sectors of the energy system. The present study treated the design optimization of a conceptual FMG which integrated a methanol-producing biorefinery...... of ± 25% in investment costs and methanol price, and considering two different electricity price scenarios.In addition, a change in the interest rate from 5% to 20% was found to reduce the lower bound of the NPVto 181.3 M€ for reference operating conditions. The results suggest that the applied interest...

  13. A Markovian state-space framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    The past decades have seen the state of the art in aerospace system design progress from a scope of simple optimization to one including robustness, with the objective of permitting a single system to perform well even in off-nominal future environments. Integrating flexibility, or the capability to easily modify a system after it has been fielded in response to changing environments, into system design represents a further step forward. One challenge in accomplishing this rests in that the decision-maker must consider not only the present system design decision, but also sequential future design and operation decisions. Despite extensive interest in the topic, the state of the art in designing flexibility into aerospace systems, and particularly space systems, tends to be limited to analyses that are qualitative, deterministic, single-objective, and/or limited to consider a single future time period. To address these gaps, this thesis develops a stochastic, multi-objective, and multi-period framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions. Central to the framework are five steps. First, system configuration options are identified and costs of switching from one configuration to another are compiled into a cost transition matrix. Second, probabilities that demand on the system will transition from one mission to another are compiled into a mission demand Markov chain. Third, one performance matrix for each design objective is populated to describe how well the identified system configurations perform in each of the identified mission demand environments. The fourth step employs multi-period decision analysis techniques, including Markov decision processes from the field of operations research, to find efficient paths and policies a decision-maker may follow. The final step examines the implications of these paths and policies for the primary goal of informing initial system selection. Overall, this thesis unifies state-centric concepts of

  14. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Downs, Janelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Sadie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Flexible Multibody Systems for High-Rise Building Window Cleaning Gondola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A virtual prototype of high-rise building window cleaning gondola based on multibody system dynamics software MSC.ADAMS is presented. The rigid bodies are modeled by CAD software and flexible bodies are modeled by discrete beam method. The whole machine's natural characteristics are analyzed and changed to frequency field. According to the results, the dangerous frequencies are avoided and the design can be optimized and the performance can be improved.

  16. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Valentini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented.

  17. DAE for Frictional Contact Modeling of Constrained Multi-Flexible Body Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray P.S.Han; S. G. Mao

    2004-01-01

    A general formulation for modeling frictional contact interactions in a constrained multi-flexible body system is outlined in this paper. The governing differential-algebraic equations (DAE) for the constrained motion contains not only a frictional term but also, the unknown contact conditions. These contact conditions are characterized by a set of nonlinear complementarity equations. To demonstrate the model, a falling-spinning beam impacting a rough elastic ground with damping is solved and comparison with Stewart-Trinkles' results provided.

  18. A Flexible Fiber-Based Supercapacitor-Triboelectric-Nanogenerator Power System for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Li, Xiuhan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Sihong; Li, Zhaoling; Zheng, Li; Yi, Fang; Li, Shengming; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-09-02

    A flexible self-charging power system is built by integrating a fiber-based supercapacitor with a fiber-based triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy from human motion. The fiber-based supercapacitor exhibits outstanding electrochemical properties, owing to the excellent pseudocapacitance of well-prepared RuO2 ·xH2 O by a vapor-phase hydrothermal method as the active material. The approach is a step forward toward self-powered wearable electronics.

  19. Models of production runs for multiple products in flexible manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available How to determine economic production runs (EPR for multiple products in flexible manufacturing systems (FMS is considered in this paper. Eight different although similar, models are developed and presented. The first four models are devoted to the cases when no shortage is allowed. The other four models are some kind of generalization of the previous ones when shortages may exist. The numerical examples are given as the illustration of the proposed models.

  20. Holistic Context-Sensitivity for Run-Time Optimization of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Scholze

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly flexible manufacturing systems require continuous run-time (self- optimization of processes with respect to diverse parameters, e.g., efficiency, availability, energy consumption etc. A promising approach for achieving (self- optimization in manufacturing systems is the usage of the context sensitivity approach based on data streaming from high amount of sensors and other data sources. Cyber-physical systems play an important role as sources of information to achieve context sensitivity. Cyber-physical systems can be seen as complex intelligent sensors providing data needed to identify the current context under which the manufacturing system is operating. In this paper, it is demonstrated how context sensitivity can be used to realize a holistic solution for (self- optimization of discrete flexible manufacturing systems, by making use of cyber-physical systems integrated in manufacturing systems/processes. A generic approach for context sensitivity, based on self-learning algorithms, is proposed aiming at a various manufacturing systems. The new solution encompasses run-time context extractor and optimizer. Based on the self-learning module both context extraction and optimizer are continuously learning and improving their performance. The solution is following Service Oriented Architecture principles. The generic solution is developed and then applied to two very different manufacturing processes.

  1. Holistic Context-Sensitivity for Run-Time Optimization of Flexible Manufacturing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Sebastian; Barata, Jose; Stokic, Dragan

    2017-02-24

    Highly flexible manufacturing systems require continuous run-time (self-) optimization of processes with respect to diverse parameters, e.g., efficiency, availability, energy consumption etc. A promising approach for achieving (self-) optimization in manufacturing systems is the usage of the context sensitivity approach based on data streaming from high amount of sensors and other data sources. Cyber-physical systems play an important role as sources of information to achieve context sensitivity. Cyber-physical systems can be seen as complex intelligent sensors providing data needed to identify the current context under which the manufacturing system is operating. In this paper, it is demonstrated how context sensitivity can be used to realize a holistic solution for (self-) optimization of discrete flexible manufacturing systems, by making use of cyber-physical systems integrated in manufacturing systems/processes. A generic approach for context sensitivity, based on self-learning algorithms, is proposed aiming at a various manufacturing systems. The new solution encompasses run-time context extractor and optimizer. Based on the self-learning module both context extraction and optimizer are continuously learning and improving their performance. The solution is following Service Oriented Architecture principles. The generic solution is developed and then applied to two very different manufacturing processes.

  2. Exploration of CIGAS Alloy System for Thin-Film Photovoltaics on Novel Lightweight and Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Lawrence M.; Kalla, Ajay; Ribelin, Rosine

    2007-01-01

    Thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV) on lightweight and flexible substrates offer the potential for very high solar array specific power (W/kg). ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) is developing flexible TFPV blanket technology that has potential for specific power greater than 2000 W/kg (including space coatings) that could result in solar array specific power between 150 and 500 W/kg, depending on array size, when mated with mechanical support structures specifically designed to take advantage of the lightweight and flexible substrates.(1) This level of specific power would far exceed the current state of the art for spacecraft PV power generation, and meet the needs for future spacecraft missions.(2) Furthermore the high specific power would also enable unmanned aircraft applications and balloon or high-altitude airship (HAA) applications, in addition to modular and quick deploying tents for surface assets or lunar base power, as a result of the high power density (W/sq m) and ability to be integrated into the balloon, HAA or tent fabric. ITN plans to achieve the high specific power by developing single-junction and two-terminal monolithic tandem-junction PV cells using thin-films of high-efficiency and radiation resistant CuInSe2 (CIS) partnered with bandgap-tunable CIS-alloys with Ga (CIGS) or Al (CIAS) on novel lightweight and flexible substrates. Of the various thin-film technologies, single-junction and radiation resistant CIS and associated alloys with gallium, aluminum and sulfur have achieved the highest levels of TFPV device performance, with the best efficiency reaching 19.5% under AM1.5 illumination conditions and on thick glass substrates.(3) Thus, it is anticipated that single- and tandem-junction devices with flexible substrates and based on CIS and related alloys will achieve the highest levels of thin-film space and HAA solar array performance.

  3. Stability and oscillations in a slow-fast flexible joint system with transformation delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan-Ying; Xu, Jian; Yan, Yao

    2014-10-01

    Flexible joints are usually used to transfer velocities in robot systems and may lead to delays in motion transformation due to joint flexibility. In this paper, a link-rotor structure connected by a flexible joint or shaft is firstly modeled to be a slow-fast delayed system when moment of inertia of the lightweight link is far less than that of the heavy rotor. To analyze the stability and oscillations of the slow-fast system, the geometric singular perturbation method is extended, with both slow and fast manifolds expressed analytically. The stability of the slow manifold is investigated and critical boundaries are obtained to divide the stable and the unstable regions. To study effects of the transformation delay on the stability and oscillations of the link, two quantitatively different driving forces derived from the negative feedback of the link are considered. The results show that one of these two typical driving forces may drive the link to exhibit a stable state and the other kind of driving force may induce a relaxation oscillation for a very small delay. However, the link loses stability and undergoes regular periodic and bursting oscillation when the transformation delay is large. Basically, a very small delay does not affect the stability of the slow manifold but a large delay affects substantially.

  4. A fuzzy robust control scheme for vibration suppression of a nonlinear electromagnetic-actuated flexible system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolpour-Saleh, A. R.; Haddad, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel robust vibration control scheme, namely, one degree-of-freedom fuzzy active force control (1DOF-FAFC) is applied to a nonlinear electromagnetic-actuated flexible plate system. First, the flexible plate with clamped-free-clamped-free (CFCF) boundary conditions is modeled and simulated. Then, the validity of the simulation platform is evaluated through experiment. A nonlinear electromagnetic actuator is developed and experimentally modeled through a parametric system identification scheme. Next, the obtained nonlinear model of the actuator is applied to the simulation platform and performance of the proposed control technique in suppressing unwanted vibrations is investigated via simulation. A fuzzy controller is applied to the robust 1DOF control scheme to tune the controller gain using acceleration feedback. Consequently, an intelligent self-tuning vibration control strategy based on an inexpensive acceleration sensor is proposed in the paper. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the proposed acceleration-based control technique owns the benefits of the conventional velocity feedback controllers. Finally, an experimental rig is developed to investigate the effectiveness of the 1DOF-FAFC scheme. It is found that the first, second, and third resonant modes of the flexible system are attenuated up to 74%, 81%, and 90% respectively through which the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is affirmed.

  5. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  6. MODEL OF CENTRIFUGAL EFFECT AND ATTITUDE MANEUVER STABILITY OF A COUPLED RIGID-FLEXIBLE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-bin; WANG Zhao-lin; WANG Tian-shu; LIU Ning

    2005-01-01

    The influences of nonlinear centrifugal force to large overall attitude motion of coupled rigid-flexible system was investigated. First the nonlinear model of the coupled rigidflexible system was deduced from the idea of "cenlrifugal potential field", and then the dynamic effects of the nonlinear centrifugal force to system attitude motion were analyzed by approximate calculation; At last, the Lyapunov function based on energy norm was selected,in the condition that only the measured values of attitude and attitude speed are available,and it is proved that the PD feedback control law can ensure the attitude stability during large angle maneuver.

  7. PASSIVE-ACTIVE CONTROL OF POWER FLOW IN AN ISOLATION SYSTEM MOUNTED ON FLEXIBLE FOUNDATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A general model of flexible isolation systems which involves both the passive and active control factors is established by inserting actuators into an passive isolation system. And the power flow transmission function in such a system as with multi-disturbance, multi-mounts, passive isolators and actuators is deduced. By means of the numerical simulation method, the influence of actuators on power flow transmission characteristic is studied. And as a conclusion, the passive-active synthetic control strategy of power flow is summarized.

  8. Flexibility Driven Scheduling and Mapping for Distributed Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed hard real-time systems, aiming at improving the flexibility of the design process. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing system running a set of applications, with preemptive...... be added to the resulted system. The mapping and scheduling problems are considered in the context of a realistic communication model based on a TDMA protocol. Extensive experiments as well as a real life example demonstrate the relevance of this problem and the efficiency of our solutions....

  9. A more intelligent meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuru, B.

    1996-09-01

    A utility systems analyst viewing a multicolor graph on a computer screen sees something awry in a customer`s home. The furnace is running in the midst of summer. The customer is notified and finds the problem, an air conditioner vent blowing on a thermostat. Next the analyst finds a refrigerator using excessive amounts of electricity. This time it was a leaky gasket and clogged heat exchanger fins. Later a flooded basement is avoided by discovering a faulty sump pump. The analyst was using the Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS). As the name implies, NIALMS allows utilities to learn more about where and when customers use electrical power and how much without entering their homes to install monitoring devices on each appliance. It was developed under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute with assistance from Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp., New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Consolidated Edison Co. and Rochester Gas & Electric Co. The meter is described.

  10. Ride-Quality Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Single- and combined-Axis discomfort are corrected by effects of noise and vibration to yield measure of total discomfort experienced by rider. Three modules transform mathematically-weighted rms accelerations, which represent physical vibration characteristics, into subjective discomfort units. Portable "ride-quality" meter measures passenger discomfort and acceptability of vehicle interior noise and vibration. Meter especially suited for determining vehicle comfort and design tradeoffs and for comparing ride quality of vehicles.

  11. High-speed highly-flexible reconfigurable data acquisition system for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirger, Bruce E.; Schoenwald, Justin; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George E.; Adams, Joseph D.; Keller, Luke D.; Berthoud, Marc; Henderson, Charles; Stacy, Gordon J.; Nikola, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    We have developed a high speed, flexible, data acquisition system and targeted it to astronomical imaging. The system is based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and provides a gigabit/sec fiber optic link between the electronics located on the instrument and the host computer. The FPGAs are reconfigurable over the fiber optic link for maximum flexibility. The system has initially been targeted at DRS Technologies' 256x256 Si:As and Si:Sb detectors used in FORCAST1, a mid-IR camera/spectrograph built by Cornell University for SOFIA. The initial configuration provides sixteen parallel channels of six Msamples/second 14-bit analog to digital converters. The system can coadd 256x256 images at over 1000 frames per second in up to 64 different memory positions. Array clocking and sampling is generated from uploaded clocking patterns in two independent memories. This configuration allows the user to quickly create, on the fly, any form of array clocking and sampling (destructive, non-destructive, sample up the ramp, additional reset frames, Fowler, single frames, co-added frames, multi-position chop, throw away frames, etc.) The electronics were designed in a modular fashion so that any number of analog channels from arrays or mosaics of arrays can be accommodated by using the appropriate number of FPGA boards and preamps. The preamp/analog to digital converter boards can be replaced as needed to operate any focal plane array or other sensor. The system also provides analog drive capability for controlling an X-Y chopping secondary mirror, nominal two position chopping, and can also synchronize to an externally driven chop source. Multiple array controllers can be synchronized together, allowing multi-channel systems to share a single chopping secondary, yet clock the focal planes differently from each other. Due to the flexibility of the FPGAs, it is possible to develop highly customized operating modes to maximize system performance or to enable novel

  12. Flexible endoscopic procedure in children with foreign bodies in their upper gastrointestinal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Demirören

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foreign body ingestion is an important public health problem. We pointed to this subject and aimed to determine the effectiveness of flexible endoscopic procedure in this study. Methods: We evaluated retrospectively fifty children having foreign body in their upper gastrointestinal system, who underwent flexible endoscopic procedure. Results: Of the patients, mean age was 5.5 ± 4 years old (range: 0.5-16 years, 64% was female. Ingested foreign bodies were coin (58%, pin (10%, battery (6%, nail (6%, necklace (6%, safety pin (4% and sewing pin, wire hairclip, ring, button and chicken skin. In endoscopic procedure, foreign bodies were seen in upper esophagus (32%, middle esophagus (26%, lower esophagus (8%, stomach (18%, bulbus (4% and second part of duodenum (8%, but were not seen in 4% of the cases. While 94% of foreign bodies were endoscopically removed, 6% of them were pushed to stomach with gastroscope from esophagus and left for spontaneous passage. Any important complication was developed. Conclusion: Flexible endoscopic procedure is an effective and safe method for removal of gastrointestinal system foreign bodies in children.

  13. Smart-Energy Operating-System - A Framework for Implementing Flexible Electric Energy Systems in Smart Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Parvizi, Jacopo; Bacher, Peder

    The Smart-Energy Operating-System (SE-OS) framework has been developed within the CITIES research project (www.smart-cities-centre.org). This framework enables a systematic approach for implementing flexible electric energy systems in smart cities. The SE-OS methodologies are based on methods...... for data analytics, cyber physical modelling, forecasting, control, optimization, IoT, IoS, and cloud computing. The SE-OS concept has being used for enabling flexibility and demand response in smart cities in a large number of demo project. Finally it is shown that SE-OS in combination with methods...... for energy systems (gas, thermal, power, biomass, fuel) integration can provide virtual energy storage solutions on all relevant time scales, ie. from minutes to seasonal storage. The Smart-Energy Operating-System (SE-OS) is used to develop, implement and test of solutions (layers: data, models, optimization...

  14. Simulación de Sistemas Flexibles de Fabricación Mediante Modelos de Realidad Virtual Simulation of Flexible Manufacturing Systems by means of Virtual Reality Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M Rubio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es mostrar un método que sistematice y facilite la construcción de entornos virtuales y posibilite crear, con relativa sencillez, Laboratorios de Fabricación Virtuales. La metodología seguida ha consistido en revisar fuentes documentales, seleccionar y analizar los métodos de construcción de entornos virtuales más relevantes, proponer un método que complete y mejore los existentes y realizar una aplicación del mismo al Sistemas Flexible de Fabricación propuesto. El principal resultado es la creación de una Célula Flexible de Fabricación Virtual, concluyendo que no todos los entornos reales se pueden representar mediante uno virtual.The main objective of this work is to show a method that systematizes and makes easy the building of virtual environments and allows creating with relative simplicity, Virtual Laboratories of Manufacturing. The methodology consisted of reviewing literature sources, selecting and analyzing the most outstanding methods of virtual environment building, proposing a method which completes and improves the existing ones and making an application to the proposed Flexible Manufacturing System. The main result is the creation of a Virtual Flexible Manufacturing Cell, concluding that not all real environments can be represented by a virtual one.

  15. A New Dynamic Model for a Flexible Hub-Beam System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhu-yong; HONG Jia-zhen; CAI Guo-ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new dynamic model for the flexible hub-beam system is proposed by using the principle of continuum medium mechanics and the finite element discretization method. In the proposed model, the coupling deformation of any element of the beam is only related with the nodal coordinates of this element. So this model is suitable to the rotating beam in an arbitrary shape. Numerical examples of slender beams in straight and irregular shapes are carried out to demonstrate the validation of the proposed model. Simulation results indicate that the proposed model can be used valid for dynamic description of flexible rotating beam in irregular shape, and for both low and high rotation speeds.

  16. Information and Communications Systems for Control-by-Price of Distributed Energy Resources and Flexible Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The control-by-price concept fits well with controlling small-scale generation, storage and demand. In this paper, we investigate the required information and communications systems that are needed to realize the control-by-price concept for such units. We first present a proposal for overall...... distributed energy resources and flexible demand as a regulating resource. Furthermore, the results illustrate and verify the applicability of the concept and the proposed infrastructure for controlling distributed energy resources and flexible demand....... infrastructure and subsystem design and secondly focus on the design and implementation of the end-user price-responsive controller, interfaces, and communications. The design and its applicability on existing devices is verified through laboratory tests with two cases: electric space heating thermostat control...

  17. Design and Implementation of Distributed Numerical Control in Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炳海; 余传猛; 奚立峰; 曹永上

    2004-01-01

    To monitor, control and manage the work process ofcomputer numerical control machine tools in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) effectively, the distributed numerical control (distributed-NC) software should be innovated with the characteristics of modularization and reconfiguration. In this paper, firstly, distributed-NC functions in the FMS environment are described. Then, we present a design and development method of the real time distributed-NC that is on the basis of the re-configurable software and hardware platform and with an object-oriented model concept. Finally, to verify the proposed method, the distributed-NC software has been implemented in VC + +6.0 and has been tested in connection with the different physical flexible manufacturing shops.

  18. A Flexible Flow Sensor System and Its Characteristics for Fluid Mechanics Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyi Que

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel micromachined hot-film flow sensor system realized by a technique using a film depositing processes and incorporating a standard printed circuit. Sensor electrodes and electronic circuits are preprinted on a flexible substrate of polyimide (PI, i.e., a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB. The sensing element, which is made of Cr/Ni/Pt with a temperature coefficient of resistance around 2,000 ppm/K, is fabricated on the FPCB by either magnetron sputtering technology or pulsed laser deposition (PLD. The sensor can be packed efficiently at high-density and integrated with signal processing circuits without additional pads. A simple fabrication process using mature technique and materials selection guarantees that the time and costs are greatly reduced. Both steady-state and transient characteristics of the sensors are experimentally tested, and the results presented to validate the effectiveness of the sensors.

  19. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  20. Realization of New Agricultural Irrigation Meter and Its Application System%新型农排表及其应用系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪雨; 屈国旺; 赵宏杰; 侯志卫; 李铮; 郝立佳

    2014-01-01

    “新型农排表及其应用系统”中新型农排表增加了远程通讯功能,增加了抗强磁干扰防窃电功能。主站系统对新型农排表进行用电数据远程采集,实现了公平合理的补卡功能,具备与营销SG186系统缴费数据、电能示值的对接,同时可采用3G远程售电终端实现就地购电。%"New agricultural irrigation meter and its application system" increased remote communication function, an increase of anti magnetic interference anti-theft function. Master station system of New agricultural irrigation meter remote data acquisition, the fair and reasonable card function,with marketing SG186 system docking payment data, power indication, alsocan use 3G remote sale of electricity terminal realizes local purchasing power.

  1. Adaptive Jacobian Fuzzy Attitude Control for Flexible Spacecraft Combined Attitude and Sun Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2016-07-01

    Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to

  2. A Beam Search-based Algorithm for Flexible Manufacturing System Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bing-hai; ZHOU Xiao-jun; CAI Jian-guo; FENG Kun

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed for the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) scheduling problem in this paper. The proposed algorithm is a heuristic based on filtered beam search. It considers the machines and automated guided vehicle (AGV) as the primary resources, It utilizes system constraints and related manufacturing and processing information to generate machines and AGV schedules. The generated schedules can be an entire scheduling horizon as well as various lengths of scheduling periods. The proposed algorithm is also compared with other well-known dispatching rulesbased FMS scheduling. The results indicate that the beam search algorithm is a simple, valid and promising algorithm that deserves further research in FMS scheduling field.

  3. MATHEMATICAL EVALUATION OF SYNERGY, FLEXIBILITY, SERVICE AND MOBILITY IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mikhalev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows how applying an analogy method it is possible to describe complicated hierarchic educational systems while using such robotics notions as «synergy», «flexibility», «service» and «mobility» which are well developed and filled with mathematical content. It has been shown that the indicated notions positively supplement terminology and main principles of organizational designing, system analysis and an idea of staff management while using mathematical knowledge-activity personnel models in order to form and manage innovation projects. 

  4. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COORDINATES MEASUREMENT BY FLEXIBLE 3D MEASURING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guoyu; SUN Tianxiang; WANG Lingyun; XU Xiping

    2007-01-01

    The system mathematical model of flexible 3D measuring system is built by theoretical analysis, and the theoretical formula for measuring space point coordinate is also derived.Frog-jumping based coordinate transform method is put forward in order to solve measuring problem for large size parts. The flog-jumping method is discussed, and the coordinate transform mathematical model is method of the space point coordinate compared to original value, and an advanced method is provided. Form the space point coordinate transform formula can derive the calculation measuring method for measuring large size parts.

  5. Broadband PLC for Clustered Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Ikpehai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI subsystems monitor and control energy distribution through exchange of information between smart meters and utility networks. A key challenge is how to select a cost-effective communication system without compromising the performance of the applications. Current communication technologies were developed for conventional data networks with different requirements. It is therefore necessary to investigate how much of existing communication technologies can be retrofitted into the new energy infrastructure to cost-effectively deliver acceptable level of service. This paper investigates broadband power line communications (BPLC as a backhaul solution in AMI. By applying the disparate traffic characteristics of selected AMI applications, the network performance is evaluated. This study also examines the communication network response to changes in application configurations in terms of packet sizes. In each case, the network is stress-tested and performance is assessed against acceptable thresholds documented in the literature. Results show that, like every other communication technology, BPLC has certain limitations; however, with some modifications in the network topology, it indeed can fulfill most AMI traffic requirements for flexible and time-bounded applications. These opportunities, if tapped, can significantly improve fiscal and operational efficiencies in AMI services. Simulation results also reveal that BPLC as a backhaul can support flat and clustered AMI structures with cluster size ranging from 1 to 150 smart meters.

  6. Influence of yearlong training on the state of cardiovascular, autonomic nervous system and physical performance in female 400 meters runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Mikhalyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – identification and comparison of heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical performance in 400 meters runners from the III category to masters of sports of international class (MSIC in the annual cycle of the training process. Materials and methods. The study included 22 female athletes, 400 meters runners between the ages of 14 and 27 years (mean age – 16.8 ± 0.67 years, running experience – from 2 to 13 years (average – 4.4 ± 0.68 years in the preparatory and competitive periods. Body length and weight of athletes were 167.9 ± 0.91 cm and 52.5 ± 0.98 kg, respectively. For the analysis of the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity mathematical methods of HRV analysis were used. Analysis and evaluation of periodic components of heart rate were carried out by means of the research of spectral parameters of autocorrelation functions. Determination of physical performance was carried out under the practical standard on the cycle ergometer. It was established that in high class sportswomen (n=12 and ones with qualifications of the II–III category (n=10 in the competitive period there were strengthening of parasympathetic effects of ANS, transformation of eukinetic circulation type (CT into hypokinetic CT and absence of sportswomen with hyperkinetic CT. In high class sportswomen there were significant increase of the relative value of physical working capacity (PWC170/kg by 12.33% and tendency to increase of index of functional state (IFS by 9.46%, in sportswomen with qualifications of II–III category PWC170/kg significantly increased by 19.26%, and IFS by 17.87%. Correlation analysis conducted in both periods in the group and separately in high class sportswomen and ones with qualifications of II–III category found the relationship indicating that the increase of PWC170/kg and IFS is associated with the prevalence of hypokinetic CT and parasympathetic ANS influences. In the competitive period

  7. A flexible 3D laser scanning system using a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Zixuan; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Guanliang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible 3D scanning system based on a MEMS scanner mounted on an industrial arm with a turntable. This system has 7-degrees of freedom and is able to conduct a full field scan from any angle, suitable for scanning object with the complex shape. The existing non-contact 3D scanning system usually uses laser scanner that projects fixed stripe mounted on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) or industrial robot. These existing systems can't perform path planning without CAD models. The 3D scanning system presented in this paper can scan the object without CAD models, and we introduced this path planning method in the paper. We also propose a practical approach to calibrating the hand-in-eye system based on binocular stereo vision and analyzes the errors of the hand-eye calibration.

  8. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  9. Optimal placement of water-lubricated rubber bearings for vibration reduction of flexible multistage rotor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shibing; Yang, Bingen

    2017-10-01

    Flexible multistage rotor systems with water-lubricated rubber bearings (WLRBs) have a variety of engineering applications. Filling a technical gap in the literature, this effort proposes a method of optimal bearing placement that minimizes the vibration amplitude of a WLRB-supported flexible rotor system with a minimum number of bearings. In the development, a new model of WLRBs and a distributed transfer function formulation are used to define a mixed continuous-and-discrete optimization problem. To deal with the case of uncertain number of WLRBs in rotor design, a virtual bearing method is devised. Solution of the optimization problem by a real-coded genetic algorithm yields the locations and lengths of water-lubricated rubber bearings, by which the prescribed operational requirements for the rotor system are satisfied. The proposed method is applicable either to preliminary design of a new rotor system with the number of bearings unforeknown or to redesign of an existing rotor system with a given number of bearings. Numerical examples show that the proposed optimal bearing placement is efficient, accurate and versatile in different design cases.

  10. Model-Based Degree Estimation of Unbalance and Misalignment in Flexible Coupling-rotor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changyou; XU Minqiang; GUO Song; WANG Yuewu; WANG Rixin

    2009-01-01

    The condition of rotor system must be assessed in order to develop condition-based maintenance for rotating machinery. It is determined by multiple variables such as unbalance degree, misalignment degree, the amount of bending deformation of the shaft, occurrence of shaft crack of rotor system and so on. The estimation of the degrees of unbalance and misalignment in flexible coupling-rotor system is discussed. The model-based approach is employed to solve this problem. The models of the equivalent external loads for unbalance and misalignment are derived and analyzed. Then, the degrees of unbalance and misalignment are estimated by analyzing the components of the equivalent external loads of which the frequencies are equal to the 1 and 2 times running frequency respectively. The equivalent external loads are calculated according to the dynamic equation of the original rotor system and the differences between the dynamical responses in normal case and the vibrations when the degree of unbalance or misalignment or both changes. The denoise method based on bandpass filter is used to decrease the effect of noise on the estimation accuracy. The numerical examples are given to show that the proposed approach can estimate the degrees of unbalance and misalignment of the flexible coupling-rotor system accurately.

  11. The Development of a Flexible Measuring System for Muscle Volume Using Ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Kiyotaka; Fukuda, Osamu; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Muraki, Satoshi

    Quantification of muscle volume can be used as a means for the estimation of muscle strength. Its measuring process does not need the subject's muscular contractions so it is completely safe and particularly suited for elderly people. Therefore, we have developed a flexible measuring system for muscle volume using ultrasonography. In this system, an ultrasound probe is installed on a link mechanism which continuously scans fragmental images along the human body surface. These images are then measured and composed into a wide area cross-sectional image based on the spatial compounding method. The flexibility of the link mechanism enables the operator to measure the images under any body postures and body site. The spatial compounding method significantly reduces speckle and artifact noises from the composed cross-sectional image so that the operator can observe the individual muscles, such as Rectus femoris, Vastus intermedius, and so on, in detail. We conducted the experiments in order to examine the advantages of this system we have developed. The experimental results showed a high accuracy of the measuring position which was calculated using the link mechanism and presented the noise reduction effect based on the spatial compounding method. Finally, we confirmed high correlations between the MRI images and the ones of the developed system to verify the validity of the system.

  12. Managing flexible care with a context aware system for ageing-in-place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Robben

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Care4Balance (C4B system for better facilitating communication and task coordination between formal and informal caregivers, and older adults as care receivers. Field-tests with older adults (n=3 and user studies (n=9 were conducted to evaluate the system and the perceived usefulness of the system. A review of related work and the study findings show that (1 the perceived benefit for the older target group was very low. The main motivation for using the system was triggered by the perceived benefit for their closest informal caregivers; (2 Informal caregivers do not regularly seek help for themselves, and (3 Introducing a C4B-like system is more than solving hardware and usability issues. The study suggests that more flexibility in the organizational structure of formal care (in The Netherlands and beyond is needed.

  13. A flexible and robust soft-error testing system for microelectronic devices and integrated circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辉; 杨振雷; 童腾; 苏弘; 刘杰; 张战刚; 古松; 刘天奇; 孔洁; 赵兴文

    2015-01-01

    Single event effects (SEEs) induced by radiations become a significant reliability challenge for modern elec-tronic systems. To evaluate SEEs susceptibility for microelectronic devices and integrated circuits (ICs), an SEE testing system with flexibility and robustness was developed at Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The system is compatible with various types of microelectronic devices and ICs, and supports plenty of complex and high-speed test schemes and plans for the irradiated devices under test (DUTs). Thanks to the combination of meticulous circuit design and the hardened logic design, the system has additional performances to avoid an overheated situation and irradiations by stray radiations. The system has been tested and verified by experiments for irradiating devices at HIRFL.

  14. Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Performance on Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Flexible Research Platform: Part 3 Simulation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Cho, Heejin [Mississippi State University (MSU); Kim, Dongsu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Cox, Sam [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides second-year project simulation results for the multi-year project titled “Evaluation of Variable Refrigeration Flow (VRF) system on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)’s Flexible Research Platform (FRP).”

  15. 远程水表数据采集传输系统设计与研究%Design and Research of Remote Meter Data Acquisition Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣冶

    2012-01-01

    Research long-distance meter reading technology to improve the accuracy of the remote data transmission. In some special environment, water meter data need long distance transmission. Because distance increases, the data easily get lost or loss, causing the problem of inaccurate transmission results. In solving the above -mentioned problems, a remote water meter data transmission system was proposed based on a remote transmission compensation algorithm. The attenuation of an analog data of water meter was calculated and compensated to ensure accurate data transmission. The experimental results show that the algorithm can overcome the problems that the workload of traditional wiring transfer method is heavy and the transmission distance is restricted.%研究远程抄表技术优化问题,以提高远程数据传输的准确性.在一些特殊环境下,水表数据需要进行较远距离的传输,由于距离增加,传输的数据容易发生丢失或者损耗,造成传输结果不准确.为解决上述问题,提出一种远端传输补偿方法的远程水表数据传递系统,计算传输过程中水表的模拟量数据的衰减程度,进行阶梯性的衰减数据补偿,弥补远距离传输中由于数据衰减带来的缺陷,保证数据准确传输.实验结果表明,算法克服传统的布线传递方法中工作量大、传输距离受限制等不利因素,具有结构紧凑、功能合理、工作可靠、抗干扰能力强等优点,为远程水表采集系统设计提供了依据.

  16. Hot-wire air flow meter for gasoline fuel-injection system. Calculation of air mass in cylinder during transient condition; Gasoline funsha system yo no netsusenshiki kuki ryuryokei. Kato untenji no cylinder juten kukiryo no keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Y. [Hitachi Car Engineering, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Y.; Osuga, M.; Yamauchi, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Air flow characteristics of hot-wire air flow meters for gasoline fuel-injection systems with supercharging and exhaust gas recycle during transient conditions were investigated to analyze a simple method for calculating air mass in cylinder. It was clarified that the air mass in cylinder could be calculated by compensating for the change of air mass in intake system by using aerodynamic models of intake system. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Wind-Friendly Flexible Ramping Product Design in Multi-Timescale Power System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-07-01

    With increasing wind power penetration in the electricity grid, system operators are recognizing the need for additional flexibility, and some are implementing new ramping products as a type of ancillary service. However, wind is generally thought of as causing the need for ramping services, not as being a potential source for the service. In this paper, a multi-timescale unit commitment and economic dispatch model is developed to consider the wind power ramping product (WPRP). An optimized swinging door algorithm with dynamic programming is applied to identify and forecast wind power ramps (WPRs). Designed as positive characteristics of WPRs, the WPRP is then integrated into the multi-timescale dispatch model that considers new objective functions, ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. Numerical simulations on the modified IEEE 118-bus system show the potential effectiveness of WPRP in increasing the economic efficiency of power system operations with high levels of wind power penetration. It is found that WPRP not only reduces the production cost by using less ramping reserves scheduled by conventional generators, but also possibly enhances the reliability of power system operations. Moreover, wind power forecasts play an important role in providing high-quality WPRP service.

  18. Calibration of a flexible measurement system based on industrial articulated robot and structured light sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nan; Wang, Kun; Xie, Zexiao; Ren, Ping

    2017-05-01

    To realize online rapid measurement for complex workpieces, a flexible measurement system based on an articulated industrial robot with a structured light sensor mounted on the end-effector is developed. A method for calibrating the system parameters is proposed in which the hand-eye transformation parameters and the robot kinematic parameters are synthesized in the calibration process. An initial hand-eye calibration is first performed using a standard sphere as the calibration target. By applying the modified complete and parametrically continuous method, we establish a synthesized kinematic model that combines the initial hand-eye transformation and distal link parameters as a whole with the sensor coordinate system as the tool frame. According to the synthesized kinematic model, an error model is constructed based on spheres' center-to-center distance errors. Consequently, the error model parameters can be identified in a calibration experiment using a three-standard-sphere target. Furthermore, the redundancy of error model parameters is eliminated to ensure the accuracy and robustness of the parameter identification. Calibration and measurement experiments are carried out based on an ER3A-C60 robot. The experimental results show that the proposed calibration method enjoys high measurement accuracy, and this efficient and flexible system is suitable for online measurement in industrial scenes.

  19. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Flexible Reamer System: Technique and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Judd; Saluan, Paul; Richter, Dustin L; Huff, Nathan; Schenck, Robert C

    2015-07-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been shown to improve stability of the knee, particularly rotational stability, potentially leading to superior clinical outcomes and a shorter return to sport. Nonanatomic ACL reconstruction has been linked to graft failure and abnormal cartilage loading thought to contribute to progression of degenerative joint disease. Use of the far anteromedial portal (FAMP) to uncouple the tibial and femoral tunnels has led to improved reproduction of the femoral footprint and facilitates drilling of the femoral tunnel in an anatomic position. The use of the FAMP and straight reamer systems introduces its own set of potential complications, including short femoral tunnels and peroneal nerve injury. These potential complications have been addressed by drilling the femoral tunnel in a hyperflexed position, which can lead to difficulty with positioning the operative extremity, visualization, and identification of anatomic landmarks. The purpose of this case report was to review the advantages and technical aspects of using a flexible reamer system and the FAMP to achieve an anatomic ACL reconstruction while avoiding potential complications and pitfalls. Flexible reamer systems allow an additional way of uncoupling the tibial and femoral tunnels to clearly visualize and establish an anatomic starting point within the femoral footprint of the native ACL while avoiding the complications associated with knee hyperflexion and straight reamers with the far anteromedial portal. In the authors' experience, an anatomic reconstruction of the ACL can be achieved safely using flexible reamers while avoiding some of the difficulties seen with straight reamers used in conjunction with an uncoupled, far anteromedial approach.

  20. A novel flexible and modular energy storage system for near future Energy Banks

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We considered a novel energy storage system based on the compression of air through pumped water. Differently from CAES on trial, the proposed indirect compression leaves the opportunity to choose the kind of compression from adiabatic to isothermal. The energy storage process could be both fast or slow leading to different configuration and applications. These novel storage system are modular and could be applied in different scales for different locations and applications, being very flexible in charge and discharge process. The system may offer an ideal energy buffer for wind and solar storage with no (or negligible) environment hazard. The main features of this novel energy storage system will be showed together with overall energy and power data.

  1. Designing Flexible GUI to Increase the Acceptance Rate of Product Data Management Systems in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2011-01-01

    Product Data Management (PDM) desktop and web based systems maintain the organizational technical and managerial data to increase the quality of products by improving the processes of development, business process flows, change management, product structure management, project tracking and resource planning. Though PDM is heavily benefiting industry but PDM community is facing a very serious unresolved issue in PDM system development with flexible and user friendly graphical user interface for efficient human machine communication. PDM systems offer different services and functionalities at a time but the graphical user interfaces of most of the PDM systems are not designed in a way that a user (especially a new user) can easily learn and use them. Targeting this issue, a thorough research was conducted in field of Human Computer Interaction; resultant data provides the information about graphical user interface development using rich internet applications. The accomplished goal of this research was to suppor...

  2. CFD Analysis of Flexible Thermal Protection System Shear Configuration Testing in the LCAT Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemann, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents results of computational analysis performed after flexible thermal protection system shear configuration testing in the LCAT facility. The primary objectives were to predict the shear force on the sample and the sensitivity of all surface properties to the shape of the sample. Bumps of 0.05, 0.10,and 0.15 inches were created to approximate the shape of some fabric samples during testing. A large amount of information was extracted from the CFD solutions for comparison between runs and also current or future flight simulations.

  3. Development and Design of a Flexible Measurement System for Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Iván; Hjerrild, Jesper

    The development process of a flexible measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term offshore data logging is described in this paper. This covers the complete design taking into account precise synchronisation, electromagnetic compatibility, software development and sensor...... calibration. The presented measurement set-up was tested in a rough offshore environment. Results from measurement campaigns at Avedøre and Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farms including synchronisation precision and accuracy, electromagnetic interference of power electronic devices are briefly presented....

  4. Development and Design of a Flexible Measurement System for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana Aristi, Ivan; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The development process of a flexible measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term offshore data logging is described in this paper. This covers the complete design taking into account precise synchronisation, electromagnetic compatibility, software development and sensor...... calibration. The presented measurement set-up was tested in a rough offshore environment. Results from measurement campaigns at Avedøre and Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farms including synchronisation precision and accuracy, electromagnetic interference of power electronic devices are briefly presented....

  5. Towards Realizing High-Throughput, Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of Flexible Electronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High-rate roll-to-roll (R2R tracker systems are utilized for large volume flexible electronic device manufacturing, and the current alignment mechanism between layers is mainly achieved by relying on passive techniques. In this paper, we present a machine vision based alignment strategy that is used to achieve precise registration for stacking multilayers. Based on this strategy, we demonstrate two-layer printing with alignment accuracy better than 100 μm in web moving direction and 200 μm in lateral direction at a web rate of 5 m/min.

  6. The Management of Manufacturing-Oriented Informatics Systems Using Efficient and Flexible Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daniel AVRAM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Industry and in particular the manufacturing-oriented sector has always been researched and innovated as a result of technological progress, diversification and differentiation among consumers' demands. A company that provides to its customers products matching perfectly their demands at competitive prices has a great advantage over its competitors. Manufacturing-oriented information systems are becoming more flexible and configurable and they require integration with the entire organization. This can be done using efficient software architectures that will allow the coexistence between commercial solutions and open source components while sharing computing resources organized in grid infrastructures and under the governance of powerful management tools.

  7. Man-hour Estimation Model based on Standard Operation Unit for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhenggeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In flexible manufacturing system, the estimation of man-hour is a difficult problem because of its production-diversity. To explore a more effective method, this paper tried to estimate man-hour from the perspective of operation`s character by establishing standard operation unit (SOU in this paper. A method of parameterizing the SOU is proposed, and a new man-hour estimation model is established on the basis of SOU. At last, this paper verified the effectiveness of this method by the operation of large-scale welding parts.

  8. IcePick: a flexible surface-based system for molecular diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, J; Ruppert, J; Welch, W; Jain, A N

    1999-01-14

    IcePick is a system for computationally selecting diverse sets of molecules. It computes the dissimilarity of the surface-accessible features of two molecules, taking into account conformational flexibility. Then, the intrinsic diversity of an entire set of molecules is calculated from a spanning tree over the pairwise dissimilarities. IcePick's dissimilarity measure is compared against traditional 2D topological approaches, and the spanning tree diversity measure is compared against commonly used variance techniques. The method has proven easy to implement and is fast enough to be used in selection of reactants for numerous production-sized combinatorial libraries.

  9. The Curing Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2006-01-01

    Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achiev...... from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. The Concrete Curing Meter is designed for simple and reliable monitoring of water loss from a wet surface of fresh concrete. This new measuring technique has been tested with several prototypes of the Curing Meter....

  10. Stability analysis of liquid filled spacecraft system with flexible attachment by using the energy–Casimir method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Yan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The stability of partly liquid filled spacecraft with flexible attachment was investigated in this paper. Liquid sloshing dynamics was simplified as the spring–mass model, and flexible attachment was modeled as the linear shearing beam. The dynamic equations and Hamiltonian of the coupled spacecraft system were given by analyzing the rigid body, liquid fuel, and flexible appendage. Nonlinear stability conditions of the coupled spacecraft system were derived by computing the variation of Casimir function which was added to the Hamiltonian. The stable region of the parameter space was given and validated by numerical computation. Related results suggest that the change of inertia matrix, the length of flexible attachment, spacecraft spinning rate, and filled ratio of liquid fuel tank have strong influence on the stability of the spacecraft system.

  11. Stability analysis of liquid filled spacecraft system with flexible attachment by using the energy-Casimir method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Yan; Baozeng Yue∗

    2016-01-01

    The stability of partly liquid filled spacecraft with flexible attachment was investigated in this paper. Liquid sloshing dynamics was simplified as the spring–mass model, and flexible attachment was modeled as the linear shearing beam. The dynamic equations and Hamiltonian of the coupled spacecraft system were given by analyzing the rigid body, liquid fuel, and flexible appendage. Nonlinear stability conditions of the coupled spacecraft system were derived by computing the variation of Casimir function which was added to the Hamiltonian. The stable region of the parameter space was given and validated by numerical computation. Related results suggest that the change of inertia matrix, the length of flexible attachment, spacecraft spinning rate, and filled ratio of liquid fuel tank have strong influence on the stability of the spacecraft system.

  12. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  13. Flexible Microsensor Array for the Root Zone Monitoring of Porous Tube Plant Growth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyan, Sandeep; Kim, Chang-Soo; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Nagle, H. Troy; Brown, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    Control of oxygen and water in the root zone is vital to support plant growth in the microgravity environment. The ability to control these sometimes opposing parameters in the root zone is dependent upon the availability of sensors to detect these elements and provide feedback for control systems. In the present study we demonstrate the feasibility of using microsensor arrays on a flexible substrate for dissolved oxygen detection, and a 4-point impedance microprobe for surface wetness detection on the surface of a porous tube (PT) nutrient delivery system. The oxygen microsensor reported surface oxygen concentrations that correlated with the oxygen concentrations of the solution inside the PT when operated at positive pressures. At negative pressures the microsensor shows convergence to zero saturation (2.2 micro mol/L) values due to inadequate water film formation on porous tube surface. The 4-point microprobe is useful as a wetness detector as it provides a clear differentiation between dry and wet surfaces. The unique features of the dissolved oxygen microsensor array and 4-point microprobe include small and simple design, flexibility and multipoint sensing. The demonstrated technology is anticipated to provide low cost, and highly reliable sensor feedback monitoring plant growth nutrient delivery system in both terrestrial and microgravity environments.

  14. Challenges in developing a comprehensive, automated and flexible oil accounting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordell, L.F.; Ruda, H. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Enbridge Pipelines Inc. operates a long and complex system of pipelines which transport hydrocarbon liquid commodities, including crude oils, refined products and natural gas liquids across provincial and national boundaries. Due to growing internal demands for the addition of pipelines, the company developed a comprehensive oil accounting (OA) system in 1998. The OA accommodated changing business requirements by incorporating more complex tariff agreements and the demand for customized system reporting for customers. The new OA was also compatible with the company's technology direction, which focused on aligning information technology (IT) with business drivers and upgrading the flexibility of the entire OA system. This paper summarized the business improvement and redevelopment study; the OA system redevelopment project; challenges of integrating new system components with the legacy system during system development; specific process improvement results that were targeted and achieved by the new system development team; and, the project development challenges. The project team adopted a software development approach that was responsive to changes in the requirements and in the project direction introduced by key stakeholders during the life of the project. The project management approaches and logic of the SCRUM and extreme programming (XP) methods were combined to incorporate the principles of agile development to ensure a quality product. The result was an automated crude oil balancing and revenue accounting system that interfaced with other pipeline management software systems. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  15. The competition of different measures to increase flexibility in energy systems with a high share of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Christoph; Teufel, Felix [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Research and Innovation Dept.

    2013-04-01

    The continuous expansion of electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources (RES) is changing the present generation structure that has been designed to follow fluctuating demand considerably. In order to utilise a high share of supply-dependent RES, the future energy system needs to become more flexible than it is today. This paper describes the different flexibility options that can be implemented with regard to their major restrictions as well as their suitability to balance a certain deficit or surplus of RES generation. Furthermore, it outlines the importance of competition between these different balancing measures to meet the required level of flexibility at lowest cost. (orig.)

  16. Research on the Hysteresis Effect on Positioning the System with Flexible Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the hysteresis phenomenon of positioning systems with flexible elements for transmitting motion of which piezoelectric actuators are used. The article investigates the influence of hysteresis on the accuracy of positioning systems. A special test bench for conducting research and stand-up methodology for carrying out experimental researches have been used. The test bench includes a computer piezo controller, an inductive displacement sensor and a dynamic data collector used for gathering data and transmitting it to the software package. Mathematical modelling of hysteresis using Matlab/Simulink software package has been done. The performed research has shown that the hysteresis model of maximum dispersion error compared to experimental results makes less than 5%. Thus, it can be stated that the selected method for hysteresis modelling is suitable for precision positioning systems having deformable elements and controlled employing piezoelectric actuators to model hysteresis.

  17. CONCURRENT PRODUCTION ENGINEERING SYSTEM FOR BUFFER SIZE AND FLEXIBLE TRANSFER LINE LAYOUT DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidehiko YAMAMOTO; Jaber ABU QUDEIRI; M. Anouar JAMALI

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Concurrent Production Engineering System (COPES) for the flexible transfer line (FTL) layout design in a restricted area. COPES first determines the buffer size in front of the bay of each machine tool in the FTL and then initializes a computer aided design (CAD) system to draw the FTL in a restricted area. We develop a set of modules systems which have been integrated into a single framework, in accordance with the practice of concurrent engineering. Concurrent engineering involves the cooperation of these activities. It's expected that the developed COPES can improve the cooperation between production engineers' and the plant designer. This can be done by enabling the production engineers' to make better decision regarding FTL buffer size.

  18. An Accurate and Robust Flexible Guidance System for Indoor Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herrero-Pérez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of a flexible industrial guidance system used to guide Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs in indoor industrial environments. Typically, wireless guidance systems are composed of path-tracking and localization methods linked to follow a certain route. This paper focuses on the localization approach that permits industrial vehicles to operate indoors with the grade of accuracy, repeatability and reliability required by industrial applications. A key point is that, apart from accuracy, the position estimates should be performed at a high sample rate in order to permit the path tracker to follow the route properly. Robustness of absolute positioning is also crucial in industrial applications. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is adopted to fuse the information provided by a laser navigation system and odometry. The effectiveness of the development is tested using a custom modified commercial industrial vehicle operating in an industrial setting.

  19. Synthesis and Control of Flexible Systems with Component-Level Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Lim, Kyong B.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and computationally robust method for synthesis of component dynamics is developed. The method defines the interface forces/moments as feasible vectors in transformed coordinates to ensure that connectivity requirements of the combined structure are met. The synthesized system is then defined in a transformed set of feasible coordinates. The simplicity of form is exploited to effectively deal with modeling parametric and non-parametric uncertainties at the substructure level. Uncertainty models of reasonable size and complexity are synthesized for the combined structure from those in the substructure models. In particular, we address frequency and damping uncertainties at the component level. The approach first considers the robustness of synthesized flexible systems. It is then extended to deal with non-synthesized dynamic models with component-level uncertainties by projecting uncertainties to the system level. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  20. Flexible modulation of plasmon-induced transparency in a strongly coupled graphene grating-sheet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weiwei; Cai, Wei; Xiang, Yinxiao; Wang, Lei; Ren, Mengxin; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-03-21

    General actively tunable near-field plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) systems based on couplings between localized plasmon resonances of graphene nanostructures not only suffer from interantenna separations of smaller than 20 nm, but also lack switchable effect about the transparency window. Here, the performance of an active PIT system based on graphene grating-sheet with near-field coupling distance of more than 100 nm is investigated in mid-infrared. The transparency window in spectrum is analyzed objectively and proved to be more likely stemmed from Aulter-Townes splitting. The proposed system exhibits flexible tunability in slow-light and electro-optical switches, promising for practical active photonic devices.

  1. Transformer and Meter Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  2. Optical Attenuation Coefficient Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    back scattered light 202. The back scattered light 202 travels to the attenuation meter 10 after scattering by thermodynamic density fluctuations and...invention to the precise form disclosed; and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching . Such

  3. Flexible end-to-end system design for synthetic aperture radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Evan C.; Edwards, Matthew C.; Bradley, Joshua P.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents ARTEMIS, Inc.'s approach to development of end-to-end synthetic aperture radar systems for multiple applications and platforms. The flexible design of the radar and the image processing tools facilitates their inclusion in a variety of application-specific end-to-end systems. Any given application comes with certain requirements that must be met in order to achieve success. A concept of operation is defined which states how the technology is used to meet the requirements of the application. This drives the design decisions. Key to adapting our system to multiple applications is the flexible SlimSAR radar system, which is programmable on-the-fly to meet the imaging requirements of a wide range of altitudes, swath-widths, and platform velocities. The processing software can be used for real-time imagery production or post-flight processing. The ground station is adaptable, and the radar controls can be run by an operator on the ground, on-board the aircraft, or even automated as part of the aircraft autopilot controls. System integration takes the whole operation into account, seeking to flawlessly work with data links and on-board data storage, aircraft and payload control systems, mission planning, and image processing and exploitation. Examples of applications are presented including using a small unmanned aircraft at low altitude with a line of sight data link, a long-endurance UAV maritime surveillance mission with on-board processing, and a manned ground moving target indicator application with the radar using multiple receive channels.

  4. LGS adaptive optics system with long-pulsed sodium laser on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope 2014-2016 observation campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Min; Jiang, Changchun; Wei, Ling; Zheng, Wenjia; Li, Wenru; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Luchun; Jin, Kai; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Junwei; Wang, Pengyuan; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Donghong; Deng, Jijiang; Gao, Yang; Shen, Yu; Bian, Qi; Yao, Ji; Huang, Jiang; Dong, Ruoxi; Deng, Keran; Peng, Qinjun; Rao, Changhui; Xu, Zuyan; Zhang, Yudong

    2016-07-01

    During 2014-2016, the Laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system observation campaign has been carried out on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope. During the campaign, two generation LGS AO systems have been developed and installed. In 2014, a long-pulsed solid Sodium prototype laser with 20W@400Hz, a beam transfer optical (BTO) system, and a laser launch telescope (LLT) with 300mm diameter were mounted onto the telescope and moved with telescope azimuth journal. At the same time, a 37-elements compact LGS AO system had been mounted on the Bent-Cassegrain focus and got its first light on observing HIP43963 (mV= 8.18mv) and reached Sr=0.27 in J Band after LGS AO compensation. In 2016, the solid Sodium laser has been upgrade to stable 32W@800Hz while D2a plus D2b repumping is used to increase the photon return, and a totally new LGS AO system with 164-elements Deformable Mirror, Linux Real Time Controller, inner closed loop Tip/tilt mirror, Multiple-PMT tracking detector is established and installed on the telescope. And the throughput for the BTO/LLT is improved nearly 20%. The campaign process, the performance of the two LGS AO systems especially the latter one, the characteristics of the BTO/LLT system and the result are present in this paper.

  5. Dynamics of vehicle-pavement coupled system based on a revised flexible roller contact tire model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A revised flexible roller contact tire model (RFRC tire model) is proposed, which considers not only the geometric and flexible filtering effect, but also tire damping and pavement displacement. A vehi- cle-pavement coupled system is modeled as a two DOF oscillator moving along a simply supported beam on a linear viscoelastic foundation. By using the Galerkin’s and Direct Integral method, dynamical responses of the vehicle-pavement coupled system are obtained based on the RFRC tire model and the traditional single point contact tire model (SPC tire model). The simulation results are compared with test data and the validity of the proposed RFRC tire model is verified. Differences between the two models are also investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors for both models agree with each other quite well when road surface roughness is a long harmonic wave. On the other hand, they are different under short harmonic wave or impulse road excitation. Thus the RFRC tire model should be used to compute the tire force and investigate dynamical responses of vehicle and pavement.

  6. Numerical characterization of the hydrodynamics and thermal behavior of air flow in flexible air distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehdaghi, Samad; Moujaes, Samir

    2013-10-01

    Flexible duct air distribution systems are used in a large percentage of residential and small commercial buildings in the United States . Very few empirical or predictive data are available though to help provide the HVAC design engineer with reliable information . Moreover, because of the ducts flexibility, the shapes of these ducts offer a different set of operating fluid flow and thermal conditions from traditional smooth metal ducts. Hence, both the flow field and heat transfer through this kind of ducts are much more complex and merit to be analyzed from a numerical predictive approach. The aim of this research paper is to compute some of the hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the air flow inside these ducts over a range of Re numbers commonly used in the flow conditions of these air distribution systems. The information resulting from this CFD simulation, where a κ-ɛ turbulent model is used to predict the flow conditions, provide pressure drop and average convective heat transfer coefficients that exist in these ducts and was compared to previously found data. Circulation zones in the depressions of these ducts are found to exist which are suspected of influencing the pressured drop and heat transfer coefficients as compared to smooth ducts. The results show that fully developed conditions exist much earlier with regard to the inlet for both hydrodynamic and thermal entrance regions than what would be expected in smooth ducts under the same turbulent conditions.

  7. A flexible 3D vision system based on structured light for in-line product inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Øystein; Nygaard, Jens Olav; Thielemann, Jens; Vollset, Thor

    2008-02-01

    A flexible and highly configurable 3D vision system targeted for in-line product inspection is presented. The system includes a low cost 3D camera based on structured light and a set of flexible software tools that automate the measurement process. The specification of the measurement tasks is done in a first manual step. The user selects regions of the point cloud to analyze and specifies primitives to be characterized within these regions. After all measurement tasks have been specified, measurements can be carried out on successive parts automatically and without supervision. As a test case, a measurement cell for inspection of a V-shaped car component has been developed. The car component consists of two steel tubes attached to a central hub. Each of the tubes has an additional bushing clamped to its end. A measurement is performed in a few seconds and results in an ordered point cloud with 1.2 million points. The software is configured to fit cylinders to each of the steel tubes as well as to the inside of the bushings of the car part. The size, position and orientation of the fitted cylinders allow us to measure and verify a series of dimensions specified on the CAD drawing of the component with sub-millimetre accuracy.

  8. Dynamics of vehicle-pavement coupled system based on a revised flexible roller contact tire model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ShaoPu; LI ShaoHua; LU YongJie

    2009-01-01

    A revised flexible roller contact tire model (RFRC tire model) is proposed, which considers not only the geometric and flexible filtering effect, but also tire damping and pavement displacement. A vehi-cle-pavement coupled system is modeled as a two DOF oscillator moving along a simply supported beam on a linear viscoelastic foundation. By using the Galerkin's and Direct Integral method, dynamical responses of the vehicle-pavement coupled system are obtained based on the RFRC tire model and the traditional single point contact tire model (SPC tire model). The simulation results are compared with test data and the validity of the proposed RFRC tire model is verified. Differences between the two models are also investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors for both models agree with each other quite well when road surface roughness is a long harmonic wave. On the other hand, they are different under short harmonic wave or impulse road excitation. Thus the RFRC tire model should be used to compute the tire force and investigate dynamical responses of vehicle and pavement.

  9. Design and Analysis of a Flexible, Reliable Deep Space Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a flexible, reliable, deep space life support system design approach that uses either storage or recycling or both together. The design goal is to provide the needed life support performance with the required ultra reliability for the minimum Equivalent System Mass (ESM). Recycling life support systems used with multiple redundancy can have sufficient reliability for deep space missions but they usually do not save mass compared to mixed storage and recycling systems. The best deep space life support system design uses water recycling with sufficient water storage to prevent loss of crew if recycling fails. Since the amount of water needed for crew survival is a small part of the total water requirement, the required amount of stored water is significantly less than the total to be consumed. Water recycling with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide removal material storage can achieve the high reliability of full storage systems with only half the mass of full storage and with less mass than the highly redundant recycling systems needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Improved recycling systems with lower mass and higher reliability could perform better than systems using storage.

  10. Three Meter Winch Mandatory InstaIIation of Lubrication System Design%三米绞车强制润滑系统设计安装

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红铭

    2015-01-01

    Auxiliary shaft winch three meters which is re-sponsible for mineral material transportation, the original bear-ing lubrication medium is used gear oil, oil supply distance, oil return pipe diameter, resulting in bearing oil break, caused the accident, therefore the transformation installation forced lu-brication system, ensure the normal production of mine person-nel safety .%副井三米绞车担负着全矿物料运输,原有轴瓦润滑介质是使用齿齿轮油,供油距离远,回油管径细,导致轴瓦断油,造成了事故,因此改造安装强制润滑系统,保证矿井人员安全与正常生产。

  11. Design and implementation of visual inspection system handed in tokamak flexible in-vessel robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng; Xu, Lifei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China); Chen, Weidong, E-mail: wdchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China (China)

    2016-05-15

    In-vessel viewing system (IVVS) is a fundamental tool among the remote handling systems for ITER, which is used to providing information on the status of the in-vessel components. The basic functional requirement of in-vessel visual inspection system is to perform a fast intervention with adequate optical resolution. In this paper, we present the software and hardware solution, which is designed and implemented for tokamak in-vessel viewing system that installed on end-effector of flexible in-vessel robot working under vacuum and high temperature. The characteristic of our in-vessel viewing system consists of two parts: binocular heterogeneous vision inspection tool and first wall scene emersion based augment virtuality. The former protected with water-cooled shield is designed to satisfy the basic functional requirement of visual inspection system, which has the capacity of large field of view and high-resolution for detection precision. The latter, achieved by overlaying first wall tiles images onto virtual first wall scene model in 3D virtual reality simulation system, is designed for convenient, intuitive and realistic-looking visual inspection instead of viewing the status of first wall only by real-time monitoring or off-line images sequences. We present the modular division of system, each of them in smaller detail, and go through some of the design choices according to requirements of in-vessel visual inspection task.

  12. Metrological control of instruments, equipment and measurement system for ultrasonic meters of flow; Controle metrologico de instrumentos, equipamentos e sistema de medicao para medidores ultra-sonicos de vazao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Oscar de

    2004-07-01

    Following the actual tendency to obtaining greater precision in Natural Gas measurement, in the past few years the use of Ultrasonic Flow Meters as Custody Transfer applications has grown significantly. There are several units currently operating in Brazil. The legislation for model approval, measure system certification and periodical metrological control of the above mentioned equipment, is currently under elaboration final stage. It was placed under public inquire through the 'Portaria 037' of 2004 of INMETRO, which proposes the authorization to perform the Metrological control by the Operator, once it has a quality system implemented according NBR ISO 9001-2000 and/or ISO 17025. This paper describes the verification procedure adopted by most of ultrasonic meters manufacturers. It also describes the application of the procedure for create the 'Metrological Control System of the Measurement System' of a 12'' Ultrasonic Meter installed and operating, with 3 years operation's data. (author)

  13. 井口称重式计量系统在油田的应用%The Application of Wellhead Weighing Metering System in Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾萤; 李秋莲; 张岳峰; 李秋香

    2016-01-01

    Put forward the "car tank storage transport" converted into pipeline technology, single- well measurement will become a key technology for pipeline transporting. Wellhead weighing metering system is mainly composed of single well entry line, multichannel valve, weighing sensor, left or right position sensor, tanks, oil and gas separator, single well gas export pipeline, hopper, distributor, skip, float controller, single well pipeline, single well flow export pipeline, etc. Metering system is added a full automatic multi-channel valve on the device, can access to ≤30 single-well respectively, through the computer to realize automatic switching of single well, continuous measurement of each single well pro-duced fluid volume, skip position sensor, automatic detection, recording, printing, dis-play operation parameters of each single well production,which can realize continuous auto-matic metering oil. The metering system can well solve the high viscosity of heavy oil and low oil and gas ratio single well oil well measurement problem,also can meet the thin oil and high oil and gas than single well oil well measurement at the same time,and has wide applica-bility.%自提出将“罐储车运”的原油输送方式改造成管道输送的工艺,单井计量就成为实现管输的关键性技术。井口称重式计量系统主要由单井入口管路、多路阀、称重传感器、左位置传感器、右位置传感器、罐体、油气分离器、单井气出口管路、集料斗、分布器、翻斗、浮子调节器、单井出口管路、单井汇流出口管路等组成。计量系统设置了一个全自动多路阀,最多可以接入30口单井,通过计算机实现单井的自动切换,连续测量每个单井的产液量。位置传感器检测翻斗的状态,自动检测、记录、打印、显示各单井的生产运行参数,可实现连续自动量油。该计量系统能较好地解决高黏度稠油和低油气比油井的单井计量

  14. Feedback Scheduling of Model-based Networked Control Systems with Flexible Workload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Tang; Jin-Shou Yu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel control structure called feedback scheduling of model-based networked control systems is proposed to cope with a flexible network load and resource constraints. The state update time is adjusted according to the real-time network congestion situation. State observer is used under the situation where the state of the controlled plant could not be acquired. The stability criterion of the proposed structure is proved with time-varying state update time. On the basis of the stability of the novel system structure, the compromise between the control performance and the network utilization is realized by using feedback scheduler.Examples are provided to show the advantage of the proposed control structure.

  15. A new flexible system for measuring thermally and optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, B.G.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Duller, G.A.T.

    1997-01-01

    The automated Riso TL/OSL reader system is used worldwide for luminescence dating, retrospective dosimetry environmental dosimetry and material characterization. In response to requests from many users we have re-designed the reader by incorporating a variety of new hardware and software features....... New hardware features include a two-speed sample turntable, a new detachable beta irradiator with a Be window vacuum interface and the incorporation of an on-board minicomputer.,A completely new software concept was developed that allows the user unlimited control of the reader and has, at the same...... time, made the new generation Riso TL/OSL readers extremely flexible and user friendly. A description of the new system is given and measurement results are presented to demonstrate its capabilities. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  16. Solving machine loading problem of flexible manufacturing systems using a modified discrete firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Bottani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified discrete firefly algorithm (DFA applied to the machine loading problem of the flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs starting from the mathematical formulation adopted by Swarnkar & Tiwari (2004. The aim of the problem is to identify the optimal jobs sequence that simultaneously maximizes the throughput and minimizes the system unbalance according to given technological constraints (e.g. available tool slots and machining time. The results of the algorithm proposed have been compared with the existing and most recent swarm-based approaches available in the open literature using as benchmark the set of ten problems proposed by Mukhopadhyay et al. (1992. The algorithm shows results that are comparable and sometimes even better than most of the other approaches considering both the quality of the results provided and the computational times obtained.

  17. Implementation of Inverter with Flexible Voltage Control for A DC Line in a System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohanraj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to raising demands in electric power it becomes more important to use the available energy sources efficiently and along with them the distributed generation comes into picture which means collection of energy from many small sources say RES. For distribute generation (DG systems a challenging issue is to smartly integrate renewable-energy sources into the grid as it leads to power quality problems under fault conditions. Another approach for meeting the power demand is to implement TEP .This work proposes an method which uses a control algorithm for inverters for providing a flexible voltage control using reference current generation under grid faults. The controlled inverter designed is used for inversion processes at the receiving end in a HVDC line. A system with three sources is considered, their performances if the three lines connecting three sources are AC lines and if one line is replaced with a DC line is studied. Keywords –

  18. Evolutionary approaches for scheduling a flexible manufacturing system with automated guided vehicles and robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaraj Natarajan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the scheduling of machines, an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV and two robots in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS formed in three loop layouts, with objectives to minimize the makespan, mean flow time and mean tardiness. The scheduling optimization is carried out using Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm (SFHA and Artificial Immune System (AIS algorithm. AGV is used for carrying jobs between the Load/Unload station and the machines. The robots are used for loading and unloading the jobs in the machines, and also used for transferring jobs between the machines. The algorithms are applied for test problems taken from the literature and the results obtained using the two algorithms are compared. The results indicate that SFHA performs better than AIS for this problem.

  19. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ���±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  20. Model predictive control technologies for efficient and flexible power consumption in refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Edlund, Kristian;

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper we describe a novel economic-optimizing Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme that reduces operating costs by utilizing the thermal storage capabilities. A nonlinear optimization tool to handle a non-convex cost function is utilized for simulations with validated scenarios. In this way we...... for the system itself, while crucial services can be delivered to a future flexible and intelligent power grid (Smart Grid). Furthermore, we discuss a novel incorporation of probabilistic constraints and Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) with economic MPC. A Finite Impulse Response (FIR) formulation...... of the system models allows us to describe and handle model as well as prediction uncertainties in this framework. This means we can demonstrate means for robustifying the performance of the controller....