WorldWideScience

Sample records for flexible advanced compensations

  1. An Environment for Flexible Advanced Compensations of Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, Michael; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this article, we introduce an environment to deal with advanced compensations based on forward...

  2. Kayenta advanced series compensation operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The world's first three-phase, thyristor-controlled series compensation scheme with continuously variable impedance has been introduced into a transmission system. Energized and dedicated in September 1992, the installation was placed into commercial operation in January 1993 and has provided over one year of operating experience. This paper describes the 230 kV, 330 MVAr (60 Hz) advanced series compensation (ASC) project, located in north-eastern Arizona at Kayenta Substation on the 320 km Glen Canyon-Shiprock transmission line. The paper describes operating experiences, coordination with phase shifting transformer, phase shifter failure, platform power, system disturbances, and future plans.

  3. Wages of Non-regular Workers: Compensation for employment insecurity and lack of work flexibility (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    TSURU Kotaro; KUME Koichi; OHTAKE Fumio; OKUDAIRA Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    We examine survey-based evidence on the desired wage compensation of non-regular workers in response to employment insecurity and work flexibility. Comparing the compensation rate by work status, contract workers ask for the highest rate for employment insecurity while part time workers ask for the highest rate for work flexibility. We investigate the determinants of the compensation. Female, aged (over age 50), and risk averse workers are likely to ask for more compensation. Non-regular work...

  4. Open-loop position tracking control of a piezoceramic flexible beam using a dynamic hysteresis compensator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hysteresis compensator to enhance control accuracy in open-loop position tracking control of a piezoceramic flexible beam. The proposed hysteresis compensator consists of two components: a rate-independent hysteresis compensator and a nonlinear filter. The compensator is formulated based on the inverse Preisach model, while the weight coefficients of the filter are identified adaptively using a recursive least square (RLS) algorithm. In this work, two dynamic hysteresis compensators (or rate-independent hysteresis compensators) are developed by adopting two different nonlinear filters: Volterra and bilinear filters. In order to demonstrate the improved control accuracy of the proposed dynamic compensators, a flexible beam associated with the piezoceramic actuator is modeled using the finite element method (FEM) and Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. The beam model is then integrated with the proposed hysteresis model to achieve accurate position tracking control at the tip of the beam. An experimental investigation on the tip position tracking control is undertaken by realizing three different hysteresis compensators: a rate-independent hysteresis compensator, a rate-dependent hysteresis compensator with a Volterra nonlinear filter and a rate-independent hysteresis compensator with a bilinear nonlinear filter. It is shown that the proposed dynamic hysteresis compensators can provide much better tracking control accuracy than conventional rate-independent hysteresis compensators

  5. Economic Decision-Making for Coal Power Flexibility Retrofitting and Compensation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunning Na

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, in order to integrate more renewable energy into the power grid, coal power flexibility retrofitting is imperative. This paper elaborates a generic method for estimating the flexibility potential from the rapid ramp rate and peak shaving operation using nonlinear programming, and defines three flexibility elastic coefficients to quantify the retrofitted targets. The optimized range of the retrofitted targets determined by the flexibility elastic coefficients have a reference significance on coal power flexibility retrofitting. Then, in order to enable economic decisions for coal power flexibility retrofitting, we address a profit maximizing issue regarding optimization decisions for coal power flexibility retrofitting under an assumption of perfect competition, further analyzing the characteristic roots of marginal cost equal to marginal revenue. The rationality of current compensation standards for peak shaving in China can also be judged in the analysis. The case study results show that economic decision-making depends on the compensation standard and the peak shaving depth and time. At a certain peak shaving depth and time, with rational compensation standard power plants are willing to carry out coal power flexibility retrofitting. The current compensation standard in Northeast China is high enough to carry out coal power flexibility retrofitting. These research conclusions have theoretical significance for China’s peak shaving compensation standards formulation.

  6. Thermal effects and their compensation in Advanced Virgo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, A; Coccia, E; Fafone, V; Malvezzi, V; Minenkov, Y; Sperandio, L

    2012-01-01

    Thermal effects in the test masses of the gravitational waves interferometric detectors may result in a strong limitation to their operation and sensitivity. Already in initial LIGO and Virgo, these effects have been observed and required the installation of dedicated compensation systems. Based on CO 2 laser projectors, the thermal compensators heat the peripheral of the input test masses to reduce the lensing effect. In advanced detectors, the power circulating in the interferometer will increase, thus making thermal effects more relevant. In this paper, the concept of the compensation system for Advanced Virgo is described.

  7. Continuous compliance compensation of position-dependent flexible structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontaras, Nikolaos; Heertjes, Marcel; Zwart, Heiko J.

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of lightweight high-performance motion systems in lithography and other applications imposes lower requirements on actuators, amplifiers, and cooling. However, the decreased stiffness of lightweight designs increases the effect of structural flexibilities especially when the point

  8. Flexible Compensation of Voltage and Current Unbalance and Harmonics in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Yousef Mousazadeh Mousavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the harmonics and unbalance problems endanger the voltage and current quality of power systems, due to increasing usage of nonlinear and unbalanced loads. Use of Distributed Generation (DG-interfacing inverters is proposed for voltage or current compensation. In this paper, a flexible control method is proposed to compensate voltage and current unbalance and harmonics using the distributed generation (DG-interfacing inverters. This method is applicable to both grid-connected and islanded Microgrids (MGs. In the proposed method, not only the proper control of active and reactive powers can be achieved, but also there is flexibility in compensating the voltage or current quality problems at DG terminals or Points of Common Coupling (PCCs. This control strategy consists of active and reactive power controllers and a voltage/current quality-improvement block. The controller is designed in a stationary (αβ frame. An extensive simulation study has been performed and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Depending on the compensation modes, the harmonics and unbalance compensation of DG output current, MG-injected current to the grid, as well as PCC and DG voltages, can be achieved in grid-connected operation of MG while in the islanded operation, and the PCC and DG voltages compensation can be obtained through the proposed control scheme.

  9. Flexible Compensation of Voltage and Current Unbalance and Harmonics in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Jalilian, Alireza; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the harmonics and unbalance problem endanger the voltage and current quality of power systems due to increasing usage of nonlinear and unbalance loads. Using DG interfacing inverters is proposed for voltage or current compensation. In this paper, a flexible control method...... is proposed to compensate voltage and current unbalance and harmonics using the Distributed Generation (DG) interfacing inverters. This method is applicable to both grid-connected and islanded microgrids. In the proposed method, not only the proper control of active and reactive powers can be achieved......) frame. An extensive simulation study has been performed and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. The results show that depending on the compensation mode, the harmonics and unbalance compensation of DGs’ output current, MG’s injected current to the grid as well...

  10. The Role of Compensation Criteria to Minimize Face-Time Bias and Support Faculty Career Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Pleotis Howell MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Work-life balance is important to recruitment and retention of the younger generation of medical faculty, but medical school flexibility policies have not been fully effective. We have reported that our school’s policies are underutilized due to faculty concerns about looking uncommitted to career or team. Since policies include leaves and accommodations that reduce physical presence, faculty may fear “face-time bias,” which negatively affects evaluation of those not “seen” at work. Face-time bias is reported to negatively affect salary and career progress. We explored face-time bias on a leadership level and described development of compensation criteria intended to mitigate face-time bias, raise visibility, and reward commitment and contribution to team/group goals. Leaders from 6 partner departments participated in standardized interviews and group meetings. Ten compensation plans were analyzed, and published literature was reviewed. Leaders did not perceive face-time issues but saw team pressure and perception of availability as performance motivators. Compensation plans were multifactor productivity based with many quantifiable criteria; few addressed team contributions. Using these findings, novel compensation criteria were developed based on a published model to mitigate face-time bias associated with team perceptions. Criteria for organizational citizenship to raise visibility and reward group outcomes were included. We conclude that team pressure and perception of availability have the potential to lead to bias and may contribute to underuse of flexibility policies. Recognizing organizational citizenship and cooperative effort via specific criteria in a compensation plan may enhance a culture of flexibility. These novel criteria have been effective in one pilot department.

  11. 75 FR 57145 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program; Funding Goals for Interest-Free Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Unemployment Compensation Program; Funding Goals for Interest-Free Advances; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Unemployment Compensation Program; Funding Goals for Interest-Free Advances AGENCY: Employment and Training... unemployment compensation (UC) upon the State meeting ``funding goals, established under regulations issued by...

  12. 5 CFR 2636.307 - Requirement for advance authorization to engage in teaching for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engage in teaching for compensation. 2636.307 Section 2636.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... teaching for compensation. (a) Authorization requirement. A covered noncareer employee may receive compensation for teaching only when specifically authorized in advance by the designated agency ethics official...

  13. Compensation for positioning error of industrial robot for flexible vision measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Liang, Yajun; Song, Jincheng; Sun, Zengyu; Zhu, Jigui

    2013-01-01

    Positioning error of robot is a main factor of accuracy of flexible coordinate measuring system which consists of universal industrial robot and visual sensor. Present compensation methods for positioning error based on kinematic model of robot have a significant limitation that it isn't effective in the whole measuring space. A new compensation method for positioning error of robot based on vision measuring technique is presented. One approach is setting global control points in measured field and attaching an orientation camera to vision sensor. Then global control points are measured by orientation camera to calculate the transformation relation from the current position of sensor system to global coordinate system and positioning error of robot is compensated. Another approach is setting control points on vision sensor and two large field cameras behind the sensor. Then the three dimensional coordinates of control points are measured and the pose and position of sensor is calculated real-timely. Experiment result shows the RMS of spatial positioning is 3.422mm by single camera and 0.031mm by dual cameras. Conclusion is arithmetic of single camera method needs to be improved for higher accuracy and accuracy of dual cameras method is applicable.

  14. Advances in Flexible Hybrid Electronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    evaluate these new capabilities. This paper has presented initial work that helps define new test requirements for FHE systems. Acknowledgements...for supporting FHE capability improvements under the program "Advanced FleX-SoC Microcontroller " • Nano-Bio Manufacturing Consortium (NBMC) for

  15. Recent advances in flexible low power cholesteric LCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad; Shiyanovskaya, Irina; Montbach, Erica; Schneider, Tod; Nicholson, Forrest; Miller, Nick; Marhefka, Duane; Ernst, Todd; Doane, J. W.

    2006-05-01

    Bistable reflective cholesteric displays are a liquid crystal display technology developed to fill a market need for very low power displays. Their unique look, high reflectivity, bistability, and simple structure make them an ideal flat panel display choice for handheld or other portable devices where small lightweight batteries with long lifetimes are important. Applications ranging from low resolution large signs to ultra high resolution electronic books can utilize cholesteric displays to not only benefit from the numerous features, but also create enabling features that other flat panel display technologies cannot. Flexible displays are the focus of attention of numerous research groups and corporations worldwide. Cholesteric displays have been demonstrated to be highly amenable to flexible substrates. This paper will review recent advances in flexible cholesteric displays including both phase separation and emulsification approaches to encapsulation. Both approaches provide unique benefits to various aspects of manufacturability, processes, flexibility, and conformability.

  16. Advanced configuration of hybrid passive filter for reactive power and harmonic compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Acikgoz, Hakan; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Harmonics is one of the major power quality problems for power systems. The harmonics can be eliminated by power filters such as passive, active, and hybrid. In this study, a new passive filter configuration has been improved in addition to the existing passive filter configurations. Conventional hybrid passive filters are not successful to compensate rapidly changing reactive power demand. The proposed configure are capable of compensating both harmonics and reactive power at the same time. Simulation results show that performance of reactive power and harmonic compensation with advanced hybrid passive filter is better than conventional hybrid passive filters.

  17. A flexible architecture for advanced process control solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faron, Kamyar; Iourovitski, Ilia

    2005-05-01

    Advanced Process Control (APC) is now mainstream practice in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Over the past decade and a half APC has evolved from a "good idea", and "wouldn"t it be great" concept to mandatory manufacturing practice. APC developments have primarily dealt with two major thrusts, algorithms and infrastructure, and often the line between them has been blurred. The algorithms have evolved from very simple single variable solutions to sophisticated and cutting edge adaptive multivariable (input and output) solutions. Spending patterns in recent times have demanded that the economics of a comprehensive APC infrastructure be completely justified for any and all cost conscious manufacturers. There are studies suggesting integration costs as high as 60% of the total APC solution costs. Such cost prohibitive figures clearly diminish the return on APC investments. This has limited the acceptance and development of pure APC infrastructure solutions for many fabs. Modern APC solution architectures must satisfy the wide array of requirements from very manual R&D environments to very advanced and automated "lights out" manufacturing facilities. A majority of commercially available control solutions and most in house developed solutions lack important attributes of scalability, flexibility, and adaptability and hence require significant resources for integration, deployment, and maintenance. Many APC improvement efforts have been abandoned and delayed due to legacy systems and inadequate architectural design. Recent advancements (Service Oriented Architectures) in the software industry have delivered ideal technologies for delivering scalable, flexible, and reliable solutions that can seamlessly integrate into any fabs" existing system and business practices. In this publication we shall evaluate the various attributes of the architectures required by fabs and illustrate the benefits of a Service Oriented Architecture to satisfy these requirements. Blue

  18. Large-area compatible fabrication and encapsulation of inkjet-printed humidity sensors on flexible foils with integrated thermal compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Lopez, F; Quintero, A Vásquez; Mattana, G; Briand, D; De Rooij, N F

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the simultaneous fabrication of ambient relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors arrays, inkjet-printed on flexible substrates and subsequently encapsulated at foil level. These sensors are based on planar interdigitated capacitors with an inkjet-printed sensing layer and meander-shaped resistors. Their combination allows the compensation of the RH signals variations at different temperatures. The whole fabrication of the system is carried out at foil level and involves the utilization of additive methods such as inkjet-printing and electrodeposition. Electrodeposition of the printed lines resulted in an improvement of the thermoresistors. The sensors have been characterized and their performances analyzed. The encapsulation layer does not modify the performances of the sensors in terms of sensitivity or response time. This work demonstrates the potential of inkjet-printing in the large-area fabrication of light-weight and cost-efficient gas sensors on flexible substrates. (paper)

  19. The effects of betatron phase advances on beam-beam and its compensation in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-03-28

    In this article we perform simulation studies to investigate the effects of betatron phase advances between the beam-beam interaction points on half-integer resonance driving term, second order chromaticty and dynamic aperture in RHIC. The betatron phase advances are adjusted with artificial matrices inserted in the middle of arcs. The lattices for the 2011 RHIC polarized proton (p-p) run and 2010 RHIC Au-Au runs are used in this study. We also scan the betatron phase advances between IP8 and the electron lens for the proposed Blue ring lattice with head-on beam-beam compensation.

  20. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  1. Recent advances in flexible and wearable organic optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Shen, Yang; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices have been developing to a new stage due to their unique capacity for the possibility of a variety of wearable intelligent electronics, including bendable smartphones, foldable touch screens and antennas, paper-like displays, and curved and flexible solid-state lighting devices. Before extensive commercial applications, some issues still have to be solved for flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices. In this regard, this review concludes the newly emerging flexible substrate materials, transparent conductive electrodes, device architectures and light manipulation methods. Examples of these components applied for various kinds of devices are also summarized. Finally, perspectives about the bright future of flexible and wearable electronic devices are proposed. Project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2016YFB0400700).

  2. TU-H-BRC-08: Use and Validation of Flexible 3D Printed Tissue Compensators for Post-Mastectomy Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, D; Kry, S; Salehpour, M; Howell, R; Woodward, W; Kanke, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patient-specific tissue equivalent compensators can be used for post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) to achieve homogenous dose distributions with single-field treatments. However, current fabrication methods are time consuming and expensive. 3D-printing technology could overcome these limitations. The purposes of this study were to [1] evaluate materials for 3D-printed compensators [2] design and print a compensator to achieve a uniform thickness to a clinical target volume (CTV), and [3] demonstrate that a single-field electron compensator plan is a clinically feasible treatment option for PMRT. Methods: Blocks were printed with three materials; print accuracy, density, Hounsfield units (HU), and percent depth doses (PDD) were evaluated. For a CT scan of an anthropomorphic phantom, we used a ray-tracing method to design a compensator that achieved uniform thickness from compensator surface to CTV. The compensator was printed with flexible tissue equivalent material whose physical and radiological properties were most similar to soft tissue. A single-field electron compensator plan was designed and compared with two standard-of-care techniques. The compensator plan was validated with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements. Results: We identified an appropriate material for 3D-printed compensators that had high print accuracy (99.6%) and was similar to soft tissue; density was 1.04, HU was - 45 ± 43, and PDD curves agreed with clinical curves within 3 mm. We designed and printed a compensator that conformed well to the phantom surface and created a uniform thickness to the CTV. In-house fabrication was simple and inexpensive (<$75). Compared with the two standard plans, the compensator plan resulted in overall more homogeneous dose distributions and performed similarly in terms of lung/heart doses and 90% isodose coverage of the CTV. TLD measurements agreed well with planned doses (within 5 %). Conclusions: We have demonstrated that 3D

  3. TU-H-BRC-08: Use and Validation of Flexible 3D Printed Tissue Compensators for Post-Mastectomy Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, D; Kry, S; Salehpour, M; Howell, R [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Woodward, W [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kanke, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific tissue equivalent compensators can be used for post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) to achieve homogenous dose distributions with single-field treatments. However, current fabrication methods are time consuming and expensive. 3D-printing technology could overcome these limitations. The purposes of this study were to [1] evaluate materials for 3D-printed compensators [2] design and print a compensator to achieve a uniform thickness to a clinical target volume (CTV), and [3] demonstrate that a single-field electron compensator plan is a clinically feasible treatment option for PMRT. Methods: Blocks were printed with three materials; print accuracy, density, Hounsfield units (HU), and percent depth doses (PDD) were evaluated. For a CT scan of an anthropomorphic phantom, we used a ray-tracing method to design a compensator that achieved uniform thickness from compensator surface to CTV. The compensator was printed with flexible tissue equivalent material whose physical and radiological properties were most similar to soft tissue. A single-field electron compensator plan was designed and compared with two standard-of-care techniques. The compensator plan was validated with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements. Results: We identified an appropriate material for 3D-printed compensators that had high print accuracy (99.6%) and was similar to soft tissue; density was 1.04, HU was - 45 ± 43, and PDD curves agreed with clinical curves within 3 mm. We designed and printed a compensator that conformed well to the phantom surface and created a uniform thickness to the CTV. In-house fabrication was simple and inexpensive (<$75). Compared with the two standard plans, the compensator plan resulted in overall more homogeneous dose distributions and performed similarly in terms of lung/heart doses and 90% isodose coverage of the CTV. TLD measurements agreed well with planned doses (within 5 %). Conclusions: We have demonstrated that 3D

  4. Control of a flexible beam actuated by macro-fiber composite patches: II. Hysteresis and creep compensation, experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schröck, Johannes; Meurer, Thomas; Kugi, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a flexible cantilever beam, which is actuated by piezoelectric macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch actuators. For accurate positioning tasks, special attention has to be paid to the inherent nonlinear hysteresis and creep behavior of these actuators. A detailed analysis of the MFC-actuated cantilever verifies that these nonlinearities can be efficiently captured by an operator-based model using Prandtl–Ishlinskii's theory. Based on a Hammerstein-like model with the nonlinearities at the input connected in series with a linear infinite-dimensional beam model it follows that hysteresis and creep effects can be compensated by application of the inverse operator. Experimental results prove the feasibility of this approach. With this result, the tracking accuracy of the combination of the compensator with the flatness-based feedforward control design as proposed in the companion paper (Schröck et al 2011 Smart Mater. Struct. 20 015015) can be verified. Measurements demonstrate the applicability of this approach for the realization of highly dynamic trajectories for the beam's tip deflection

  5. Large diameter lithium compensated silicon detectors for the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allbritton, G.L.; Andersen, H.; Barnes, A.

    1996-01-01

    Fabrication of the 100 mm diameter, 3 mm thick lithium-compensated silicon, Si(Li), detectors for the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) instrument on board the ACE satellite required development of new float-zone silicon growing techniques, new Si(Li) fabrication procedures, and new particle beam testing sequences. These developments are discussed and results are presented that illustrate the advances made in realizing these CRIS Si(Li) detectors, which, when operational in the CRIS detector telescopes, will usher in a new generation of cosmic-ray isotope spectrometers

  6. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during the engagement on power system flexibility. By design, the focus is on flexibility options used in the United States. Exploration of whether and how U.S. experiences can inform Chinese energy planning will be part of the continuing project, and will benefit from the knowledge base provided by this report. We believe the initial stage of collaboration represented in this report has successfully started a process of mutual understanding, helping Chinese researchers to begin evaluating how lessons learned in other countries might translate to China's unique geographic, economic, social, and political contexts.

  7. Flexible and Stretchable Energy Storage: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Song, Min-Sang; Kong, Biao; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Energy-storage technologies such as lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become fundamental building blocks in modern society. Recently, the emerging direction toward the ever-growing market of flexible and wearable electronics has nourished progress in building multifunctional energy-storage systems that can be bent, folded, crumpled, and stretched while maintaining their electrochemical functions under deformation. Here, recent progress and well-developed strategies in research designed to accomplish flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are reviewed. The challenges of developing novel materials and configurations with tailored features, and in designing simple and large-scaled manufacturing methods that can be widely utilized are considered. Furthermore, the perspectives and opportunities for this emerging field of materials science and engineering are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64864. This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during the engagement on power system flexibility. By design, the focus is on flexibility options used in the United States. Exploration of whether and how U.S. experiences can inform Chinese energy planning will be part of the continuing project, and will benefit from the knowledge base provided by this report. We believe the initial stage of collaboration represented in this report has successfully started a process of mutual understanding, helping Chinese researchers to begin evaluating how lessons learned in other countries might translate to China's unique geographic, economic, social, and political contexts.

  9. Recent Advances in Flexible/Stretchable Supercapacitors for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, La; Lou, Zheng; Chen, Di; Jiang, Kai; Han, Wei; Shen, Guozhen

    2017-11-22

    The popularization of personalized wearable devices has accelerated the development of flexible/stretchable supercapacitors (SCs) that possess remarkable features of miniaturization, high security, and easy integration to build an all-in-one integrated system, and realize the functions of comfortable, noninvasive and continuous health monitoring, motion records, and information acquisition, etc. This Review presents a brief phylogeny of flexible/stretchable SCs, represented by planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) and 1D fibrous SCs. The latest progress and advantages of different flexible/stretchable/self-healing substrate, solid-state electrolyte and electrode materials for the fabrication of wearable SCs devices are summarized. The various configurations used in planar MSCs and 1D fibrous SCs aiming at the improvement of performance are also discussed. In addition, from the viewpoint of practical value and large-scale production, a survey of integrated systems, from different types of SC powered wearable sensing (gas, pressure, tactile…) systems, wearable all-in-one systems (including energy harvest, storage, and functional groups), to device packaging is presented. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives of wearable SCs are also considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a constrained flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle based on actuator compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of an adaptive fuzzy tracking control for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with actuator constraints is discussed. Based on functional decomposition methodology, velocity and altitude controllers are designed. Fuzzy logic systems are applied to approximate the lumped uncertainty of each subsystem of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle model. Every controllers contain only one adaptive parameter that needs to be updated online with a minimal-learning-parameter scheme. The back-stepping design is not demanded by converting the altitude subsystem into the normal output-feedback formulation, which predigests the design of a controller. The special contribution is that novel auxiliary systems are developed to compensate both the tracking errors and desired control laws, based on which the explored controller can still provide effective tracking of velocity and altitude commands when the inputs are saturated. Finally, reference trajectory tracking simulation shows the effectiveness of the proposed method in its application to air-breathing hypersonic vehicle control.

  11. Advances in flexible optrode hardware for use in cybernetic insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Joseph; Callahan, Dennis M.; Segura, Carlos; LeBlanc, John; Lissandrello, Charles; Kumar, Parshant; Salthouse, Christopher; Wheeler, Jesse

    2017-08-01

    Optogenetic manipulation is widely used to selectively excite and silence neurons in laboratory experiments. Recent efforts to miniaturize the components of optogenetic systems have enabled experiments on freely moving animals, but further miniaturization is required for freely flying insects. In particular, miniaturization of high channel-count optical waveguides are needed for high-resolution interfaces. Thin flexible waveguide arrays are needed to bend light around tight turns to access small anatomical targets. We present the design of lightweight miniaturized optogentic hardware and supporting electronics for the untethered steering of dragonfly flight. The system is designed to enable autonomous flight and includes processing, guidance sensors, solar power, and light stimulators. The system will weigh less than 200mg and be worn by the dragonfly as a backpack. The flexible implant has been designed to provide stimuli around nerves through micron scale apertures of adjacent neural tissue without the use of heavy hardware. We address the challenges of lightweight optogenetics and the development of high contrast polymer waveguides for this purpose.

  12. Advanced handling-systems with enhanced performance flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the results of a project related to future applications and requirements for advanced handling systems. This report consists of six chapters. Following the description of the aims the tools for setting up the requirements for the handling systems including the experience during the data acquisition process is described. Furthermore some information is given about the current state of the art of robotics and manipulators. Of paramount importance are the descriptions of applications and related concepts in the following chapters leading to specific categories of advanced handling units. The paper closes with the description of the first concepts for realization. (orig./HP) [de

  13. The Role of Compensation Criteria to Minimize Face-Time Bias and Support Faculty Career Flexibility: An Approach to Enhance Career Satisfaction in Academic Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Elsbach, Kimberly D; Villablanca, Amparo C

    2016-01-01

    Work-life balance is important to recruitment and retention of the younger generation of medical faculty, but medical school flexibility policies have not been fully effective. We have reported that our school's policies are underutilized due to faculty concerns about looking uncommitted to career or team. Since policies include leaves and accommodations that reduce physical presence, faculty may fear "face-time bias," which negatively affects evaluation of those not "seen" at work. Face-time bias is reported to negatively affect salary and career progress. We explored face-time bias on a leadership level and described development of compensation criteria intended to mitigate face-time bias, raise visibility, and reward commitment and contribution to team/group goals. Leaders from 6 partner departments participated in standardized interviews and group meetings. Ten compensation plans were analyzed, and published literature was reviewed. Leaders did not perceive face-time issues but saw team pressure and perception of availability as performance motivators. Compensation plans were multifactor productivity based with many quantifiable criteria; few addressed team contributions. Using these findings, novel compensation criteria were developed based on a published model to mitigate face-time bias associated with team perceptions. Criteria for organizational citizenship to raise visibility and reward group outcomes were included. We conclude that team pressure and perception of availability have the potential to lead to bias and may contribute to underuse of flexibility policies. Recognizing organizational citizenship and cooperative effort via specific criteria in a compensation plan may enhance a culture of flexibility. These novel criteria have been effective in one pilot department.

  14. Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.

  15. Flexible, Penetrating Brain Probes Enabled by Advances in Polymer Microfabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuva Weltman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of high-fidelity, long-term neural recordings in vivo is critically important to advance neuroscience and brain–machine interfaces. For decades, rigid materials such as metal microwires and micromachined silicon shanks were used as invasive electrophysiological interfaces to neurons, providing either single or multiple electrode recording sites. Extensive research has revealed that such rigid interfaces suffer from gradual recording quality degradation, in part stemming from tissue damage and the ensuing immune response arising from mechanical mismatch between the probe and brain. The development of “soft” neural probes constructed from polymer shanks has been enabled by advancements in microfabrication; this alternative has the potential to mitigate mismatch-related side effects and thus improve the quality of recordings. This review examines soft neural probe materials and their associated microfabrication techniques, the resulting soft neural probes, and their implementation including custom implantation and electrical packaging strategies. The use of soft materials necessitates careful consideration of surgical placement, often requiring the use of additional surgical shuttles or biodegradable coatings that impart temporary stiffness. Investigation of surgical implantation mechanics and histological evidence to support the use of soft probes will be presented. The review concludes with a critical discussion of the remaining technical challenges and future outlook.

  16. Advanced glycation end products and sorbitol in blood from differently compensated diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comazzi, S; Bertazzolo, W; Bonfanti, U; Spagnolo, V; Sartorelli, P

    2008-06-01

    Canine diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common metabolic disorder with long term complications, most of which are caused by glycosylation of structural proteins, decreases in antioxidant concentrations, altered osmotic balance and hypoxia due to impaired oxygen transport. Previous studies have demonstrated that under hyperglycemic conditions canine erythrocytes undergo swelling, probably due to activation of the polyol pathway. The present work aimed to assess the plasma concentration of advanced glycation end (AGE) products, stable Amadori-products generated by non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins and the intracellular concentration of sorbitol, produced by the activation of polyol pathway in 34 blood samples from diabetic dogs and in 14 controls. AGE products were significantly higher (pdogs compared with control animals. The sorbitol concentration in erythrocytes was also significantly higher in diabetic dogs and, in particular, in poorly compensated animals and in dogs with ketonuria. In five cases that were analysed before and after clinical improvement, sorbitol concentration was found to correlate with improvement. These results suggest that non-specific glycosylation is increased and that the polyol pathway is activated in diabetic dogs in a manner that is proportionate to the severity of disease. Moreover, the concentration of AGE products and sorbitol may be useful for monitoring the onset of diabetic complications and assessing the most appropriate therapeutic approaches for management of canine DM.

  17. Part-time physician faculty in a pediatrics department: a study of equity in compensation and academic advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbar, Mumtaz; Emans, S Jean; Harris, Z Leah; Brown, Nancy J; Scott, Theresa A; Cooper, William O

    2011-08-01

    To assess equity in compensation and academic advancement in an academic pediatrics department in which a large proportion of the physician faculty hold part-time appointments. The authors analyzed anonymized data from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Department of Pediatrics databases for physician faculty (faculty with MD or MD/PhD degrees) employed during July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008. The primary outcomes were total compensation and years at assistant professor rank. They compared compensation and years at junior rank by part-time versus full-time status, controlling for gender, rank, track, years since first appointment as an assistant professor, and clinical productivity. Of the 119 physician faculty in the department, 112 met inclusion criteria. Among those 112 faculty, 23 (21%) were part-time and 89 (79%) were full-time faculty. Part-time faculty were more likely than full-time faculty to be women (74% versus 28%, P part-time versus full-time status. In other adjusted analyses, faculty with part-time appointments spent an average of 2.48 more years as an assistant professor than did faculty with full-time appointments. Overall group differences in total compensation were not apparent in this department, but physician faculty with part-time appointments spent more time at the rank of assistant professor. This study provides a model for determining and analyzing compensation and effort to ensure equity and transparency across faculty.

  18. A flexible and cost-effective compensation method for leveling using large-scale coordinate measuring machines and its application in aircraft digital assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengping; Li, Shuanggao; Huang, Xiang

    2018-06-01

    In the assembly process of large-size aerospace products, the leveling and horizontal alignment of large components are essential prior to the installation of an inertial navigation system (INS) and the final quality inspection. In general, the inherent coordinate systems of large-scale coordinate measuring devices are not coincident with the geodetic horizontal system, and a dual-axis compensation system is commonly required for the measurement of difference in heights. These compensation systems are expensive and dedicated designs for different devices at present. Considering that a large-size assembly site usually needs more than one measuring device, a compensation approach which is versatile for different devices would be a more convenient and economic choice for manufacturers. In this paper, a flexible and cost-effective compensation method is proposed. Firstly, an auxiliary measuring device called a versatile compensation fixture (VCF) is designed, which mainly comprises reference points for coordinate transformation and a dual-axis inclinometer, and a kind of network tighten points (NTPs) are introduced and temporarily deployed in the large measuring space to further reduce transformation error. Secondly, the measuring principle of height difference is studied, based on coordinate transformation theory and trigonometry while considering the effects of earth curvature, and the coordinate transformation parameters are derived by least squares adjustment. Thirdly, the analytical solution of leveling uncertainty is analyzed, based on which the key parameters of the VCF and the proper deployment of NTPs are determined according to the leveling accuracy requirement. Furthermore, the proposed method is practically applied to the assembly of a large helicopter by developing an automatic leveling and alignment system. By measuring four NTPs, the leveling uncertainty (2σ) is reduced by 29.4% to about 0.12 mm, compared with that without NTPs.

  19. Experience with Advanced Static VAR Compensators Operating on Wind Farms and in Laboratory in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    current with ensuing losses, the strong variationS also will cause varying inductive voltage losses in the supply with flicker as a consequence. With power electronic equipment it is possible to produce the reactive power on location and thus reduce the losses and voltage fluctuations in the grid....... This paper describes a 100 kvar power electronic reactive power compensator. The compensator was tested in a wind farm in Western Denmark. The electrical circuit and the working principle of the compensator are described and some survey data are shown. The paper also describes a 2x4 Mvar reactive power...

  20. Advanced configuration of hybrid passive filter for reactive power and harmonic compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kececioglu, O. Fatih; Acikgoz, Hakan; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Harmonics is one of the major power quality problems for power systems. The harmonics can be eliminated by power filters such as passive, active, and hybrid. In this study, a new passive filter configuration has been improved in addition to the existing passive filter configurations. Conventional hybrid passive filters are not successful to compensate rapidly changing reactive power demand. The proposed configure are capable of compensating both harmonics and reactive power at the same time. ...

  1. Compensation methods to support generic graph editing: A case study in automated verification of schema requirements for an advanced transaction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Even, S.J.; Spelt, D.

    Compensation plays an important role in advanced transaction models, cooperative work, and workflow systems. However, compensation operations are often simply written as a^−1 in transaction model literature. This notation ignores any operation parameters, results, and side effects. A schema designer

  2. Advanced and flexible genetic algorithms for BWR fuel loading pattern optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-del-Campo, Cecilia; Palomera-Perez, Miguel-Angel; Francois, Juan-Luis

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes advances in the implementation of a flexible genetic algorithm (GA) for fuel loading pattern optimization for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). In order to avoid specific implementations of genetic operators and to obtain a more flexible treatment, a binary representation of the solution was implemented; this representation had to take into account that a little change in the genotype must correspond to a little change in the phenotype. An identifier number is assigned to each assembly by means of a Gray Code of 7 bits and the solution (the loading pattern) is represented by a binary chain of 777 bits of length. Another important contribution is the use of a Fitness Function which includes a Heuristic Function and an Objective Function. The Heuristic Function which is defined to give flexibility on the application of a set of positioning rules based on knowledge, and the Objective Function that contains all the parameters which qualify the neutronic and thermal hydraulic performances of each loading pattern. Experimental results illustrating the effectiveness and flexibility of this optimization algorithm are presented and discussed.

  3. Prospective application of advanced series compensation to improve transmission system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, C A; Scavassa, J L; Silva, W.M. da; Silva, J M.M. da; Ponte, J R [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the main aspects and results of the planning studies undertaken to evaluate the technical benefits of using Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC), in a large 500 kV transmission system (Brazilian North-Northeast system). TCSC controllers design and simplified models for digital non-linear time domain simulations are discussed. The proposed controllers are tuned and used to support the comparative analysis between controlled and fixed series compensation. The relevant conclusions concerning this comparison are highlighted. (author) 2 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Model of rotary-actuated flexible beam with notch filter vibration suppression controller and torque feedforward load compensation controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, K.C.; Kress, R.L.; Kwon, D.S.; Baker, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes ORNL's development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Flexible Beam Test Bed (PNL FBTB), which is a 1-Degree-of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. ORNL transferred control algorithms developed for the PNL FBTB to controlling IGRIP models. A robust notch filter is running in IGRIP controlling a full dynamics model of the PNL test bed. Model results provide a reasonable match to the experimental results (quantitative results are being determined) and can run on ORNL's Onyx machine in approximately realtime. The flexible beam is modeled as six rigid sections with torsional springs between each segment. The spring constants were adjusted to match the physical response of the flexible beam model to the experimental results. The controller is able to improve performance on the model similar to the improvement seen on the experimental system. Some differences are apparent, most notably because the IGRIP model presently uses a different trajectory planner than the one used by ORNL on the PNL test bed. In the future, the trajectory planner will be modified so that the experiments and models are the same. The successful completion of this work provides the ability to link C code with IGRIP, thus allowing controllers to be developed, tested, and tuned in simulation and then ported directly to hardware systems using the C language

  5. Advanced Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bassett, R.

    2007-01-01

    converters for grid connection of renewable sources will be needed. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents the overall structure and the control aspects of an advanced power converter for universal and flexible power......More "green" power provided by Distributed Generation will enter into the European electricity network in the near future. In order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid, with an increased level of the renewable power, new power electronic...

  6. Study of thermodynamic and structural properties of a flexible homopolymer chain using advanced Monte Carlo methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammou Amine Bouziane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the thermodynamic and structural properties of a flexible homopolymer chain using both multi canonical Monte Carlo method and Wang-Landau method. In this work, we focus on the coil-globule transition. Starting from a completely random chain, we have obtained a globule for different sizes of the chain. The implementation of these advanced Monte Carlo methods allowed us to obtain a flat histogram in energy space and calculate various thermodynamic quantities such as the density of states, the free energy and the specific heat. Structural quantities such as the radius of gyration where also calculated.

  7. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, P; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA6009 (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5x10{sup -3} for {+-}10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  8. Shunt PWM advanced var compensators based on voltage source inverters for Facts applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Pedro G; Misaka, Isamu; Watanabe, Edson H [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    Increased attention has been given to improving power system operation. This paper presents modeling, analysis and design of reactive shunt power compensators based on PWM-Voltage Source Inverters (Pulse Width Modulation -Voltage Source Inverters). (Pulse Width Modulation - Voltage Source Inverters). The control algorithm is based on new concepts of instantaneous active and reactive power theory. The objective is to show that with a small capacitor in the side of a 3-phase PWM-VSI it is possible to synthesize a variable reactive (capacitive or inductive) device. Design procedures and experimental results are presented. The feasibility of this method was verified by digital simulations and measurements on a small scale model. (author) 9 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Syntactic flexibility and planning scope: The effect of verb bias on advance planning during sentence recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje evan de Velde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sentence production, grammatical advance planning scope depends on contextual factors (e.g., time pressure, linguistic factors (e.g., ease of structural processing, and cognitive factors (e.g., production speed. The present study tests the influence of the availability of multiple syntactic alternatives (i.e., syntactic flexibility on the scope of advance planning during the recall of Dutch dative phrases. We manipulated syntactic flexibility by using verbs with a strong bias or a weak bias towards one structural alternative in sentence frames accepting both verbs (e.g., strong/weak bias: De ober schotelt/serveert de klant de maaltijd [voor] 'The waiter dishes out/serves the customer the meal'. To assess lexical planning scope, we varied the frequency of the first post-verbal noun (N1, Experiment 1 or the second post-verbal noun (N2, Experiment 2. In each experiment, 36 speakers produced the verb phrases in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP paradigm. On each trial, they read a sentence presented one word at a time, performed a short distractor task, and then saw a sentence preamble (e.g., De ober… which they had to complete to form the presented sentence. Onset latencies were compared using linear mixed effects models. N1 frequency did not produce any effects. N2 frequency only affected sentence onsets in the weak verb bias condition and especially in slow speakers. These findings highlight the dependency of planning scope during sentence recall on the grammatical properties of the verb and the frequency of post-verbal nouns. Implications for utterance planning in everyday speech are discussed.

  10. Achieving Gender Equity in Physician Compensation and Career Advancement: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkus, Renee; Serchen, Joshua; Moyer, Darilyn V; Bornstein, Sue S; Hingle, Susan Thompson

    2018-05-15

    Women comprise more than one third of the active physician workforce, an estimated 46% of all physicians-in-training, and more than half of all medical students in the United States. Although progress has been made toward gender diversity in the physician workforce, disparities in compensation exist and inequities have contributed to a disproportionately low number of female physicians achieving academic advancement and serving in leadership positions. Women in medicine face other challenges, including a lack of mentors, discrimination, gender bias, cultural environment of the workplace, imposter syndrome, and the need for better work-life integration. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians summarizes the unique challenges female physicians face over the course of their careers and provides recommendations to improve gender equity and ensure that the full potential of female physicians is realized.

  11. Flexible Bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell J; Casal, Roberto F; Lazarus, Donald R; Ost, David E; Eapen, George A

    2018-03-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy has changed the course of pulmonary medicine. As technology advances, the role of the flexible bronchoscope for both diagnostic and therapeutic indications is continually expanding. This article reviews the historical development of the flexible bronchoscopy, fundamental uses of the flexible bronchoscope as a tool to examine the central airways and obtain diagnostic tissue, and the indications, complications, and contraindications to flexible bronchoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Curriculum learning designs: teaching health assessment skills for advanced nursing practitioners through sustainable flexible learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Les; Wong, Pauline; Hannon, John; Solberg Tokerud, Marte; Lyons, Judith

    2013-10-01

    Innovative curriculum designs are vital for effective learning in contemporary nursing education where traditional modes of delivery are not adequate to meet the learning needs of postgraduate students. This instance of postgraduate teaching in a distributed learning environment offered the opportunity to design a flexible learning model for teaching advanced clinical skills. To present a sustainable model for flexible learning that enables specialist nurses to gain postgraduate qualifications without on-campus class attendance by teaching and assessing clinical health care skills in an authentic workplace setting. An action research methodology was used to gather evidence and report on the process of curriculum development of a core unit, Comprehensive Health Assessment (CHA), within 13 different postgraduate speciality courses. Qualitative data was collected from 27 teaching academics, 21 clinical specialist staff, and 7 hospital managers via interviews, focus groups and journal reflections. Evaluations from the initial iteration of CHA from 36 students were obtained. Data was analyzed to develop and evaluate the curriculum design of CHA. The key factors indicated by participants in the curriculum design process were coordination and structuring of teaching and assessment; integration of content development; working with technologies, balancing specialities and core knowledge; and managing induction and expectations. A set of recommendations emerged as a result of the action research process. These included: a constructive alignment approach to curriculum design; the production of a facilitator's guide that specifies expectations and unit information for academic and clinical education staff; an agreed template for content authors; and the inclusion of synchronous communication for real-time online tutoring. The highlight of the project was that it built curriculum design capabilities of clinicians and students which can sustain this alternative model of online

  13. On the Flexibility of Grammatical Advance Planning During Sentence Production: Effects of Cognitive Load on Multiple Lexical Access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, V.; Jescheniak, J.D.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three picture-word interference experiments addressed the question of whether the scope of grammatical advance planning in sentence production corresponds to some fixed unit or rather is flexible. Subjects produced sentences of different formats under varying amounts of cognitive load. When speakers

  14. On the Flexibility of Grammatical Advance Planning during Sentence Production: Effects of Cognitive Load on Multiple Lexical Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Valentin; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Three picture-word interference experiments addressed the question of whether the scope of grammatical advance planning in sentence production corresponds to some fixed unit or rather is flexible. Subjects produced sentences of different formats under varying amounts of cognitive load. When speakers described 2-object displays with simple…

  15. Advances in maskless and mask-based optical lithography on plastic flexible substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbu, I.; Ivan, M.G.; Giesen, P.; Moosdijk, M. van de; Meinders, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Organic flexible electronics is an emerging technology with huge potential growth in the future which is likely to open up a complete new series of potential applications such as flexible OLED-based displays, urban commercial signage, and flexible electronic paper. The transistor is the fundamental

  16. The Relationship of Gender Equity to Compensation, Career Advancement and Leadership in Selected Colleges of Business in Finland, Jamaica and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Hewlett Steve

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of gender equity to faculty compensation, career advancement, and access to leadership roles in colleges of business in Finland, Jamaica and the United States. This quantitative study, anchored by feminist, human capital and socialization theories supported the emergence of a conceptual…

  17. App Factory: A flexible approach to rehabilitation engineering in an era of rapid technology advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Mueller, James; Morris, John

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a flexible and effective approach to research and development in an era of rapid technological advancement. The approach relies on secondary dispersal of grant funds to commercial developers through a competitive selection process. This "App Factory" model balances the practical reliance on multi-year funding needed to sustain a rehabilitation engineering research center (RERC), with the need for agility and adaptability of development efforts undertaken in a rapidly changing technology environment. This approach also allows us to take advantage of technical expertise needed to accomplish a particular development task, and provides incentives to deliver successful products in a cost-effective manner. In this article, we describe the App Factory structure, process, and results achieved to date; and we discuss the lessons learned and the potential relevance of this approach for other grant-funded research and development efforts. Data presented on the direct costs and number of downloads of the 16 app development projects funded in the App Factory's first 3 years show that it can be an effective means for supporting focused, short-term assistive technology development projects.

  18. Advanced error-prediction LDPC with temperature compensation for highly reliable SSDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokutomi, Tsukasa; Tanakamaru, Shuhei; Iwasaki, Tomoko Ogura; Takeuchi, Ken

    2015-09-01

    To improve the reliability of NAND Flash memory based solid-state drives (SSDs), error-prediction LDPC (EP-LDPC) has been proposed for multi-level-cell (MLC) NAND Flash memory (Tanakamaru et al., 2012, 2013), which is effective for long retention times. However, EP-LDPC is not as effective for triple-level cell (TLC) NAND Flash memory, because TLC NAND Flash has higher error rates and is more sensitive to program-disturb error. Therefore, advanced error-prediction LDPC (AEP-LDPC) has been proposed for TLC NAND Flash memory (Tokutomi et al., 2014). AEP-LDPC can correct errors more accurately by precisely describing the error phenomena. In this paper, the effects of AEP-LDPC are investigated in a 2×nm TLC NAND Flash memory with temperature characterization. Compared with LDPC-with-BER-only, the SSD's data-retention time is increased by 3.4× and 9.5× at room-temperature (RT) and 85 °C, respectively. Similarly, the acceptable BER is increased by 1.8× and 2.3×, respectively. Moreover, AEP-LDPC can correct errors with pre-determined tables made at higher temperatures to shorten the measurement time before shipping. Furthermore, it is found that one table can cover behavior over a range of temperatures in AEP-LDPC. As a result, the total table size can be reduced to 777 kBytes, which makes this approach more practical.

  19. Flexible Carbon-Use Efficiency across Litter Types and during Decomposition Partly Compensates Nutrient Imbalances-Results from Analytical Stoichiometric Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models involving explicit representations of microbial processes have been developed to infer microbial community properties from laboratory and field measurements. While this approach has been used to estimate the kinetic constants related to microbial activity, it has not been fully exploited for inference of stoichiometric traits, such as carbon-use efficiency (CUE). Here, a hierarchy of analytically-solvable mass-balance models of litter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics is developed, to infer decomposer CUE from measured C and N contents during litter decomposition. The models are solved in the phase space-expressing litter remaining N as a function of remaining C-rather than in time, thus focusing on the stoichiometric relations during decomposition rather than the kinetics of degradation. This approach leads to explicit formulas that depend on CUE and other microbial properties, which can then be treated as model parameters and retrieved via nonlinear regression. CUE is either assumed time-invariant or as a function of the fraction of remaining litter C as a substitute for time. In all models, CUE tends to increase with increasing litter N availability across a range of litter types. When temporal trends in CUE are considered, CUE increases during decomposition of N-poor litter cohorts, in which decomposers are initially N-limited, but decreases in N-rich litter possibly due to C-limitation. These patterns of flexible CUE that partly compensate stoichiometric imbalances are robust to moderate shifts in decomposer C:N ratio and hold across wide climatic gradients.

  20. Flexible Carbon-Use Efficiency across Litter Types and during Decomposition Partly Compensates Nutrient Imbalances—Results from Analytical Stoichiometric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models involving explicit representations of microbial processes have been developed to infer microbial community properties from laboratory and field measurements. While this approach has been used to estimate the kinetic constants related to microbial activity, it has not been fully exploited for inference of stoichiometric traits, such as carbon-use efficiency (CUE). Here, a hierarchy of analytically-solvable mass-balance models of litter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics is developed, to infer decomposer CUE from measured C and N contents during litter decomposition. The models are solved in the phase space—expressing litter remaining N as a function of remaining C—rather than in time, thus focusing on the stoichiometric relations during decomposition rather than the kinetics of degradation. This approach leads to explicit formulas that depend on CUE and other microbial properties, which can then be treated as model parameters and retrieved via nonlinear regression. CUE is either assumed time-invariant or as a function of the fraction of remaining litter C as a substitute for time. In all models, CUE tends to increase with increasing litter N availability across a range of litter types. When temporal trends in CUE are considered, CUE increases during decomposition of N-poor litter cohorts, in which decomposers are initially N-limited, but decreases in N-rich litter possibly due to C-limitation. These patterns of flexible CUE that partly compensate stoichiometric imbalances are robust to moderate shifts in decomposer C:N ratio and hold across wide climatic gradients. PMID:28491054

  1. Flexible Carbon-Use Efficiency across Litter Types and during Decomposition Partly Compensates Nutrient Imbalances—Results from Analytical Stoichiometric Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Manzoni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models involving explicit representations of microbial processes have been developed to infer microbial community properties from laboratory and field measurements. While this approach has been used to estimate the kinetic constants related to microbial activity, it has not been fully exploited for inference of stoichiometric traits, such as carbon-use efficiency (CUE. Here, a hierarchy of analytically-solvable mass-balance models of litter carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics is developed, to infer decomposer CUE from measured C and N contents during litter decomposition. The models are solved in the phase space—expressing litter remaining N as a function of remaining C—rather than in time, thus focusing on the stoichiometric relations during decomposition rather than the kinetics of degradation. This approach leads to explicit formulas that depend on CUE and other microbial properties, which can then be treated as model parameters and retrieved via nonlinear regression. CUE is either assumed time-invariant or as a function of the fraction of remaining litter C as a substitute for time. In all models, CUE tends to increase with increasing litter N availability across a range of litter types. When temporal trends in CUE are considered, CUE increases during decomposition of N-poor litter cohorts, in which decomposers are initially N-limited, but decreases in N-rich litter possibly due to C-limitation. These patterns of flexible CUE that partly compensate stoichiometric imbalances are robust to moderate shifts in decomposer C:N ratio and hold across wide climatic gradients.

  2. Advanced Durable Flexible Ultra Low Outgassing Thermal Control Coatings for NASA Science Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I program proposes to synthesize novel nanoengineered ultra low out gassing elastomers and formulate high temperature capable flexible thermal control...

  3. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  4. Advanced Silicone-based Coatings for Flexible Fabric Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High performance silicone coatings are desired for flexible fabrics used in several space and consumer applications. For instance, the total weight of silicone...

  5. On the flexibility of grammatical advance planning during sentence production: Effects of cognitive load on multiple lexical access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Valentin; Jescheniak, Jörg D; Schriefers, Herbert

    2010-03-01

    Three picture-word interference experiments addressed the question of whether the scope of grammatical advance planning in sentence production corresponds to some fixed unit or rather is flexible. Subjects produced sentences of different formats under varying amounts of cognitive load. When speakers described 2-object displays with simple sentences of the form "the frog is next to the mug," the 2 nouns were found to be lexically-semantically activated to similar degrees at speech onset, as indexed by similarly sized interference effects from semantic distractors related to either the first or the second noun. When speakers used more complex sentences (including prenominal color adjectives; e.g., "the blue frog is next to the blue mug") much larger interference effects were observed for the first than the second noun, suggesting that the second noun was lexically-semantically activated before speech onset on only a subset of trials. With increased cognitive load, introduced by an additional conceptual decision task and variable utterance formats, the interference effect for the first noun was increased and the interference effect for second noun disappeared, suggesting that the scope of advance planning had been narrowed. By contrast, if cognitive load was induced by a secondary working memory task to be performed during speech planning, the interference effect for both nouns was increased, suggesting that the scope of advance planning had not been affected. In all, the data suggest that the scope of advance planning during grammatical encoding in sentence production is flexible, rather than structurally fixed.

  6. Work/Life Satisfaction Policy in ADVANCE Universities: Assessing Levels of Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Leslie E.; Dilks, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Work/life satisfaction policies are seen as key to recruiting, retaining, and advancing high quality faculty. This article explores the work/life policies prevalent at NSF ADVANCE institutions (PAID, Catalyst, and IT). We systematically review ADVANCE university websites (N = 124) and rank 9 categories of work/life policy including dual career…

  7. Flexible System Integration and Advanced Hierarchical Control Architectures in the Microgrid Research Laboratory of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the system integration and hierarchical control implementation in an inverter-based microgrid research laboratory (MGRL) in Aalborg University, Denmark. MGRL aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The structure of the laborato...

  8. Recent Advancements in Liquid Metal Flexible Printed Electronics: Properties, Technologies, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview on typical properties, technologies, and applications of liquid metal based flexible printed electronics. The core manufacturing material—room-temperature liquid metal, currently mainly represented by gallium and its alloys with the properties of excellent resistivity, enormous bendability, low adhesion, and large surface tension, was focused on in particular. In addition, a series of recently developed printing technologies spanning from personal electronic circuit printing (direct painting or writing, mechanical system printing, mask layer based printing, high-resolution nanoimprinting, etc. to 3D room temperature liquid metal printing is comprehensively reviewed. Applications of these planar or three-dimensional printing technologies and the related liquid metal alloy inks in making flexible electronics, such as electronical components, health care sensors, and other functional devices were discussed. The significantly different adhesions of liquid metal inks on various substrates under different oxidation degrees, weakness of circuits, difficulty of fabricating high-accuracy devices, and low rate of good product—all of which are challenges faced by current liquid metal flexible printed electronics—are discussed. Prospects for liquid metal flexible printed electronics to develop ending user electronics and more extensive applications in the future are given.

  9. Cognitive flexibility and undergraduate physiology students: increasing advanced knowledge acquisition within an ill-structured domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ashley E; Rozell, Timothy G

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive flexibility is defined as the ability to assimilate previously learned information and concepts to generate novel solutions to new problems. This skill is crucial for success within ill-structured domains such as biology, physiology, and medicine, where many concepts are simultaneously required for understanding a complex problem, yet the problem consists of patterns or combinations of concepts that are not consistently used or needed across all examples. To succeed within ill-structured domains, a student must possess a certain level of cognitive flexibility: rigid thought processes and prepackaged informational retrieval schemes relying on rote memorization will not suffice. In this study, we assessed the cognitive flexibility of undergraduate physiology students using a validated instrument entitled Student's Approaches to Learning (SAL). The SAL evaluates how deeply and in what way information is processed, as well as the investment of time and mental energy that a student is willing to expend by measuring constructs such as elaboration and memorization. Our results indicate that students who rely primarily on memorization when learning new information have a smaller knowledge base about physiological concepts, as measured by a prior knowledge assessment and unit exams. However, students who rely primarily on elaboration when learning new information have a more well-developed knowledge base about physiological concepts, which is displayed by higher scores on a prior knowledge assessment and increased performance on unit exams. Thus students with increased elaboration skills possibly possess a higher level of cognitive flexibility and are more likely to succeed within ill-structured domains. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Engineering Compensations in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Micahel; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure in such a......Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this paper, we introduce an engineering approach and an environment to deal with advanced...... compensations based on forward recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. A contract-based approach is being used, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We...

  11. Flexible Design Research to validate communication in persons with dementia in advanced stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2003-01-01

    . The method is an ethnographical process research using Atlas.ti as qualitative research software for the analysis and administration of transcribed data, and using physiological data to validate observational data in a case study design. In a flexible design both quantitative and qualitative data collection...... enable ways of communication adjusted to the person. The songs function to structure, motivate, stimulate, and regulate, and finally as means of enabling communication and dialogue. The research is trying to investigate if songs have regulative effects and to outline different levels of communication...... methods are used as a rich approach to understanding communication. The qualitative analysis is based on principles of grounded theory using selective, open, and axial coding techniques. The quantitative data is combined with time scales, sequence measures and event coding adding different perspectives...

  12. Radical advancement in multi-spectral imaging for autonomous vehicles (UAVs, UGVs, and UUVs) using active compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Brian F.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this LDRD was to demonstrate a compact, multi-spectral, refractive imaging systems using active optical compensation. Compared to a comparable, conventional lens system, our system has an increased operational bandwidth, provides for spectral selectivity and, non-mechanically corrects aberrations induced by the wavelength dependent properties of a passive refractive optical element (i.e. lens). The compact nature and low power requirements of the system lends itself to small platforms such as autonomous vehicles. In addition, the broad spectral bandwidth of our system would allow optimized performance for both day/night use, and the multi-spectral capability allows for spectral discrimination and signature identification.

  13. Advanced interlocking systems to improve heavy-load-bearing characteristics of flexible intramedullary nailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Leopold, E-mail: leopold.berger@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Building Construction and Technology, TU Wien, Karlsplatz 13/206-4, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eichler, Johannes [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, 8036 Graz (Austria); Ryll, E. Jonathan S. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Muenster, Westphalian-Wilhelms University, Muenster (Germany); Fischerauer, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, 8036 Graz (Austria); Raschke, Michael J. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Muenster, Westphalian-Wilhelms University, Muenster (Germany); Kolbitsch, Andreas [Institute of Building Construction and Technology, TU Wien, Karlsplatz 13/206-4, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Castellani, Christoph [Department of Pediatric and Adolescence Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 34, 8036 Graz (Austria); Weinberg, Annelie-Martina [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, 8036 Graz (Austria)

    2016-11-01

    Flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) is a minimally invasive and widespread standard method for osteosynthesis of pediatric long bone fractures. In the case of unstable fractures of the lower extremity, interlocking systems need to be used to prevent axial shortening and subsequent perforation of the nail at its insertion site. In the present study, four different screw-fixed interlocking systems for FINs (Hofer TwinPlug with two 3-mm titanium interlocking screws, Hofer FixPlug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw, Hofer Plug with 3.5-mm titanium interlocking screw, and Hofer Plug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw) in comparison with the commonly used Ender stainless steel nails (locked with 3.5-mm screw) were experimentally investigated in cadaveric lamb tibiae, regarding their load characteristics and failure modes in the case of heavy loading. The specimens were subjected to sequential axial cyclic loading of 5000cycles with stepwise increase of the load amplitude until failure. Migration of locking screws and internal damage of bone tissue was quantified by micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. Ender nails failed on average at a peak load of 800 N, TwinPlugs at 1367 N, FixPlugs at 1222 N, Plugs 3.5mm at 1225 N and Plugs 3.0mm at 971 N. TwinPlugs, FixPlugs, and Plugs 3.5mm failed in a slow manner over several hundred loading cycles, whereas Ender nails and Plugs 3.0mm exhibited abrupt failure without any prior indication. Our results confirm that axial stability of FIN can be further improved by screw-fixed plugs by simultaneously avoiding shortcomings of an eye-locked system, which the Ender nails are. Considering biomechanical results, plug interlocking systems with 3.5-mm screws should be favored over conventional Ender nails and plugs with 3-mm screws. - Highlights: • Locked flexible intramedullary nails in lamb tibiae were cyclically loaded. • Strongly different failure modes of locking systems were detected. • Novel screw-fixed plugs are

  14. Fuel cycle flexibility in Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) with the use of Th-LEU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, A.; Singh, B.; Pushpam, N.P.; Bharti, V.; Kannan, U.; Krishnani, P.D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being designed for large scale commercial utilization of thorium (Th) and integrated technological demonstration of the thorium cycle in India. The AHWR is a 920 MW(th), vertical pressure tube type cooled by boiling light water and moderated by heavy water. Heat removal through natural circulation and on-line fuelling are some of the salient features of AHWR design. The physics design of AHWR offers considerable flexibility to accommodate different kinds of fuel cycles. Our recent efforts have been directed towards a case study for the use of Th-LEU fuel cycle in a once-through mode. The discharged Uranium from Th-LEU cycle has proliferation resistant characteristics. This paper gives the initial core, fuel cycle characteristics and online refueling strategy of Th-LEU fuel in AHWR. (author)

  15. Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems for a Flexible Space Exploration Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Smith, Leigh M.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Avionics and Processor Systems (AAPS) project, formerly known as the Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project, endeavors to develop advanced avionic and processor technologies anticipated to be used by NASA s currently evolving space exploration architectures. The AAPS project is a part of the Exploration Technology Development Program, which funds an entire suite of technologies that are aimed at enabling NASA s ability to explore beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the AAPS project. AAPS uses a broad-scoped approach to developing avionic and processor systems. Investment areas include advanced electronic designs and technologies capable of providing environmental hardness, reconfigurable computing techniques, software tools for radiation effects assessment, and radiation environment modeling tools. Near-term emphasis within the multiple AAPS tasks focuses on developing prototype components using semiconductor processes and materials (such as Silicon-Germanium (SiGe)) to enhance a device s tolerance to radiation events and low temperature environments. As the SiGe technology will culminate in a delivered prototype this fiscal year, the project emphasis shifts its focus to developing low-power, high efficiency total processor hardening techniques. In addition to processor development, the project endeavors to demonstrate techniques applicable to reconfigurable computing and partially reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This capability enables avionic architectures the ability to develop FPGA-based, radiation tolerant processor boards that can serve in multiple physical locations throughout the spacecraft and perform multiple functions during the course of the mission. The individual tasks that comprise AAPS are diverse, yet united in the common endeavor to develop electronics capable of operating within the harsh environment of space. Specifically, the AAPS tasks for

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies and Strategically Flexible Production. A Review and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry

    2016-01-01

    ) led to only partial results, and were often abandoned or scaled down. At the same time, a number of soft organizational and managerial approaches and improvement programs, mostly derived from Japan, began to spread in response to the dramatic changes in the competitive environment that seemed...... to require new rationales to organize and manage production systems. However, the compatibility and coherence between changing organizational paradigms and CIM approaches were not extensively explored nor understood. This paper aims to investigate the interactions between the implementation and integration...... of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) and the adoption of new managerial and organizational principles....

  17. Creative compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, D.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs

  18. Characterization and compensation of thermo-elastic instability of SWARM optical bench on Micro Advanced Stellar Compass attitude observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif

    2017-01-01

    Launched into orbit on November 22, 2013, the Swarm constellation of three satellites precisely measures magnetic signal of the Earth. To ensure the high accuracy of magnetic observation by vector magnetometer (VFM), its inertial attitude is precisely determined by µASC (micro Advanced Stellar Co...

  19. Losses compensation; Compensation des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One mission of RTE (Electric Power Transportation), is to watch over the losses compensation resulting from the power transport on the electric power network. Since january 2001, RTE makes good the electric losses by the purchase of energy. To choose the marketers, a consultation has been realized by RTE. This document presents the rules concerning these losses compensation. (A.L.B.)

  20. Reliable prediction of clinical outcome in patients with chronic HCV infection and compensated advanced hepatic fibrosis: a validated model using objective and readily available clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Adriaan J; Hansen, Bettina E; Fattovich, Giovanna; Feld, Jordan J; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Dufour, Jean-François; Lammert, Frank; Duarte-Rojo, Andres; Manns, Michael P; Ieluzzi, Donatella; Zeuzem, Stefan; Hofmann, W Peter; de Knegt, Robert J; Veldt, Bart J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-02-01

    Reliable tools to predict long-term outcome among patients with well compensated advanced liver disease due to chronic HCV infection are lacking. Risk scores for mortality and for cirrhosis-related complications were constructed with Cox regression analysis in a derivation cohort and evaluated in a validation cohort, both including patients with chronic HCV infection and advanced fibrosis. In the derivation cohort, 100/405 patients died during a median 8.1 (IQR 5.7-11.1) years of follow-up. Multivariate Cox analyses showed age (HR=1.06, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.09, pstatistic=0.78, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.83). In the validation cohort, 58/296 patients with cirrhosis died during a median of 6.6 (IQR 4.4-9.0) years. Among patients with estimated 5-year mortality risks 10%, the observed 5-year mortality rates in the derivation cohort and validation cohort were 0.9% (95% CI 0.0 to 2.7) and 2.6% (95% CI 0.0 to 6.1), 8.1% (95% CI 1.8 to 14.4) and 8.0% (95% CI 1.3 to 14.7), 21.8% (95% CI 13.2 to 30.4) and 20.9% (95% CI 13.6 to 28.1), respectively (C statistic in validation cohort = 0.76, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.83). The risk score for cirrhosis-related complications also incorporated HCV genotype (C statistic = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.83 in the derivation cohort; and 0.74, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.79 in the validation cohort). Prognosis of patients with chronic HCV infection and compensated advanced liver disease can be accurately assessed with risk scores including readily available objective clinical parameters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Creative compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll, D

    1994-09-19

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs.

  2. Fabrication of Si Nanoparticles@Carbon Fibers Composites from Natural Nanoclay as an Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Flexible Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainan Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost-effective strategy for fabricating silicon-carbon composites was designed to further improve the electrochemical performance and commercialization prospects of Si anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. Silicon-carbon fibers (CFs were prepared by loading Si nanoparticles (SiNPs on interconnected carbon fibers via an electrospinning technique (SiNPs@CFs. The Si nanoparticles were obtained by the reduction reaction of natural clay minerals. As a flexible anode for LIBs, the SiNPs@CFs anode demonstrated a reversible capacity of 1238.1 mAh·g−1 and a capacity retention of 77% after 300 cycles (in contrast to the second cycle at a current density of 0.5 A·g−1. With a higher current density of 5.0 A·g−1, the electrode showed a specific capacity of 528.3 mAh·g−1 after 1000 cycles and exhibited a superior rate capability compared to Si nanoparticles. The excellent electrochemical properties were attributed to the construction of flexible electrodes and the composite comprising carbon fibers, which lessened the volume expansion and improved the conductivity of the system.

  3. Research on systematization and advancement of shipbuilding production management for flexible and agile response for high value offshore platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Woo, Jong-Hun; Shin, Jong-Gye

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the speed of change related with enterprise management is getting faster than ever owing to the competition among companies, technique diffusion, shortening of product lifecycle, excessive supply of market. For the example, the compliance condition (such as delivery date, product quality, etc.) from the ship owner is getting complicated and the needs for the new product such as FPSO, FSRU are coming to fore. This paradigm shift emphasize the rapid response rather than the competitive price, flexibility and agility rather than effective and optimal perspective for the domestic shipbuilding company. So, domestic shipbuilding companies have to secure agile and flexible ship production environment that could respond change of market and requirements of customers in order to continue a competitive edge in the world market. In this paper, I'm going to define a standard shipbuilding production management system by investigating the environment of domestic major shipbuilding companies. Also, I'm going to propose a unified ship production management and system for the operation of unified management through detail analysis of the activities and the data flow of ship production management. And, the system functions for the strategic approach of ship production management are investigated through the business administration tools such as performance pyramid, VDT and BSC. Lastly, the research of applying strategic KPI to the digital shipyard as virtual execution platform is conducted.

  4. Climbing the ladder : Gender-specific career advancement in financial services and the influence of flexible work-time arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into the gender-specific career advancement of about 10,000 middle- and top-level managers in a Dutch financial services company. Our results indicate that women earn less, work at lower job levels, but show slightly higher career mobility than men. However,

  5. Studies of TNA and results of field tests of Kayenta`s advanced series compensation; Estudos do TNA e resultados dos testes de campo da compensacao serie avancada de Kayenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, W.; Weiss, S.; Capellin, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Lemes, M.N. [Siemens S.A., XX (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents the studies carried out in the TNA and the field tests performed. They confirmed the advanced series compensation behavior as predicted in the digital studies. Such studies included different ways of operating and controlling the installation, in other words, controlling the impedance, the current and the thyristor-switched reactor. Besides that, it has been studied fault cases and it has been corroborated a reduction in the nominal values of lightning arresters and in circuit breakers requests. Damping studies of sub-synchronous resonance have also been carried out and the conclusions are shown 4 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Advanced air staging techniques to improve fuel flexibility, reliability and emissions in fluidized bed co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamand, Lars-Erik; Leckner, Bo [Chalmers Technical Univ., Goeteborg (Sweden); Luecke, Karsten; Werther, Joachim [Technical Univ. of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    A joint research project between the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and Chalmers Technical University. For operation under co-combustion the following results should be considered: The high ash content of the sewage sludge results in significantly increased ash flows. Although high alkali metal concentrations are found in the sewage sludge ash, no critical concentrations were reached and tendencies to fouling were not observed. The trace metal input rises with increased sludge fraction. However, emissions of metal compounds were well below legal limits. The trace metals tend to accumulate on the fly ash. In general, very low fuel nitrogen conversions to NO and N{sub 2}O of 2 - 4 % are achievable. With coal as a base fuel alternative air staging with secondary air supply after solids separation attains even lower NO emissions than normal staging without strongly affecting CO and SO{sub 2} emissions. Alternative staging also reduces N{sub 2}O emissions. An optimum for the excess air ratio in the riser of 1.05 was found for a total excess air ratio of 1.2. The higher the volatile content of the fuel is, the less effective the NO reduction due to air staging becomes. The measurements suggest that the optimum gas residence time regarding the emissions in CFB combustors is around 6 to 7 s. These times are achieved in commercial scale plants due to their large cyclones that perhaps partly can replace a large afterburner chamber. The circulating fluidized bed boiler can be operated in a very flexible way with various fuel mixtures up to an energy fraction of sludge of 25% without exceeding legal emission limits.

  7. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  8. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  9. Office flexible cystoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, L R; Clayman, R V

    1988-11-01

    Since the development of the first purpose-built flexible cystoscope in 1984, flexible cystoscopy has become an accepted diagnostic and therapeutic modality. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 10 per cent of practicing urologists are already familiar with this technology. The flexible cystoscope has markedly extended the urologist's ability to examine the bladder, and it has become a valuable adjunct to the rigid cystoscope. Although the operation of this instrument is vastly different from that of its rigid counterpart, with practice, the technique can be learned. After experience is obtained with diagnostic flexible cystoscopy, the urologist will likely prefer this new instrument for bladder inspection, as it provides for a more thorough yet less morbid and less expensive examination. In the future, the development of improved and smaller instrumentation will further extend the therapeutic indications for flexible cystoscopy. Indeed, advances in laser technology are already providing the urologist with 300- to 600-micron (0.9 to 1.8F) flexible probes capable of incision (KTP laser), fulguration (Nd:YAG laser), and stone disintegration (tunable dye laser). Lastly, the skills obtained in using the flexible cystoscope are all readily applicable to the development of dexterity with the already available flexible nephroscope and the more recently developed flexible ureteroscope.

  10. On flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Christoph R.; Briglauer, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    By building on theoretical work by Mills and Schumann (1985) and Ungern-Sternberg (1990) this paper provides evidence on the determinants of two dimensions of flexibility, the flexibility in adjusting aggregate output over time (tactical flexibility) as well as the ability to switch quickly between products (operational flexibility). Econometric analysis of a sample of 40.000 farms in Upper-Austria for the period 1980 to 1990 suggests that larger full-time farms operated by younger, better ed...

  11. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would

  12. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  13. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  14. Exploring the importance of different items as reasons for leaving emergency medical services between fully compensated, partially compensated, and non-compensated/volunteer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan; Gibson, Gregory; Bentley, Melissa A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the importance of different items as reasons for leaving the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) profession. An exit survey was returned by three distinct EMS samples: 127 full compensated, 45 partially compensated and 72 non-compensated/volunteer respondents, who rated the importance of 17 different items for affecting their decision to leave EMS. Unfortunately, there were a high percentage of "not applicable" responses for 10 items. We focused on those seven items that had a majority of useable responses across the three samples. Results showed that the desire for better pay and benefits was a more important reason for leaving EMS for the partially compensated versus fully compensated respondents. Perceived lack of advancement opportunity was a more important reason for leaving for the partially compensated and volunteer groups versus the fully compensated group. Study limitations are discussed and suggestions for future research offered.

  15. Developing fair compensation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousdale, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of finding an effective way to incorporate Aboriginal values into the process of developing fair compensation structures was discussed. This paper discusses pricing intangible values using dollars, but it was emphasized that 'values' are whatever are important to us. Therefore, in order to achieve fair compensation, creative alternatives that are value-focused should be pursued. In addition to the more straight-forward monetary compensation, compensation could also be about avoiding losses, mitigating adverse impacts, achieving better communication, and promoting cultural understanding. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-07-07

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive "binders". The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors.

  17. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuqin Zou; Shuangyin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are us...

  18. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  19. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We derive the optimal compensation contract in a principal–agent setting in which outcome is used to provide incentives for both effort and risky investments. To motivate investment, optimal compensation entails rewards for high as well as low outcomes, and it is increasing at the mean outcome...

  20. Reactive power compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  1. Reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  2. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  3. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  4. Workplace flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordato, C; Harris, J

    1990-01-01

    Whether your organization is in a growth pattern or downsizing, you are probably facing change. To gain some insight into your options, here is an in-depth look at the problems and benefits of some flexible work arrangements from a just published study by Catalyst.

  5. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  6. Controllable Synthesis of Atomically Thin Type-II Weyl Semimetal WTe2 Nanosheets: An Advanced Electrode Material for All-Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Fu, Wei; Zeng, Qingsheng; Lin, Junhao; Yan, Cheng; Lai, Zhuangchai; Tang, Bijun; Suenaga, Kazu; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Compared with 2D S-based and Se-based transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), Te-based TMDs display much better electrical conductivities, which will be beneficial to enhance the capacitances in supercapacitors. However, to date, the reports about the applications of Te-based TMDs in supercapacitors are quite rare. Herein, the first supercapacitor example of the Te-based TMD is reported: the type-II Weyl semimetal 1Td WTe 2 . It is demonstrated that single crystals of 1Td WTe 2 can be exfoliated into the nanosheets with 2-7 layers by liquid-phase exfoliation, which are assembled into air-stable films and further all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors. The resulting supercapacitors deliver a mass capacitance of 221 F g -1 and a stack capacitance of 74 F cm -3 . Furthermore, they also show excellent volumetric energy and power densities of 0.01 Wh cm -3 and 83.6 W cm -3 , respectively, superior to the commercial 4V/500 µAh Li thin-film battery and the commercial 3V/300 µAh Al electrolytic capacitor, in association with outstanding mechanical flexibility and superior cycling stability (capacitance retention of ≈91% after 5500 cycles). These results indicate that the 1Td WTe 2 nanosheet is a promising flexible electrode material for high-performance energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Resistive switching effect in the planar structure of all-printed, flexible and rewritable memory device based on advanced 2D nanocomposite of graphene quantum dots and white graphene flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Kim, Sowon; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pursuit of the most appropriate materials and fabrication methods is essential for developing a reliable, rewritable and flexible memory device. In this study, we have proposed an advanced 2D nanocomposite of white graphene (hBN) flakes embedded with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as the functional layer of a flexible memory device owing to their unique electrical, chemical and mechanical properties. Unlike the typical sandwich type structure of a memory device, we developed a cost effective planar structure, to simplify device fabrication and prevent sneak current. The entire device fabrication was carried out using printing technology followed by encapsulation in an atomically thin layer of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) for protection against environmental humidity. The proposed memory device exhibited attractive bipolar switching characteristics of high switching ratio, large electrical endurance and enhanced lifetime, without any crosstalk between adjacent memory cells. The as-fabricated device showed excellent durability for several bending cycles at various bending diameters without any degradation in bistable resistive states. The memory mechanism was deduced to be conductive filamentary; this was validated by illustrating the temperature dependence of bistable resistive states. Our obtained results pave the way for the execution of promising 2D material based next generation flexible and non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. (paper)

  8. Flexible devices: from materials, architectures to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingzhi; Ma, Yue; Yuan, Xin; Hu, Yi; Liu, Jie; Jin, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Flexible devices, such as flexible electronic devices and flexible energy storage devices, have attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years for their potential applications in modern human lives. The development of flexible devices is moving forward rapidly, as the innovation of methods and manufacturing processes has greatly encouraged the research of flexible devices. This review focuses on advanced materials, architecture designs and abundant applications of flexible devices, and discusses the problems and challenges in current situations of flexible devices. We summarize the discovery of novel materials and the design of new architectures for improving the performance of flexible devices. Finally, we introduce the applications of flexible devices as key components in real life. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2017YFA0208200, 2016YFB0700600, 2015CB659300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21403105, 21573108), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 020514380107).

  9. Flexible licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.

  10. Aeromagnetic Compensation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprstek, T.; Lee, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic data is one of the most widely collected types of data in exploration geophysics. With the continuing prevalence of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in everyday life there is a strong push for aeromagnetic data collection using UAVs. However, apart from the many political and legal barriers to overcome in the development of UAVs as aeromagnetic data collection platforms, there are also significant scientific hurdles, primary of which is magnetic compensation. This is a well-established process in manned aircraft achieved through a combination of platform magnetic de-noising and compensation routines. However, not all of this protocol can be directly applied to UAVs due to fundamental differences in the platforms, most notably the decrease in scale causing magnetometers to be significantly closer to the avionics. As such, the methodology must be suitably adjusted. The National Research Council of Canada has collaborated with Aeromagnetic Solutions Incorporated to develop a standardized approach to de-noising and compensating UAVs, which is accomplished through a series of static and dynamic experiments. On the ground, small static tests are conducted on individual components to determine their magnetization. If they are highly magnetic, they are removed, demagnetized, or characterized such that they can be accounted for in the compensation. Dynamic tests can include measuring specific components as they are powered on and off to assess their potential effect on airborne data. The UAV is then flown, and a modified compensation routine is applied. These modifications include utilizing onboard autopilot current sensors as additional terms in the compensation algorithm. This process has been applied with success to fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms, with both a standard manned-aircraft magnetometer, as well as a new atomic magnetometer, much smaller in scale.

  11. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  12. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  13. Enthalpy–entropy compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enthalpy–entropy compensation is the name given to the correlation sometimes observed between the estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction obtained from temperature-dependence data. Although the mainly artefactual nature of this correlation has been known for many years, the subject enjoys periodical ...

  14. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  15. Teacher Compensation and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in the conceptualization of schooling over time from an organizational perspective. Explores how compensation systems might be better designed to match alternative organizational designs, considering scientific management, effective schools, content-driven schooling, and high standards/high involvement schools as organizational…

  16. (statcom) in synchronous compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    with fast response and low cost for stabilizing electricity grid power and voltage. ... The conventional and modified Newton-Raphson-based power flow equations .... The control of the reactive power exchange between .... because of its faster rate of convergence and accuracy ..... compensator, North American Power System.

  17. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  18. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Demand response (DR) is considered as a potentially effective tool to compensate generation intermittency imposed by renewable sources. Further, DR can instigate to offer optimum asset utilization and to avoid or delay the need for new infrastructure investment. Being a sizable load together...... with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...... price based scheduling followed by a demand dispatch based central control and a local voltage based adaptive control, to realize HP demand flexibility. Two-step control architecture, namely local primary control encompassed by the central coordinative control, is proposed to implement...

  19. Power Control Flexibilities for Grid-Connected Multi-Functional Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2016-01-01

    and intelligent services, such as fault ride-through and reactive power compensation, is the key to attain higher utilisation of solar PV energy. Such functionalities for the future PV inverters can contribute to reduced cost of energy, and thus enable more cost-effective PV installations. To implement...... the advanced features, a flexible power controller is developed in this study, which can be configured in the PV inverter and flexibly change from one to another mode during operation. Based on the single-phase PQ theory, the control strategy offers the possibilities to generate appropriate references...... for the inner current control loop. The references depend on system conditions and also specific demands from both system operators and prosumers. Besides, this power control strategy can be implemented in commercial PV inverters as a standardised function, and also the operation modes can be achieved online...

  20. Power control flexibilities for grid-connected multi-functional photovoltaic inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    to reduced cost of energy. To implement the advanced features, a flexible power controller is developed in this paper, which can be configured in the PV inverter and flexibly be changed from one to another. This power control strategy is based on the single-phase PQ theory, and it offers the possibilities...... of ancillary and intelligent services, like Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT), reactive power compensation, and reliability-oriented thermal management/control by PV systems is a key to attain higher utilization of solar energy. Those essential functionalities for the future PV inverters can contribute...... to generate appropriate references for the inner current control loop. The references depend on the system conditions and also specific demands from both system operators and customers. Besides, this power control strategy can be implemented in a commercial PV inverter as standardized functions, and also...

  1. Flexible nanovectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugno, Nicola M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  2. Flexible nanovectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  3. Achieving a negotiated compensation agreement in siting: the MRS case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmon, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    Theoreticians claim that negotiated compensation plans could overcome local resistance to nuclear waste (or other less than desirable) facilities, and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 gives the Department of Energy considerable flexibility to negotiate with and compensate states in which it locates waste storage. DOE's monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal is the first attempt under the NWPA to site nuclear waste operations, and both DOE and one local community tried the negotiated compensation approach with some success. State and regional leaders chose to oppose the project rather than to negotiate, however. The limited experience to date suggests that local reluctance to negotiate is a generic weakness of the compensation approach to siting and must be given greater attention

  4. Defining Compensable Injury in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research provides a core social good by enabling medical progress. In the twenty-first century alone, this includes reducing transmission of HIV/AIDS, developing innovative therapies for cancer patients, and exploring the possibilities of personalized medicine. In order to continue to advance medical science, research relies on the voluntary participation of human subjects. Because research is inherently uncertain, unintended harm is an inevitable part of the research enterprise. Currently, injured research participants in the United States must turn to the “litigation lottery” of the tort system in search of compensation. This state of affairs fails research participants, who are too often left uncompensated for devastating losses, and makes the United States an outlier in the international community. In spite of forty years’ worth of Presidential Commissions and other respected voices calling for the development of a no-fault compensation system, no progress has been made to date. One of the reasons for this lack of progress is the failure to develop a coherent ethical basis for an obligation to provide compensation for research related injuries. This problem is exacerbated by the lack of a clear definition of “compensable injury” in the biomedical research context. This article makes a number of important contributions to the scholarship in this growing field. To begin, it examines compensation systems already in existence and concludes that there are four main definitional elements that must be used to define “compensable injury.” Next, it examines the justifications that have been put forth as the basis for an ethical obligation to provide compensation, and settles on retrospective nonmaleficence and distributive and compensatory justice as the most salient and persuasive. Finally, it uses the regulatory elements and the justifications discussed in the first two sections to develop a well-rounded definition of “compensable injury

  5. Center for Worker's Compensation Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the NIOSH Center for Workers’ Compensation Studies (CWCS) is to use workers’ compensation data and systems to improve workplace safety and health....

  6. Addressing inadequate compensation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-12

    Aug 12, 2016 ... The issue LSLAs raise a number of concerns regarding compensation, including ... at a meeting with traders in Lamu, Kenya, where a new port is planned. ... compensation and a fair share of benefits and risks in land deals.

  7. Structuring competitive physician compensation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kim; Turcotte, Claire

    2010-12-01

    When developing and reviewing their physician compensation programs, healthcare organizations should: Understand the market data. Test outcomes of incentive plans for fair market value. Check total compensation for fair market value and reasonableness.

  8. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  9. Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation

  10. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Schmuecking, Michael; Aebersold, Daniel; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations

  11. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  12. The impact of flexible benefits plans on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshizer, B

    1994-01-01

    This study assesses the dimensionality of employee attitudes toward flexible benefits plans and the impact of these plans on measures of job satisfaction, commitment and turnover intent. The study points to the need for more work on the measurement of employee attitudes toward flexible benefits and on the nomological framework of flexible benefits as a construct in compensation research.

  13. Fukushima: liability and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, Japan endured one of the worst natural disasters in its history when a massive earthquake struck the Pacific coast of the country and was followed by a tsunami which led to considerable loss of lives. It also led to a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Soon afterwards, the operator of the plant, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), assumed responsibility and liability for the nuclear accident. On 28 April 2011, TEPCO established a dedicated contact line to provide consulting services for financial compensation related to the damage caused

  14. Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarroya, Ana; Persson, Jesper; Puig, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown

  15. Ecological compensation: From general guidance and expertise to specific proposals for road developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroya, Ana, E-mail: avillarroya@alumni.unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Persson, Jesper, E-mail: jesper.persson@slu.se [Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 66, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Puig, Jordi, E-mail: jpbaguer@unav.es [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.

  16. Whiplash and the compensation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B

    2011-12-01

    Review article. To explain why the evidence that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes is not compelling, either in general, or in the specific case of whiplash. There is a common view that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes ("the compensation hypothesis"), despite the presence of important, and unresolved sources of bias. The empirical evidence on this question has ramifications for the design of compensation schemes. Using studies on whiplash, this article outlines the methodological problems that impede attempts to confirm or refute the compensation hypothesis. Compensation studies are prone to measurement bias, reverse causation bias, and selection bias. Errors in measurement are largely due to the latent nature of whiplash injuries and health itself, a lack of clarity over the unit of measurement (specific factors, or "compensation"), and a lack of appreciation for the heterogeneous qualities of compensation-related factors and schemes. There has been a failure to acknowledge and empirically address reverse causation bias, or the likelihood that poor health influences the decision to pursue compensation: it is unclear if compensation is a cause or a consequence of poor health, or both. Finally, unresolved selection bias (and hence, confounding) is evident in longitudinal studies and natural experiments. In both cases, between-group differences have not been addressed convincingly. The nature of the relationship between compensation-related factors and health is unclear. Current approaches to testing the compensation hypothesis are prone to several important sources of bias, which compromise the validity of their results. Methods that explicitly test the hypothesis and establish whether or not a causal relationship exists between compensation factors and prolonged whiplash symptoms are needed in future studies.

  17. [Flexibility competencies: emotional organization management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Muñoz, Domingo; Blanco Prieto, Antonio

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the transferral of flexibility from contemporary organizations to workers. Through the approach of management by competencies, organizations try to develop in their workers behaviours that are related to efficient job performance. In order to appraise the importance of this approach, we used a critical-rational perspective to discuss the productivity demands that are characteristic of advanced industrial societies. The article shows how the link between workers' flexibility management and their emotional competencies affects their lives, which, like the organizations, should be versatile and adaptable to change.

  18. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  19. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  20. Work Life Balance in the Netherlands: Flexible working hours and a flexible working place (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KENJOH Eiko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of Dutch approach to achieving Work Life Balance (WLB) and to draw policy implications for Japan. It is argued that flexibility of working hours and flexibility offered at one's working place are essential elements of WLB. In this respect, the Netherlands has attained relatively advanced policies and practices. For instance, workers in the Netherlands enjoy a strong degree of flexibility in terms of working hours, a system that strives to...

  1. Matrix Transfer Function Design for Flexible Structures: An Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T. J.; Compito, A. V.; Doran, A. L.; Gustafson, C. L.; Wong, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    The application of matrix transfer function design techniques to the problem of disturbance rejection on a flexible space structure is demonstrated. The design approach is based on parameterizing a class of stabilizing compensators for the plant and formulating the design specifications as a constrained minimization problem in terms of these parameters. The solution yields a matrix transfer function representation of the compensator. A state space realization of the compensator is constructed to investigate performance and stability on the nominal and perturbed models. The application is made to the ACOSSA (Active Control of Space Structures) optical structure.

  2. Takeovers and (Excess) CEO Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  3. Takeovers and (excess) CEO compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  4. Changing Conceptions of Employee Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Hayes, Linda J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses many differing forms of incentive compensation systems that are being used in today's organizations. The review traces the roots of bonus compensation from individual piece-work plans through the adoption of organization-wide gain sharing plans to the growing recognition of open-book management. Reasons for the…

  5. Balance and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  6. [Flexibility and safety in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, G M; Barni, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the reasons according to which the newly-planned hospitals must adopt the concept of advanced flexibility (structural, technological, organizational, diagnostic and therapeutic), in order to avoid the risk of being already obsolete at the moment of their opening, and this due to the fact that too much time elapses in this Country between the moment of planning a new hospital and the moment of the start of its activity. Flexibility is needed at different levels: at low or medium levels for what concerns administrative spaces and also patient rooms (except, in this latter case, when differential intensity of care is adopted); at advanced levelfor what concerns diagnostic and therapeutic areas, which must be rapidly adaptable to new solutions offered by advances in technology and organization. From a different standpoint, flexibility applies also to the fact that hospital must increasingly become a node of a large net including territorial health services: the latter devoted to take care of chronicity, while hospitals should concentrate on acute pathology. Of course the territory surrounding the hospital, through its outpatient service and consultories, is in charge also for first level diagnosy and therapy, leaving the hospital to more sophisticated activities.

  7. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Driga, M.D.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  8. Stabilized thermally compensated mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, C. III; Tobin, R.D.; Bergstreser, N.E.; Heinz, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally compensated mirror is described that is formed by a laminated structure. The structure is comprised of a front plate having a reflective front surface and having a plurality of grooves formed in the rear surface for conducting coolant fluid in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface, a rear plate having coolant inlet and coolant outlet openings extending therethrough, a minimum temperature plate interposed between said front and rear plates and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution passageways coupled to receive coolant fluid from said coolant inlet and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a minimum temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, a temperature stabilization plate interposed between said front plate and said minimum temperature plate and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution channels coupled to receive said coolant fluid after said coolant fluid has passed in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a uniform temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, and means for circulating said coolant fluid through said structure in a predetermined path. (U.S.)

  9. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  10. Considerations of device and operational flexibility in FER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Miki, Nobuharu; Nishio, Satoshi; Yamada, Masao; Yamamoto, Shin

    1988-01-01

    Expected physics uncertainties in DT burning plasma of FER, which may not be removed completely at the start of construction or DT operation, are reviewed. Several possible device and operational flexibility scenarios to cope with these uncertainties are considered. They are (1) Plasma size enlargement scenario, (2) Plasma shape flexibility scenario, (3) Heating/Current drive/Control system flexibility scenario, (4) Impurity control system flexibility scenario and (5) Advanced operation scenario. Feasibility of these flexibility scenarios are examined and shown to be practicable. However, careful assessment of the physics data base is necessary at the start of construction and DT operation to proceed to actually implement these flexibilities in FER. (author)

  11. Security and labour market flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Stine; Sørensen, Ole H.

    2017-01-01

    In the face of the economic and financial crisis, several European countries have implemented a number of structural reforms to increase employment and the flexibility of the labour market, in particular by reducing employment protection in an effort to deregulate labour markets. Reform proponents...... employment. Conversely, reform opponents claim that this view builds on a misguided view of labour market dynamics. They do not believe that such reforms will lead to job growth, asserting that such reforms are as likely to reduce as to increase employment and that they will lead to growing inequality...... and labour market segmentation. In Denmark, employee protection in terms of notice periods and dismissal compensation, which is mainly regulated by collective agreement, is among the lowest in the EU. Unemployment was, before the crisis, among the lowest in the EU but the crisis also negatively affected...

  12. Skew quad compensation at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.

    1977-10-01

    Rotational and focal effects of solenoids used in PEP detectors will cause severe perturbations of machine beam optics and must be corrected. Ordinarily this would be accomplished by the addition of compensating solenoids and adjustment of insertion quadrupole strengths. It has been found that an arbitrary cross plane coupling representing the effects of solenoids and/or skew quads in any combination can be synthesized (or compensated) exactly using a quartet of skew quads combined with other erect transport elements in a wide variety of configurations. Specific skew quad compensating systems for PEP have been designed and are under study by PEP staff. So far no fundamental flaws have been discovered. In view of that, PEP management has tentatively authorized the use of such a system in the PEP-4, PEP-9 experiments and proposes to leave the question open ''without prejudice'' for other experiments. Use of skew quad compensation involves an imponderable risk, of course, simply because the method is new and untested. But in addition to providing the only known method for dealing with skew quad perturbations, skew quad compensation, as an alternate to compensating solenoids, promises to be much cheaper, to require much less power and to occupy much less space in the IR's. The purpose of this note is to inform potential users of the foregoing situation and to explain skew quad compensation more fully. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. A primer for workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Spengler, Dan M; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-07-01

    A physician's role within a workers' compensation injury extends far beyond just evaluation and treatment with several socioeconomic and psychological factors at play compared with similar injuries occurring outside of the workplace. Although workers' compensation statutes vary among states, all have several basic features with the overall goal of returning the injured worker to maximal function in the shortest time period, with the least residual disability and shortest time away from work. To help physicians unfamiliar with the workers' compensation process accomplish these goals. Review. Educational review. The streamlined review addresses the topics of why is workers' compensation necessary; what does workers' compensation cover; progression after work injury; impairment and maximum medical improvement, including how to use the sixth edition of American Medical Association's (AMA) Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment (Guides); completion of work injury claim after impairment rating; independent medical evaluation; and causation. In the "no-fault" workers' compensation system, physicians play a key role in progressing the claim along and, more importantly, getting the injured worker back to work as soon as safely possible. Physicians should remain familiar with the workers' compensation process, along with how to properly use the AMA Guides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visual prediction: psychophysics and neurophysiology of compensation for time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, Romi

    2008-04-01

    A necessary consequence of the nature of neural transmission systems is that as change in the physical state of a time-varying event takes place, delays produce error between the instantaneous registered state and the external state. Another source of delay is the transmission of internal motor commands to muscles and the inertia of the musculoskeletal system. How does the central nervous system compensate for these pervasive delays? Although it has been argued that delay compensation occurs late in the motor planning stages, even the earliest visual processes, such as phototransduction, contribute significantly to delays. I argue that compensation is not an exclusive property of the motor system, but rather, is a pervasive feature of the central nervous system (CNS) organization. Although the motor planning system may contain a highly flexible compensation mechanism, accounting not just for delays but also variability in delays (e.g., those resulting from variations in luminance contrast, internal body temperature, muscle fatigue, etc.), visual mechanisms also contribute to compensation. Previous suggestions of this notion of "visual prediction" led to a lively debate producing re-examination of previous arguments, new analyses, and review of the experiments presented here. Understanding visual prediction will inform our theories of sensory processes and visual perception, and will impact our notion of visual awareness.

  15. Altitude Compensating Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Jones, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dual-bell nozzle (fig. 1) is an altitude-compensating nozzle that has an inner contour consisting of two overlapped bells. At low altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle operates in mode 1, only utilizing the smaller, first bell of the nozzle. In mode 1, the nozzle flow separates from the wall at the inflection point between the two bell contours. As the vehicle reaches higher altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle flow transitions to mode 2, to flow full into the second, larger bell. This dual-mode operation allows near optimal expansion at two altitudes, enabling a higher mission average specific impulse (Isp) relative to that of a conventional, single-bell nozzle. Dual-bell nozzles have been studied analytically and subscale nozzle tests have been completed.1 This higher mission averaged Isp can provide up to a 5% increase2 in payload to orbit for existing launch vehicles. The next important step for the dual-bell nozzle is to confirm its potential in a relevant flight environment. Toward this end, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) have been working to develop a subscale, hot-fire, dual-bell nozzle test article for flight testing on AFRC's F15-D flight test bed (figs. 2 and 3). Flight test data demonstrating a dual-bell ability to control the mode transition and result in a sufficient increase in a rocket's mission averaged Isp should help convince the launch service providers that the dual-bell nozzle would provide a return on the required investment to bring a dual-bell into flight operation. The Game Changing Department provided 0.2 FTE to ER42 for this effort in 2014.

  16. What Constitutes Fair Compensation for Unfair Dismissal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Generally the monetary compensation is perceived to be a solatium. 19 .... compensation for non-patrimonial loss in the context of an unfair labour practice. 41 .... awards of compensation where a person's dignity is impaired in the course of an.

  17. The Reallocation of Compensation in Response to Health Insurance Premium Increases

    OpenAIRE

    Dana P. Goldman; Neeraj Sood; Arleen Leibowitz

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how compensation packages change when health insurance premiums rise. We use data on employee choices within a single large firm with a flexible benefits plan; an increasingly common arrangement among medium and large firms. In these companies, employees explicitly choose how to allocate compensation between cash and various benefits such as retirement, medical insurance, life insurance, and dental benefits. We find that a $1 increase in the price of health insurance leads...

  18. Compensative hypertrophy of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Several measurement methods are available to practitioners to reveal a compensative hypertrophy. Mensuration of the kidney has the advantage of simplicity but is in fact an unreliable and inaccurate method. Separate clearances in their traditional form have never entered into routine use because of the disadvantages of ureteral catheterism. The use of radioactive tracers avoids this drawback, but clearances calculated in this way are only valid in the absence of obstructive urinary disorders. Solutions have been proposed, but the values obtained are no longer identical with the clearances. The Hg uptake test quantifies quite accurately the function of each kidney. From the results obtained a complete compensative hypertrophy developed on a healthy kidney and an incomplete compensative hypertrophy developed on the diseased kidney have been described. In each of these situations the degree to which compensative hypertrophy develops seems to be fixed at a given level peculiar to each patient [fr

  19. 28 CFR 104.22 - Advance Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance Benefits. 104.22 Section 104.22... Filing for Compensation; Application for Advance Benefits § 104.22 Advance Benefits. (a) Advance Benefits. Eligible Claimants may apply for immediate “Advance Benefits” in a fixed amount as follows: (1) $50,000 for...

  20. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency

  1. CEO Compensation and Disclosure Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weijia; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between CEO compensation and disclosure policy related to corporate governance information within S&P 500 index. Our sample consists of 456 companies for the period from 2005 to 2015. Most previous researchers mainly put their attention on various corporate governance characteristics such as board size, board independence, and executive ownership when analysing CEO compensation. Our paper extends the previous study by dividing corporate governance into...

  2. Flexible Carpooling: Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dorinson, Diana; Gay, Deanna; Minett, Paul; Shaheen, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption could be reduced if more people shared rides rather than driving alone yet carpooling represents a small proportion of all potential carpoolers. Prior research has found that many who might carpool were concerned about reduced flexibility with carpooling. If flexibility is one of the barriers how could carpooling be organized to be more flexible? In Northern Virginia a flexible system has evolved where there are 3,500 single-use carpools per day. In another example there ...

  3. Consumer flexibility - State and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Saele, Hanne; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-02-01

    This report summarises experiences and results from relevant projects carried out within the area of consumer flexibility in the last years. A general description of the projects is presented. In addition are testing activities, economical signals for motivating the end user for load reductions and appropriate technology for communication and effect management mentioned separately. Briefly summarised is the following achieved: 1) The potential for effect regulating measures in ordinary consumption and in power demanding industry is analysed and estimated to 1750 MW and 3360 MW respectively. 2) Time varied rates are developed and are tested. The NVE has decided on this basis that all the network owners should offer season varied rates to their customers. 3) Test projects in Drammen, Oslo and Trondheim have shown that it is possible to motivate smaller consumers for and implement load reductions. 4) Technology for load management for the end user is evaluated. 5) A survey is made viewing the technology for two way communication. In addition the ''option'' market for the reserves of the Statnett has proved that a steady compensation is a sufficient incentive for producing substantial effect reserves in the load sector (power intensive industry). In the last part of the report the incentives and frame conditions for establishing technical solutions and infrastructure are discussed. Further work will focus on the consumer flexibility in shortage situations. The main challenges are connected to: 1) Establishing a foundation for decisions concerning cost efficient investments in necessary technical equipment. 2) To find an optimal combination of a price flexible and remote controlled load reduction

  4. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-12-01

    2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

  5. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those hours...

  6. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to the...

  7. Motion-compensated processing of image signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In a motion-compensated processing of images, input images are down-scaled (scl) to obtain down-scaled images, the down-scaled images are subjected to motion- compensated processing (ME UPC) to obtain motion-compensated images, the motion- compensated images are up-scaled (sc2) to obtain up-scaled

  8. Charge compensation and binding energy referencing in XPS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metson, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The past decade has seen a number of significant advances in the capabilities of commercial X-ray Photoelectron spectrometers. Of note have been the near universal adoption of monochromatised X-ray sources, very useful advances in spatial resolution, particularly in spectroscopy, and radical developments in sample handling and automation. However one of the most significant advances has been the development of several relatively new concepts in charge compensation. Throughout the evolution of XPS, the ability to compensate for surface charging and accurately determine binding energies, particularly with electrically inhomogenous samples, has remained one of the most intractable problems. Beginning perhaps with the Kratos, 'in the lens' electrostatic mirror/electron source coupled with a magnetic snorkel lens, a number of concepts have been advanced which take a quite different conceptual approach to charge compensation. They differ in a number of quite fundamental ways to the electron flood type compensators widely used and absolutely essential with instruments based on monochromatised sources. The concept of the local return of secondary electrons to their point of emission, largely negates the problems associated with differential charging across different regions of the surface, and suggests the possibility of overcoming one of the central limitations of XPS, that is the inability to compare absolute binding energies of species in different electrical as well as chemical environments. The general status of charge compensation and the use of internal binding energy references in XPS will be reviewed, along with some practical examples of where these techniques work, and where there is clearly still room for further development. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  9. Crime victims‘ right to compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.

  10. An introduction to reactive power compensation for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigim, K.A.; Cairo Univ., Giza; Zobaa, A.F.; El Amin, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarises the refereed contributions of seven articles reviewed for publication in the IJETP - Special Issue on 'Reactive compensation for wind farms'. The main goal of the special issue is to provide a forum to exchange information on the reactive power compensation requirements for wind farms and introducing possible price mechanisms for today's deregulated power industry. Uncompensated reactive power causes stress on the hosting utility grid as well as added expenses, which create in difficulties for power purchasing agreements from independent wind energy producers. Wind power producers need to comply with the hosting utility grid interconnection standards, e.g., voltage and frequency, as well as to provide controllable active and reactive sources of power. Active power supply is mainly dependent on the potential of wind power produced and the turbine design. Reactive power demand on the other hand depends on the conversion devices and the recovered power quantity fed to the grid. Static Var Compensators (SVC), Unified Power Quality Conditioners (UPQC), Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFC), and the Distributed Static Synchronous Compensators (DSTATCOM) are all new emerging devices aimed at regulating the reactive power requirements. The excellent controllability of these devices has paved the way to flexible and dynamic controllers that are capable of regulating the flow of active and reactive power components. These devices are now suggested for the control of the reactive power requirement of wind generators. Studies have demonstrated acceptable voltage stabilisation results. This has increased the penetration level of wind power into existing distribution networks in many countries. (Author)

  11. Enthalpy-entropy compensation: the role of solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Anatoliy I; Read, Christopher M; Crane-Robinson, Colyn

    2017-05-01

    Structural modifications to interacting systems frequently lead to changes in both the enthalpy (heat) and entropy of the process that compensate each other, so that the Gibbs free energy is little changed: a major barrier to the development of lead compounds in drug discovery. The conventional explanation for such enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) is that tighter contacts lead to a more negative enthalpy but increased molecular constraints, i.e., a compensating conformational entropy reduction. Changes in solvation can also contribute to EEC but this contribution is infrequently discussed. We review long-established and recent cases of EEC and conclude that the large fluctuations in enthalpy and entropy observed are too great to be a result of only conformational changes and must result, to a considerable degree, from variations in the amounts of water immobilized or released on forming complexes. Two systems exhibiting EEC show a correlation between calorimetric entropies and local mobilities, interpreted to mean conformational control of the binding entropy/free energy. However, a substantial contribution from solvation gives the same effect, as a consequence of a structural link between the amount of bound water and the protein flexibility. Only by assuming substantial changes in solvation-an intrinsically compensatory process-can a more complete understanding of EEC be obtained. Faced with such large, and compensating, changes in the enthalpies and entropies of binding, the best approach to engineering elevated affinities must be through the addition of ionic links, as they generate increased entropy without affecting the enthalpy.

  12. Network compensation for missing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    1991-01-01

    A network learning translation invariance algorithm to compute interpolation functions is presented. This algorithm with one fixed receptive field can construct a linear transformation compensating for gain changes, sensor position jitter, and sensor loss when there are enough remaining sensors to adequately sample the input images. However, when the images are undersampled and complete compensation is not possible, the algorithm need to be modified. For moderate sensor losses, the algorithm works if the transformation weight adjustment is restricted to the weights to output units affected by the loss.

  13. Internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, O. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway) Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics); Waag, T.I. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway))

    1993-10-01

    Methods for internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe have been investigated through experiments with a short sample of Coflexip pipe. Ultrasonic backscatter methods using normal and non-normal incidence have been used for qualitative high contrast ultrasonic imaging of the inner surface of the pipe. Analysis of the internal cross-section has been performed based on the use of a non-contact ultrasonic caliper, and processing procedures which enable calculation of, and compensation for, eccentricity of the tool in the pipe. The methods developed can be used to quantitatively estimate the thickness of the internal carcass, and perform high resolution topographic mapping of the inner surface. (Author)

  14. Simulation and Analysis of Passive Rolling Compensation of High Sea Salvage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liqun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Method and device of a flexible interception and salvage system was introduced in this paper. In order to study the effect of wave motion on salvage operation, we proposed a passive wave compensation scheme that utilizes a combination of variable-pitch cylinders and accumulators, and established the mathematical vibration model of the rolling motion of the salvage compensation system. With the relationships between the stiffness coefficient and the accumulator parametric of passive compensated gas-liquid system, we determined the effective compensation stiffness range through Mathematica simulation analysis. The relationship between the roll displacement of the salvage arm and the initial volume Vo of the accumulator has been analysed. The results show that the accumulatorVo in a certain range has a great influence on the passive compensation. However, when the volume is greater than 20m3, the compensation effect is weakened, and tend to a certain value, irrespective of the passive system accumulator volume capacity, it does not achieve full compensation. The results have important guidance on the design and optimization of rolling passive compensation of the practical high sea salvage system.

  15. Flexible work designs and employee well-being: examining the effects of resources and demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hoeven, C.L.; van Zoonen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in communication technology continue to expand the possibilities for redesigning work environments to allow for temporal and spatial flexibility. Although flexible work designs (FWDs) are typically launched with high expectations, recent research shows that FWDs also pose challenges to

  16. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  17. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites:

  18. Ongoing transients in carbonate compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is acidifying the oceans. Over the next 2000 years, this will modify the dissolution and preservation of sedimentary carbonate. By coupling new formulas for the positions of the calcite saturation horizon, zsat, the compensation depth, zcc, and the snowline, zsnow, to a

  19. Strategic Design of Teacher Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the national focus on revitalizing the teacher evaluation and support/development process, as well as the current economic downturn, many school districts are reviewing how teachers are compensated. While a few courageous districts have completely upended current structures, most districts are undertaking changes that leave the most…

  20. Optimal compensation for neuron loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David GT; Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-01-01

    The brain has an impressive ability to withstand neural damage. Diseases that kill neurons can go unnoticed for years, and incomplete brain lesions or silencing of neurons often fail to produce any behavioral effect. How does the brain compensate for such damage, and what are the limits of this compensation? We propose that neural circuits instantly compensate for neuron loss, thereby preserving their function as much as possible. We show that this compensation can explain changes in tuning curves induced by neuron silencing across a variety of systems, including the primary visual cortex. We find that compensatory mechanisms can be implemented through the dynamics of networks with a tight balance of excitation and inhibition, without requiring synaptic plasticity. The limits of this compensatory mechanism are reached when excitation and inhibition become unbalanced, thereby demarcating a recovery boundary, where signal representation fails and where diseases may become symptomatic. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12454.001 PMID:27935480

  1. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed

  2. Understanding undulatory locomotion in fishes using an inertia-compensated flapping foil robotic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Li; Lauder, George

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of flapping foil robots that swim at a constant swimming speed. However, the speed of even steadily swimming live fishes is not constant because the fish center of mass oscillates axially throughout a tail beat cycle. In this paper, we couple a linear motor that produces controlled oscillations in the axial direction to a robotic flapping foil apparatus to model both axial and side to side oscillatory motions used by freely-swimming fishes. This experimental arrangement allows us to compensate for the substantial inertia of the carriage and motors that drive the oscillating foils. We identify a ‘critically-oscillated’ amplitude of axial motion at which the cyclic oscillations in axial locomotor force are greatly reduced throughout the flapping cycle. We studied the midline kinematics, power consumption and wake flow patterns of non-rigid foils with different lengths and flexural stiffnesses at a variety of axial oscillation amplitudes. We found that ‘critically-oscillated’ peak-to-peak axial amplitudes on the order of 1.0 mm and at the correct phase are sufficient to mimic center of mass motion, and that such amplitudes are similar to center of mass oscillations recorded for freely-swimming live fishes. Flow visualization revealed differences in wake flows of flexible foils between the ‘non-oscillated’ and ‘critically-oscillated’ states. Inertia-compensating methods provide a novel experimental approach for studying aquatic animal swimming, and allow instrumented robotic swimmers to display center of mass oscillations similar to those exhibited by freely-swimming fishes. (paper)

  3. New developments in flexible cholesteric liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod; Davis, Donald J.; Franklin, Sean; Venkataraman, Nithya; McDaniel, Diaz; Nicholson, Forrest; Montbach, Erica; Khan, Asad; Doane, J. William

    2007-02-01

    Flexible Cholesteric liquid crystal displays have been rapidly maturing into a strong contender in the flexible display market. Encapsulation of the Cholesteric liquid crystal permits the use of flexible plastic substrates and roll-to-roll production. Recent advances include ultra-thin displays, laser-cut segmented displays of variable geometry, and smart card applications. Exciting technologies such as simultaneous laser-edge sealing and singulation enable high volume production, excellent quality control and non-traditional display geometries and formats.

  4. Organizational flexibility estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Komarynets, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    By the help of parametric estimation the evaluation scale of organizational flexibility and its parameters was formed. Definite degrees of organizational flexibility and its parameters for the Lviv region enterprises were determined. Grouping of the enterprises under the existing scale was carried out. Special recommendations to correct the enterprises behaviour were given.

  5. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  6. Flexible magnetoimpidence sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use[1]. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.

  7. Flexibility within Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Philip C.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The authors address concerns regarding manual-based treatments, highlighting the role of flexibility and creativity. A cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety called the Coping Cat program demonstrates the flexible application of manuals and emphasizes the importance of a child-centered, personalized approach that involves the child in the…

  8. Flexible position probe assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of a plurality of tubular transducer sections and a flexible supporting member extending through the tubular transducer sections forms a flexible elongated probe of a design suitable for monitoring the level of an element, such as a nuclear magnetically permeable control rod or liquid. 3 claims, 23 figures

  9. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  10. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  11. Flexible Power Control of Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng

    2018-01-01

    With a still increasing penetration level of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more advanced and flexible control functionalities are demanded. To ensure a smooth and friendly integration between the PV systems and the grid, the power generated by the PV system needs to be flexible...

  12. [Ecological compensation standard in Dongting Lake region of returning cropland to lake based on emergy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, De-Hua; Hu, Guang-Wei; Liu, Hui-Jie; Li, Zheng-Zui; Li, Zhi-Long; Tan, Zi-Fang

    2014-02-01

    The annual emergy and currency value of the main ecological service value of returning cropland to lake in Dongting Lake region from 1999 to 2010 was calculated based on emergy analysis. The calculation method of ecological compensation standard was established by calculating annual total emergy of ecological service function increment since the starting year of returning cropland to lake, and the annual ecological compensation standard and compensation area were analyzed from 1999 to 2010. The results indicated that ecological compensation standard from 1999 to 2010 was 40.31-86.48 yuan x m(-2) with the mean of 57.33 yuan x m(-2). The ecological compensation standard presented an increase trend year by year due to the effect of eco-recovery of returning cropland to lake. The ecological compensation standard in the research area presented a swift and steady growth trend after 2005 mainly due to the intensive economy development of Hunan Province, suggesting the value of natural ecological resources would increase along with the development of society and economy. Appling the emergy analysis to research the ecological compensation standard could reveal the dynamics of annual ecological compensation standard, solve the abutment problem of matter flow, energy flow and economic flow, and overcome the subjective and arbitrary of environment economic methods. The empirical research of ecological compensation standard in Dongting Lake region showed that the emergy analysis was feasible and advanced.

  13. Chromatic dispersion compensation and Coherent Direct-Sequence OCDMA operation on a single super structured FBG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rocío; Pastor, Daniel; Amaya, Waldimar; Garcia-Munoz, Victor

    2012-06-18

    We have proposed, fabricated and demonstrated experimentally a set of Coherent Direct Sequence-OCDMA en/decoders based on Super Structured Fiber Bragg Gratings (SSFBGs) which are able to compensate the fiber chromatic dispersion at the same time that they perform the en/decoding task. The proposed devices avoid the use of additional dispersion compensation stages reducing system complexity and losses. This performance was evaluated for 5.4, 11.4 and 16.8 km of SSMF. The twofold performance was verified in Low Reflectivity regime employing only one GVD compensating device at decoder or sharing out the function between encoder and decoder devices. Shared functionality requires shorter SSFBGs designs and also provides added flexibility to the optical network design. Moreover, dispersion compensated en/decoders were also designed into the High Reflectivity regime employing synthesis methods achieving more than 9 dB reduction of insertion loss for each device.

  14. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS... allowable under paragraph (a) of this section must be reduced by— (1) All compensation made available to the... under § 136.235. Government Revenues ...

  15. Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokemoto, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform were closely related. Nuclear damage compensation cost should be part of generation cost of nuclear power. Extend of nuclear damage compensation was limited by compensation standard of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) following guidelines of Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation. TEPCO had already paid compensation of about two trillion yen until now, which was only a part of total damage compensation cost. TEPCO had been provided more than 3.4 trillion yen by Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Cooperation, which would be put back by nuclear operators including TEPCO. TEPCO could obtain present raising funds and try to reconstruct business with restart of nuclear power, which might disturb energy reform. Present nuclear damage compensation scheme had better be reformed with learning more from Minamata disease case in Japan. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Compensation for unfavorable characteristics of irregular individual shift rotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Peter; Jung, Detlev; Bopp, Winfried; Gauderer, Patric C; Gissel, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Some employees of TV companies, such as those who produce remote TV programs, have to cope with very irregular rotas and many short-term schedule deviations. Many of these employees complain about the negative effects of such on their wellbeing and private life. Therefore, a working group of employers, council representatives, and researchers developed a so-called bonus system. Based on the criteria of the BESIAK system, the following list of criteria for the ergonomic assessment of irregular shift systems was developed: proportion of night hours worked between 22 : 00 and 01 : 00 h and between 06 : 00 and 07 : 00 h, proportion of night hours worked between 01 : 00 and 06 : 00 h, number of successive night shifts, number of successive working days, number of shifts longer than 9 h, proportion of phase advances, off hours on weekends, work hours between 17 : 00 and 23 : 00 h from Monday to Friday, number of working days with leisure time at remote places, and sudden deviations from the planned shift rota. Each individual rota was evaluated in retrospect. If pre-defined thresholds of criteria were surpassed, bonus points were added to the worker's account. In general, more bonus points add up to more free time. Only in particular cases was monetary compensation possible for some criteria. The bonus point system, which was implemented in the year 2002 for about 850 employees of the TV company, has the advantages of more transparency concerning the unfavorable characteristics of working-time arrangements, incentive for superiors to design "good" rosters that avoid the bonus point thresholds (to reduce costs), positive short-term effects on the employee social life, and expected positive long-term effects on the employee health. In general, the most promising approach to cope with the problems of shift workers in irregular and flexible shift systems seems to be to increase their influence on the arrangement of working times. If this is not possible, bonus point systems

  17. Quantum electrodynamics with compensating current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechler, A [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej

    1974-01-01

    A formulation of quantum electrodynamics is proposed in which all the propagators and field operators are gauge invariant. It is based on an old idea of Heisenberg and Euler which consists in the introduction of the linear integrals of potentials as arguments of the exponential functions. This method is generalized by an introduction of the so-called ''compensating currents'', which ensure local, i.e. in every point of space-time, charge conservation. The linear integral method is a particular case of that proposed in this paper. As the starting point we use quantum electrodynamics with a non-zero, small photon mass (Proca theory). It is shown that, due to the presence of the compensating current, the theory is fully renormalizable in Hilbert space with positive definite scalar product. The problem of the definition of the current operator is also briefly discussed.

  18. Executive compensation: a calibration approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ivilina Popova; Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    We use a version of the Grossman and Hart principal-agent model with 10 actions and 10 states to produce quantitative predictions for executive compensation. Performance incentives derived from the model are compared with the performance incentives of 350 firms chosen from a survey by Michael Jensen and Kevin Murphy. The results suggest both that the model does a reasonable job of explaining the data and that actual incentives are close to the optimal incentives predicted by theory.

  19. Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Hersch

    2011-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...

  20. 23 CFR 751.15 - Just compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Just compensation. 751.15 Section 751.15 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.15 Just compensation. (a) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the... nonconforming junkyard as provided in § 751.11 must pertain at the time of the taking or removal in order to...

  1. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modules...

  2. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  3. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  4. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT General Procedure § 136.113 Other compensation. A... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113...

  5. The battle over workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, J N

    2000-01-01

    Faced with lower profits and rapidly increasing premium costs in the 1980s, insurers and employer organizations cleverly parlayed the public perception of worker fraud and abuse in the workers' compensation system (that they helped to create) into massive legislative changes. Over the last decade, state legislators and governors, Republican and Democrat alike, have jumped on this bandwagon, one that workers and their allies have dubbed the workers' compensation "deform" movement. Alleging a "game plan" and a calculated campaign on the part of insurers and employers, the author looks at the major components of changes that were made, examines the elements of workers' compensation over which employers and insurers have gained control, and discusses Newt Gingrich's efforts to capitalize on employer and insurer fervor over the system. This campaign whistled through the country until it goaded the labor movement, injured workers, the trial bar, and others in Ohio in 1997 to organize themselves to stand up to employers by defeating the deform law through a ballot initiative. The article details that battle and suggests that similar voices can be achieved through a return to grassroots organizing and mobilization.

  6. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  7. Not all is lost: old adults retain flexibility in motor behaviour during sit-to-stand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Greve

    Full Text Available Sit-to-stand is a fundamental activity of daily living, which becomes increasingly difficult with advancing age. Due to severe loss of leg strength old adults are required to change the way they rise from a chair and maintain stability. Here we examine whether old compared to young adults differently prioritize task-important performance variables and whether there are age-related differences in the use of available motor flexibility. We applied the uncontrolled manifold analysis to decompose trial-to-trial variability in joint kinematics into variability that stabilizes and destabilizes task-important performance variables. Comparing the amount of variability stabilizing and destabilizing task-important variables enabled us to identify the variable of primary importance for the task. We measured maximal isometric voluntary force of three muscle groups in the right leg. Independent of age and muscle strength, old and young adults similarly prioritized stability of the ground reaction force vector during sit-to-stand. Old compared to young adults employed greater motor flexibility, stabilizing ground reaction forces during sit-to-sand. We concluded that freeing those degrees of freedom that stabilize task-important variables is a strategy used by the aging neuromuscular system to compensate for strength deficits.

  8. Freeform electronics for advanced healthcare

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-02-16

    Freeform (physically flexible, stretchable and reconfigurable) electronics can be critical enabler for advanced personalized healthcare. With increased global population and extended average lifetime of mankind, it is more important than ever to integrate advanced electronics into our daily life for advanced personalized healthcare. In this paper, we discuss some critical criteria to design such electronics with enabling applications.

  9. Freeform electronics for advanced healthcare

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Hussain, Aftab M.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Hanna, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Freeform (physically flexible, stretchable and reconfigurable) electronics can be critical enabler for advanced personalized healthcare. With increased global population and extended average lifetime of mankind, it is more important than ever to integrate advanced electronics into our daily life for advanced personalized healthcare. In this paper, we discuss some critical criteria to design such electronics with enabling applications.

  10. 38 CFR 21.3023 - Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. 21.3023 Section 21.3023 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Child; age 18. A child who...

  11. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  12. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent

  13. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.

  14. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Adaptive precompensators for flexible-link manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzes, Anthony P.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The application of input precompensators to flexible manipulators is considered. Frequency domain compensators color the input around the flexible mode locations, resulting in a bandstop or notch filter in cascade with the system. Time domain compensators apply a sequence of impulses at prespecified times related to the modal frequencies. The resulting control corresponds to a feedforward term that convolves in real-time the desired reference input with a sequence of impulses and produces a vibration-free output. An adaptive precompensator can be implemented by combining a frequency domain identification scheme which is used to estimate online the modal frequencies and subsequently update the bandstop interval or the spacing between the impulses. The combined adaptive input preshaping scheme provides the most rapid slew that results in a vibration-free output. Experimental results are presented to verify the results.

  16. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs.......Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  17. Automatic error compensation in dc amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longden, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    When operational amplifiers are exposed to high levels of neutron fluence or total ionizing dose, significant changes may be observed in input voltages and currents. These changes may produce large errors at the output of direct-coupled amplifier stages. Therefore, the need exists for automatic compensation techniques. However, previously introduced techniques compensate only for errors in the main amplifier and neglect the errors induced by the compensating circuitry. In this paper, the techniques introduced compensate not only for errors in the main operational amplifier, but also for errors induced by the compensation circuitry. Included in the paper is a theoretical analysis of each compensation technique, along with advantages and disadvantages of each. Important design criteria and information necessary for proper selection of semiconductor switches will also be included. Introduced in this paper will be compensation circuitry for both resistive and capacitive feedback networks

  18. Adaptive back-stepping control of the harmonic drive system with LuGre model-based friction compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Gang, Tieqiang

    2018-03-01

    Harmonic drives are widely used in aerospace and industrial robots. Flexibility, friction and parameter uncertainty will result in transmission performance degradation. In this paper, an adaptive back-stepping method with friction compensation is proposed to improve the tracking performance of the harmonic drive system. The nonlinear friction is described by LuGre model and compensated with a friction observer, and the uncertainty of model parameters is resolved by adaptive parameter estimation method. By using Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that all the errors of the closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulations illustrate the effectiveness of our friction compensation method.

  19. Evaluation of robotically controlled advanced endoscopic instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak

    Background Advanced flexible endoscopes and instruments with multiple degrees of freedom enable physicians to perform challenging procedures such as the removal of large sections of mucosal tissue. However, these advanced endoscopes are difficult to control and require several physicians to

  20. Compensation and Rewards for Environmental Services in the Developing World: Framing Pan-Tropical Analysis and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent M. Swallow

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of papers that review the state of knowledge and practice regarding compensation and rewards for environmental services in the developing world. The paper begins with an assessment of the historical development of compensation and reward mechanisms within a broader context of changing approaches to nature conservation and environmental policy. The assessment shows that greater interest in compensation and reward mechanisms has emerged within a policy context of changing approaches to nature conservation and flexible multi-stakeholder approaches to environmental management. In the developing world, an even greater variety of perspectives has emerged on the opportunities and threats for using compensation and rewards for environmental services. Within that background, the paper clarifies key concepts - including the distinction between compensation and reward - and presents a conceptual framework for typifying and characterizing different types of mechanisms that link ecosystem stewards, ecosystem service beneficiaries, and intermediaries.

  1. Are flexible contracts bad for workers? Evidence from job satisfaction data

    OpenAIRE

    Green, C; Heywood, J S

    2007-01-01

    If workers can choose between permanent and flexible contracts, compensating wage differentials should arise to equalize on-the-job utility in the two types of contracts. Estimating job satisfaction using the British Household Panel Survey shows that agency and casual contracts are associated with routinely lower satisfaction. This results because the low job satisfaction associated with less job security is not offset by higher compensation or other job characteristics. Job security is suffi...

  2. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  3. Amelioration of Electrical Power Quality based on Modulated Power Filter Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karrar Hameed Kadhim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of modeling and implementation of Modulated Power Filter Compensator ( MPFC based on synchronous generator to enhance Electrical Power Quality (EPQ performance , rectification power factor , voltage fixity and decreasing transmission line losses for 300 km transmission line . In this paper (MPFC sketch attendants for intelligent network stability and optimum exploitation. The proposal Flexible AC Transmission Systems ( FACTS can be expanded to distributed renewable energy interface and exploitation systems and also will be easy to modify for voltage fixity, Achieve the required stability, perfect usage and Compensation requirements. MATLAB SIMLINK version R2009b were used as a model of (MPFC.

  4. Superhydrophobicity enhancement through substrate flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Thomas; Gerber, Julia; Prautzsch, Jana; Schutzius, Thomas; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2017-11-01

    Inspired by manifestations in nature, micro/nanoengineering superhydrophobic surfaces has been the focus of much work. Generally, hydrophobicity is increased through the combined effects of surface texturing and chemistry; being durable, rigid substrate materials are the norm. However, many natural and technical materials are flexible, and the resulting effect on hydrophobicity has been largely unexplored. Here, we show that the rational tuning of flexibility can work collaboratively with the surface micro/nanotexture to enhance liquid repellency performance, defined by impalement and breakup resistance, contact time reduction, and restitution coefficient increase. Reduction in substrate stiffness and areal density imparts immediate acceleration and intrinsic responsiveness to impacting droplets, mitigating the collision and lowering the impalement probability by 60 % without the need for active actuation. We demonstrate the above discoveries with materials ranging from thin steel or polymer sheets to butterfly wings. Partial support of the Swiss National Science Foundation under Grant 162565 and the European Research Council under Advanced Grant 669908 (INTICE) is acknowledged.

  5. Estimation of Residential Heat Pump Consumption for Flexibility Market Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    load of a flexible device, namely a Heat Pump (HP), out of the aggregated energy consumption of a house. The main idea for accomplishing this, is a comparison of the flexible consumer with electrically similar non-flexible consumers. The methodology is based on machine learning techniques, probability...... theory and statistics. After presenting this methodology, the general trend of the HP consumption is estimated and an hour-ahead forecast is conducted by employing Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average modeling. In this manner, the flexible consumption is predicted, establishing the basis......Recent technological advancements have facilitated the evolution of traditional distribution grids to smart grids. In a smart grid scenario, flexible devices are expected to aid the system in balancing the electric power in a technically and economically efficient way. To achieve this, the flexible...

  6. An introduction to reactive power compensation for wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigim, K.A. [Waterloo Univ., Ont. (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering; Zobaa, A.F.; El Amin, I. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The paper summarises the refereed contributions of seven articles reviewed for publication in the IJETP - Special Issue on 'Reactive compensation for wind farms'. The main goal of the special issue is to provide a forum to exchange information on the reactive power compensation requirements for wind farms and introducing possible price mechanisms for today's deregulated power industry. Uncompensated reactive power causes stress on the hosting utility grid as well as added expenses, which create in difficulties for power purchasing agreements from independent wind energy producers. Wind power producers need to comply with the hosting utility grid interconnection standards, e.g., voltage and frequency, as well as to provide controllable active and reactive sources of power. Active power supply is mainly dependent on the potential of wind power produced and the turbine design. Reactive power demand on the other hand depends on the conversion devices and the recovered power quantity fed to the grid. Static Var Compensators (SVC), Unified Power Quality Conditioners (UPQC), Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFC), and the Distributed Static Synchronous Compensators (DSTATCOM) are all new emerging devices aimed at regulating the reactive power requirements. The excellent controllability of these devices has paved the way to flexible and dynamic controllers that are capable of regulating the flow of active and reactive power components. These devices are now suggested for the control of the reactive power requirement of wind generators. Studies have demonstrated acceptable voltage stabilisation results. This has increased the penetration level of wind power into existing distribution networks in many countries. (Author)

  7. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  8. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho N.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors's deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor's large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications. - Highlights: • A flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor is developed. • Studies are carried out using a flexible microstrip transmission line. • An MI ratio of up to 90% is obtained. • The effect of magnetostriction is studied

  9. Education for Flexible Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Novak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible personality transforms both cultural environment and itself. Post-modern personality is both contemplative and active. On one hand, it is subject to inner imagination of a creative act, and on the other hand, to creation of a tangible product What is more, flexible personality is also autonomous, mature, healthy and well balanced, as well as stable and responsive to the demand for change. Due to ever quicker changes, flexible personality is a must. And it is a task. The impact of professional work of adults on the education of children, however, is being conditioned by the exrigid family and rigid enterprises or institutions in which adults are employed. Nevertheless, flexible educational style is not repressive, as it used to be, nor permissive and totally concentrated on the child. It is a choice between the two qualities. The educators' style is dependent on their attitude towards life (play and self-education and not only towards work. Nowadays, flexibility is a way towards quality management of social and personal changes.

  10. Flexible Foam Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Werner, Brian T.; Scherzinger, William M.; Lo, Chi S.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of a 15 pcf flexible polyurethane foam to large deformation at different strain rates and temperatures. Results from these experiments indicated that at room temperature, flexible polyurethane foams exhibit significant nonlinear elastic deformation and nearly return to their original undeformed shape when unloaded. However, when these foams are cooled to temperatures below their glass transition temperature of approximately -35 o C, they behave like rigid polyurethane foams and exhibit significant permanent deformation when compressed. Thus, a new model which captures this dramatic change in behavior with temperature was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Flex_Foam to describe the mechanical response of both flexible and rigid foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments. Next, development of the Flex Foam model for flexible polyurethane and other flexible foams is described. Selection of material parameters are discussed and finite element simulations with the new Flex Foam model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this new model.

  11. Passive Back Support Exoskeleton Improves Range of Motion Using Flexible Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias B. Näf

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the EU, lower back pain affects more than 40% of the working population. Mechanical loading of the lower back has been shown to be an important risk factor. Peak mechanical load can be reduced by ergonomic interventions, the use of cranes and, more recently, by the use of exoskeletons. Despite recent advances in the development of exoskeletons for industrial applications, they are not widely adopted by industry yet. Some of the challenges, which have to be overcome are a reduced range of motion, misalignment between the human anatomy and kinematics of the exoskeleton as well as discomfort. A body of research exists on how an exoskeleton can be designed to compensate for misalignment and thereby improve comfort. However, how to design an exoskeleton that achieves a similar range of motion as a human lumbar spine of up to 60° in the sagittal plane, has not been extensively investigated. We addressed this need by developing and testing a novel passive back support exoskeleton, including a mechanism comprised of flexible beams, which run in parallel to the spine, providing a large range of motion and lowering the peak torque requirements around the lumbo-sacral (L5/S1 joint. Furthermore, we ran a pilot study to test the biomechanical (N = 2 and functional (N = 3 impact on subjects while wearing the exoskeleton. The biomechanical testing was once performed with flexible beams as a back interface and once with a rigid structure. An increase of more than 25% range of motion of the trunk in the sagittal plane was observed by using the flexible beams. The pilot functional tests, which are compared to results from a previous study with the Laevo device, suggest, that the novel exoskeleton is perceived as less hindering in almost all tested tasks.

  12. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  14. Topography-Dependent Motion Compensation: Application to UAVSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    The UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar system has been designed for repeat track interferometry in support of Earth science applications that require high-precision measurements of small surface deformations over timescales from hours to years. Conventional motion compensation algorithms, which are based upon assumptions of a narrow beam and flat terrain, yield unacceptably large errors in areas with even moderate topographic relief, i.e., in most areas of interest. This often limits the ability to achieve sub-centimeter surface change detection over significant portions of an acquired scene. To reduce this source of error in the interferometric phase, we have implemented an advanced motion compensation algorithm that corrects for the scene topography and radar beam width. Here we discuss the algorithm used, its implementation in the UAVSAR data processor, and the improvement in interferometric phase and correlation achieved in areas with significant topographic relief.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimamurthy, Rajesh; Virshup, David M

    2017-01-01

    An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep-wake cycle, feeding-fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks. But, unlike other chemical reactions, the output of the clock system remains nearly constant with fluctuations in ambient temperature, a phenomenon known as temperature compensation. In this brief review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the posttranslational modifications, especially a phosphoswitch mechanism controlling the stability of PER2 and its implications for the regulation of temperature compensation.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Virshup

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep–wake cycle, feeding–fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks. But, unlike other chemical reactions, the output of the clock system remains nearly constant with fluctuations in ambient temperature, a phenomenon known as temperature compensation. In this brief review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the posttranslational modifications, especially a phosphoswitch mechanism controlling the stability of PER2 and its implications for the regulation of temperature compensation.

  17. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible heat pipes charged with different filling ratios were measured under thermal power inputs ranging from 2 W to 12 W while the device was bent at different angles. The fabricated heat pipes with a 30% filling ratio demonstrated a low thermal resistance less than 0.01 K/W. Compared with the vertically oriented straight heat pipes, bending from 30° up to 120° has negligible influence on the heat-transfer performance. Furthermore, repeated heating tests indicated that the fabricated flexible heat pipes have consistent and reliable heat-transfer performance, thus would have important applications for advanced thermal management in three dimensional and flexible electronic devices.

  18. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  19. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  20. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  1. Software industrial flexible

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Araya, Daniel; Muñoz, Leandro; Sirerol, Daniel; Oviedo, Sandra; Ibáñez, Francisco S.

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende investigar y proponer técnicas, métodos y tecnologías que permitan el desarrollo de software flexible en ambientes industriales. El objetivo es generar métodos y técnicas para facilitar el desarrollo de software flexible en ambientes industriales. Las áreas de investigación son los sistemas de scheduling de producción, la generación de software para plataformas de hardware abiertas y la innovación.

  2. Production Flexibility and Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dionne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We extend the analysis on hedging with price and output uncertainty by endogenizing the output decision. Specifically, we consider the joint determination of output and hedging in the case of flexibility in production. We show that the risk-averse firm always maintains a short position in the futures market when the futures price is actuarially fair. Moreover, in the context of an example, we show that the presence of production flexibility reduces the incentive to hedge for all risk averse agents.

  3. The flexibility of flexicurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2011-01-01

    by a special relation between flexibility, social security and active labour market policy, where a high level of social security is seen as a precondition for a labour market characterized by flexibility. In this article it is argued that the Danish labour market is characterized by having not just one model...... of flexicurity, but two. These two models cover different parts of the labour market and different segments of employees. The first model (the blue-collar flexicurity model) – the one that is often focused on in the literature – covers primarily skilled and unskilled workers on the labour market. The second...

  4. Intonation and compensation of fretted string instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Gower, Christina

    2011-04-01

    We discuss theoretical and physical models that are useful for analyzing the intonation of musical instruments such as guitars and mandolins and can be used to improve the tuning on these instruments. The placement of frets on the fingerboard is designed according to mathematical rules and the assumption of an ideal string. The analysis becomes more complicated when we include the effects of deformation of the string and inharmonicity due to other string characteristics. As a consequence, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument cannot be achieved, but complex compensation procedures can be introduced to minimize the problem. To test the validity of these procedures, we performed extensive measurements using standard monochord sonometers and other acoustical devices, confirming the correctness of our theoretical models. These experimental activities can be integrated into acoustics courses and laboratories and can become a more advanced version of basic experiments with monochords and sonometers. This work was supported by a grant from the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University.

  5. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  6. A review of flexible lithium-sulfur and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-29

    Flexible energy storage systems are imperative for emerging flexible devices that are revolutionizing our life. Lithium-ion batteries, the current main power sources, are gradually approaching their theoretical limitation in terms of energy density. Therefore, alternative battery chemistries are urgently required for next-generation flexible power sources with high energy densities, low cost, and inherent safety. Flexible lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries and analogous flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are of paramount interest owing to their high energy densities endowed by multielectron chemistry. In this review, we summarized the recent progress of flexible Li-S and analogous batteries. A brief introduction to flexible energy storage systems and general Li-S batteries has been provided first. Progress in flexible materials for flexible Li-S batteries are reviewed subsequently, with a detailed classification of flexible sulfur cathodes as those based on carbonaceous (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbonized polymers) and composite (polymers and inorganics) materials and an overview of flexible lithium anodes and flexible solid-state electrolytes. Advancements in other flexible alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are then introduced. In the next part, we emphasize the importance of cell packaging and flexibility evaluation, and two special flexible battery prototypes of foldable and cable-type Li-S batteries are highlighted. In the end, existing challenges and future development of flexible Li-S and analogous alkali metal-chalcogen batteries are summarized and prospected.

  7. Multi-qubit compensation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y; Merrill, J T; Brown, K R

    2010-01-01

    The Hamiltonian control of n qubits requires precision control of both the strength and timing of interactions. Compensation pulses relax the precision requirements by reducing unknown but systematic errors. Using composite pulse techniques designed for single qubits, we show that systematic errors for n-qubit systems can be corrected to arbitrary accuracy given either two non-commuting control Hamiltonians with identical systematic errors or one error-free control Hamiltonian. We also examine composite pulses in the context of quantum computers controlled by two-qubit interactions. For quantum computers based on the XY interaction, single-qubit composite pulse sequences naturally correct systematic errors. For quantum computers based on the Heisenberg or exchange interaction, the composite pulse sequences reduce the logical single-qubit gate errors but increase the errors for logical two-qubit gates.

  8. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo; Tsuneya, Tsubokawa; Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe

    1999-01-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10 33 to 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 . Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  9. Self compensating fire detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholin, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A device employing ionization principles for fire detection disclosing a configuration which allows compensation for adverse effects due to the flow of the gas through the device or due to the accumulation of dust and dirt therein. The detecting device includes two ionization chambers, each having a first member, such as a cylindrically shaped cup, having first and second conductive surface portions. Each chamber also incudes a second member, such as a circular, electrode disc having two conductive surface portions. There is disposed in each chamber a radioactive source for ionizing the gas in the volumes intervening between respective pairs of surfaces. The area dimensions of the respective pairs of surfaces, the interventing volumes and the distances there between, and the relative orientation of the respective pairs are calculated and placed such that the ionization currents flowing between pairs of conductive surfaces are substantially equal and orthogonal to each other

  10. Flexibility as a service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Adams, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Pesic, M.; Schonenberg, H.; Chen, L.; Liu, C.; Liu, Q.; Deng, K.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of flexibility is often seen as an inhibitor for the successful application of workflow technology. Many researchers have proposed different ways of addressing this problem and some of these ideas have been implemented in commercial systems. However, a "one size fits all" approach is likely

  11. Valuing Flexibility. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    Quarterly (2): 38-49. Cormier, P., Olewnik, A., and Lewis, K. 2008. An Approach to Quantifying Design Flexibility for Mass Customization in Early...C. Clarkson, P., and Zanker, W. 2004. Change and customisation in complex engineering domains, Res Eng Des 15(1), 1–21. Ekstrom, M. and Bjornsson, H

  12. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  13. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  14. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  15. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  16. Cylindrical Penning traps with dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation for precision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Xiang; Snow, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Harmonic potentials can be produced in cylindrical ion traps by means of dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation with use of two (or multiple) sets of compensation electrodes. One special example is for traps with multiple identical electrodes which are not only easy to construct and allow access to the center region of the trap for particle loading and releasing, laser beams, and microwaves, but also flexible in forming harmonic potential wells in many locations. The nested trap configuration and the side-by-side trap configuration are readily available in this special scheme. Analytical solutions for cylindrical traps with multiple sets of compensation potentials are presented. This work will be useful for studies involving Penning trap diagnostics, atomic and molecular interactions (including the production of antihydrogen atoms), accurate mass measurements of exotic particles, and precision measurements of the spin precession frequencies of trapped particles

  17. Cylindrical Penning traps with dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation for precision experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fei Xiang

    1999-01-01

    Harmonic potentials can be produced in cylindrical ion traps by means of dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation with use of two (or multiple) sets of compensation electrodes. One special example is for traps with multiple identical electrodes which are not only easy to construct and allow access to the center region of the trap for particle loading and releasing, laser beams, and microwaves, but also flexible in forming harmonic potential wells in many locations. The nested trap configuration and the side-by-side trap configuration are readily available in this special scheme. Analytical solutions for cylindrical traps with multiple sets of compensation potentials are presented. This work will be useful for studies involving Penning trap diagnostics, atomic and molecular interactions (including the production of antihydrogen atoms), accurate mass measurements of exotic particles, and precision measurements of the spin precession frequencies of trapped particles.

  18. Agent-based Distributed Unbalance Compensation for Optimal Power Quality in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    -based distributed hierarchical control method. Communication links are required between neighboring units. Consensus algorithm and optimization algorithm are implemented in tertiary control for global information discovery and local optimal decision-making respectively. The tertiary control gives lower level......In microgrids, the distributed generators (DG) can be used as distributed compensators so as to compensate the voltage unbalances in the critical bus. However, the power quality disturbance in generator sides and local buses may be affected and exceeds the limit. It can be more convenient...... to implement tertiary control so as to adjust the compensation efforts among DGs and ensure the acceptable power quality in local buses. Moreover, as centralized control methods have certain disadvantages, such as low flexibility, expandability and heavy computation burden, this paper proposes an agent...

  19. 38 CFR 3.351 - Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension...

  20. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Factors Related to Compensation of Pediatric Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, Cheryl L; Hilliard, Marisa E; Williams, Andre; Armstrong, F Daniel; Christidis, Peggy; Kichler, Jessica; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Stamm, Karen E; Wysocki, Tim

    2017-05-01

    To summarize compensation results from the 2015 Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey and identify factors related to compensation of pediatric psychologists. All full members of SPP ( n  = 1,314) received the online Workforce Survey; 404 (32%) were returned with usable data. The survey assessed salary, benefits, and other income sources. The relationship between demographic and employment-related factors and overall compensation was explored.   Academic rank, level of administrative responsibility, and cost of living index of employment location were associated with compensation. Compensation did not vary by gender; however, women were disproportionately represented at the assistant and associate professor level. Compensation of pediatric psychologists is related to multiple factors. Longitudinal administration of the Workforce Survey is needed to determine changes in compensation and career advancement for this profession over time. Strategies to increase the response rate of future Workforce Surveys are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors......), with the discussion of the stakeholders’ roles and their interrelation in delivering energy flexibility with the influential factors to the actual implementation of energy flexible operation of their buildings. Based on a literature analysis, the results cover stakeholders’ types and roles, perceptions (drivers......, barriers, and benefits), energy management activities and technology adoptions, and the stakeholders’ interaction for the energy flexibility in retail buildings....

  2. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    .... APHIS-2011-0004] RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... interim rule that amended the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible... are required to be destroyed in order to prevent the spread of plum pox. The interim rule also...

  3. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation... that amount required to accomplish the activities for which the claim was paid. Real or Personal...

  4. Multiple Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Data for a sample of UK companies over the period 2003-2006 are analyzed using a variety of econometric methods. We find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant.

  5. Compensation of oscillation coupling induced by solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for construction of various schemes of oscillation coupling compensation, induced by solenoids in charged particle storage rings, are described. Peculiarities of magnetic structure, enabling to localize oscillation coupling in wide energy range are discussed. Results of calculation of compensation schemes for design of NR-2000 storage ring spin rotation are presented

  6. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  7. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  8. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  9. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  10. Compensation of Disadvantages in University Examination Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Quapp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Active social participation of disabled people is one of the major tasks of modern society. That also includes access to the academic community by higher education. Universities all over the world work hard to give handicapped students a chance to graduate. In this context, compensation of disadvantages in examination procedures is an important matter. But, also chronic illness may impair the student's examination performance. To ensure equal examination opportunities for all students, responsible university officials must be creative to find individual compensation solutions. The paper analyzes examination regulations at universities in different countries and offers solutions to compensate disabled and chronic ill students' disadvantages. It discusses the necessity of compensation for different types of disability and chronic illness. Finally, an overview of current German case law and solutions for compensation problems are provided.

  11. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  12. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament

  13. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  14. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  15. Does CEO compensation impact patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingbola, Kunle; van den Berg, Herman A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between CEO compensation and patient satisfaction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to determine what impact hospital CEO compensation has on hospital patient satisfaction. The analyses in this study were based on data of 261 CEO-hospital-year observations in a sample of 103 nonprofit hospitals. A number of linear regressions were conducted, with patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and CEO compensation as the independent variable of interest. Controlling variables included hospital size, type of hospital, and frequency of adverse clinical outcomes. CEO compensation does not significantly influence hospital patient satisfaction. Both patient satisfaction and CEO compensation appear to be driven primarily by hospital size. Patient satisfaction decreases, while CEO compensation increases, with the number of acute care beds in a hospital. In addition, CEO compensation does not even appear to moderate the influence of hospital size on patient satisfaction. There are several limitations to this study. First, observations of CEO-hospital-years in which annual nominal CEO compensation was below $100,000 were excluded, as they were not publicly available. Second, this research was limited to a three-year range. Third, this study related the compensation of individual CEOs to a measure of performance based on a multitude of patient satisfaction surveys. Finally, this research is restricted to not-for-profit hospitals in Ontario, Canada. The findings seem to suggest that hospital directors seeking to improve patient satisfaction may find their efforts frustrated if they focus exclusively on the hospital CEO. The findings highlight the need for further research on how CEOs may, through leading and supporting those hospital clinicians and staff that interact more closely with patients, indirectly enhance patient satisfaction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no research has examined the relationship between

  16. Motion estimation and compensation in dynamic spiral CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimdon, J.; Grangeat, P.; Koenig, A.; Bonnet, St.

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motion causes blurring in dynamic X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Fast scans reduce this problem, but they require a higher radiation dose per time period to maintain the signal to noise ratio of the resulting images, thereby magnifying the health risk to the patient. As an alternative to increased radiation, our team has already developed a cone-beam reconstruction algorithm based on a dynamic particle model that estimates, predicts, and compensates for respiratory motion in circular X-ray CT. The current paper presents an extension of this method to spiral CT, applicable to modern multi-slice scanners that take advantage of the speed and dose benefits of helical trajectories. We adapted all three main areas of the algorithm: backprojection, prediction, and compensation/accumulation. In backprojection, we changed the longitudinal re-binning technique, filter direction, and the method of enforcing the data sufficiency requirements. For prediction, we had to be careful of objects appearing and disappearing as the scanner bed advanced. For compensation/accumulation, we controlled the reconstruction time and combined images to cover a greater longitudinal extent for each phase in the respiratory or cardiac cycle. Tests with moving numerical phantoms demonstrate that the algorithm successfully improves the temporal resolution of the images without increasing the dose or reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. (authors)

  17. Conductive polymer/metal composites for interconnect of flexible devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Jin; Hashimoto Shinoda, Yasuo; Shuto, Takanori; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-06-01

    An interconnect of flexible and foldable devices based on advanced electronics requires high electrical conductivity, flexibility, adhesiveness on a plastic substrate, and efficient productivity. In this study, we investigated the applicability of a conductive polymer/metal composite to the interconnect of flexible devices. By combining an inkjet process and a photochemical reaction, micropatterns of a polypyrrole/silver composite were formed on flexible plastic substrates with an average linewidth of approximately 70 µm within 10 min. The conductivity of the composite was improved to 6.0 × 102 Ω-1·cm-1. From these results, it is expected that the conducting polymer/metal composite can be applied to the microwiring of flexible electronic devices.

  18. Load and Flexibility Models for Distribution Grid Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos

    to advanced metering and control infrastructure investments. These investments will transform distribution networks into smarter" grids which will facilitate flexible load/generation control in return for financial and reliability benefits to electricity consumers. The theoretical idea of modernising the grid...... involve lack of generic load forecasts, need for flexible load/generation estimation techniques from smart meter measurements, deficiencies in online load distribution observability, and, finally, energy market compatible control algorithms which treat consumer flexibility in a fair manner. These modules...... congestions, is proposed. In the first step, a central controller manages flexibility proactively, whereas in the second step a decentralised control scheme deals with flexibility reactively. Both controllers are designed in such a way, that compatibility with contemporary markets is assured, while special...

  19. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  20. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  1. Flexible weapons architecture design

    OpenAIRE

    Pyant, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilia...

  2. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  3. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  4. Advanced device for testing the electrical behavior of conductive coatings on flexible polymer substrates under oscillatory bending: comparison of coatings of sputtered indium-tin oxide and poly3,4ethylenedioxythiophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Königer, Tobias; Münstedt, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    A special device was designed and set up to investigate the electrical behavior of conductive layers on flexible substrates under oscillatory bending. The resistance of conductive coatings can be measured during various oscillatory bending conditions. The bending radius, the amplitude and the frequency can be set to well-defined values. Furthermore, the setup allows us to apply tensile or compressive stress to the coating as well as both stresses alternately. Thus, various bending loads occurring in printable electronics applications can be simulated to investigate the electrical reliability of conductive coatings. In addition, it is possible to simulate different environmental conditions during oscillatory bending by running the device in an environmental chamber. Characterizations of the electrical behavior under oscillatory bending were carried out on commercially available polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films sputtered with indium-tin oxide (ITO) and coated with poly3,4ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT). For coatings of sputtered ITO, a dramatic increase of the resistance is observed for bending radii smaller than 14 mm due to cracks spanning the whole sample width. The higher the amplitude, the more pronounced is the increase of the resistance. Coatings of PEDOT show high stability under oscillatory bending. There is no change in resistance observed for all bending radii and amplitudes applied over a large number of cycles

  5. 42 CFR 413.102 - Compensation of owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definitions—(1) Compensation. Compensation means the total benefit received by the owner for the services he... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation of owners. 413.102 Section 413.102... § 413.102 Compensation of owners. (a) Principle. A reasonable allowance of compensation for services of...

  6. PTFE films with improved flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. F.; Koch, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development and application of flexible polytetrafluroethylene films for expulsion bladders in spacecraft propellant tanks are described. Flexibility of material is obtained by reducing crystallinity through annealing and quenching in water. Physical and mechanical properties of material are presented.

  7. Self Organization in Compensated Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-03-01

    In partially compensated semiconductor (PCS) Fermi level is pinned to donor sub-band. Due to positional randomness and almost isoenergetic hoppings, donor-spanned electronic subsystem in PCS forms fluid-like highly mobile collective state. This makes PCS playground for pattern formation, self-organization, complexity emergence, electronic neural networks, and perhaps even for origins of life, bioevolution and consciousness. Through effects of impact and/or Auger ionization of donor sites, whole PCS may collapse (spinodal decomposition) into microblocks potentially capable of replication and protobiological activity (DNA analogue). Electronic screening effects may act in RNA fashion by introducing additional length scale(s) to system. Spontaneous quantum computing on charged/neutral sites becomes potential generator of informationally loaded microstructures akin to "Carl Sagan Effect" (hidden messages in Pi in his "Contact") or informational self-organization of "Library of Babel" of J.L. Borges. Even general relativity effects at Planck scale (R.Penrose) may affect the dynamics through (e.g.) isotopic variations of atomic mass and local density (A.A.Berezin, 1992). Thus, PCS can serve as toy model (experimental and computational) at interface of physics and life sciences.

  8. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kilic (Mehtap); R. Huisman (Ronald)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractElectricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in

  9. Index-based reactive power compensation scheme for voltage regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dike, Damian Obioma

    2008-10-01

    Increasing demand for electrical power arising from deregulation and the restrictions posed to the construction of new transmission lines by environment, socioeconomic, and political issues had led to higher grid loading. Consequently, voltage instability has become a major concern, and reactive power support is vital to enhance transmission grid performance. Improved reactive power support to distressed grid is possible through the application of relatively unfamiliar emerging technologies of "Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)" devices and "Distributed Energy Resources (DERS)." In addition to these infrastructure issues, a lack of situational awareness by system operators can cause major power outages as evidenced by the August 14, 2003 widespread North American blackout. This and many other recent major outages have highlighted the inadequacies of existing power system indexes. In this work, a novel "Index-based reactive compensation scheme" appropriate for both on-line and off-line computation of grid status has been developed. A new voltage stability index (Ls-index) suitable for long transmission lines was developed, simulated, and compared to the existing two-machine modeled L-index. This showed the effect of long distance power wheeling amongst regional transmission organizations. The dissertation further provided models for index modulated voltage source converters (VSC) and index-based load flow analysis of both FACTS and microgrid interconnected power systems using the Newton-Raphson's load flow model incorporated with multi-FACTS devices. The developed package has been made user-friendly through the embodiment of interactive graphical user interface and implemented on the IEEE 14, 30, and 300 bus systems. The results showed reactive compensation has system wide-effect, provided readily accessible system status indicators, ensured seamless DERs interconnection through new islanding modes and enhanced VSC utilization. These outcomes may contribute

  10. Flexible automated manufacturing for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube Hansen, David; Bilberg, Arne; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2017-01-01

    SMEs are in general highly flexible and agile in order to accommodate the customer demands in the paradigm of High Mix-Low Volume manufacturing. The flexibility and agility have mainly been enabled by manual labor, but as we are entering the technology and data driven fourth industrial revolution......, where augmented operators and machines work in cooperation in a highly flexible and productive manufacturing system both an opportunity and a need has raised for developing highly flexible and efficient automation....

  11. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  12. Global Analysis of Flexible Risers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Flexible pipes are often a technically attractive alternative to the traditional steel pipe. Often commercial utilisation of oil/gas fields depends on the use of flexible pipes. An example is when floating production vessels are used, where the flexible pipe follows the wave induced motions...

  13. Printable Transparent Conductive Films for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Lai, Wen-Yong; Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Huang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Printed electronics are an important enabling technology for the development of low-cost, large-area, and flexible optoelectronic devices. Transparent conductive films (TCFs) made from solution-processable transparent conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and conductive polymers, can simultaneously exhibit high mechanical flexibility, low cost, and better photoelectric properties compared to the commonly used sputtered indium-tin-oxide-based TCFs, and are thus receiving great attention. This Review summarizes recent advances of large-area flexible TCFs enabled by several roll-to-roll-compatible printed techniques including inkjet printing, screen printing, offset printing, and gravure printing using the emerging transparent conductive materials. The preparation of TCFs including ink formulation, substrate treatment, patterning, and postprocessing, and their potential applications in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and touch panels are discussed in detail. The rational combination of a variety of printed techniques with emerging transparent conductive materials is believed to extend the opportunities for the development of printed electronics within the realm of flexible electronics and beyond. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Motion estimation and compensation in dynamic spiral CT reconstruction; Estimation et compensation de mouvement en reconstruction dynamique de tomodensitometrie helicoidale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimdon, J.; Grangeat, P.; Koenig, A.; Bonnet, St

    2004-07-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motion causes blurring in dynamic X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Fast scans reduce this problem, but they require a higher radiation dose per time period to maintain the signal to noise ratio of the resulting images, thereby magnifying the health risk to the patient. As an alternative to increased radiation, our team has already developed a cone-beam reconstruction algorithm based on a dynamic particle model that estimates, predicts, and compensates for respiratory motion in circular X-ray CT. The current paper presents an extension of this method to spiral CT, applicable to modern multi-slice scanners that take advantage of the speed and dose benefits of helical trajectories. We adapted all three main areas of the algorithm: backprojection, prediction, and compensation/accumulation. In backprojection, we changed the longitudinal re-binning technique, filter direction, and the method of enforcing the data sufficiency requirements. For prediction, we had to be careful of objects appearing and disappearing as the scanner bed advanced. For compensation/accumulation, we controlled the reconstruction time and combined images to cover a greater longitudinal extent for each phase in the respiratory or cardiac cycle. Tests with moving numerical phantoms demonstrate that the algorithm successfully improves the temporal resolution of the images without increasing the dose or reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. (authors)

  15. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645 ns 'mini' bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have <1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1%/ms. This places a significant design burden on the current transformer; such a design is almost impossible to achieve. Extremely large expensive cores are needed to meet the low droop, while leakage inductance increases with size, thereby reducing the achievable rise time. In this paper, I discuss a digital compensation approach [M. Kesselman, Spallation neutron source beam current monitor electronics, PAC2001 June 18-22, 2001, Chicago, IL.] that extends the lower cut-off frequency of the current transformer, optimized for high frequency response, so that it can be used in this application with improvements in droop of the order of 1000:1. Transformer saturation (current-time product) is a separate issue and the transformer must be designed to handle the current-time product of the signal to assure it does not saturate

  16. Towards Compensation Correctness in Interactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cátia; Ferreira, Carla

    One fundamental idea of service-oriented computing is that applications should be developed by composing already available services. Due to the long running nature of service interactions, a main challenge in service composition is ensuring correctness of failure recovery. In this paper, we use a process calculus suitable for modelling long running transactions with a recovery mechanism based on compensations. Within this setting, we discuss and formally state correctness criteria for compensable processes compositions, assuming that each process is correct with respect to failure recovery. Under our theory, we formally interpret self-healing compositions, that can detect and recover from failures, as correct compositions of compensable processes.

  17. Inductive voltage compensation in superconducting magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.; Goddard, J.S.; Shen, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper details several techniques of inductive voltage compensation developed for quench detection in superconducting magnet systems with multiple coils and power supplies, with particular application for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF). Sources of noise, their magnitudes, and the sensitivity required for normal zone detection to avoid damage to the magnets are discussed. Two passive compensation schemes (second difference and central difference) are introduced and illustrated by parameters of LCTF; these take advantage of coil symmetries and other system characteristics. An active compensation scheme based on current rate input fom pickup coils and utilizing theory on ac loss voltage for calibration was tested, and the experimental setup and test results are discussed

  18. A Voltage Feedback Based Harmonic Compensation Strategy for Current-Controlled Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Xie, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Harmonics have been considered as one of the major issues in future power grids. With the increasing demand in advanced control functions, power electronic converter interfaced distributed generators (DGs) are expected to perform harmonic compensation when necessary. It has been demonstrated in a...

  19. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly.

  20. Bioinspired Transparent Laminated Composite Film for Flexible Green Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Lim, Young-Woo; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jeong, Seonju; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Park, Jang-Ung; Lee, Jung-Yong; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2017-07-19

    Herein, we report a new version of a bioinspired chitin nanofiber (ChNF) transparent laminated composite film (HCLaminate) made of siloxane hybrid materials (hybrimers) reinforced with ChNFs, which mimics the nanofiber-matrix structure of hierarchical biocomposites. Our HCLaminate is produced via vacuum bag compressing and subsequent UV-curing of the matrix resin-impregnated ChNF transparent paper (ChNF paper). It is worthwhile to note that this new type of ChNF-based transparent substrate film retains the strengths of the original ChNF paper and compensates for ChNF paper's drawbacks as a flexible transparent substrate. As a result, compared with high-performance synthetic plastic films, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ether sulfone), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and polyimide, our HCLaminate is characterized to exhibit extremely smooth surface topography, outstanding optical clarity, high elastic modulus, high dimensional stability, etc. To prove our HCLaminate as a substrate film, we use it to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel. As far as we know, this work is the first to demonstrate flexible optoelectronics, such as flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel, actually fabricated on a composite film made of ChNF. Given its desirable macroscopic properties, we envision our HCLaminate being utilized as a transparent substrate film for flexible green optoelectronics.

  1. Flexible Bragg reflection waveguide devices fabricated on a plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Yi, Jeong-Ah; Oh, Min-Cheol; Noh, Young-Ouk; Lee, Hyung-Jong

    2007-09-01

    Bragg reflecting waveguide devices are fabricated on a flexible substrate by using a post lift-off process in order to provide highly uniform grating patterns on a wide range. In this process, the flexible substrate spin-coated on silicon wafer is released after the final fabrication process of chip dicing. The fabricated flexible Bragg reflector shows very sharp transmission spectrum with 3-dB bandwidth of 0.1 nm and 10-dB bandwidth of 0.4 nm, which proves the Bragg reflector has excellent uniformity. To achieve athermal operation of the flexible Bragg reflector, thermal expansion property of the plastic substrate is controlled by the thickness of two polymer materials constructing the plastic substrate. The flexible substrate with 0.7-μm SU-8 layers sandwiching 100-μm NOA61 layer provides an optimized thermal expansion property to compensate the thermo-optic effect of the waveguide made of ZPU polymer. The temperature dependence of the Bragg reflector is decreased to -0.011 nm/°C through the incorporation of the plastic substrate.

  2. Health and psychosocial effects of flexible working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Daniela; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2004-12-01

    To examine whether any impairments in health and social lives can be found under different kinds of flexible working hours, and whether such effects are related to specific characteristics of these working hours. Two studies -- a company based survey (N=660) and an internet survey (N=528) -- have been conducted. The first one was a questionnaire study (paper and pencil) on employees working under some 'typical' kinds of different flexible working time arrangements in different companies and different occupational fields (health care, manufacturing, retail, administration, call centres). The second study was an internet-based survey, using an adaptation of the questionnaire from the first study. The results of both studies consistently show that high variability of working hours is associated with increased impairments in health and well-being and this is especially true if this variability is company controlled. These effects are less pronounced if variability is self-controlled; however, autonomy does not compensate the effects of variability. Recommendations for an appropriate design of flexible working hours should be developed in order to minimize any impairing effects on health and psychosocial well-being; these recommendations should include -- besides allowing for discretion in controlling one's (flexible) working hours -- that variability in flexible working hours should be kept low (or at least moderate), even if this variability is self-controlled.

  3. Health Insurance Costs and Employee Compensation: Evidence from the National Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Priyanka

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the relationship between rising health insurance costs and employee compensation. I estimate the extent to which total compensation decreases with a rise in health insurance costs and decompose these changes in compensation into adjustments in wages, non-health fringe benefits, and employee contributions to health insurance premiums. I examine this relationship using the National Compensation Survey, a panel dataset on compensation and health insurance for a sample of establishments across the USA. I find that total hourly compensation reduces by $0.52 for each dollar increase in health insurance costs. This reduction in total compensation is primarily in the form of higher employee premium contributions, and there is no evidence of a change in wages and non-health fringe benefits. These findings show that workers are absorbing at least part of the increase in health insurance costs through lower compensation and highlight the importance of examining total compensation, and not just wages, when examining the relationship between health insurance costs and employee compensation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...... are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human...

  5. Flexible Structural Design for Side-Sliding Force Reduction for a Caterpillar Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Cui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to sliding force arising from the closed chain mechanism among the adhering points of a climbing caterpillar robot (CCR, a sliding phenomenon will happen at the adhering points, e.g., the vacuum pads or claws holding the surface. This sliding force makes the attachment of the climbing robot unsteady and reducesthe motion efficiency. According to the new bionic research on the soft-body structure of caterpillars, some flexible structures made of natural rubber bars are applied in CCRs correspondingly as an improvement to the old rigid mechanical design of the robotic structure. This paper firstly establishes the static model of the sliding forces, the distortion of flexible bars and the driving torques of joints. Then, a method to reduce the sliding force by exerting a compensating angle to an active joint of the CCR is presented. The analyses and experimental results indicate that the flexible structure and the compensating angle method can reduce the sliding forces remarkably.

  6. Imparting Icephobicity with Substrate Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas; Vasileiou, Thomas; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2017-11-01

    Ice accumulation poses serious safety and performance issues for modern infrastructure. Rationally designed superhydrophobic surfaces have demonstrated potential as a passive means to mitigate ice accretion; however, further studies on solutions that reduce impalement and contact time for impacting supercooled droplets are urgently needed. Here we demonstrate the collaborative effect of substrate flexibility and surface texture on enhancing icephobicity and repelling viscous droplets. We first investigate the influence of increased viscosity on impalement resistance and droplet-substrate contact time. Then we examine the effect of droplet partial solidification on recoil by impacting supercooled water droplets onto surfaces containing ice nucleation promoters. We demonstrate a passive method for shedding partially solidified droplets that does not rely on the classic recoil mechanism. Using an energy-based model, we identify a previously unexplored mechanism whereby the substrate oscillation governs the rebound process by efficiently absorbing the droplet kinetic energy and rectifying it back, allowing for droplet recoil. This mechanism applies for a range of droplet viscosities and ice slurries, which do not rebound from rigid superhydrophobic substrates. Partial support of the Swiss National Science Foundation under Grant No. 162565 and the European Research Council under Advanced Grant No. 669908 (INTICE) is acknowledged.

  7. Most promising flexible generators for the wind dominated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorushylo, I.; Keatley, P.; Hewitt, NJ

    2016-01-01

    The intermittent nature of wind power and other forms of variable renewable energy requires complementary dispatchable flexible generators in order to guarantee the efficient, reliable and secure operation of electricity systems. The most popular solution to date has been peaking plant, usually in the form of open-cycle-gas- turbines (OCGT). Energy storage technologies have so far been considered too expensive, however technology development, as well as challenging renewable targets could potentially make storage economically viable. Although new advanced flexible combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT) have been developed by some manufacturers, they have not yet been investigated in electricity market models. This paper describes a techno-economic assessment of the most suitable flexible technologies for the wind-dominated all Ireland electricity market (the Single Electricity Market (SEM)). The analysis is conducted by considering the impact of a series of policy scenarios which are compared in an electricity market model. The comparison is quantified using three primary metrics: technical benefits to the system, economic advantages to the consumer and investment viability. Modelling results suggest that advanced CCGT and energy storage solutions are the most advantageous, however they need strong governmental support to attract potential investors and guarantee deployment in the market. - Highlights: •Future efficiency and stability of the wind dominated require flexible generators. •Energy storage systems are the most technically advantageous flexible generators. •The advanced flexible CCGT is the most efficient solution from an economic point of view. •Traditional peaking plants (OCGT) is the least advantageous flexible generator. •The governments will play a key role in integration of the flexible technologies.

  8. The risks and rewards of setting physician compensation internally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jen

    2013-01-01

    To establish physician compensation internally, finance leaders should: Educate decision makers on basic regulatory guidance and valuation theory. Determine fair market value. Consider using a compensation calculator.

  9. Tracking control of the hydraulically actuated flexible manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the urgent tasks of the Department of Energy that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this remediation task. Because high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using a pressure feed backloop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as a feedforward controller to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Among various types of shaping filter methods investigated an approach, referred to as a ''feedforward simulation filter'' that uses embedded simulation, has been presented

  10. Design and experimental evaluation of flexible manipulator control algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this task. Because of high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using an inner pressure feedback loop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as feedforward controllers to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. Among them, a new approach, referred to as a ''feedforward simulation filter'' that uses embedded simulation, has been presented

  11. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  12. Defense Contract Audit Agency Compensation Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) assists the administrative contracting officer in accomplishing that responsibility by determining whether the contractor's compensation system is sound, reliable, consistently applied, and results...

  13. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  14. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  15. Integrated open source mine workers compensation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Mine Workers Compensation System developed by the CSIR and Molepe Consulting for the South African Department of Health. Mining activities increase the risk of certain occupational lung diseases. South African legislation...

  16. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-22

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  17. voltage compensation using artificial neural network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Offor Theophilos

    Simulation results showed that DVR is effective in compensating for ... shutdown of heavy equipment, switching operations etc, ... station were carried out in MatLab 2013 application. ... semiconductor in a pulse width modulation (PWM).

  18. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  19. Structural Pain Compensating Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. Designers must design the aircraft structure and the control architecture to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to build the structure with high margins, restrict control surface commands to known good combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage.

  20. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  1. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlicek, V.; Pokorny, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper

  2. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlíček, V.; Pokorný, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  3. Radiotherapy dose compensation for lung patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyaratna, N.; Arnold, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a more homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume from compensated anterior and posterior fields while the healthy lung is spared by de-weighting the lateral fields. A compensation computation which used linear iterations to compute the most homogeneous dose distribution across the target volume was applied to produce optimum compensator designs. The equivalent tissue-air ratio (E-TAR) inhomogeneity correction was applied for the computations using a GE target series 11 planning computer. The compensators designed were tested for accuracy in a modified water/lung phantom using a scanning diode and an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters. A comparison has been made between the compensated and uncompensated plans for the first nine patients who we have treated with this technique. The dose profiles produced by the computation agreed with the prediction of the computed isodose plans to within ± 2% at the target depth. The thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-measured results in the anthropomorphic phantom agreed with the planning computer within ± 3%. A comparison of nine compensated plans of radiotherapy patients for large-volume targets in the lung region showed a maximum variation in the target to be 19% uncompensated versus 10% compensated. By providing compensated treatment fields from anterior and posterior treatment portals, a homogeneous dose that conforms well to the target volume is provided. As an added bonus, this enables the lateral lung fields to be significantly de-weighted and the healthy lung is spared considerable dose. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М.Galynovskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of models of three-phase-to-single-phase rotary reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators in a circuit simulation system is analyzed. It is shown that combined control mode of opposite-connected thyristors may result in the exciter armature winding short circuits both at the thyristor feed-forward and lagging current delay angles. It must be taken into consideration when developing brushless compensator excitation systems.

  5. Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Garen, John E

    1994-01-01

    The empirical literature on executive compensation generally fails to specify a model of executive pay on which to base hypotheses regarding its determinants. In contrast, this paper analyzes a simple principal-agent model to determine how well it explains variations in CEO incentive pay and salaries. Many findings are consistent with the basic intuition of principle-agent models that compensation is structured to trade off incentives with insurance. However, statistical significance for some...

  6. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  7. Compensation for Combat Deaths: Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    through the courts for deaths resulting from other parties’ negligence or criminal behavior; a key difference between the tort system and many other...funding facilities that function outside of the tort system— for example, workers’ compensation programs for workplace fatalities and the Victims...receive $100,000 if the 10-percent risk of a loss of $100,000 actually came to pass. Tort law generally uses an ex post approach to compensation and

  8. Reactive power compensation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Just, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the

  9. Person-based differences in pay reactions: A compensation-activation theory and integrative conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Ingrid Smithey; Shaw, Jason D

    2018-06-07

    Compensation research has focused traditionally on how pay design characteristics (e.g., pay level, individual or group incentives) relate to average employee outcomes and, in toto, on how these outcomes affect organizational performance. Recently, scholars have begun to pay more attention to how individuals vary in the strength of their reactions to pay. Empirical research in several disciplines examines how the interplay of pay systems and person-based characteristics (psychological individual differences, demographics, and relative performance or position in a group) relate to important work-related outcomes. We develop a compensation-activation theory that frames compensation design characteristics as workplace "situations" providing cues that activate individuals' corresponding fundamental social motives made salient due to chronic or transient person-based characteristics. Where activation occurs, stronger-than-average responses to the compensation "situation" are expected. Using the theory as a lens, we synthesize and reinterpret existing research on person-based reactions to pay characteristics, including sorting, incentive/motivational effects, and effects on collective pay system reactions and unit/organizational outcomes. We conclude with a research agenda aimed at refining compensation-activation theory and advancing the study of compensation as it affects individual and organizational outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Environmental change, phenotypic plasticity, and genetic compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F

    2005-10-01

    When a species encounters novel environmental conditions, some phenotypic characters may develop differently than in the ancestral environment. Most environmental perturbations of development are likely to reduce fitness, and thus selection would usually be expected to favor genetic changes that restore the ancestral phenotype. I propose the term "genetic compensation" to refer to this form of adaptive evolution. Genetic compensation is a subset of genetic accommodation and the reverse of genetic assimilation. When genetic compensation has occurred along a spatial environmental gradient, the mean trait values of populations in different environments may be more similar in the field than when representatives of the same populations are raised in a common environment (i.e., countergradient variation). If compensation is complete, genetic divergence between populations may be cryptic, that is, not detectable in the field. Here I apply the concept of genetic compensation to three examples involving carotenoid-based sexual coloration and then use these and other examples to discuss the concept in a broader context. I show that genetic compensation may lead to a cryptic form of reproductive isolation between populations evolving in different environments, may explain some puzzling cases in which heritable traits exposed to strong directional selection fail to show the expected evolutionary response, and may complicate efforts to monitor populations for signs of environmental deterioration.

  11. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salz, H.; Wiezorek, T.; Scheithauer, M.; Kleen, W.; Schwedas, M.; Wendt, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation with intensity-modulated fields is possible with static as well as dynamic methods. In our university hospital, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators was prepared and used for the first time for patient irradiation in July 2001. The compensators consist of a mixture of tin granulate and wax, which is filled in a milled negative mould. The treatment planning is performed with Helax-TMS (MDS Nordion). An additional software is used for editing the modulation matrix ('Modifix'). Before irradiation of the first patient, extensive measurements have been carried out in terms of quality assurance of treatment planning and production of compensators. The results of the verification measurements have shown that IMRT with compensators possesses high spatial and dosimetric exactness. The calculated dose distributions are applied correctly. The accuracy of the calculated monitor units is normally better than 3%; in small volumes, further dosimetric inaccuracies between calculated and measured dose distributions are mostly less than 3%. Therefore, the compensators contribute to the achievement of high-level IMRT even when apparatuses without MLC are used. This paper describes the use of the IMRT with compensators, presents the limits of this technology, and discusses the first practical experiences. (orig.) [de

  12. Robotic motion compensation for applications in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    introduced fusing both breathing and tumor position information to allow for predictions without the need of an explicit correlation model. Predictions determine the future motion path of the HexaPOD in order to compensate for tumor motion. Several control schemes are developed to enable reference tracking for the HexaPOD. Based on linear and non-linear dynamic modelling of the HexaPOD with system identification methods, a first controller is derived in the form of a model predictive controller. A second controller is proposed based on an assumption of the working principle of the HexaPOD's internal controller. Finally, a third controller is derived as combination of the first and second one. For each of these controllers, comparative results with real hardware experiments and humans in the loop as well as choices of free parameters are presented and discussed. Apart from precise tracking, emphasis is placed on patient comfort which is of crucial importance for acceptance of the system. It is demonstrated that smooth trajectories can be realized by the controllers to guarantee that patients feel comfortable while their tumor motion is compensated at sub-millimeter accuracies. Overall errors of the system are analyzed by relating them to tracking and prediction errors. By exploiting the properties of different predictors, it is shown that the startup time until tracking is reached can be reduced to only a few seconds, even in the case of an initially at-rest HexaPOD and with no initial knowledge of tumor motion. This makes the system especially suitable for the relatively short-fractionated treatment sessions for lung tumors. The tumor motion compensation system has been developed solely based on standard clinical hardware, found in most treatment rooms. With a simple and flexible design, existing treatment can be updated in a cost-efficient way to introduce motion compensation capabilities. Simultaneously, the system does not impose any constraints on state

  13. Robotic motion compensation for applications in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Christian

    2013-07-22

    introduced fusing both breathing and tumor position information to allow for predictions without the need of an explicit correlation model. Predictions determine the future motion path of the HexaPOD in order to compensate for tumor motion. Several control schemes are developed to enable reference tracking for the HexaPOD. Based on linear and non-linear dynamic modelling of the HexaPOD with system identification methods, a first controller is derived in the form of a model predictive controller. A second controller is proposed based on an assumption of the working principle of the HexaPOD's internal controller. Finally, a third controller is derived as combination of the first and second one. For each of these controllers, comparative results with real hardware experiments and humans in the loop as well as choices of free parameters are presented and discussed. Apart from precise tracking, emphasis is placed on patient comfort which is of crucial importance for acceptance of the system. It is demonstrated that smooth trajectories can be realized by the controllers to guarantee that patients feel comfortable while their tumor motion is compensated at sub-millimeter accuracies. Overall errors of the system are analyzed by relating them to tracking and prediction errors. By exploiting the properties of different predictors, it is shown that the startup time until tracking is reached can be reduced to only a few seconds, even in the case of an initially at-rest HexaPOD and with no initial knowledge of tumor motion. This makes the system especially suitable for the relatively short-fractionated treatment sessions for lung tumors. The tumor motion compensation system has been developed solely based on standard clinical hardware, found in most treatment rooms. With a simple and flexible design, existing treatment can be updated in a cost-efficient way to introduce motion compensation capabilities. Simultaneously, the system does not impose any constraints on state

  14. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  15. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts......This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word...

  16. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive......, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...

  17. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...... of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based...

  18. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... independently of the authors in neighbouring township areas of Cape Town, we offer insights into patterns of victimization among young men not involved in crime who live and attend school in the townships. Young men WHO perform decent cultural repertoires are highly exposed to victimization due to their moral...... rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...

  19. Flexible helical yarn swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A P; Leshansky, A M; Pismen, L M

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the motion of a flexible Stokesian flagellar swimmer realised as a yarn made of two intertwined elastomer fibres, one active, that can reversibly change its length in response to a local excitation causing transition to the nematic state or swelling, and the other one, a passive isotropic elastomer with identical mechanical properties. A propagating chemical wave may provide an excitation mechanism ensuring a constant length of the excited region. Generally, the swimmer moves along a helical trajectory, and the propagation and rotation velocity are very sensitive to the ratio of the excited region to the pitch of the yarn, as well as to the size of a carried load. External excitation by a moving actuating beam is less effective, unless the direction of the beam is adjusted to rotation of the swimmer.

  20. Flexible weapons architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  1. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Value of flexible consumption in the electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A transition from an oil and coal based energy system to a systems based on renewable and sustainable energy sources has begun in many countries throughout the developed world. As a pioneer, Denmark currently has a wind energy penetration of 30% in the electricity sector and an end goal of 100......% renewables in all energy sectors by 2050. The main elements in this transition are an increase in the wind energy production and electrification of main energy sectors such as transport and heating. Activation of flexible consumption in the electricity markets is believed to be one of the means to compensate...... for the growth of fluctuating renewables and the decrease of conventional power plants providing system-stabilizing services. In this work, we examine the requirements for flexible consumption to be active in the spot market and the regulating power market in the Nordic system and estimate the costs of entering...

  3. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  4. Flexible nanoscale high-performance FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-10-28

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), flexible high-performance nanoscale electronics are more desired. At the moment, FinFET is the most advanced transistor architecture used in the state-of-the-art microprocessors. Therefore, we show a soft-etch based substrate thinning process to transform silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based nanoscale FinFET into flexible FinFET and then conduct comprehensive electrical characterization under various bending conditions to understand its electrical performance. Our study shows that back-etch based substrate thinning process is gentler than traditional abrasive back-grinding process; it can attain ultraflexibility and the electrical characteristics of the flexible nanoscale FinFET show no performance degradation compared to its rigid bulk counterpart indicating its readiness to be used for flexible high-performance electronics.

  5. 28 CFR 104.21 - Filing for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form.” A claim shall be deemed “filed” for... filing either a “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form,” the claim shall be..., when a Claims Evaluator determines that both the Eligibility Form and either a Personal Injury...

  6. 20 CFR 211.2 - Definition of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 211.2 Section 211.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.2 Definition of compensation. (a) The term compensation means any form...

  7. 50 CFR 296.4 - Claims eligible for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compensation. (a) Claimants. Damage or loss eligible for Fund compensation must be suffered by a commercial fisherman. (b) Damage or loss of fishing gear. Damage or loss is eligible for Fund compensation if it was... is not eligible for Fund compensation: (1) If the damage or loss was caused by the negligence or...

  8. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency and indemnity compensation. This term means a monthly payment made by...

  9. Nature-Inspired Structural Materials for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqing; He, Ke; Chen, Geng; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Xiaodong

    2017-10-25

    Exciting advancements have been made in the field of flexible electronic devices in the last two decades and will certainly lead to a revolution in peoples' lives in the future. However, because of the poor sustainability of the active materials in complex stress environments, new requirements have been adopted for the construction of flexible devices. Thus, hierarchical architectures in natural materials, which have developed various environment-adapted structures and materials through natural selection, can serve as guides to solve the limitations of materials and engineering techniques. This review covers the smart designs of structural materials inspired by natural materials and their utility in the construction of flexible devices. First, we summarize structural materials that accommodate mechanical deformations, which is the fundamental requirement for flexible devices to work properly in complex environments. Second, we discuss the functionalities of flexible devices induced by nature-inspired structural materials, including mechanical sensing, energy harvesting, physically interacting, and so on. Finally, we provide a perspective on newly developed structural materials and their potential applications in future flexible devices, as well as frontier strategies for biomimetic functions. These analyses and summaries are valuable for a systematic understanding of structural materials in electronic devices and will serve as inspirations for smart designs in flexible electronics.

  10. Wearable and flexible electronics for continuous molecular monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiran; Gao, Wei

    2018-04-03

    Wearable biosensors have received tremendous attention over the past decade owing to their great potential in predictive analytics and treatment toward personalized medicine. Flexible electronics could serve as an ideal platform for personalized wearable devices because of their unique properties such as light weight, low cost, high flexibility and great conformability. Unlike most reported flexible sensors that mainly track physical activities and vital signs, the new generation of wearable and flexible chemical sensors enables real-time, continuous and fast detection of accessible biomarkers from the human body, and allows for the collection of large-scale information about the individual's dynamic health status at the molecular level. In this article, we review and highlight recent advances in wearable and flexible sensors toward continuous and non-invasive molecular analysis in sweat, tears, saliva, interstitial fluid, blood, wound exudate as well as exhaled breath. The flexible platforms, sensing mechanisms, and device and system configurations employed for continuous monitoring are summarized. We also discuss the key challenges and opportunities of the wearable and flexible chemical sensors that lie ahead.

  11. Recent Progress on Flexible and Wearable Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qi; Sun, Jinfeng; Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Yukun; Li, Na; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-12-01

    Recently, wearable electronic devices including electrical sensors, flexible displays, and health monitors have received considerable attention and experienced rapid progress. Wearable supercapacitors attract tremendous attention mainly due to their high stability, low cost, fast charging/discharging, and high efficiency; properties that render them value for developing fully flexible devices. In this Concept, the recent achievements and advances made in flexible and wearable supercapacitors are presented, especially highlighting the promising performances of yarn/fiber-shaped and planar supercapacitors. On the basis of their working mechanism, electrode materials including carbon-based materials, metal oxide-based materials, and conductive polymers with an emphasis on the performance-optimization method are introduced. The latest representative techniques and active materials of recently developed supercapacitors with superior performance are summarized. Furthermore, the designs of 1D and 2D electrodes are discussed according to their electrically conductive supporting materials. Finally, conclusions, challenges, and perspective in optimizing and developing the electrochemical performance and function of wearable supercapacitors for their practical utility are addressed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Flexible nanoscale high-performance FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), flexible high-performance nanoscale electronics are more desired. At the moment, FinFET is the most advanced transistor architecture used in the state-of-the-art microprocessors. Therefore, we show

  13. Temperature compensation and entrainment in circadian rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenstein, C; Heiland, I; Schuster, S

    2012-01-01

    To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24 h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles. (paper)

  14. Unemployment and External and Internal Labor Market Flexibility: A Comparative View of Europe, Japan, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    David Kucera

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between unemployment and labor market flexibility. The latter is considered in the broadest sense - as it relates to labor markets at large (external flexibility) and to practices within firms (internal flexibility). The first part of the paper addresses the argument that differences in employment performance among the advanced economies result largely from differences in labor market flexibility. Empirical evidence is considered on nominal and real wage f...

  15. Accurate 3D Mapping Algorithm for Flexible Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saed Asaly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the problem of performing an accurate 3D mapping of a flexible antenna surface. Consider a high-gain satellite flexible antenna; even a submillimeter change in the antenna surface may lead to a considerable loss in the antenna gain. Using a robotic subreflector, such changes can be compensated for. Yet, in order to perform such tuning, an accurate 3D mapping of the main antenna is required. This paper presents a general method for performing an accurate 3D mapping of marked surfaces such as satellite dish antennas. Motivated by the novel technology for nanosatellites with flexible high-gain antennas, we propose a new accurate mapping framework which requires a small-sized monocamera and known patterns on the antenna surface. The experimental result shows that the presented mapping method can detect changes up to 0.1-millimeter accuracy, while the camera is located 1 meter away from the dish, allowing an RF antenna optimization for Ka and Ku frequencies. Such optimization process can improve the gain of the flexible antennas and allow an adaptive beam shaping. The presented method is currently being implemented on a nanosatellite which is scheduled to be launched at the end of 2018.

  16. Special Issue: Flexible Work Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Barney, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Section 1 contains five chapters on flexible work arrangements, self-employment, working from home, part-time professionals, job sharing, and temporary employment. Section 2 includes reviews of four books on working flexibly, concluding with a list of 23 additional readings. (SK)

  17. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  18. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  19. Functional aspects of protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2009-01-01

    this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions...

  20. Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.

    1988-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH 3 ) 4 ) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h ∼ 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Incomplete and imperfect information for sales compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Valeanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales force compensation represents the fix and / or variable payment by the company. To compensate agents based on the results, the company set a goal which is brought to their attention through the compensation plan. Applying the model of moral hazard, where the agent behavior cannot be verified, it cannot be specified in the contract what is the expected behavior of the agent. In order to make an offer to contract principal should know the effort that the agent will submit it to define the payment and the contract is determined optimally in trade between the two conflicting objectives of the two participants in the contract. Although agent behavior cannot be verified, the result of this behavior should be measurable at the end of the contract so that the employer may make the contract contingent on effort commission agent for sale of which is measured by the amount of earnings to the company.

  2. 'Compensation neurosis': a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weighill, V E

    1983-01-01

    This review examines the literature on psychological reactions, often referred to as 'compensation neurosis', which occur after an accident and which are thought to be produced or maintained by a compensation claim. Theories and research are examined. The area is complicated and research so far is limited in scope and design. Few accident cases involve compensation claims and the incidence of psychological difficulties across the whole range of cases is unknown. Researchers have considered a number of background factors--severity of injury, pre-existing neurotic traits, social class, sex and age--but there has been little investigation of attitudinal, family, social and employment factors or of progress of the condition and follow-up after settlement. The review identifies a major research need for more adequate screening and sampling of cases and for more systematic investigation of personal and family factors.

  3. Software compensation in Particle Flow reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Lan Tran, Huong; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The Particle Flow approach to calorimetry requires highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analog energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in Particle Flow reconstruct...

  4. Institutional directors and board compensation: Spanish evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix López-Iturriaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We address the influence of directors who represent institutional investors in three aspects of board compensation policies: level of compensation, composition, and performance sensitivity. We differentiate pressure-sensitive directors (i.e., with business links and pressure-resistant directors (i.e., without business links. Our results show that pressure-resistant directors decrease total board compensation and its fixed proportion, whereas they increase the variable proportion of total remuneration and the pay-for-performance sensitivity. By contrast, pressure-sensitive directors offer the opposite results. These findings are consistent with the view that institutional investors are not a homogeneous group and that pressure-resistant directors fulfill a more thorough monitoring role.

  5. Compensation: Will it provide a waste site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Offering an attractive compensation package to persuade a community to voluntarily accept an otherwise undesirable facility may work in some cases, but it's not likely to work for high-level nuclear-waste disposal. The public perception of the risks involved and the public distrust of the institutions responsible for managing those risks are just too great. Much of the controversy stems from public perceptions that the site-selection process itself is unfair. Resentment builds when this occurs, and offers of compensation come to be labeled bribes or blood money. The driving force behind current nuclear-waste policy is intergenerational equity - the moral concept that the generation that produced the waste should dispose of it, permanently. Regardless of the moral appeal, doubts have been raised about the technical feasibility of this approach. Alternatives featuring intergenerational monetary compensation may better honor the commitment hor-ellipsis and reduce pressure to try to do what may be impossible

  6. Reexamining workers' compensation: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2012-06-01

    Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a human rights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Use of FACTS for enhanced flexibility and efficiency in power transmission and distribution grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunbaum, Rolf; Wahlberg, Conny; Sannino, Ambra

    2010-09-15

    The paper shows how the use of FACTS increases flexibility in power transmission and distribution, improving capacity of transmission corridors to integrate renewable power production. Examples included are 69 kV directly connected SVCs for grid stabilization in conjunction with a high degree of wind power penetration; series compensation to evacuate power from the largest wind power installation in USA; SVC to increase the reliability and reduce congestion over a heavily loaded power corridor; thyristor controlled series compensation to increase the dynamic stability and power transmission capability of a power inter-connector. Finally, some applications of Dynamic energy storage are highlighted.

  8. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  9. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  10. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  11. SOCMA study urges flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, E.

    1993-01-01

    In implementing the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act, regulators and legislators should hold off on cookie-cutter, numerical goal-based requirements to allow for site and process specific programs, says a study sponsored by the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturers Association (SOCMA; Washington). Companies should have that flexibility to target their resources toward those activities that reduce pollution cost effectively, says SOCMA environmental quality committee chairman Art Gillen, who is also BASF director of environmental regulatory affairs. The study - conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (Denver) - examines four batch and custom chemical manufacturing films. As in the Clean Air Act, the batch processing of SOCMA-member plants should be considered in new regulations, Gillen says. For example, the study found that most wastes are from shutdowns and cleanouts, and there are frequent charges in waste streams and raw materials. Those characteristics do not lend themselves to annual reduction goals. Also, specific goals could have a wide range of costs: measures to reduce stack air emissions run from $18/lb to $1,106/lb. SOCMA says it will present the study to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency

  12. Integrated engineering increases flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Integrated Engineering (IE) can be used to describe the best use of increasingly rare good engineering talent in an increasingly competive world. A number of organisations are now moving towards IE without any general agreement on a precise definition. The engineering division of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is one such organisation. This feature covers the reasoning behind the decision, and our experience to date. BNFL engineering division is responsible primarily for the provision of major facilities on BNFL operational sites. This provision includes feasibility, front end and detailed design, procurement, installation and commissioning. Task force working has been used for some of the large projects. But the future workload is expected to comprise many more smaller projects. At the same time, equipment is becoming more complex and the need for mutual understanding and appreciation between disciplines is increasing. To meet this increasing need for flexibility, BNFL has decided to move to the matrix structure of project management and functional departments described in the article. (Author)

  13. Weak hadronic currents in compensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Working within the framework of a compensation theory of strong and weak interactions, it is shown that: (1) an axial vector baryon number current can be included in the weak current algebra if certain restrictions on the K-meson strong couplings are relaxed; (2) the theory does not permit the introduction of strange currents of the chiral form V + A; and (3) the assumption that the superweak currents of the theory cannot contain certain CP conserving terms can be justified on the basis of compensation requirements

  14. Skew quad compensation for SPEAR minibeta optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, K.

    1984-06-01

    With the new minibeta insertion for SPEAR the betatron coupling and the perturbations of beam optics caused by the solenoid field of the MARK III detector can't be compensated by the simple coils used so far. Therefore another scheme with four skew quads arranged in two families has been chosen. Even though this scheme doesn't compensate the effect of the solenoid on the beam completely, the residual emittance coupling is much less than 1% which should be sufficient under all running conditions. The major advantage of this concept is its simplicity

  15. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing; U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute

    2000-01-01

    The Contracting parties recognize the importance of the measures provided in the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third party liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as well as in national legislation on compensation for nuclear damage consistent with the principles of these conventions. The Contracting parties desire to establish a worldwide liability regime to supplement and enhance these measures with a view to increasing the amount of compensation for nuclear damage and encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principle of international partnership and solidarity

  16. Phase alteration compensation in reflection digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, O; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    The phase maps obtained from digital holographic microscopy techniques carry information about the axial lengths of the object under study. Additionally, these phase maps have information of tilt and curvatures with origin in the off-axis geometry and the magnification lenses system, respectively. Only a complete compensation of these extra phases allows a correct interpretation of the phase information. In this article a numerical strategy to compensate for these alterations is designed, using a phase mask located in different planes. This strategy is applied in the measurement of a phase steps plate using a digital holography setup.

  17. Security careers skills, compensation, and career paths

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The third edition of Security Careers is the authoritative reference for current job descriptions and pay practices of security, compliance, ethics, environmental, health and safety occupations. The job descriptions and compensation ranges in this report are drawn from research from the Foushée Group, which has been conducting this research since 1980. Security Careers includes more than 75 job descriptions for security-related positions, which range from the entry-level security guard to the top global corporate executive. It also provides four years of compensation trend data to give a th

  18. Radiation damage effects on calorimeter compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Handler, T.

    1990-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of a detector that is to be used at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the response of the calorimeter to electromagnetic and hadronic particles and the equality of those responses for different types of particles at equal incident energies, i.e. compensation. However, as the simulations that are reported show, the compensation characteristics of a calorimeter can be seriously compromised over a relatively short period of time due to the large radiation levels that are expected in the SSC environment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  19. Compensation systems for low temperature applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skoczen, Balzej T

    2004-01-01

    The book is dedicated to the behaviour of ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures, structural stability issues and reliability oriented parametric optimisation of compensation systems containing the corrugated bellows. The problems of local and global stability of systems containing bellows, coupling between the low-cycle fatigue and stability as well as evolution of plastic strain fields, micro-damage and strain induced phase transformation in the corrugated shells at cryogenic temperatures are presented. As a special feature reliability oriented optimum design of compensation systems under strength, stability, fatigue and geometrical constraints is discussed. The relevant applications in the particle accelerators and cryogenic transfer lines are shown.

  20. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  1. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction...... using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...

  2. Digital, electromagnetic rod position indicator with compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilchenfeld, M.M.; Geis, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    A digital rod position indicator having discrete coils L 0 , L 1 , L 2 ..... spaced along the travel path of an elongate magnetically permeable member stores in digital form compensation signals for automatically adjusting the location relative to the coils at which a digital output signal representative of the position of the end of the elongate member transitions from one code to the next. The appropriate compensation signal is addressed using the digital output signal and a correction factor which takes into account the direction of movement including reversals. Reference is made to the positioning of the control rods in a pressurized water reactor. (author)

  3. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  4. Linear and Nonlinear Impairment Compensation in Coherent Optical Transmission with Digital Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson

    Digital signal processing (DSP) has become one of the main enabling technologies for the physical layer of coherent optical communication networks. The DSP subsystems are used to implement several functionalities in the digital domain, from synchronization to channel equalization. Flexibility...... nonlinearity compensation, (II) spectral shaping, and (III) adaptive equalization. For (I), original contributions are presented to the study of the nonlinearity compensation (NLC) with digital backpropagation (DBP). Numerical and experimental performance investigations are shown for different application...... scenarios. Concerning (II), it is demonstrated how optical and electrical (digital) pulse shaping can be allied to improve the spectral confinement of a particular class of optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) signals that can be used as a building block for fast signaling single-carrier transceivers...

  5. Flexible and biocompatible high-performance solid-state micro-battery for implantable orthodontic system

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Alamoudi, Kholod O.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Almuslem, Amani S.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Diallo, Elhadj M.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    To augment the quality of our life, fully compliant personalized advanced health-care electronic system is pivotal. One of the major requirements to implement such systems is a physically flexible high-performance biocompatible energy storage

  6. Filter Bank Approach to the Estimation of Flexible Modes in Dynamic Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzellos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    .... In this thesis the problem of identifying frequencies of disturbances in flexible systems using advanced Digital Signal Processing techniques such as filter banks and Quadrature Mirror Filters is addressed...

  7. Solid-state Memory on Flexible Silicon for Future Electronic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in electronics research triggered a vision of a more connected world, touching new unprecedented fields to improve the quality of our lives. This vision has been fueled by electronic giants showcasing flexible displays for the first

  8. Applied optics. Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aieta, Francesco; Kats, Mikhail A; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico

    2015-03-20

    The replacement of bulk refractive optical elements with diffractive planar components enables the miniaturization of optical systems. However, diffractive optics suffers from large chromatic aberrations due to the dispersion of the phase accumulated by light during propagation. We show that this limitation can be overcome with an engineered wavelength-dependent phase shift imparted by a metasurface, and we demonstrate a design that deflects three wavelengths by the same angle. A planar lens without chromatic aberrations at three wavelengths is also presented. Our designs are based on low-loss dielectric resonators, which introduce a dense spectrum of optical modes to enable dispersive phase compensation. The suppression of chromatic aberrations in metasurface-based planar photonics will find applications in lightweight collimators for displays, as well as chromatically corrected imaging systems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Kiu, G Q

    2015-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes. (paper)

  10. Flexibility in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reparaz, A.; Stavig, W.E.; McLees, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    From its inception Exxon Nuclear has produced both BWR and PWR fuels. This is reflected in a product line that, to date, includes over 20 fuel designs. These range from 6x6 design at one end of the spectrum to the recently introduced 17x17 design. The benefits offered include close tailoring of the fuel design to match the customer's requirements, and the ability to rapidly introduce product changes, such as the axial blanket design, with a minimal impact on manufacturing. This flexibility places a number of demands on the manufacturing organization. Close interfaces must be established, and maintained, between the marketing, product design, manufacturing, purchasing and quality organizations, and the information flows must be immediate and accurate. Production schedules must be well planned and must be maintained or revised to reflect changing circumstances. Finally, the manufacturing facilities must be designed to allow rapid switchover between product designs with minor tooling changes and/or rerouting of product flows to alternate work stations. Among the tools used to manage the flow of information and to maintain the tight integration necessary between the various manufacturing, engineering and quality organizations is a commercially available, computerized planning and tracking system, AMAPS. A real-time production data collection system has been designed which gathers data from each production work station for use by the shop floor control module of AMAPS. Accuracy of input to the system is improved through extensive use of bar codes to gather information on the product as it moves through and between work stations. This computerized preparation of material tracing has an impact on direct manufacturing records, quality control records, nuclear material records and accounting and inventory records. This is of benefit to both Exxon Nuclear and its customers

  11. Framework of Jitter Detection and Compensation for High Resolution Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Tong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Attitude jitter is a common phenomenon in the application of high resolution satellites, which may result in large errors of geo-positioning and mapping accuracy. Therefore, it is critical to detect and compensate attitude jitter to explore the full geometric potential of high resolution satellites. In this paper, a framework of jitter detection and compensation for high resolution satellites is proposed and some preliminary investigation is performed. Three methods for jitter detection are presented as follows. (1 The first one is based on multispectral images using parallax between two different bands in the image; (2 The second is based on stereo images using rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs; (3 The third is based on panchromatic images employing orthorectification processing. Based on the calculated parallax maps, the frequency and amplitude of the detected jitter are obtained. Subsequently, two approaches for jitter compensation are conducted. (1 The first one is to conduct the compensation on image, which uses the derived parallax observations for resampling; (2 The second is to conduct the compensation on attitude data, which treats the influence of jitter on attitude as correction of charge-coupled device (CCD viewing angles. Experiments with images from several satellites, such as ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiaometer, LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and ZY-3 (ZiYuan-3 demonstrate the promising performance and feasibility of the proposed framework.

  12. Verification of the active deformation compensation system of the LMT/GTM by end-to-end simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisentraeger, Peter; Suess, Martin

    2000-07-01

    The 50 m LMT/GTM is exposed to the climatic conditions at 4,600 m height on Cerro La Negra, Mexico. For operating the telescope to the challenging requirements of its millimeter objective, an active approach for monitoring and compensating the structural deformations (Flexible Body Compensation FBC) is necessary. This system includes temperature sensors and strain gages for identifying large scale deformations of the reflector backup structure, a laser system for measuring the subreflector position, and an inclinometer system for measuring the deformations of the alidade. For compensating the monitored deformations, the telescope is equipped with additional actuators for active control of the main reflector surface and the subreflector position. The paper describes the verification of the active deformation system by finite element calculations and MATLAB simulations of the surface accuracy and the pointing including the servo under the operational wind and thermal conditions.

  13. Reliability Issues and Solutions in Flexible Electronics Under Mechanical Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seol-Min; Choi, In-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Joon; Joo, Young-Chang

    2018-03-01

    Flexible devices are of significant interest due to their potential expansion of the application of smart devices into various fields, such as energy harvesting, biological applications and consumer electronics. Due to the mechanically dynamic operations of flexible electronics, their mechanical reliability must be thoroughly investigated to understand their failure mechanisms and lifetimes. Reliability issue caused by bending fatigue, one of the typical operational limitations of flexible electronics, has been studied using various test methodologies; however, electromechanical evaluations which are essential to assess the reliability of electronic devices for flexible applications had not been investigated because the testing method was not established. By employing the in situ bending fatigue test, we has studied the failure mechanism for various conditions and parameters, such as bending strain, fatigue area, film thickness, and lateral dimensions. Moreover, various methods for improving the bending reliability have been developed based on the failure mechanism. Nanostructures such as holes, pores, wires and composites of nanoparticles and nanotubes have been suggested for better reliability. Flexible devices were also investigated to find the potential failures initiated by complex structures under bending fatigue strain. In this review, the recent advances in test methodology, mechanism studies, and practical applications are introduced. Additionally, perspectives including the future advance to stretchable electronics are discussed based on the current achievements in research.

  14. Incentivizing Flexibility in System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Defining flexibility has been a challenge that a number of industry members and researchers have attempted to address in recent years. With increased variability and uncertainty of variable generation (VG), the resources on the system will have to be more flexible to adjust output, so that power output ranges, power ramp rates, and energy duration sustainability are sufficient to meet the needs of balancing supply with demand at various operational timescales. This chapter discusses whether existing market designs provide adequate incentives for resources to offer their flexibility into the market to meet the increased levels of variability and uncertainty introduced by VG in the short-term operational time frame. It presents a definition of flexibility and discusses how increased levels of VG require increased needs for flexibility on power systems. Following this introductory material, the chapter examines how existing market designs ensure that resources have the right incentives to provide increased flexibility, and then discusses a number of emerging market design elements that impact flexibility incentives.

  15. Role and models for compensation of tobacco use prevention and cessation by oral health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crail, Jon; Lahtinen, Aira; Beck-Mannagetta, Johann; Benzian, Habib; Enmarks, Birgitta; Jenner, Tony; Knevel, Ron; Lulic, Martina; Wickholm, Seppo

    2010-02-01

    Appropriate compensation of tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) would give oral health professionals better incentives to provide TUPAC, which is considered part of their professional and ethical responsibility and improves quality of care. Barriers for compensation are that tobacco addiction is not recognised as a chronic disease but rather as a behavioural disorder or merely as a risk factor for other diseases. TUPAC-related compensation should be available to oral health professionals, be in appropriate relation to other dental therapeutic interventions and should not be funded from existing oral health care budgets alone. We recommend modifying existing treatment and billing codes or creating new codes for TUPAC. Furthermore, we suggest a four-staged model for TUPAC compensation. Stages 1 and 2 are basic care, stage 3 is intermediate care and stage 4 is advanced care. Proceeding from stage 1 to other stages may happen immediately or over many years. Stage 1: Identification and documentation of tobacco use is part of each patient's medical history and included into oral examination with no extra compensation. Stage 2: Brief intervention consists of a motivational interview and providing information about existing support. This stage should be coded/reimbursed as a short preventive intervention similar to other advice for oral care. Stage 3: Intermediate care consists of a motivational interview, assessment of tobacco dependency, informing about possible support and pharmacotherapy, if appropriate. This stage should be coded as preventive intervention similar to an oral hygiene instruction. Stage 4: Advanced care. Treatment codes should be created for advanced interventions by oral health professionals with adequate qualification. Interventions should follow established guidelines and use the most cost-effective approaches.

  16. Adaptive friction compensation: a globally stable approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.A.; Tóth, R.; Babuska, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive friction compensation scheme is proposed. The friction force is computed as a timevarying friction coefficient multiplied by the sign of the velocity and an on-line update law is designed to estimate this coefficient based on the actual position and velocity errors.

  17. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is limited to the actual net reduction or loss of earnings or profits suffered. Calculations for net reductions or losses must clearly reflect adjustments for... available; (d) Any saved overhead or normal expenses not incurred as a result of the incident; and (e) State...

  18. On the compensation effect in heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bligaard; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Logadottir, Ashildur

    2003-01-01

    For a class of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, we explain the compensation effect in terms of a switching of kinetic regimes leading to a concomitant change in the apparent activation energy and in the prefactor for the overall rate of the reaction. We first use the ammonia synthesis...

  19. Annual compensation for pipelines in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The Surface Rights Board (SRB) in Alberta held a hearing in November 2007 to address three issues involving a pipeline for Enbridge Pipelines (Athabasca) Inc. as well as several land owner issues in Townships 66-68 and Ranges 17-19, all west of the 4th Meridian. The issues the SRB examined were the appropriate amount (i.e. magnitude) of compensation payable under right of entry orders under consideration; the appropriate structure of the compensation award; and to whom the compensation was payable. This document presented a review by the Farmer's Advocate Office (FAO) of the published decision of the SRB. The verbatim decision and rationale used by the SRB to award annual compensation for loss and/or ongoing nuisance and inconvenience was presented. The document could be useful to landowners as they determine their negotiation strategy when faced with considering future pipeline access agreements. The document included a discussion of the context for the decision and a case review. Specific topics that were covered included the rationale for the decision; long term effects of pipeline arguments and SRB commentary; the award and determination; and what still needs to be done. It was concluded that the SRB requires evidence in order to answer several questions regarding the magnitude of any losses, and to what degree, if any, had the nuisance, inconvenience, and loss of rights already been anticipated and factored into the operator's final offer

  20. 7 CFR 1280.208 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1280.208 Section 1280.208 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information...

  1. Evaluation of the implementation of Employees Compensation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the passage into law of the Employees Compensation Act in 2011, countless cases of workplace accidents have occurred in Nigeria. Yet there seems to be no succour for the Nigerian worker as many state governments have either refused to register with or do not have the will power to implement the legislation in ...

  2. Employing Conjoint Analysis in Making Compensation Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienast, Philip; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method employing conjoint analysis that generates utility/cost ratios for various elements of the compensation package. Its superiority to simple preference surveys is examined. Results of a study of the use of this method in fringe benefit planning in a large financial institution are reported. (Author/JAC)

  3. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Li, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2010-01-01

    We examine how executive compensation affects the cost of debt financing. Analyzing CEO pay data from the UK, we find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have opposite effects on the cost of debt. An increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while an

  4. ARCC Teacher Compensation Initiative: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, the Tennessee State Board of Education (SBE) requested that the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center (ARCC) provide assistance to the SBE's Basic Education Program (BEP) Review Committee. The SBE requested additional information on the use and effectiveness of market-based teacher compensation and market-based incentives by…

  5. Open Business Models: New Compensation Mechanisms for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Business Models: New Compensation Mechanisms for Creativity and Inclusion ... This research aims to explore important new business models in the networked society ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018 ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  6. Inertia compensated force and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, B.; Engeler, P.; Gossweiler, C. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Any moving structure is affected by inertial effects. In case of force and pressure sensors, inertial effects cause measurement errors. The paper deals with novel signal conditioning methods and mechanical design features to minimize inertial effects. A novel solution for passive compensation of pressure sensors is presented. (orig.)

  7. Compensation of coupling in the SSC complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Bourianoff, G.

    1991-10-01

    This paper will describe a study of the coupling effects and their compensation by means of local depending techniques for some of the accelerators in the SSC Complex. Results concerning corrections and decoupling for the Low Energy and Medium Energy Boosters will be compared to results obtained for the Collider Ring. Some preliminary experimental data about measurement of coupling quantities will also be presented

  8. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable compensation. 295.21 Section 295.21 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... no-cost crisis counseling services available in the community. FEMA will not reimburse for treatment...

  9. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Liu, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how different components of executive compensation affect the cost of debt. We find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have differing effects: an increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while higher share holdings lead to higher

  10. The Compensation Act 2006 and School Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Jones, John

    2006-01-01

    The Compensation Act 2006 received its Royal Assent on 25 July 2006. The Act allows the courts to have regard to the social utility of "desirable activities", including school trips, in considering negligence claims. The article reviews the law of negligence as it affects teachers of the very young and considers the possible impact of…

  11. 22 CFR 96.34 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... actually rendered, taking into account the country in which the adoption services are provided and norms... norms are known to the accrediting entity; the location, number, and qualifications of staff; workload requirements; budget; and size of the agency or person. (e) Any other compensation paid to the agency's or...

  12. Flywheels Would Compensate for Rotor Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastar, J. A. S.

    1982-01-01

    Spinning flywheels within rotor can null imbalance forces in rotor. Flywheels axes are perpendicular to each other and to rotor axis. Feedback signals from accelerometers or strain gages in platform control flywheel speeds and rotation directions. Concept should be useful for compensating rotating bodies on Earth. For example, may be applied to large industrial centrifuge, particularly if balance changes during operation.

  13. Paraxial charge compensator for electron cryomicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, John A.; Rosenthal, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multi-hole condenser aperture for the production of several electron beams in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) making it possible to simultaneously image and irradiate spatially separated regions of a specimen. When the specimen is a thin film of vitreous ice suspended over a holey carbon film, simultaneous irradiation of the adjacent carbon support with the off-axis beam compensates for some of the effects of charging in the image formed by a beam irradiating only the ice. Because the intervening region is not irradiated, charge-neutralization of frozen-hydrated specimens can occur by a through-space mechanism such as the emission of secondary electrons from a grounded carbon support film. We use paraxial charge compensation (PCC) to control the amount of charge build-up on the specimen and observe the effects of charge on images. The multi-hole aperture thus provides a tool for investigating the mechanism of charging and charge mitigation during the imaging of radiation sensitive biological specimens by cryomicroscopy. -- Highlights: ► A multi-hole condenser aperture produces multiple (paraxial) beams in TEM. ► Paraxial charge compensation is used to study electron-optical effects of charging. ► Emission of secondary electrons controls charging by a through space mechanism. ► Paraxial beams compensate for charging effects in frozen-hydrated specimens.

  14. Feedback loop compensates for rectifier nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Signal processing circuit with two negative feedback loops rectifies two sinusoidal signals which are 180 degrees out of phase and produces a single full-wave rectified output signal. Each feedback loop incorporates a feedback rectifier to compensate for the nonlinearity of the circuit.

  15. Compensation Services Advisor | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Compensation Services Advisor is accountable for the effective ... Coordinates the annual Performance Review and Assessment System ... by IDRC and the broader financial and social implications of working in Canada. ... in areas such as mortgages, credit and so on to individuals not accustomed to ...

  16. Wavefront compensation applied to AVLIS laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsiorowski, T.; Wirth, A.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of an AVLIS system depends upon the power density and uniformity of the laser system. Because of wavefront aberrations the realized beam quality is not ideal. Wavefront compensation provides a means to improve beam quality and system efficiency. (author)

  17. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Simon, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed.

  18. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Simon, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed. (orig.)

  19. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-10-01

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed.

  20. 31 CFR 28.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 28.515 Section 28.515 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance...

  1. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  2. Compensation techniques for operational amplifier bias current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two techniques are proposed for the compensation of the input current on operational amplifiers that can be used on inverting and non-inverting configurations. A qualitative analysis of temperature drift problems is made, and as a practical application, the construction of a voltage follower for high impedance measurements is presented. (Author) [pt

  3. Paraxial charge compensator for electron cryomicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berriman, John A. [Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Rosenthal, Peter B., E-mail: peter.rosenthal@nimr.mrc.ac.uk [Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    We describe a multi-hole condenser aperture for the production of several electron beams in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) making it possible to simultaneously image and irradiate spatially separated regions of a specimen. When the specimen is a thin film of vitreous ice suspended over a holey carbon film, simultaneous irradiation of the adjacent carbon support with the off-axis beam compensates for some of the effects of charging in the image formed by a beam irradiating only the ice. Because the intervening region is not irradiated, charge-neutralization of frozen-hydrated specimens can occur by a through-space mechanism such as the emission of secondary electrons from a grounded carbon support film. We use paraxial charge compensation (PCC) to control the amount of charge build-up on the specimen and observe the effects of charge on images. The multi-hole aperture thus provides a tool for investigating the mechanism of charging and charge mitigation during the imaging of radiation sensitive biological specimens by cryomicroscopy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multi-hole condenser aperture produces multiple (paraxial) beams in TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraxial charge compensation is used to study electron-optical effects of charging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emission of secondary electrons controls charging by a through space mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraxial beams compensate for charging effects in frozen-hydrated specimens.

  4. 7 CFR 301.74-5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exclusively at farmers markets or similar outlets that require orchard owners to sell only fruit that they... of commercial stone fruit orchards. Owners of commercial stone fruit orchards are eligible to receive... marketers. Orchard owners eligible for compensation under this paragraph who market all fruit they produce...

  5. Women's Experience in the Workers' Compensation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robert; Jansz, Janis

    2006-09-01

    Gender differences is a question of major importance within workers' compensation given the increased role of women in the workforce over the past several decades. This article reviews literature relating to women's experiences following work injury. An Australian study is used as background to exploring the broad issue of the question of gender equity in workers' compensation. In doing so it takes account of historical, legal and medical issues. Women's experience in the workers' compensation system is different to that of men due to a range of factors. It is heavily influenced by the industrial environment in which they work. Women are paid less than men in many instances and work in gender-segregated circumstances, which often reduces their industrial bargaining power. Women also suffer different forms of injury and disease to men because of the different nature of their work. The Australian experience suggests that as a consequence of the combination of lesser industrial bargaining power, lower wages and differing forms of injury and disease women often receive less than men in compensation payments, struggle to obtain equity in the dispute resolution process and experience greater difficulties in returning to work following injury or disease.

  6. 1979-1980 Administrative Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, James; And Others

    Results of the 1979-80 Administrative Compensation Survey Report conducted by the College and University Personnel Association are presented. The survey is based on 1,383 responses and covers 77 positions. Salary data are indicated for the median and interquartile range for each position. Data are provided by type of institution, by size of…

  7. 1981-1982 Administrative Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan P.; And Others

    Results of the College and University Personnel Association's 1981-1982 Administrative Compensation Survey, which provides data on 94 positions, is presented. Questionnaires were sent to 2,770 higher education institutions, and 1,391 usable responses were obtained. Salary data indicate the median and the interquartile range for each position and…

  8. Administrative Compensation Survey, 1983-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Forest C.; And Others

    Results of the College and University Personnel Association's 1983-1984 Administrative Compensation Survey, which provides data on 99 positions, is presented. Questionnaires were sent to 2,856 higher education institutions, and 1,515 usable responses were obtained. Salary data indicate the median and the interquartile range for each position and…

  9. 77 FR 5381 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... orchards, including direct marketers, and fruit tree nurseries. Compensation payments are provided to... stone fruit growers and direct marketers and in fruit tree nurseries, along with the effects of... economic losses experienced by grove owners, direct marketers, and nursery owners who are subject to an EAN...

  10. Attitudes toward the dubious compensation claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEGGO, C

    1951-07-01

    Laws providing for compensation of workmen for occupational injury are a powerful socio-economic force. In settlement of compensation claims the goal, difficult to achieve, is fairness to employee, employer and insurance carrier. Often, medical, legal, economic and social considerations conflict with one another. A "fact" in one field may not be considered so in another. Since medical data and testimony often guide the ultimate decision of a compensation claim, the physician's attitude is a large factor not only immediately and directly in determination of the case at hand but, perhaps more important, in the ultimate direction of the socio-economic forces which spring from the sum of all such determinations. To perpetuate the good in workmen's compensation laws, the next generation of physicians-and of lawyers and business administrators as well, for they, too, are involved-ought to have basic training in the social sciences in order that they may have a broad rather than a segmental view of the problems with which they deal.

  11. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  12. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  13. Modeling, simulation and design optimization of a hoisting rig active heave compensation system

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Peter; Walid, Ahmed Ahmed; Iskandarani, Yousef; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Published version of an article in the journal: International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13042-012-0076-x The objective of this paper is to present an approach in developing a virtual active heave compensation system for a draw-works on a hoisting rig. A virtual system enables quicker overall product development time of a physical system as well as flexibility in optimizing the design parameters. Development...

  14. A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Network Provisioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-04-12

    Many scientific applications need support from a communication infrastructure that provides predictable performance, which requires effective algorithms for bandwidth reservations. Network reservation systems such as ESnet's OSCARS, establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits for a certain bandwidth and length of time. However, users currently cannot inquire about bandwidth availability, nor have alternative suggestions when reservation requests fail. In general, the number of reservation options is exponential with the number of nodes n, and current reservation commitments. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks taking advantage of user-provided parameters of total volume and time constraints, which produces options for earliest completion and shortest duration. The theoretical complexity is only O(n2r2) in the worst-case, where r is the number of reservations in the desired time interval. We have implemented our algorithm and developed efficient methodologies for incorporation into network reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm the theoretical predictions.

  15. The Flexible Foundry: Advanced Reconfigurable Manufacturing for Semiconductors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium —  Sometimes it is not a device that is obsolete, but an idea. In logistics terms, the problem is not that the device becomes obsolete; the problem is that the device...

  16. Flexible Regenerative Nanoelectronics for Advanced Peripheral Neural Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    photolithography on a nickel metal release layer deposited on a silicon substrate (900  nm SiO2 , n-type 0.005  V·cm, University Wafer). SU-8...electrode from (b). (e) Mesh electrode released from glass wafer, suspended in water. Subtask 1.2. Validation of mesh electrode properties. With the

  17. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James

    2017-10-30

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  18. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-09

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James; Georgiadou, Dimitra G; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Gelinck, Gerwin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  20. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, James; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Gelinck, Gerwin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  1. Free form CMOS electronics: Physically flexible and stretchable

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-12-07

    Free form (physically flexible and stretchable) electronics can be used for applications which are unexplored today due to the rigid and brittle nature of the state-of-the-art electronics. Therefore, we show integration strategy to rationally design materials, processes and devices to transform advanced complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics into flexible and stretchable one while retaining their high performance, energy efficiency, ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) density, reliability and performance over cost benefit to expand its applications for wearable, implantable and Internet-of-Everything electronics.

  2. Flexible Thermoelectric Generators on Silicon Fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the development of a Thermoelectric Generator on Flexible Silicon Fabric is explored to extend silicon electronics for flexible platforms. Low cost, easily deployable plastic based flexible electronics are of great interest for smart

  3. A flexible, highly sensitive catheter for high resolution manometry based on in-fibre Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueley, Christopher; Wild, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a fibre optic-based flexible catheter for high resolution manometry (HRM), with sensing pods located at a pitch of 10 mm and an overall diameter of 2.8 mm. In-fibre Bragg gratings act as the sensing elements within these sensing pods. Hydrodynamic pressure resolution of 0.2 mmHg is demonstrated in conjunction with insensitivity to occlusion pressure. This result is significant in the context of HRM where independent measurement of hydrodynamic pressure is clinically relevant. The sensing system is compact, robust and flexible. Crosstalk between individual sensors is characterized and a compensation scheme is developed and validated. (paper)

  4. NEW CONCEPTUAL SOLUTIONS FOR ELASTIC COUPLINGS WITH HIGH CAPABILITY COMPENSATION OF MISALIGNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRE Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a problem of great interest in power transmissions, very widely applied in practice: the use of elastic couplings having an adequate level of torque transmission and a reasonable axial and angular misalignment capability based on elastic deformations of specific flexible elements. A characterization (discussion of two elastic couplings characteristic for the area of compensative couplings is offered. An innovative principle of elastic coupling with reinforced flexible elements is proposed. The mechanical strength analysis for both elastic couplings (with spoked metallic membranes and reinforced elastic elements in the case of existing axial and angular deviations is discussed also. It is revealed that the study of these couplings based on elastic deformations is of great theoretical and practical importance today.

  5. Flexibility of trunnion piping elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.D.; Chao, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    Flexibility factors and stress indices for piping component such as straight pipe, elbows, butt-welding tees, branch connections, and butt-welding reducers are contained in the code, but many of the less common piping components, like the trunnion elbow, do not have flexibility factors or stress indices defined. The purpose of this paper is to identify the in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors in accordance with code procedures for welded trunnions attached to the tangent centerlines of long radius elbows. This work utilized the finite element method as applicable to plates and shells for calculating the relative rotations of the trunnion elbow-ends for in-plane and out-of-plane elbow moment loadings. These rotations are used to derive the corresponding in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors. (orig./GL)

  6. Distributed flexibility in inertial swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floryan, Daniel; Rowley, Clarence W.; Smits, Alexander J.

    2017-11-01

    To achieve fast and efficient swimming, the flexibility of the propulsive surfaces is an important feature. To better understand the effects of distributed flexibility (either through inhomogeneous material properties, varying geometry, or both) we consider the coupled solid and fluid mechanics of the problem. Here, we develop a simplified model of a flexible swimmer, using Euler-Bernoulli theory to describe the solid, Theodorsen's theory to describe the fluid, and a Blasius boundary layer to incorporate viscous effects. Our primary aims are to understand how distributed flexibility affects the thrust production and efficiency of a swimmer with imposed motion at its leading edge. In particular, we examine the modal shapes of the swimmer to gain physical insight into the observed trends. Supported under ONR MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533, Program Manager Robert Brizzolara.

  7. Automatic Compensation of Workpiece Positioning Tolerances for Precise Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Stache

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise laser welding plays a fundamental role in the production of high-tech goods, particularly in precision engineering. In this working field, precise adjustment and compensation of positioning tolerances of the parts to be welded with respect to the laser beam is of paramount importance. This procedure mostly requires tedious and error-prone manual adjustment, which additionally results in a sharp increase in production costs. We therefore developed a system which automates and thus accelerates this procedure significantly. To this end, the welding machine is equipped with a camera to acquire high resolution images of the parts to be welded. In addition, a software framework is developed which enables precise automatic position detection of these parts and adjusts the position of the welding contour correspondingly. As a result, the machine is rapidly prepared for welding, and it is much more flexible in adapting to unknown parts.This paper describes the entire concept of extending a conventional welding machine with means for image acquisition and position estimation. In addition to this description, the algorithms, the results of an evaluation of position estimation, and a final welding result are presented. 

  8. Novel Nano-Materials and Nano-Fabrication Techniques for Flexible Electronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyowon Kang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in fabricating flexible electronics has been significantly developed because of the increased interest in flexible electronics, which can be applied to enormous fields, not only conventional in electronic devices, but also in bio/eco-electronic devices. Flexible electronics can be applied to a wide range of fields, such as flexible displays, flexible power storages, flexible solar cells, wearable electronics, and healthcare monitoring devices. Recently, flexible electronics have been attached to the skin and have even been implanted into the human body for monitoring biosignals and for treatment purposes. To improve the electrical and mechanical properties of flexible electronics, nanoscale fabrications using novel nanomaterials are required. Advancements in nanoscale fabrication methods allow the construction of active materials that can be combined with ultrathin soft substrates to form flexible electronics with high performances and reliability. In this review, a wide range of flexible electronic applications via nanoscale fabrication methods, classified as either top-down or bottom-up approaches, including conventional photolithography, soft lithography, nanoimprint lithography, growth, assembly, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD, are introduced, with specific fabrication processes and results. Here, our aim is to introduce recent progress on the various fabrication methods for flexible electronics, based on novel nanomaterials, using application examples of fundamental device components for electronics and applications in healthcare systems.

  9. Determinants of flexible work arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbu, Miruna

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work arrangements such as allowing employees to work at home are used in firms, especially since information and communication technologies have become so widespread. Using individual-level data from 10,884 German employees, this paper analyses the determinants of working at home as a form of flexible work arrangements. The analysis is based on descriptive analyses and a discrete choice model using a probit estimation approach. The results reveal that men have a higher...

  10. Workplace flexibility across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Pieter; Jansen, Paul G W

    2016-01-01

    As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations and workers arelooking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace flexibility has beenintroduced as a potential way workers can have more satisfying working lives until theirretirement ages. This paper presents a critical review of the literature on workplace flexibilityacross the lifespan. It discusses how flexibility has been conceptualized across differentdisciplines, and postulates a definitio...

  11. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  12. Flexible forms of working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    66 Abstract - Flexible forms of working hours This diploma thesis deals with the flexible forms of working hours and its goal is to describe this issue in intelligible and comprehensive way. It is being very interesting and current theme which is to a great extent not subject to direct legal regulations and provides its contracting parties with a big amount of freedom of contract. This fact assists in bigger flexibilization of labour market and represents a significant instrument in the fight...

  13. Deformation compensation in dynamic tomography; Compensation de deformations en tomographie dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbat, L. [Universite Joseph Fourier, UMR CNRS 5525, 38 - Grenoble (France); Roux, S. [Universite Joseph Fourier, TIMC-IMAG, In3S, Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France); Grangeat, P. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the compensation of motion in tomography. New classes of deformation are proposed, that compensates analytically by an algorithm of a F.B.P. type reconstruction. This work makes a generalisation of the known results for affine deformations, in parallel geometry and fan-beam, to deformation classes of infinite dimension able to include strong non linearities. (N.C.)

  14. Re-Planning for Compensator-Based IMRT with Original Compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir; Stevens, Craig; Li Weiqi; Leuthold, Susan; Springett, Gregory; Hoffe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Compared with multileaf collimator (MLC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for moving targets, compensator-based IMRT has advantages such as shorter beam-on time, fewer monitor units with potentially decreased secondary carcinogenesis risk, better optimization-to-deliverable dose conversion, and often better dose conformity. Some of the disadvantages include additional time for the compensators to be built and delivered, as well as extra cost. Patients undergoing treatment of abdominal cancers often experience weight loss. It would be necessary to account for this change in weight with a new plan and a second set of compensators. However, this would result in treatment delays and added costs. We have developed a method to re-plan the patient using the same set of compensators. Because the weight changes seen with the treatment of abdominal cancers are usually relatively small, a new 4D computed tomography (CT) acquired in the treatment position with markers on the original isocenter tattoos can be registered to the original planning scan. The contours of target volumes from the original scans are copied to the new scan after fusion. The original compensator set can be used together with a few field-in-field (FiF) beams defined by the MLC (or beams with cerrobend blocks for accelerators not equipped with a MLC). The weights of the beams with compensators are reduced so that the FiF or blocked beams can be optimized to mirror the original plan and dose distribution. Seven abdominal cancer cases are presented using this technique. The new plan on the new planning CT images usually has the same dosimetric quality as the original. The target coverage and dose uniformity are improved compared with the plan without FiF/block modification. Techniques combining additional FiF or blocked beams with the original compensators optimize the treatment plans when patients lose weight and save time and cost compared with generating plans with a new set of compensators.

  15. Global patterns and trends in human-wildlife conflict compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Jeremy; Nyhus, Philip J

    2017-12-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a major conservation challenge, and compensation for wildlife damage is a widely used economic tool to mitigate this conflict. The effectiveness of this management tool is widely debated. The relative importance of factors associated with compensation success is unclear, and little is known about global geographic or taxonomic differences in the application of compensation programs. We reviewed research on wildlife-damage compensation to determine geographic and taxonomic gaps, analyze patterns of positive and negative comments related to compensation, and assess the relative magnitude of global compensation payments. We analyzed 288 publications referencing wildlife compensation and identified 138 unique compensation programs. These publications reported US$222 million (adjusted for inflation) spent on compensation in 50 countries since 1980. Europeans published the most articles, and compensation funding was highest in Europe, where depredation by wolves and bears was the most frequently compensated damage. Authors of the publications we reviewed made twice as many negative comments as positive comments about compensation. Three-quarters of the negative comments related to program administration. Conversely, three-quarters of the positive comments related to program outcomes. The 3 most common suggestions to improve compensation programs included requiring claimants to employ damage-prevention practices, such as improving livestock husbandry or fencing of crops to receive compensation (n = 25, 15%); modifying ex post compensation schemes to some form of outcome-based performance payment (n = 21, 12%); and altering programs to make compensation payments more quickly (n = 14, 8%). We suggest that further understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of compensation as a conflict-mitigation tool will require more systematic evaluation of the factors driving these opinions and that differentiating process and outcomes and understanding

  16. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  17. The Nature of Whiplash in a Compensable Environment: Injury, Disability, Rehabilitation, and Compensation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Luke B

    2017-07-01

    Synopsis Whiplash is a compensable injury in many jurisdictions, but there is considerable heterogeneity in the compensation arrangements that apply across jurisdictions, even within some countries. These compensation schemes have, however, been subject to a common set of interrelated concerns, chiefly concerning the incentives, behaviors, and outcomes that may arise when financial compensation for injuries is available to injured parties. This article provides a nontechnical overview of some of those concerns through the lens of economics: principally, insurance economics and health economics, including related subsets such as information economics and agency theory, as well as economics and the law. It notes that because it is generally infeasible to randomize the treatment (ie, compensation) via trials, analyses of observational data are necessary to discover more about the relationship between compensation and health outcomes. This poses the analytical challenge of discovering causal connections between phenomena from nonrandomized data sets. The present article calls for further research that would enable convincing causal interpretations of such relationships via the careful analysis of rich observational data sets using modern econometric methods. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(7):503-508. Epub 16 Jun 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7533.

  18. Flexible navigation response in common cuckoos Cuculus canorus displaced experimentally during migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel; Blas, Julio; Wikelski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Migrating birds follow innate species-specific migration programs capable of guiding them along complex spatio-temporal routes, which may include several separate staging areas. Indeed, migration routes of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus show little variation between individuals; yet, satellite...... tracks of 11 experimentally displaced adults revealed an unexpected flexibility in individual navigation responses. The birds compensated for the translocation to unfamiliar areas by travelling toward population-specific staging areas, demonstrating true navigation capabilities. Individual responses...

  19. US-LHC IR magnet error analysis and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Ptitsin, V.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Gelfand, N.; Wan, W.; Holt, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of the insertion-region (IR) magnet field errors on LHC collision performance. Compensation schemes including magnet orientation optimization, body-end compensation, tuning shims, and local nonlinear correction are shown to be highly effective

  20. MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System: is the USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS) to assist managers in monitoring their payroll costs for U.S. direct hires....

  1. The relationship between South African CEO compensation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1A study of corporate financial performance and CEO compensation by Firth, Lohne,. Ropstad .... requires both a qualitative and quantitative analysis. REMCOs, in ...... 'Executive compensation as an agency problem', Journal of. Economic ...

  2. A time averaged background compensator for Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    The GM tube compensator described stores background counts to cancel an equal number of pulses from the measuring channel providing time averaged compensation. The method suits portable instruments. (orig.)

  3. Sales compensation governance: the last frontier of corporate reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy, Peter R; Gaeta, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    The area of sales compensation has remained relatively untouched by recent pressures for compensation reform. This article highlights some of the ways that sales organizations stumble in managing their compensation programs, and why it takes more than a simple tactical fix to address these problems effectively. The authors describe a more structured governance framework that not only identifies and resolves key sales compensation issues, but ultimately safeguards the effectiveness and financial integrity of the sales organization itself.

  4. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, M.; Huisman, R. [Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    Electricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in demand can be counterbalanced with flexible adjustment of production volumes. Therefore, supply flexibility can replace the role of inventory. In this paper, we question whether power production flexibility is a substitute for storability. To do so, we examine power futures prices from countries that differ in their power supply and test whether power futures prices contain information about expected future spot prices and risk premiums and examine whether futures prices from a market in which power supply is more flexible would lead to futures prices that are more in line with the theory of storage. We find the opposite; futures prices from markets with flexible power supply behave according to the expectations theory. The implicit view from futures prices is that flexibility is not a substitute for storability.

  5. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, M.; Huisman, R.

    2010-07-01

    Electricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in demand can be counterbalanced with flexible adjustment of production volumes. Therefore, supply flexibility can replace the role of inventory. In this paper, we question whether power production flexibility is a substitute for storability. To do so, we examine power futures prices from countries that differ in their power supply and test whether power futures prices contain information about expected future spot prices and risk premiums and examine whether futures prices from a market in which power supply is more flexible would lead to futures prices that are more in line with the theory of storage. We find the opposite; futures prices from markets with flexible power supply behave according to the expectations theory. The implicit view from futures prices is that flexibility is not a substitute for storability.

  6. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes an overall energy system approach to analysing the mismatch problem of zero energy and zero emission buildings (ZEBs). The mismatch arises from hourly differences in energy production and consumption at the building level and results in the need for exchange of electricity via...... the public grid even though the building has an annual net-exchange of zero. This paper argues that, when looked upon from the viewpoint of the overall electricity supply system, a mismatch can be both negative and positive. Moreover, there are often both an element of levelling out mismatches between...... of the energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little...

  7. Adaptive Engine Torque Compensation with Driveline Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jinrak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine net torque is the total torque generated by the engine side, and includes the fuel combustion torque, the friction torque, and additionally the starter motor torque in case of hybrid vehicles. The engine net torque is utilized to control powertrain items such as the engine itself, the transmission clutch, also the engine clutch, and it must be accurate for the precise powertrain control. However, this net torque can vary with the engine operating conditions like the engine wear, the changes of the atmospheric pressure and the friction torque. Thus, this paper proposes the adaptive engine net torque compensator using driveline model which can cope with the net torque change according to engine operating conditions. The adaptive compensator was applied on the parallel hybrid vehicle and investigated via MATLAB Simcape Driveline simulation.

  8. Chromaticity compensation scheme for the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The current Main Injector lattice is studied in the context of full chromaticity compensation in the presence of the eddy current, saturation and the end-pack sextupole fields generated by the dipole magnets. Two families of correcting sextupole magnets are placed to compensate these fields and to adjust the chromaticity (in both planes) to some desired value. Variation of the dipole induced sextupole fields with the B-field (changing along a ramp) are modeled according to recent experimental measurements of the Main Injector dipole magnet Analysis of the required sextupole strengths is carried out along two realistic momentum ramps. The results of our calculation give quantitative insight into the requisite performance of the sextupole magnets

  9. Percentage compensation arrangements: suspect, but not illegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, F P

    2001-01-01

    Percentage compensation arrangements, in which a service is outsourced to a contractor that is paid in accordance with the level of its performance, are widely used in many business sectors. The HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) has shown concern that these arrangements in the healthcare industry may offer incentives for the performance of unnecessary services or cause false claims to be made to Federal healthcare programs in violation of the antikickback statute and the False Claims Act. Percentage compensation arrangements can work and need not run afoul of the law as long as the healthcare organization carefully oversees the arrangement and sets specific safeguards in place. These safeguards include screening contractors, carefully evaluating their compliance programs, and obligating them contractually to perform within the limits of the law.

  10. Compensating for telecommunication delays during robotic telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoni, Leonardo J; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation robotic systems may afford better care and telerehabilitation may extend the use and benefits of robotic therapy to the home. Data transmissions over distance are bound by intrinsic communication delays which can be significant enough to deem the activity unfeasible. Here we describe an approach that combines unilateral robotic telerehabilitation and serious games. This approach has a modular and distributed design that permits different types of robots to interact without substantial code changes. We demonstrate the approach through an online multiplayer game. Two users can remotely interact with each other with no force exchanges, while a smoothing and prediction algorithm compensates motions for the delay in the Internet connection. We demonstrate that this approach can successfully compensate for data transmission delays, even when testing between the United States and Brazil. This paper presents the initial experimental results, which highlight the performance degradation with increasing delays as well as improvements provided by the proposed algorithm, and discusses planned future developments.

  11. Phase Noise Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Amir; Yemini, Michal

    2017-11-01

    We describe a low complexity method for time domain compensation of phase noise in OFDM systems. We extend existing methods in several respects. First we suggest using the Karhunen-Lo\\'{e}ve representation of the phase noise process to estimate the phase noise. We then derive an improved datadirected choice of basis elements for LS phase noise estimation and present its total least square counterpart problem. The proposed method helps overcome one of the major weaknesses of OFDM systems. We also generalize the time domain phase noise compensation to the multiuser MIMO context. Finally we present simulation results using both simulated and measured phased noise. We quantify the tracking performance in the presence of residual carrier offset.

  12. Motion compensation via redundant-wavelet multihypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, James E; Cui, Suxia; Wang, Yonghui

    2006-10-01

    Multihypothesis motion compensation has been widely used in video coding with previous attention focused on techniques employing predictions that are diverse spatially or temporally. In this paper, the multihypothesis concept is extended into the transform domain by using a redundant wavelet transform to produce multiple predictions that are diverse in transform phase. The corresponding multiple-phase inverse transform implicitly combines the phase-diverse predictions into a single spatial-domain prediction for motion compensation. The performance advantage of this redundant-wavelet-multihypothesis approach is investigated analytically, invoking the fact that the multiple-phase inverse involves a projection that significantly reduces the power of a dense-motion residual modeled as additive noise. The analysis shows that redundant-wavelet multihypothesis is capable of up to a 7-dB reduction in prediction-residual variance over an equivalent single-phase, single-hypothesis approach. Experimental results substantiate the performance advantage for a block-based implementation.

  13. CGI delay compensation. [Computer Generated Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during agressive tasks such as nap of the earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitude distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  14. Design of a dynamic compensated temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wu; Katz, E.M.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    One important function of a temperature sensor in a nuclear power plant is to track changing process temperatures, but the sensor output lags the changing temperature. This lag may have a large influence when the sensor is used in control or safety systems. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop methods that increase the sensor response speed. The goal of this project is to develop a fast-responding temperature sensor, the dynamic compensated temperature sensor (DCTS), based on signal dynamic compensation technology. To verify the theoretical basis of the DCTS and incorporate the DCTS into a real temperature measurement process, several experiments have been performed. The DCTS is a simple approach that can decrease the temperature sensor's response time, and it can provide faster temperature signals to the nuclear power plant safety system

  15. Vibration of rotating-shaft design spindles with flexible bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chaw-Wu

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an accurate mathematical model predicting forced vibration of rotating-shaft HDD spindle motors with flexible stationary parts. The mathematical model consists of three parts: a rotating part, a stationary part, and bearings. The rotating part includes a flexible hub, a flexible shaft press-fit into the hub, and N elastic disks mounted on the hub. The stationary part can include motor bracket (stator), base casting, and top cover. The bearings under consideration can be ball bearings or hydrodynamic bearings (HDB). The rotating disks are modelled through the classical plate theory. The rotating part (except the disks) and the stationary part are modelled through finite element analyses (FEA). With mode shapes and natural frequencies obtained from FEA, the kinetic and potential energies of the rotating and stationary parts are formulated and discretized to compensate for the gyroscopic effects from rotation. Finally, use of Lagrange equation results in the equations of motion. To verify the mathematical model, frequency response functions are measured experimentally for an HDB spindle carrying two identical disks at motor and drive levels. Experimental measurements agree very well with theoretical predictions not only in resonance frequency but also in resonance amplitude.

  16. Effect of urbanisation on habitat generalists: starlings not so flexible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennechez, Gwénaëlle; Clergeau, Philippe

    2006-09-01

    The small variability of habitat generalist abundances in relation to landscape changes has been related to their behavioural flexibility. We hypothesise that successful generalists, such as the starling, compensate for feeding resource difficulties (poor quality of food, accessibility) in habitats such as urban ecosystems and that its behavioural flexibility allows for similar breeding performance in rural and urban areas. Along an urbanisation gradient we compared simultaneously (1) success factors such as the abundance of breeding starlings, their breeding performance and the fitness of nestlings, and (2) possible flexibility quantified through the rate of parental food-provisioning, and the composition and the amount of food delivered to nestlings. Abundance of breeding starlings are similar throughout the urbanisation gradient, but urbanisation profoundly and negatively affects reproductive parameters of starlings. Differences in the amount of food delivered to nestlings by parents (less food in town centre), and the small masses of nestlings reared in the urban sectors support the idea that urban nestlings received insufficient food loads. Despite modifications to their diurnal food-provisioning rhythm and the incorporation of some human food refuse into their diet, starling parents have a significantly reduced production of young in the urban centre sector. We rebut the idea that the "generalist" starling is able to breed successfully anywhere: other more "specialist" species succeed in producing their young by innovating more in terms of diet resources. We suggest defining successful birds with respect to colonisation or invasion process through behavioural innovation rather than an ambiguous habitat generalist definition.

  17. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Suk Ho; Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su [and others

    2000-04-01

    Wolsong Unit 1 as the first heavy water reactor in Korea has been in service for 17 years since 1983. It would be about the time to prepare a plan for the solution of problems due to aging of the reactor. The aging of CANDU reactor could lead especially to the steam generator cruding and pressure tube sagging and creep and then decreases the operation margin to make some problems on reactor operations and safety. The counterplan could be made in two ways. One is to repair or modify reactor itself. The other is to develop new advanced fuel to increase of CANDU operation margin effectively, so as to compensate the reduced operation margin. Therefore, the first objectives in the present R and D is to develop the CANFLEX-NU (CANDU Flexible fuelling-Natural Uranium) fuel as a CANDU advanced fuel. The second objectives is to develop CANDU advanced fuel bundle to utilize advanced fuel cycles such as recovered uranium, slightly enriched uranium, etc. and so to raise adaptability for change in situation of uranium market. Also, it is to develop CANDU advanced fuel technology which improve uranium utilization to cope with a world-wide imbalance between uranium supply and demand, without significant modification of nuclear reactor design and refuelling strategies. As the implementations to achieve the above R and D goal, the work contents and scope of technology development of CANDU advanced fuel using natural uranium (CANFLEX-NU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the nuclear design and fuel management analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the safety analysis, fuel fabrication technologies, the out-pile thermalhydraulic test and in-pile irradiation tests performed. At the next, the work scopes and contents of feasibility study of CANDU advanced fuel using recycled uranium (CANFLEX-RU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the reactor physics analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the basic safety analysis of a CANDU-6 reactor with CANFLEX-RU fuel, the fabrication and

  18. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Suk Ho; Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su

    2000-04-01

    Wolsong Unit 1 as the first heavy water reactor in Korea has been in service for 17 years since 1983. It would be about the time to prepare a plan for the solution of problems due to aging of the reactor. The aging of CANDU reactor could lead especially to the steam generator cruding and pressure tube sagging and creep and then decreases the operation margin to make some problems on reactor operations and safety. The counterplan could be made in two ways. One is to repair or modify reactor itself. The other is to develop new advanced fuel to increase of CANDU operation margin effectively, so as to compensate the reduced operation margin. Therefore, the first objectives in the present R and D is to develop the CANFLEX-NU (CANDU Flexible fuelling-Natural Uranium) fuel as a CANDU advanced fuel. The second objectives is to develop CANDU advanced fuel bundle to utilize advanced fuel cycles such as recovered uranium, slightly enriched uranium, etc. and so to raise adaptability for change in situation of uranium market. Also, it is to develop CANDU advanced fuel technology which improve uranium utilization to cope with a world-wide imbalance between uranium supply and demand, without significant modification of nuclear reactor design and refuelling strategies. As the implementations to achieve the above R and D goal, the work contents and scope of technology development of CANDU advanced fuel using natural uranium (CANFLEX-NU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the nuclear design and fuel management analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the safety analysis, fuel fabrication technologies, the out-pile thermalhydraulic test and in-pile irradiation tests performed. At the next, the work scopes and contents of feasibility study of CANDU advanced fuel using recycled uranium (CANFLEX-RU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the reactor physics analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the basic safety analysis of a CANDU-6 reactor with CANFLEX-RU fuel, the fabrication and

  19. Glass scintillator pair for compensation neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Li Xuezhi; Yiu Guangduo

    1985-01-01

    Glass scintillator pair types ST 1604 and ST 1605 for compensation of neutron logging is developed. The neutron sensitive material used is multistick lithium glass scintillators 3 and 4 mm in diameter respectively. Thermoneutron detection efficiencies are 50-60% and 100% respectively. The detection efficiency for 60 Co γ ray is lower than 0.3%. The type ST 1604 and ST 1605 may also be used as high sensitive neutron detectors in an intensive γ ray field

  20. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shu, De-ming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguo.li@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  1. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai; Shu, De-ming; Li, Aiguo

    2017-01-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  2. Review of beamloading and compensation in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    2001-10-01

    This paper discusses the theory and state-of-the-art applications of beam loading and compensation in synchrotrons. In particular it discusses the developments in the introduction of Magnetic Alloy (e.g. Finemet) cores and adoption of low Q cavities; e plus-e minus factories with very large current (e.g. KEKB, PEP II) and developments at p,p factories (e.g. LHC) and simulation codes

  3. Lithium compensation of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Tavendale, A.J.

    1988-08-01

    Defects generated following Li diffusion into GaAs were studied by optical deep level transient spectroscopy (ODLTS) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). In an exploratory series of experiments, the effect of Li diffusion on existing trap spectra, defect generation and as a means for the compensation of GaAs was studied. The variables included diffusion temperature, initial trap spectra of GaAs and annealing periods. Detailed measurements of trap energies were made

  4. Conjugated Polymers for Flexible Energy Harvesting and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhitao; Liao, Meng; Lou, Huiqing; Hu, Yajie; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2018-03-01

    Since the discovery of conjugated polymers in the 1970s, they have attracted considerable interest in light of their advantages of having a tunable bandgap, high electroactivity, high flexibility, and good processability compared to inorganic conducting materials. The above combined advantages make them promising for effective energy harvesting and storage, which have been widely studied in recent decades. Herein, the key advancements in the use of conjugated polymers for flexible energy harvesting and storage are reviewed. The synthesis, structure, and properties of conjugated polymers are first summarized. Then, their applications in flexible polymer solar cells, thermoelectric generators, supercapacitors, and lithium-ion batteries are described. The remaining challenges are then discussed to highlight the future direction in the development of conjugated polymers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. FDM 3D printed coffee glove embedded with flexible electronic

    KAUST Repository

    Bahri, Meznan

    2017-10-31

    With the advances in 3D printing technology, Flexible Electronics can now be exploited to form the so-called “Embedded Electronics”. This paper describes experiences learned from a research project which ran during summer 2016 at KAUST, in collaboration with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Effat University, and aimed at creating a heating coffee glove product operating on double alkaline batteries using Kapton© as a flexible substrate for the circuit. The circuit and its batteries are encapsulated in a 3D printed glove, designed using SolidWorks©. The proposed methodology and techniques applied during this work could be further used in implementing other technologies, such as thermoelectric coolers head patches, smart garments, and flexible smartphones. Limitation and recommendation of the present methodology are also discussed.

  6. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in accordance...

  7. An EMTDC Model of a Three Level four MVAR Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the dynamic characteristics of a three level ±4mvar solid state var compensator which is built and will be used for dynamic reactive power compensation in a wind farm. An investigation has been carried out of the influence of the compensator reactor, the DC intermediate voltage...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3231(e)-1 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Definition—(1) The term compensation has the same meaning as the term wages in section 3121(a... regarding the inclusion of fringe benefits in compensation, see § 31.3121(a)-1T. (6) Split-dollar life... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 31.3231(e)-1 Section 31.3231(e)-1...

  9. 20 CFR 701.401 - Coverage under state compensation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage under state compensation programs...; DEFINITIONS AND USE OF TERMS Coverage Under State Compensation Programs § 701.401 Coverage under state compensation programs. (a) Exclusions from the definition of “employee” under § 701.301(a)(12), and the...

  10. 12 CFR 918.2 - Annual directors' compensation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 918.3. At a minimum, such policy shall address the activities or functions for which attendance is... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual directors' compensation policy. 918.2... HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.2 Annual directors' compensation policy...

  11. 29 CFR 505.3 - Prevailing minimum compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevailing minimum compensation. 505.3 Section 505.3 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.3 Prevailing minimum compensation. (a)(1) In the absence of an alternative determination...)(2) of this section, the prevailing minimum compensation required to be paid under the Act to the...

  12. 14 CFR 250.8 - Denied boarding compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denied boarding compensation. 250.8 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.8 Denied boarding compensation. (a) Every carrier shall tender to a passenger eligible for denied boarding compensation, on the day and place the denied boarding...

  13. 39 CFR 3.2 - Compensation of Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation of Board. 3.2 Section 3.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.2 Compensation of Board. Section 202(a)(1) of title 39 provides for the compensation of...

  14. Assessment of Wetland Valuation Processes for Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of compensation has been debated in various fora; however compensation on wetland resources has not been given the primary place. Wetland valuation like any other type of valuation requires going through stages, which may be more complex than real estate valuation for compensation. This study therefore ...

  15. Critical Issues in Assessing Teacher Compensation. Backgrounder. No. 2638

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    A November 2011 Heritage Foundation report--"Assessing the Compensation of Public-School Teachers"--presented data on teacher salaries and benefits in order to inform debates about teacher compensation reform. The report concluded that public-school teacher compensation is far ahead of what comparable private-sector workers enjoy, and that…

  16. 31 CFR 30.0 - Executive compensation and corporate governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Executive compensation and corporate governance. 30.0 Section 30.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.0 Executive compensation and corporate governance...

  17. 20 CFR 10.15 - May compensation rights be waived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May compensation rights be waived? 10.15 Section 10.15 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL... AMENDED General Provisions Rights and Penalties § 10.15 May compensation rights be waived? No employer or...

  18. 28 CFR 301.301 - Compensable and noncompensable injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... only those injuries suffered during the performance of an inmate's regular work assignment. However... institution, when such work has been approved by staff, may also be compensable. (c) Compensation is not paid... in any activity not related to the actual performance of the work assignment are not compensable, and...

  19. 34 CFR 75.519 - Dual compensation of staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dual compensation of staff. 75.519 Section 75.519... by a Grantee? Project Staff § 75.519 Dual compensation of staff. A grantee may not use its grantee to pay a project staff member for time or work for which that staff member is compensated from some other...

  20. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...