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Sample records for flexfet level shifter

  1. Level Shifter Design for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With scaling of Vt sub-threshold leakage power is increasing and expected to become significant part oftotal power consumption.In present work three new configurations of level shifters for low powerapplication in 0.35μm technology have been presented. The proposed circuits utilize the merits ofstacking technique with smaller leakage current and reduction in leakage power. Conventional levelshifter has been improved by addition of three NMOS transistors, which shows total power consumptionof 402.2264pW as compared to 0.49833nW with existing circuit. Single supply level shifter has beenmodified with addition of two NMOS transistors that gives total power consumption of 108.641pW ascompared to 31.06nW. Another circuit, contention mitigated level shifter (CMLS with three additionaltransistors shows total power consumption of 396.75pW as compared to 0.4937354nW. Three proposedcircuit’s shows better performance in terms of power consumption with a little conciliation in delay.Output level of 3.3V has been obtained with input pulse of 1.6V for all proposed circuits.

  2. Level shifter for low power applications with body bias technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    With the rapid growth in high speed computation and battery operated devices like ... consideration for integrated circuits includes size, propagation delay, throughput ..... A new level-up shifter for high speed and wide range interface in ultra.

  3. Low-Power, Rad-hard Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet? Level Shifter ReBiLS for Multiple Generation Technology Integration for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The many different generations of integrated circuit (IC) technologies required for new space exploration systems demand designs operate at multiple and often...

  4. A capacitive level shifter for high voltage (2.5kV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius;

    2012-01-01

    with focus on low power consumption as well as low capacitive load between the floating half-bridge node and ground (output capacitance). The operation of the level-shifter is tested and verified by measurements on a prototype half-bridge gate driver. Results conclude stabile operation at 2.44kV, 50k...

  5. Source-Coupled, N-Channel, JFET-Based Digital Logic Gate Structure Using Resistive Level Shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A circuit topography is used to create usable, digital logic gates using N (negatively doped) channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs), load resistors, level shifting resistors, and supply rails whose values are based on the DC parametric distributions of these JFETs. This method has direct application to the current state-of-the-art in high-temperature (300 to 500 C and higher) silicon carbide (SiC) device production, and defines an adaptation to the logic gate described in U.S. Patent 7,688,117 in that, by removing the level shifter from the output of the gate structure described in the patent (and applying it to the input of the same gate), a source-coupled gate topography is created. This structure allows for the construction AND/OR (sum of products) arrays that use far fewer transistors and resistors than the same array as constructed from the gates described in the aforementioned patent. This plays a central role when large multiplexer constructs are necessary; for example, as in the construction of memory. This innovation moves the resistive level shifter from the output of the basic gate structure to the front as if the input is now configured as what would be the output of the preceding gate, wherein the output is the two level shifting resistors. The output of this innovation can now be realized as the lone follower transistor with its source node as the gate output. Additionally, one may leave intact the resistive level shifter on the new gate topography. A source-coupled to direct-coupled logic translator will be the result.

  6. Monolithically integrated enhancement/depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs SRAM unit and voltage level shifter using fluorine plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonghe, Chen; Xuefeng, Zheng; Jincheng, Zhang; Xiaohua, Ma; Yue, Hao

    2016-05-01

    A GaN-based E/D mode direct-couple logic 6 transistors SRAM unit and a voltage level shifter were designed and fabricated. E-mode and D-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs were integrated in one wafer using fluorine plasma treatment and using a moderate AlGaN barrier layer heterojunction structure. The 6 transistors SRAM unit consists of two symmetrical E/D mode inverters and two E-mode switch HEMTs. The output low and high voltage of the SRAM unit are 0.95 and 0.07 V at a voltage supply of 1 V. The voltage level shifter lowers the supply voltage using four Ni-AlGaN Schottky diodes in a series at a positive supply voltage of 6 V and a negative supply voltage of -6 V. By controlling the states of inverter modules of the level shifter in turn, the level shifter offers two channel voltage outputs of -0.5 and -5 V. The flip voltage of the level shifter is 0.76 V. Both the SRAM unit and voltage shifter operate correctly, demonstrating the promising potential for GaN-based E/D mode digital and analog integrated circuits. Several considerations are proposed to avoid the influence of threshold voltage degradation of D-mode and E-mode HEMT on the operation of the circuit. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334002), the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory (No. ZHD201206), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-12-0915).

  7. Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyungock; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, In Gyoo; Kim, Sanghoon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kim, Sun Ae; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Joo, Jiho; Kim, Sanggi

    2014-04-15

    We present small-sized depletion-type silicon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a vertically dipped PN depletion junction (VDJ) phase shifter based on a CMOS compatible process. The fabricated device with a 100 μm long VDJ phase shifter shows a VπLπ of ∼0.6  V·cm with a 3 dB bandwidth of ∼50  GHz at -2  V bias. The measured extinction ratios are 6 and 5.3 dB for 40 and 50  Gb/s operation under 2.5  Vpp differential drive, respectively. On-chip insertion loss is 3 dB for the maximum optical transmission. This includes the phase-shifter loss of 1.88  dB/100  μm, resulting mostly from the extra optical propagation loss through the polysilicon-plug structure for electrical contact, which can be readily minimized by utilizing finer-scaled lithography nodes. The experimental result indicates that a compact depletion-type MZ modulator based on the VDJ scheme can be a potential candidate for future chip-level integration.

  8. Rad-hard Reconfigurable Bi-Directional Level Shifters Technology for Micro- and Nanosatellites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various technologies available to space system designers that operate at different voltage levels. It is, however, important to interface, maintain, and update these...

  9. Progress in ferrite phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C. R., Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Advances in the technology of reciprocal ferrite phase shifters are outlined. Nonlatching rotary-field phase shifters have been produced with enhanced phase accuracy and modest control power. A significant quantity of dual-mode latching units has been built at 35 GHz, with good results. Both types of phase shifter can be adapted to perform other functions in addition to phase shifting. Examples of phase shifters that perform duplexing and polarization switching functions are given.

  10. Virtual Prototyping and Development of Rotary Field Ferrite Phase Shifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Aggarwal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the virtual prototyping and physical development of the rotary field ferrite phase shifter is presented. A description of the basic principle of operation of the rotary field ferrite phase shifter has been given along with the key aspects about the design and virtual prototyping of various parts of the phase shifter viz ferrite rod, yoke, polarisers and matching section using HFSS and 3-D Maxwell softwares. Calibrated simulation performance of the phase shifters is presented and it shows good agreement with physical measurement results. Three prototypes and one hundred production capable phase shifter modules were fabricated, functionally tested and RF characterised. This is an indigenous development of the physical prototypes of rotary field class of ferrite phase shifters of C-band. This class of ferrite phase shifters finds application in phased array radars, such as battery level radar and weapon locating radar, because of its high phase accuracy and high power handling capability.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp. 156-161, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9309

  11. Deposit interest rate ceilings as credit supply shifters: bank level evidence on the effects of Regulation Q

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Shocks emanating from and propagating through the banking system have recently gained interest in the macroeconomics literature, yet they are not a feature unique to the 2008/09 financial crisis. Banking disintermediation shocks occured frequently during the Great Inflation era due to fixed deposit rate ceilings. I estimate the effect of deposit rate ceilings inscribed in Regulation Q on the transmission of federal funds rate changes to bank level credit growth using a historic bank level dat...

  12. Transit time MESFET phase shifter

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Peter C.; Roger D. Pollard; Richardson, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The phase shift of a signal through a common-source MESFET can be changed with little effect on the amplitude by altering the gate-drain spacing. The feasibility of employing this principle to realize a highly compact, monolithic phase shifter has been investigated. The behaviour of the devices with differing gate-drain spacing has been measured and modelled and a design for a monolithic implementation is presented.

  13. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Ravi; Razban, Tchanguiz

    2016-03-01

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  14. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jindal, Ravi, E-mail: rjindal21@gmail.com [Master’s(MS) in System Electronics and General Electrical, Ecole Polytechnique of university of Nantes France, IETR, Nantes (France); Razban, Tchanguiz, E-mail: tchanguiz.razban-haghighi@univ-nantes.fr [Electronics and Telecommunication Institute of Rennes (IETR-UMR 6164), Ecole Polytechnique of university of Nantes France, IETR, Nantes (France)

    2016-03-09

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  15. Optical Fibre Based Frequency Shifters Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    A fibre optic frequency shifter can be used to replace the Bragg cell acousto-optic modulator, currently used to generate low frequency optical...carriers, in fibre optic communications and sensor systems. This new form of frequency shifter, being an all fibre device, in which the propagating optical...large number of workers in recent years, (for example references [2-81 and those contained therein). The main elements of a fibre - optic frequency

  16. Array Phase Shifters: Theory and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    While there are a myriad of applications for microwave phase shifters in instrumentation and metrology, power combining, amplifier linearization, and so on, the most prevalent use is in scanning phased-array antennas. And while this market continues to be dominated by military radar and tracking platforms, many commercial applications have emerged in the past decade or so. These new and potential applications span low-Earth-orbit (LEO) communications satellite constellations and collision warning radar, an aspect of the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System or Automated Highway System. In any case, the phase shifters represent a considerable portion of the overall antenna cost, with some estimates approaching 40 percent for receive arrays. Ferrite phase shifters continue to be the workhorse in military-phased arrays, and while there have been advances in thin film ferrite devices, the review of this device technology in the previous edition of this book is still highly relevant. This chapter will focus on three types of phase shifters that have matured in the past decade: GaAs MESFET monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC), micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and thin film ferroelectric-based devices. A brief review of some novel devices including thin film ferrite phase shifters and superconducting switches for phase shifter applications will be provided. Finally, the effects of modulo 2 phase shift limitations, phase errors, and transient response on bit error rate degradation will be considered.

  17. Silica-waveguide thermooptic phase shifter with low power consumption and low lateral heat diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bo Asp Møller; Jensen, Lars; Laurent-Lund, Christian

    1993-01-01

    A thermooptic (TO) phase shifter consisting of a thin film heater on the top of a loaded stripline silica waveguide on a silicon substrate is shown to exhibit faster time response than reported for phase shifters based on a buried silica waveguide configuration. The risetime was measured to be 0.......24 ms, which is in good agreement with calculated thermal distributions in the structures. The lateral heat diffusion distance in the loaded stripline structure is shown to be smaller than in buried waveguide structures. This implies small thermal crosstalk and suggests a high-level integration...

  18. Slow light based optical frequency shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qian; Thuresson, Axel; Nilsson, Adam N; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a controllable way of shifting the frequency of an optical pulse by using a combination of spectral hole burning, slow light effect, and linear Stark effect in a rare-earth-ion doped crystal. We claim that the solid angle of acceptance of a frequency shift structure can be close to $2\\pi$, which means that the frequency shifter could work not only for optical pulses propagating in a specific spatial mode but also for randomly scattered light. As the frequency shift is controlled solely by an external electric field, it works also for weak coherent light fields, and can e.g. be used as a frequency shifter for quantum memory devices in quantum communication.

  19. Integrated optomechanical single-photon frequency shifter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Linran; Zou, Chang-Ling; Poot, Menno; Cheng, Risheng; Guo, Xiang; Han, Xu; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to manipulate single photons is of critical importance for fundamental quantum optics studies and practical implementations of quantum communications. While extraordinary progresses have been made in controlling spatial, temporal, spin and orbit angular momentum degrees of freedom, frequency-domain control of single photons so far relies on nonlinear optical effects, which have faced obstacles such as noise photons, narrow bandwidth and demanding optical filtering. Here, we demonstrate the first integrated optomechanical single-photon frequency shifter with near-unity efficiency. A frequency shift up to 150 GHz at telecom wavelength is realized without measurable added noise and the preservation of quantum coherence is verified through quantum interference between twin photons of different colours. This single-photon frequency shifter will be invaluable for increasing the channel capacity of quantum communications and compensating frequency mismatch between quantum systems, paving the road towards a hybrid quantum network.

  20. Photonic radio-frequency phase shifter based on polarization interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Dong, Yi; He, Hao; Hu, Weisheng; Li, Lemin

    2009-08-01

    An rf photonic phase shifter based on polarization interference is presented, and the theoretical fundamentals of the design are explained. This phase shifter provides broad operational bandwidth and a full 360 degrees phase-shift tuning range with a single external electrical control. A prototype of the rf photonic phase shifter with a frequency of 26.75 GHz and 360 degrees tuning range is experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Power transmission line operating modes calculation with controllable phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The article contains the analysis of the influence of the phase shifter (PS) on the energy processes in the power transmission line in terms of the two-unit model of the electric network. The approach to synthesis of the models regulated by the phase shifter providing for both calculation of the steady operation modes of the electric networks with the phase shifters and research of the electromagnetic processes and designing of the device itself is offered.

  2. Data-Driven Contextual Valence Shifter Quantification for Multi-Theme Sentiment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongkun; Shang, Jingbo; Hsu, Meichun; Castellanos, Malú; Han, Jiawei

    2017-01-01

    Users often write reviews on different themes involving linguistic structures with complex sentiments. The sentiment polarity of a word can be different across themes. Moreover, contextual valence shifters may change sentiment polarity depending on the contexts that they appear in. Both challenges cannot be modeled effectively and explicitly in traditional sentiment analysis. Studying both phenomena requires multi-theme sentiment analysis at the word level, which is very interesting but significantly more challenging than overall polarity classification. To simultaneously resolve the multi-theme and sentiment shifting problems, we propose a data-driven framework to enable both capabilities: (1) polarity predictions of the same word in reviews of different themes, and (2) discovery and quantification of contextual valence shifters. The framework formulates multi-theme sentiment by factorizing the review sentiments with theme/word embeddings and then derives the shifter effect learning problem as a logistic regression. The improvement of sentiment polarity classification accuracy demonstrates not only the importance of multi-theme and sentiment shifting, but also effectiveness of our framework. Human evaluations and case studies further show the success of multi-theme word sentiment predictions and automatic effect quantification of contextual valence shifters. PMID:28232874

  3. Design of Variable Width Barrel Shifter for High Speed Processor Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microprocessor is the brain of the computer. It works as the Central Processing Unit of the computer. It contains Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU that performs the arithmetic operations such as Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. It also performs the Logical operations such as AND, NAND, OR, NOR, EXOR, EXNOR and NOT. It also contains register file to store the operand in load/store instructions in RISC Processor Architecture. Control Unit genetares the control signals that synchronize the operation of the processor which tells the microarchitecture which operation is done at which time. Now during the multiplication partial product is shifted and added. So shifter is an important part of the processor architecture. Barrel Shifter is an important combinational logic block. It was incorporated in 386 processor and is also used in microcontroller design. Intel has since moved to software implemented shifters in the Pentium 4 Processor Architecture but AMD still uses it. Here the design of the variable width barrel shifter is presented in which we can shift 4bit, 8bit, 16bit, and 32bit and maximum 64bit partial product during multiplication. Functionality is check using Modelsim 6.4a.Now to generate the gate level netlist Xilinx ISE 9.2i is used.

  4. Enhancing FEL Power with Phase Shifters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel; /Stanford U.; Chao, Alex; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2010-07-30

    Tapering the undulator parameter is a well-known method for maintaining the resonant condition past saturation, and increasing Free Electron Laser (FEL) efficiency. In this paper, we demonstrate that shifting the electron bunch phase relative to the radiation is equivalent to tapering the undulator parameter. Using discrete phase changes derived from optimized undulator tapers for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray FEL, we show that appropriate phase shifts between undulator sections can reproduce the power enhancement of undulator tapers. Phase shifters are relatively easy to implement and operate, and could be used to aid or replace undulator tapers in optimizing FEL performance.

  5. A magnetoelectric composite based microwave phase shifter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) properties of ferrite-ferroelectric composites arise from their response to elastic and electromagnetic force fields. The unique combination of magnetic, electrical, and ME interactions opens up the possibility of electric field tunable ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) based devices [1]. Here we discuss an ME phase shifter operating in the FMR region at 9.3 GHz. A slot line on a yttrium iron garnet film bonded to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) provides a basis for the phase shifter. The circularly polarized microwave magnetic field of the slot line interacts with the ferrite and causes variation of phase velocity with the controlling magnetic and electric fields. Electrical tuning is realized with the application of a control voltage due to PZT. The estimated phase shift per unit length and unit voltage is to 20 deg/cm kV for a PZT thickness of 0.5 mm. 1 S. Shastry and G. Srinivasan, M.I. Bichurin, V.M. Petrov, A.S. Tatarenko. Phys. Rev. B, 70 064416 (2004). - supported by grants from the Office of Naval Research and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  6. Micromotor for electromechanical reflective polarization phase shifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. K. Sydoruk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of micromotor for electromechanical discrete polarizing reflective phase shifter for phased arrays of centimeter and millimeter bands is offer. The stator of the micromotor consists of two sections of the electromagnets, which are located between the rotor with permanent magnets. In one step the rotor engine can be rotated by an angle of ±45° or ±90°, which corresponds to phase shifts of 90°, 180° and 270°. Time for turning the rotor to one of the operational corners is (5/6 ms at the lowest possible energy costs. Experimentally tested and measured the basic parameters of the micromotor: the time change and energy costs for the phase shift; established the dependence of the rotor rotation at given angle and energy consumption for changing one discrete of phase shift as function of the voltage pulse that applied to the stator of the micromotor.

  7. Phase shifter technology assessment - Prospects and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    Capabilities and limitations of MMIC phase shifter technology at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies are reviewed. MMIC-based phase arrays make it possible to integrate active elements at the array face, i.e., to incorporate transmit power amplifiers and/or low noise amplifiers at each antenna element. Active elements make it possible to increase power efficiency and reliability and provide graceful degradation. Monolithic integration of the various transmit/receive functions including phase shifting is considered to be feasible through at least the lower millimeter-wave frequency range (about 30-100 GHz). MMIC integration also allows more flexibility in array design including those that are intended for airborne conformal applications.

  8. Total Ownership Cost Reduction Case Study: AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridger, Wray W; Ruiz, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research is to provide a case study that captures the production and design processes and program management solutions used to reduce total ownership costs of AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters...

  9. High Performance Ka-band Phase Shifters for Space Telecommunications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel MEMS-based digital phase shifter targeted for Ka-band operation, but scalable down to X-band and up to W-band. This novel phase shifter will...

  10. Ka-band reliable and compact 3-bit true-time-delay phase shifter using MEMS single-pole-eight-throw switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Shiban K.; Dey, Sukomal; Poddar, Ajay K.; Rohde, Ulrich L.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a radio frequency micro-electromechanical system (RF MEMS) based 3-bit phase shifter using MEMS single-pole-eight-throw (SP8T) switches. Devices are fabricated on 635 µm alumina substrate utilizing on the coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line. Single switch dimensions are 0.14  ×  0.23 mm2 which is much smaller than Si-on-insulator switches. The symmetric and compact SP8T switch is the primary building block of the 3-bit phase shifter. The SP8T switch results in isolation levels of 31-15 dB, return loss of 33-18 dB and insertion loss of 0.6-1.9 dB, respectively, at 26-40 GHz. Later, two SP8T switches are connected back to back to develop the 3-bit phase shifter using different delay lines at 35 GHz. Finally, the phase shifter provides average return loss of better than 14 dB and average insertion loss of 4.4 dB over the 34.75-35.25 GHz. Measured average phase error is less than 0.98° at 35 GHz. The total area of the fabricated 3-bit phase shifter is 5.95 mm2. SP8T switches are capable of handling 0.1-1 W of power up to 100 million cycles which is sufficient power handling capability for wireless communication systems. Reliability of the phase shifter is extensively characterized with different incident RF powers at room temperature (25°C) and discussed in detail. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported MEMS 3-bit phase shifter in the literature that has used a minimum number of switching elements per phase state.

  11. Controllable Liquid Artificial Dielectric S-Band Phase Shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    Anisotropyr Shape Factor 4Q) Depentlece. on Shape Ratio (a) ... 1 2-7 &Saare of Shape Fac~tor (Q) Depend~ence an Shape Ratio (6).......... 14 2-8 Dope lgfte...51 6-3 Change In A-rmittivity for Two Parlicie Loading D~en~sities of Magnesium Ibt~er. Reade .12.5-X........................... 51 6...PIN diode and the Ferrite phase shifters. Neither the diode nor the ferrite phase shifter have attained very high peak and average puwer handling

  12. Broadband microwave photonic phase shifter based on polarisation rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Öhman, Filip; Blaaberg, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    A broadband microwave photonic phase shifter is presented based on the polarisation properties of a Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator and nonlinear polarisation rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. The system can realise about 150deg phase shift in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 19 GHz....

  13. Phase shifters. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-05-01

    The bibliography cites Federally-funded research on the design, performance, and utilization of phase shifters and phase shift circuits. The types include ferrite, semiconductor, digital, and voltage controlled. Applications cover phased arrays, microwave equipment, surface acoustic wave devices, strip transmission lines, phases shift keyers, signal processors, and control equipment. This updated bibliography contains 20 abstracts.

  14. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four different phase shifters, including conventional inertance tube, gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters, as well as a power recovery displacer. Distributed models based on the electro-acoustic analogy are developed to estimate the phase shifting capacity and the acoustic power dissipation of the three phase shifters without power recovery. The results show that both gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters have the distinctive capacity of phase shifting with a significant reduction in the inertial component length. Furthermore, full distributed models of SPTCs connected with different phase shifters are developed. The cooling performance of SPTCs using all four phase shifters are presented and typical phase relations are analyzed. The comparison reveals that the power recovery displacer with a more complicated configuration provides the highest efficiency. The gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters show equivalent efficiency compared with the inertance tube phase shifter. Approximately 10-20% of the acoustic power is dissipated by the phase shifters without power recovery, while 15-20% of the acoustic power can be recovered by the power recovery displacer, leading to a maximum coefficient of performance (COP) above 0.14 at 80 K. A merit analysis is also done by presenting the pros and cons of different phase shifters.

  15. Application of Time Recursive Processing for the Development of a Time/Phase Shifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Perisic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a powerful digital time and/or phase shifter of pulse rates, based on Time Recursive Processing. It can function either as a time shifter or as a phase shifter. The circuit can generate precise shifting for a pulse rate with a constant input period, but it is also capable to shift a pulse rate whose period is a ramp function. Besides that, the shifter can be used in tracking and prediction applications. The shifter is described by recursive equations as a linear discrete system. All mathematical analyses are made using the Z transform. Computer simulations are employed to prove the correctness of the mathematical analysis. The realization of the shifter is described and, to demonstrate the shifter functioning, actual oscilloscope screenshots are presented.

  16. The Influence of Optical Filtering on the Noise Performance of Microwave Photonic Phase Shifters Based on SOAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloret, Juan; Ramos, Francisco; Xue, Weiqi

    2011-01-01

    Different optical filtering scenarios involving microwave photonic phase shifters based on semiconductor optical amplifiers are investigated numerically as well as experimentally with respect to noise performance. Investigations on the role of the modulation depth and number of elements in cascaded...... shifting stages are also carried out. Suppression of the noise level by more than 5 dB has been achieved in schemes based on band-pass optical filtering when three phase shifting stages are cascaded....

  17. Efficient implementation of 90° phase shifter in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraiswamy Punithavathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we present an efficient way of implementing 90° phase shifter using Hilbert transformer with canonic signed digit (CSD coefficients in FPGA. It is implemented using 27-tap symmetric finite impulse response (FIR filter. Representing the filter coefficients by CSD eliminates the need for multipliers and the filter is implemented using shifters and adders/subtractors. The simulated results for the frequency response of the Hilbert transformer with infinite precision coefficients and CSD coefficients agree with each other. The proposed architecture requires less hardware as one adder is saved for the realization of every negative coefficient compared to convectional CSD FIR filter implementation. Also, it offers a high accuracy of phase shift.

  18. Innovative phase shifter for pulse tube operating below 10 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jean-Marc; Charles, Ivan; Daniel, Christophe; André, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    Stirling type pulse tubes are classically based on the use of an inertance phase shifter to optimize their cooling power. The limitations of the phase shifting capabilities of these inertances have been pointed out in various studies. These limitations are particularly critical for low temperature operation, typically below about 50 K. An innovative phase shifter using an inertance tube filled with liquid, or fluid with high density or low viscosity, and separated by a sealed metallic diaphragm has been conceived and tested. This device has been characterized and validated on a dedicated test bench. Operation on a 50-80 K pulse tube cooler and on a low temperature (below 8 K) pulse tube cooler have been demonstrated and have validated the device in operation. These developments open the door for efficient and compact low temperature Stirling type pulse tube coolers. The possibility of long life operation has been experimentally verified and a design for space applications is proposed.

  19. Interference Confocal Microscope Integrated with Spatial Phase Shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibo; Gu, Kang; You, Xiaoyu; Tan, Jiubin; Liu, Jian

    2016-08-24

    We present an interference confocal microscope (ICM) with a new single-body four-step simultaneous phase-shifter device designed to obtain high immunity to vibration. The proposed ICM combines the respective advantages of simultaneous phase shifting interferometry and bipolar differential confocal microscopy to obtain high axis resolution, large dynamic range, and reduce the sensitivity to vibration and reflectance disturbance seamlessly. A compact single body spatial phase shifter is added to capture four phase-shifted interference signals simultaneously without time delay and construct a stable and space-saving simplified interference confocal microscope system. The test result can be obtained by combining the interference phase response and the bipolar property of differential confocal microscopy without phase unwrapping. Experiments prove that the proposed microscope is capable of providing stable measurements with 1 nm of axial depth resolution for either low- or high-numerical aperture objective lenses.

  20. Searching for new green wavelength shifters in polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.W.; Zhang, G.

    1993-12-01

    A series of commercially available fluorescent compounds was tested as wavelength shifters in polystyrene for the tile/fiber SDC calorimeter. The objective was to find a green-fluorescing compound with short decay time (3--7 ns). Transmittance, fluorescence, and decay time measurements were performed in order to characterize each compound in polystyrene. These samples were also studies for radiation-induced damage.

  1. A permanent magnet electron beam phase-shifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, G.A. E-mail: trower@naxs.net; Ermakov, A.N.; Pakhomov, N.I.; Semyachkin, V.K.; Shvedunov, V.I.; Skachkov, V.S.; Tyurin, S.A

    2004-05-21

    We describe here the design and construction of a permanent magnet-based electron beam phase-shifter now operating in our 70 MeV Race-Track Microtron (P. Lucas, S. Webber (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2001 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vol. 4, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001, p. 2596; L. Gennary (Ed.), Proceedings of the 1995 Particle Accelerator Conference, Vol. 2, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1996, p. 807)

  2. Fresnel rhombs as achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mawet, D.; Hanot, Charles; Lenaers, C.; Riaud, Pierre; Defrere, Denis; Vandormael; Loicq, Jerôme; Fleury, K.; Plesseria, Jean-Yves; Surdej, Jean; Habraken, Serge

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new family of achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry. These key optical components can be seen as optimized Fresnel rhombs, using the total internal reflection phenomenon, modulated or not. The total internal reflection indeed comes with a phase shift between the polarization components of the incident light. We propose a solution to implement this vectorial phase shift between interferometer arms to provide the destructive interference process needed to di...

  3. Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-wen Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using sub-wavelength metallic gratings as both transparent electrodes and broadband high-efficiency polarizers, a highly-compact self-polarizing phase shifter is demonstrated by electrically tuning the effective birefringence of a nematic liquid crystal cell. The metal grating polarizers ensure a good polarizing efficiency in the range of 0.2 to 2 THz. Phase shift of more than π/3 is achieved in a 256 μm-thick cell with a saturation root mean square voltage of around 130 V in this integrated device.

  4. Calculation of the Performance of Solar Cells With Spectral Down Shifters Using Realistic Outdoor Solar Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Spectral down converters and shifters have been proposed as a good means to enhance the efficiency of underlying solar cells. In this paper, we focus on the simulation of the outdoor performance of solar cells with spectral down shifters, i.e., multicrystalline silicon solar cells with semiconductor

  5. Calculation of the Performance of Solar Cells With Spectral Down Shifters Using Realistic Outdoor Solar Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Spectral down converters and shifters have been proposed as a good means to enhance the efficiency of underlying solar cells. In this paper, we focus on the simulation of the outdoor performance of solar cells with spectral down shifters, i.e., multicrystalline silicon solar cells with semiconductor

  6. Tunable RF photonic phase shifter based on optical DSB modulation and FBG filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongfeng; Huang, Shanguo; Sun, Kai; Gao, Xinlu; Gu, Wanyi

    2016-01-01

    A broadband RF photonic phase shifter that can achieve the tunable phase shift with little RF amplitude variation is presented. It is based on homodyne mixing technique. The beating between phase-modulated optical carrier and the sidebands can generate RF signal with desired phase shift. Results show the RF phase shifter can achieve a continuous phase shift with low amplitude variation.

  7. Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency shifters are essential components of many systems. In this paper, a compact integrated optical frequency shifter is designed making use of the combination of surface acoustic waves and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a very simple operation setup and can be fabricated...

  8. An Experiment for Generating the 14-Tone Stable Carriers Using Recirculating Frequency Shifter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Feng; ZHANG Xiao-Guang; LI Jian-Ping; XI Li-Xia

    2010-01-01

    @@ In experiment,the generation of 14-tone stable carriers with recirculating frequency shifter is realized.Some factors that impact the performance of the carrier generation are discussed.It is experimentally found that the balance and the insertion loss of the inphase/quadrature (l/Q,) modulator,the accurate π /2 phase difference and equal power level of two rf signals which are applied to the two ports of the I/Q modulator,the gain of the optical amplifier,the bandwidth and sharp window spectrum of the tunable filter and the stability of the optical signals' states of polarization fed into I/Q modulator,play important roles in the generation of a stable multi-tone carrier source.By employing appropriate techniques we obtain 14-tone stable carriers in the experiment.

  9. An acoustic beam shifter with enhanced transmission using perforated metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengjiang; Liu, Fu; Liang, Zixian; Xu, Yan; Tak Chu, Sai; Li, Jensen

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an acoustic beam shifter with enhanced transmission based on subwavelength perforated metamaterials with a wide working frequency range from 2.8 to 4.6 kHz. An oblique perforation angle allows a flexible beam shifting distance and negative refraction for one side of incidence angles. While the beam shifting action is broadband due to the geometric nature of design, beam shifting with enhanced efficiency is found at the frequency with Fabry-Pérot (FP) resonance through a two-dimensional pressure field mapping. Such a method in combining extraordinary transmission and beam shifting with properly designed metamaterials, enables designing flexible and also transformation acoustic devices with high transmission efficiency in a general context.

  10. Adding Wavelength Shifter Molecules To The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Rollin, E

    2005-01-01

    This thesis provides a detailed study of the benefits of adding wavelength shifter molecules (WLS) to the heavy water of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Their absorption and re-emission spectra allow the conversion of ultraviolet C˘erenkov photons into longer wavelength photons, that would be more easily detected. Measurements of the optical properties of five candidates show that only two of them, Alexa Fluor and Carbostyril, are suitable. The analysis indicates that WLS would increase the number of detected photons, lead to more uniform distributions for the reconstructed position and energy, allow a larger fiducial volume and a lower energy threshold for the study of solar neutrinos. The goal is to determine whether adding WLS to SNO will allow a direct measurement of matter induced neutrino oscillations. Finally, a cosmic ray telescope has been developed and shows promising results for an independent measurement of the optical properties of WLS.

  11. Fresnel rhombs as achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawet, D.; Hanot, C.; Lenaers, C.; Riaud, P.; Defrère, D.; Vandormael, D.; Loicq, J.; Fleury, K.; Plesseria, J. Y.; Surdej, J.; Habraken, S.

    2007-09-01

    We propose a new family of achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry. These key optical components can be seen as optimized Fresnel rhombs, using the total internal reflection phenomenon, modulated or not. The total internal reflection indeed comes with a phase shift between the polarization components of the incident light. We propose a solution to implement this vectorial phase shift between interferometer arms to provide the destructive interference process needed to disentangle highly contrasted objects from one another. We also show that, modulating the index transition at the total internal reflection interface allows compensating for the intrinsic material dispersion in order to make the subsequent phase shift achromatic over especially broad bands. The modulation can be induced by a thin film of a well-chosen material or a subwavelength grating whose structural parameters are thoroughly optimized. We present results from theoretical simulations! together with preliminary fabrication outcomes and measurements for a prototype in Zinc Selenide.

  12. Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Phase-Shifter Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso T. Miasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mathematical model for the transmission network expansion planning problem. Main idea is to consider phase-shifter (PS transformers as a new element of the transmission system expansion together with other traditional components such as transmission lines and conventional transformers. In this way, PS are added in order to redistribute active power flows in the system and, consequently, to diminish the total investment costs due to new transmission lines. Proposed mathematical model presents the structure of a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem and is based on the standard DC model. In this paper, there is also applied a specialized genetic algorithm aimed at optimizing the allocation of candidate components in the network. Results obtained from computational simulations carried out with IEEE-24 bus system show an outstanding performance of the proposed methodology and model, indicating the technical viability of using these nonconventional devices during the planning process.

  13. Engineering phase shifter domains for multiple QPM using simulated annealing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, Chellappa; Sunder Meetei, Toijam; Shiva, Prabhakar; Narayanan, Balaji; Arvind, Ganesh; Boomadevi, Shanmugam; Pandiyan, Krishnamoorthy

    2017-10-01

    We have utilized the general algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) to engineer the phase shifter domains in a quasi-phase-matching (QPM) device to generate multiple frequency conversion. SA is an algorithm generally used to find the global maxima or minima in a given random function. Here, we have utilized this algorithm to generate multiple QPM second harmonic generation (SHG) by distributing phase shifters suitably. In general, phase shifters are distributed in a QPM device with some specific profile along the length to generate multiple QPM SHG. Using the SA algorithm, the location of these phase shifters can be easily identified to have the desired multiple QPM with higher conversion efficiency. The methodology to generate the desired multiple QPM SHG using the SA algorithm has been discussed in detail.

  14. A new broadband differential phase shifter fabricated using a novel CRLH structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Broadband phase shifters are mostly proposed and fabricated based on the scheme proposed by Shiffman, which uses a coupled line with far ends connected together and a uniform transmission line to give a differential phase shift. Based on the unique dispersion property of the composite right/left-handed (CRLH) metamaterial structure, a new configuration is presented in this paper for fabricating the broadband differential phase shifter, which employs a novel CRLH metamaterial structure as one of the differential phase-shift arms, instead of the conventional coupled line. The new circuit can achieve a phase shift of 90° in an operational bandwidth as broad as one octave and its phase deviations are quite small. An original design of the novel broadband phase shifter is presented, in which the artificial CRLH structure was implemented by microstrip quasi-lumped elements. Both the simulated and measured results of the 90° broadband differential phase shifter are presented.

  15. Q-band 4-state phase shifter in planar technology: Circuit design and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, E.; Cagigas, J.; Aja, B.; de la Fuente, L.; Artal, E.

    2016-09-01

    A 30% bandwidth phase shifter with four phase states is designed to be integrated in a radio astronomy receiver. The circuit has two 90° out-of-phase microwave phase-shifting branches which are combined by Wilkinson power dividers. Each branch is composed of a 180° phase shifter and a band-pass filter. The 180° phase shifter is made of cascaded hybrid rings with microwave PIN diodes as switching devices. The 90° phase shift is achieved with the two band-pass filters. Experimental characterization has shown significant results, with average phase shift values of -90.7°, -181.7°, and 88.5° within the operation band, 35-47 GHz, and mean insertion loss of 7.4 dB. The performance of its integration in a polarimetric receiver for radio astronomy is analyzed, which validates the use of the presented phase shifter in such type of receiver.

  16. Microwave photonic phase shifter based on tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Xue, Weiqi;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a microwave photonic phase shifter based on an electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonator. A continuously tunable phase shift of up to 315° at a microwave frequency of 15GHz is obtained.......We demonstrate a microwave photonic phase shifter based on an electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonator. A continuously tunable phase shift of up to 315° at a microwave frequency of 15GHz is obtained....

  17. Commissioning of a 6.4 T superconducting wavelength shifter at MAX-lab

    CERN Document Server

    Wallen, E

    2002-01-01

    The 6.4 T wavelength shifter at MAX-lab is a three pole superconducting planar wiggler with a warm bore, i.e. the vacuum tube passing through the wavelength shifter is at ambient temperature. The wavelength shifter, including surrounding systems such as power supply and He liquifier, has been assembled, tested, and commissioned at MAX-lab. The wavelength shifter has been installed into the 1.5 GeV MAX II electron storage ring. A field of 6.4 T in the central pole has been obtained and a consumption of 4.3 l/h of liquid helium has been measured under nominal working conditions. The influence on the stored electron beam in the MAX II ring has been measured and the measurements have shown that the wavelength shifter will not degrade the performance of MAX II. The wavelength shifter is however not in use at present and it has been taken out of the MAX II storage ring.

  18. Development of an electromagnetic phase shifter using a pair of cut-core coils for a cross undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, I., E-mail: imatsuda@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuroda, A. [School of Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 651-2197 (Japan); Miyawaki, J.; Kosegawa, Y.; Yamamoto, S. [The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Seike, T.; Bizen, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Harada, Y. [The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-12-11

    This paper describes the development of a phase shifter that can be used in cross undulators for fast polarization switching. The phase shifter is composed of a pair of cut-core coils and a thin-walled stainless steel duct. Evaluation of the magnetic fields of the phase shifter indicates that the switching frequency of this simple and low-cost device can exceed 30 Hz. - Highlights: • We have developed a simple phase shifter that can be used in a cross undulator for fast polarization switching. • The phase shifter is low-cost and it uses a pair of cut-core coil. • The polarization switching of the undulator light can exceed 30 Hz. • The phase shifter has the potential to make shot-by-shot polarization control for X-ray free electron laser.

  19. A novel high power X-band ferrite phase shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, G J; Huang, W H; Li, J W; Ba, T; Guo, L T; Jiang, Y

    2017-01-01

    A novel high power X-band ferrite phase shifter (PS) employing the structure of several waveguides connected in parallel is proposed. Each of the waveguides is a phase shift unit utilizing a dual-toroid structure. First, the phase shift unit is designed, manufactured, and tested. The results indicate that the power capacity reaches 115 kW. At this power, the maximum magnetic field strength of ferrite is 7.9 kA/m, beyond which the nonlinear effect of ferrite will occur. On this basis, the PS that consists of four units connected in parallel is designed. According to the threshold of ferrite, the power capacity of the PS can theoretically reach 430 kW. Limited by the maximum output power of the microwave source, the preliminary high-power test results demonstrate that the PS can operate properly at 270 kW. The PS exhibits an insertion loss of 0.82 dB and a maximum differential phase shift of approximately 300° at 9.3 GHz. The return loss of the PS is more than 16 dB from 9.0 to 9.5 GHz.

  20. Light Readout Optimisation using Wavelength Shifter - Reflector Combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrokoridis, Konstantinos, E-mail: k.mavrokoridis@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Lab, Oxford Street, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-25

    The use of reflectors coated with a wavelength shifter (WLS) along with standard bialkali PMTs is an economical method for an efficient readout system for vacuum ultra violet (VUV) light produced in large liquid argon detectors. Various thicknesses of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) were deposited by spraying and vacuum evaporation onto both specular 3M{sup TM}-foil and diffuse Tetratex{sup TM} (TTX) reflectors. 128 nm VUV light generated in 1 bar argon gas by a 5.4 MeV {alpha} source was detected by a 3-inch bialkali borosilicate PMT within a 1 m tube lined internally with a TPB coated reflector. The light collection was recorded as a function of separation between source and PMT for each combination of coating and reflector for distances up to 1m. Reflection coefficients of TPB coated reflectors were measured using a spectroradiometer. WLS coating on the PMT window was also studied. The optimum coating and reflector combination was TPB evaporated on TTX. Measurements with coating thicknesses of 0.2 mg/cm{sup 2} and 1.0 mg/cm{sup 2} yielded a similar performance. The best PMT window coating is obtained by TPB evaporation of 0.05 mg/cm{sup 2}.

  1. Tunable ferroelectric meta-material phase shifter embedded inside low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Hossam S.

    This dissertation describes electrically tunable microwave devices utilizing low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) and thick film via filled with the ferroelectric materials barium strontium titanate (BST) and barium zirconate titanate (BZT). Tunable ferroelectric capacitors, zero meta-material phase shifters, and tunable meta-material phase shifters are presented. Microwave phase shifters have many applications in microwave devices. They are essential components for active and passive phased array antennas and their most common use is in scanning phased array antennas. They are used in synthetic aperture radars (SAR), low earth orbit (LEO) communication satellites, collision warning radars, and intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS), in addition to various other applications. Tunable ferroelectric materials have been investigated, since they offer the possibility of lowering the total cost of phased arrays. Two of the most promising ferroelectric materials in microwave applications are BST and BZT. The proposed design and implementation in this research introduce new types of tunable meta-material phase shifters embedded inside LTCC, which use BST and BZT as capacitive tunable dielectric material controlled by changing the applied voltage. This phase shifter has the advantages of meta-material structures, which produce little phase error and compensation while having the simultaneous advantage of using LTCC technology for embedding passive components that improve signal integrity (several signal lines, power planes, and ground planes) by using different processes like via filling, screen printing, laminating and firing that can be produced in compact sizes at a low cost. The via filling technique was used to build tunable BST, BZT ferroelectric material capacitors to control phase shift. Finally, The use of the proposed ferroelectric meta-material phase shifter improves phase shifter performance by reducing insertion loss in both transmitting and receiving

  2. Development of high precision digital driver of acoustic-optical frequency shifter for ROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Kong, Mei; Xu, Yameng

    2016-10-01

    We develop a high precision digital driver of the acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) based on the parallel direct digital synthesizer (DDS) technology. We use an atomic clock as the phase-locked loop (PLL) reference clock, and the PLL is realized by a dual digital phase-locked loop. A DDS sampling clock up to 320 MHz with a frequency stability as low as 10-12 Hz is obtained. By constructing the RF signal measurement system, it is measured that the frequency output range of the AOFS-driver is 52-58 MHz, the center frequency of the band-pass filter is 55 MHz, the ripple in the band is less than 1 dB@3MHz, the single channel output power is up to 0.3 W, the frequency stability is 1 ppb (1 hour duration), and the frequency-shift precision is 0.1 Hz. The obtained frequency stability has two orders of improvement compared to that of the analog AOFS-drivers. For the designed binary frequency shift keying (2-FSK) and binary phase shift keying (2-PSK) modulation system, the demodulating frequency of the input TTL synchronous level signal is up to 10 kHz. The designed digital-bus coding/decoding system is compatible with many conventional digital bus protocols. It can interface with the ROG signal detecting software through the integrated drive electronics (IDE) and exchange data with the two DDS frequency-shift channels through the signal detecting software.

  3. Theory and design of a half-mode SIW Ferrite LTCC phase shifter

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2015-05-01

    A half mode SIW based Ferrite LTCC phase shifter is presented in this work. A theoretical model to predict the phase shift in the partially magnetized state has been derived. Contrary to the bulky external magnets employed by conventional ferrite phase shifters for biasing, this design uses bias windings embedded within the ferrite substrate. This not only enables miniaturization but also reduces the required bias fields considerably by avoiding the demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-dielectric interface for external biasing schemes). The design is optimized with the aid of magnetostatic and microwave simulations which are later verified through measurements of a prototype. The fabricated phase shifter provides a differential phase shift of 110°/cm and an FoM of 55°/dB for an applied DC current of 240 mA.

  4. Generalized Analysis Method for a Class of Novel Wideband Loaded-Stub Phase Shifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensong An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis method of wideband loaded-stub phase shifters and a fast designing procedure is presented. These kinds of phase shifters use a transmission line loaded with one or two open stubs and a reference line to achieve up to 135° phase shift. Analysis results shows that lower than -10dB return loss and precise phase shift can be achieved over a 100% bandwidth employing the ideal open stubs. To approach the ideal impedance value of the open stubs, an arrow-shaped stub and several means to control its impedance is proposed. As verification of the analysis method, a 90° two-stub loaded phase shifter is easily designed and fabricated. Measured results show the design achieves better than ±4° phase ripple, less than 0.5dB insertion loss, and better than 10dB return loss over an 85% wideband.

  5. Comments on ferrite phase shifter configurations for the millimeter wave region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, M. L., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    In the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, electronically controllable ferrite phase shifters have demonstrated their value as components and as control elements for switches and attenuators. As the need for control components operating in the lower millimeter wave region increases, it is a reasonable approach to scale successful microwave ferrite configurations into the lower millimeter wave region (30 GHz to 140 GHz). However, many problems are encountered when attempting to scale efficient microwave ferrite configurations, particularly latching ferrite configurations, into the millimeter wave region. It is the objective of this report to review several ferrite configurations with the intent that consideration of these configurations may stimulate development of practical millimeter wave configurations. Ferrite phase shifter configurations that will be the subject of comment include the toroidal (dual slab), dual mode, Bush-Reggia-Spencer, and single slab configurations. Comments are also presented on a circulator used as a phase shifter.

  6. Low Loss Electro-Optic Polymer Based Fast Adaptive Phase Shifters Realized in Silicon Nitride and Oxynitride Waveguide Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Baudzus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive study on how to design and fabricate low loss electro-optic phase shifters based on an electro-optic polymer and the silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride waveguide material systems. The loss mechanisms of phase shifters with an electro-optic (EO polymer cladding are analyzed in detail and design solutions to achieve lowest losses are presented. In order to verify the low loss design a proof of concept prototype phase shifter was fabricated, which exhibits an attenuation of 0.8 dB/cm at 1550 nm and an electro-optic efficiency factor of 27%. Furthermore, the potential of this class of phase shifters is evaluated in numerical simulations, from which the optimal design parameters and achievable figures of merit were derived. The presented phase shifter design has its potential for application in fast adaptive multi stage devices for optical signal processing.

  7. Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan-Shan; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Pan, Ru-Pin; Yu, Peichen; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding π/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ˜517 μm-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (˜78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66 V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

  8. Bias-free spin-wave phase shifter for magnonic logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Louis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A design of a magnonic phase shifter operating without an external bias magnetic field is proposed. The phase shifter uses a localized collective spin wave mode propagating along a domain wall “waveguide” in a dipolarly-coupled magnetic dot array with a chessboard antiferromagnetic (CAFM ground state. It is demonstrated numerically that the remagnetization of a single magnetic dot adjacent to the domain wall waveguide introduces a controllable phase shift in the propagating spin wave mode without significant change to the mode amplitude. It is also demonstrated that a logic XOR gate can be realized in the same system.

  9. 360° tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Xue, Weiqi; Liu, Liu;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate tunable microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonators. A quasi-linear phase shift of 360° with ~2dB radio frequency power variation at a microwave frequency of 40GHz is obtained......We demonstrate tunable microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonators. A quasi-linear phase shift of 360° with ~2dB radio frequency power variation at a microwave frequency of 40GHz is obtained...

  10. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four d...

  11. A Partially Magnetized Ferrite LTCC-Based SIW Phase Shifter for Phased Array Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2015-06-01

    The theory and design of a half-mode substrate-integrated waveguide ferrite low-temperature cofired ceramic-based phase shifter are presented in this paper. Unlike typical ferrite-based designs, the biasing is done through embedded windings in a multi-layer substrate that not only obviates the requirement of bulky electromagnets, but also prevents loss of bias fields at the air-to-ferrite interface. The phase shifter is operated in the partially magnetized state of ferrite substrate. Through the combined effect of embedded windings, half-mode waveguide operation, and partially magnetized state, the required bias fields have been reduced by 90% as compared with conventional ferrite-based designs employing electromagnets. A complete analytical model, backed up by electromagnetic simulations and measured results from a prototype, is presented in this paper. The fabricated prototype demonstrates a phase shift of 83.2° at a center frequency of 13.1 GHz and a figure of merit of 83.2°/dB. As a proof-of-concept, the proposed phase shifter design is monolithically integrated with a two-element antenna array to demonstrate a measured beam steering of 30°. The phase shifter design is highly efficient in terms of required bias fields, and it has a small form factor and can be easily integrated with other electronic components and systems. © 1965-2012 IEEE.

  12. Tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Xue, Weiqi;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonators (MRRs). MRRs with different quality factors are fabricated and tested. A continuously tunable phase shift of up to 336 at a microwave frequency of 40 GHz is obtained using a high...

  13. Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Xue, Weiqi;

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate tunable microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonators. The phase-shifting range and the RF-power variation are analyzed. A maximum phase-shifting range of 0~600° is achieved by utilizing a dual-microring resonator...

  14. Integrated nanophotonic frequency shifter on the silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) platform for laser vibrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauermann, M.; Weimann, C.; Palmer, R.; Schindler, P. C. [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Koeber, S.; Freude, W., E-mail: christian.koos@kit.edu; Koos, C., E-mail: christian.koos@kit.edu [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany and Institute of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rembe, C. [Polytec GmbH, 76337 Waldbronn (Germany)

    2014-05-27

    We demonstrate a waveguide-based frequency shifter on the silicon photonic platform, enabling frequency shifts up to 10 GHz. The device is realized by silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) integration. Temporal shaping of the drive signal allows the suppression of spurious side-modes by more than 23 dB.

  15. Accelerator physics and radiometric properties of superconducting wavelength shifters; Beschleunigerphysik und radiometrische Eigenschaften supraleitender Wellenlaengenschieber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, Michael

    2008-11-17

    Subject of this thesis is the operation of wave-length shifters at electron storage rings and their use in radiometry. The basic aspects of the radiometry, the technical requirements, the influence of wave-length shifters on the storage ring, and results of first measurements are presented for a device installed at BESSY. Most of the calculations are carried out by the program WAVE, which has been developed within this thesis. WAVE allows to calculate the synchrotron radiation spectra of wavelength shifters within an relative uncertainty of 1/100000. The properties of wave-length shifters in terms of accelerator physics as well as a generating function for symplectic tracking calculations can also be calculated by WAVE. The later was implemented in the tracking code BETA to investigate the influence of insertion devices on the dynamic aperture and emittance of the storage ring. These studies led to the concept of alternating low- and high-beta-sections at BESSY-II, which allow to operate superconducting insertion devices without a significant distortion of the magnetic optics. To investigate the experimental aspects of the radiometry at wave-length shifters, a program based on the Monte-Carlo-code GEANT4 has been developed. It allows to simulate the radiometrical measurements and the absorption properties of detectors. With the developed codes first radiometrical measurements by the PTB have been analysed. A comparison of measurements and calculations show a reasonable agreement with deviations of about five percent in the spectral range of 40-60 keV behind a 1-mm-Cu filter. A better agreement was found between 20 keV and 80 keV without Cu filter. In this case the measured data agreed within a systematic uncertainty of two percent with the results of the calculations. (orig.)

  16. An Integrable SIW Phase Shifter in a Partially Magnetized Ferrite LTCC Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed

    2015-06-09

    There is a growing need for small size integrable phased antenna arrays for emerging satellite communications on-the-move applications. Traditional ferrite-based phase shifters are generally bulky due to the need of electromagnets for biasing, yielding them unsuitable for this kind of application. In this paper, a novel compact light-weight substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) based phase shifter realized in a multi-layer ferrite low-temperature co-fired ceramic package with embedded bias windings is reported. By using embedded windings and operating the material in a partially magnetized state, the required bias magnetic field could be significantly reduced from typically about 1000 Oe to less than 50 Oe. Moreover, the presented phase shifter has two modes of operations corresponding to two different biasing scenarios of the SIW, namely, symmetric and anti-symmetric bias. Under anti-symmetric bias, the phase shifter can achieve high nonreciprocal phase shift, whereas under symmetric bias, the phase shift is reciprocal, but the available phase shift is less than the anti-symmetric case. The fabricated prototype operates in the 11.5-13.5-GHz range and has a peak figure of merit (phase shift per decibel of loss) of 102°/dB and a maximum phase shift per unit length of 153°/cm, which are more than five times the previously reported figures for this technology. Due to the use of embedded windings, the presented phase shifter offers a huge size reduction from the order of cm3 to mm3, making it particularly useful for mobile phased-array applications. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Optimization of the wavelength shifter ratio in a polystyrene based plastic scintillator through energy spectrum analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ye Won; Kim, Myung Soo; Yoo, Hyun Jun; Lee, Dae Hee; Cho, Gyu Seong [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myung Kook [Neutron Instrumentation Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The scintillation efficiency of the polystyrene based plastic scintillator depends on the ratio of the wavelength shifters, organic fluors (PPO and POPOP). Thus, 24 samples of the plastic scintillator were fabricated in order to find out the optimum ratio of the wavelength shifters in the plastic scintillator. The fabricated plastic scintillators were trimmed through a cutting and polishing process. They were used in gamma energy spectrum measurement with the {sup 137}Cs emitting monoenergy photon with 662 keV for the comparison of the scintillation efficiency. As a result, it was found out that the scintillator sample with 1.00 g of PPO (2,5-Diphenyloxazole) and 0.50 g of POPOP (1,4-Bis(5-phnyl-2oxidazolyl)benzene) dissolved in 100 g of styrene solution has the optimum ratio in terms of the light yield of the polystyrene based plastic scintillator.

  18. X-band 5-bit MMIC phase shifter with GaN HEMT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengpeng; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Zongjing; Geng, Miao; Zhang, Rong; Luo, Weijun

    2017-10-01

    The design approach and performance of a 5-bit digital phase shifter implemented with 0.25 μm GaN HEMT technology for X-band phased arrays are described. The switched filter and high-pass/low-pass networks are proposed in this article. For all 32 states of the 5-bit phase shifter, the RMS phase error less than 5.5°, RMS amplitude error less than 0.8 dB, insertion loss less than 12 dB and input/output return loss less than 8.5 dB are obtained overall 8-12 GHz. The continuous wave power capability is also measured, and a typical input RF P1dB data of 32 dBm is achieved at 8 GHz.

  19. The application of taylor weighting, digital phase shifters, and digital attenuators to phased-array antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.

    2008-03-01

    Application of Taylor weighting (taper) to an antenna aperture can achieve low peak sidelobes, but combining the Taylor weighting with quantized attenuators and phase shifters at each radiating element will impact the performance of a phased-array antenna. An examination of array performance is undertaken from the simple point of view of the characteristics of the array factor. Design rules and guidelines for determining the Taylor-weighting parameters, the number of bits required for the digital phase shifter, and the dynamic range and number of bits required for the digital attenuator are developed. For a radar application, when each element is fed directly from a transmit/receive module, the total power radiated by the array will be reduced as a result of the taper. Consequently, the issue of whether to apply the taper on both transmit and receive configurations, or only on the receive configuration is examined with respect to two-way sidelobe performance.

  20. Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, M; Weimann, C; Knopf, A; Heni, W; Palmer, R; Koeber, S; Elder, D L; Bogaerts, W; Leuthold, J; Dalton, L R; Rembe, C; Freude, W; Koos, C

    2016-05-30

    We demonstrate for the first time a waveguide-based frequency shifter on the silicon photonic platform using single-sideband modulation. The device is based on silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators, which combine conventional silicon-on-insulator waveguides with highly efficient electro-optic cladding materials. Using small-signal modulation, we demonstrate frequency shifts of up to 10 GHz. We further show large-signal modulation with optimized waveforms, enabling a conversion efficiency of -5.8 dB while suppressing spurious side-modes by more than 23 dB. In contrast to conventional acousto-optic frequency shifters, our devices lend themselves to large-scale integration on silicon substrates, while enabling frequency shifts that are several orders of magnitude larger than those demonstrated with all-silicon serrodyne devices.

  1. A tunable and wideband microwave photonic phase shifter based on dual-polarization modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengxue; Wen, Aijun; Gao, Yongsheng; Tu, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    A microwave photonic phase shifter based on dual-polarization Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPol-MZM) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. A polarization multiplexed double sideband (DSB) signal is produced by a DPol-MZM. An optical bandpass filter (OBPF) follows after the DPol-MZM to filter out the optical carrier and one sideband. The polarization multiplexed signal is converted into a linear polarization light by a polarizer (Pol), and then beat at a photodiode (PD) to obtain the phase shifted signal. Experiments are carried out, and a continuous phase shift from -180° to 180° over a wide microwave frequency range of 10-33 GHz can be achieved by changing the polarization state using a polarization controller (PC). We also studied the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) in the experiments. The features of this proposed phase shifter are large operation bandwidth, full-range 360° phase shift, and simple structure.

  2. Application of the TPB Wavelength Shifter to the DEAP-3600 Spherical Acrylic Vessel Inner Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broerman, B.; Boulay, M. G.; Cai, B.; Cranshaw, D.; Dering, K.; Florian, S.; Gagnon, R.; Giampa, P.; Gilmour, C.; Hearns, C.; Kezwer, J.; Kuźniak, M.; Pollmann, T.; Ward, M.

    2017-04-01

    DEAP-3600 uses liquid argon contained in a spherical acrylic vessel as a target medium to perform a sensitive spin-independent dark matter search. Argon scintillates in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum, which requires wavelength shifting to convert the VUV photons to visible so they can be transmitted through the acrylic light guides and detected by the surrounding photomultiplier tubes. The wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene was evaporatively deposited to the inner surface of the acrylic vessel under vacuum. Two evaporations were performed on the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel with an estimated coating thickness of 3.00 ± 0.02 μm which is successfully wavelength shifting with liquid argon in the detector. Details on the wavelength shifter coating requirements, deposition source, testing, and final performance are presented.

  3. Power system stabilization by superconducting magnetic energy storage with solid-state phase shifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, Y.; Uranaka, T.; Tsuji, K. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-08-01

    In this paper, a new configuration of power system controller with a combination of superconducting magnetic energy storage and phase shifter, is proposed to improve the stability of a long distance bulk power transmission system. A power system stabilizing control scheme is also proposed. A related simulation shows that the proposed controller is effective for enhancement of power system stability independent of the location of controller in a long distance bulk power transmission system.

  4. Broadband photonic microwave phase shifter based on controlling two RF modulation sidebands via a Fourier-domain optical processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Chan, E H W; Wang, X; Feng, X; Guan, B

    2015-05-04

    An all-optical photonic microwave phase shifter that can realize a continuous 360° phase shift over a wide frequency range is presented. It is based on the new concept of controlling the amplitude and phase of the two RF modulation sidebands via a Fourier-domain optical processor. The operating frequency range of the phase shifter is largely increased compared to the previously reported Fourier-domain optical processor based phase shifter that uses only one RF modulation sideband. This is due to the extension of the lower RF operating frequency by designing the amplitude and phase of one of the RF modulation sidebands while the other sideband is designed to realize the required RF signal phase shift. The two-sideband amplitude-and-phase-control based photonic microwave phase shifter has a simple structure as it only requires a single laser source, a phase modulator, a Fourier-domain optical processor and a single photodetector. Investigation on the bandwidth limitation problem in the conventional Fourier-domain optical processor based phase shifter is presented. Comparisons between the measured phase shifter output RF amplitude and phase responses with theory, which show excellent agreement, are also presented for the first time. Experimental results demonstrate the full -180° to + 180° phase shift with little RF signal amplitude variation of less than 3 dB and with a phase deviation of less than 4° over a 7.5 GHz to 26.5 GHz frequency range, and the phase shifter exhibits a long term stable performance.

  5. Influence of optical filters on pulse circulation in fiber rings with a frequency shifter and EDFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2006-10-30

    Optical fiber ring circuits constructed with frequency shifters and EDFAs are applicable to pulsed lightwave frequency sweepers, wavelength converters, and optical packet buffers. The salient criterion for those applications is how many times the optical pulse can circle the ring. Optical band-pass filters in the ring can serve an important role for pulse circulation because the filter determines the gain bandwidth at every circulation under the condition of signal wavelength shift. This paper clarifies the effects of optical filter response on pulse circulation in the ring through numerical simulation of the EDFA dynamic model, considering the gain spectrum.

  6. Evaluation of wavelength shifters for spectral separation of barium fluoride emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVol, T.A. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1993-10-01

    BaF{sub 2} has the advantage over other scintillators, when comparing radiation hardness, scintillation decay time, and fast scintillation yield. Since the fast BaF{sub 2} emissions have peak wavelengths of 220, 195, and 170 nm, a wavelength shifter (WLS) is needed. Organic fluors were evaluated as WLS components. Results indicate that spectral separation using WLS is possible, but not to the extent desired; other techniques must be used also. Alternative scintillators, such as CeF{sub 3}, should be investigated.

  7. Radio frequency phase shifters for launching waves in a magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrucci, L.; Casanova, M.R.; Maglione, V.; Montiron, G.; Riccardi, C.; Barisoni, D.; Fontanesi, M.; Galassi, A.; Sindoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    1995-04-01

    A variable phase-shifting system, able to generate phase-shifted replicas of the same reference input signal, has been designed to properly feed the antenna system within a plasma device. The system is based on a phase-locked loop used as a voltage controlled phase shifter and is able to provide four phase-shifted output signals. The phase differences between adjacent outputs can be varied between 0{degree} and 100{degree}, and are maintained equal to each other, with a precision of less than 3{degree} in the range 2.5--10 MHz. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. Generation of energetic, picosecond seed pulses for CO2 laser using Raman shifter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Eric; Tochitsky, Sergei; Joshi, Chan

    2017-03-01

    We present a new concept for generating 3 ps seed pulses for a high-power CO2 laser amplifier that are multiple orders more energetic than seed pulses generated by slicing from a nanosecond CO2 laser pulse. We propose to send a 1 µm picosecond laser through a C6D6 Raman shifter and mix both the pump and shifted components in a DFG crystal to produce pulses at 10.6 µm. Preliminary results of a proof-of-principle experiment are presented.

  9. A novel three vector sum active phase shifter design for w-band automotive radar applications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel active W-band phase shifter implemented using IHP SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) 0.25-mu m SG25H1 technology with three vector (0 degrees-120 degrees-240 degrees) sum technique. The integrated chip consists of a 3-way Wilkinson power divider/combiner with 0 degrees-120 degrees-240 degrees phase shifting lines and three low-noise amplifiers (LNA) working at 77 GHz, which comprises a total of 1.5 x 1.1 mm(2) die area. The phase shifting is based on th...

  10. Tunable Multifunctional Thermal Metamaterials: Manipulation of Local Heat Flux via Assembly of Unit-Cell Thermal Shifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwanwoo; Kang, Sunggu; Lee, Howon; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-01-20

    Thermal metamaterials, designed by transformation thermodynamics are artificial structures that can actively control heat flux at a continuum scale. However, fabrication of them is very challenging because it requires a continuous change of thermal properties in materials, for one specific function. Herein, we introduce tunable thermal metamaterials that use the assembly of unit-cell thermal shifters for a remarkable enhancement in multifunctionality as well as manufacturability. Similar to the digitization of a two-dimensional image, designed thermal metamaterials by transformation thermodynamics are disassembled as unit-cells thermal shifters in tiny areas, representing discretized heat flux lines in local spots. The programmed-reassembly of thermal shifters inspired by LEGO enable the four significant functions of thermal metamaterials-shield, concentrator, diffuser, and rotator-in both simulation and experimental verification using finite element method and fabricated structures made from copper and PDMS. This work paves the way for overcoming the structural and functional limitations of thermal metamaterials.

  11. Tunable Multifunctional Thermal Metamaterials: Manipulation of Local Heat Flux via Assembly of Unit-Cell Thermal Shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwanwoo; Kang, Sunggu; Lee, Howon; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-01-01

    Thermal metamaterials, designed by transformation thermodynamics are artificial structures that can actively control heat flux at a continuum scale. However, fabrication of them is very challenging because it requires a continuous change of thermal properties in materials, for one specific function. Herein, we introduce tunable thermal metamaterials that use the assembly of unit-cell thermal shifters for a remarkable enhancement in multifunctionality as well as manufacturability. Similar to the digitization of a two-dimensional image, designed thermal metamaterials by transformation thermodynamics are disassembled as unit-cells thermal shifters in tiny areas, representing discretized heat flux lines in local spots. The programmed-reassembly of thermal shifters inspired by LEGO enable the four significant functions of thermal metamaterials—shield, concentrator, diffuser, and rotator—in both simulation and experimental verification using finite element method and fabricated structures made from copper and PDMS. This work paves the way for overcoming the structural and functional limitations of thermal metamaterials. PMID:28106156

  12. Investigating excitation-dependent and fringe-field effects of electromagnet and permanent-magnet phase shifters for a crossed undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Chu, Yun-Liang; Lin, Fu-Yuan; Jan, Jyh-Chyuan; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2017-04-01

    To enhance the flux density or to control polarization, a phase shifter was designed and used to modulate the phase matching between segmented undulators. A larger hysteresis loop causes, however, a repeatability issue in the phase matching; the fringe field of the phase shifter creates an extra magnetic-field error. The design of the phase shifter must therefore minimize the hysteresis loop and fringe field to maintain the phases exact and to ignore the crosstalk effect. Two critical issues are the hysteresis-loop problem and the fringe-field effect, which determine the radiation performance and the stability of the ring. To investigate these issues, a phase shifter was constructed to operate in accordance with electromagnetic- and permanent-type magnets; the results from the field measurements and shims are discussed here. The shimming algorithm and a compact permanent-magnet phase shifter that eliminates the issues are also presented.

  13. Optical DPSK demodulator based on pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating with an optically turnable phase shifter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, T.-Y.; Hanawa, M.; Kim, Sun-Jong

    2006-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel optical differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) demodulator with an optically tunable phase shifter. The proposed DPSK demodulator is implemented by using a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating and an Yb3+-Al3+ codoped optical fiber. A 10-Gb/s DPSK signal was suc...... was successfully demodulated by the proposed demodulator, showing clearly open eye diagrams as well as bit-error-free performance. Moreover, the phase of delayed optical signal can be tuned by the phase shifter that is controlled by a pumping light at around 980nm....

  14. Enhanced UV light detection using a p-terphenyl wavelength shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Joosten, S; Ungaro, M; Rehfuss, M; Johnston, K; Meziani, Z -E

    2016-01-01

    UV-glass photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have poor photon detection efficiency for wavelengths below $300\\,\\text{nm}$ due to the opaqueness of the window material. Costly quartz PMTs could be used to enhance the efficiency below $300\\,\\text{nm}$. A less expensive solution that dramatically improves this efficiency is the application of a thin film of a p-terphenyl (PT) wavelength shifter on UV-glass PMTs. This improvement was quantified for Photonis XP4500B PMTs for wavelengths between $200\\,\\text{nm}$ and $400\\,\\text{nm}$. The gain factor ranges up to 5.4 $\\pm$ 0.5 at a wavelength of $215\\,\\text{nm}$, with a material load of $110\\pm10\\,\\mu\\text{g}/\\text{cm}^2$ ($894\\,\\text{nm}$). The wavelength shifter was found to be fully transparent for wavelengths greater than $300\\,\\text{nm}$. The resulting gain in detection efficiency, when used in a typical Cherenkov counter, was estimated to be of the order of 40\\%. Consistent coating quality was assured by a rapid gain testing procedure using narrow-band UV LEDs. Based...

  15. Modeling non-saturated ferrite-based devices: Application to twin toroid ferrite phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouellec, A.; Vérissimo, G.; Laur, V.; Queffelec, P.; Albert, I.; Girard, T.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a new set of tools developed to improve the conception and modeling of non-saturated ferrite-based devices such as twin toroid phase shifters. These new simulation tools benefit from a generalized permeability tensor model able to describe the permeability tensor of a ferrite sample whatever its magnetization state. This model is coupled to a homemade 3D multi-scale magnetostatic analysis program, which describes the evolution of the magnetization through the definition of a hysteresis loop in every mesh cell. These computed spectra are then integrated into 3D electromagnetic simulation software that retains the spatial variations of the ferrite properties by using freshly developed macro programming functions. This new approach allows the designers to accurately model complex ferrite devices such as twin toroid phase shifters. In particular, we demonstrated a good agreement between simulated and measured phase shifts as a function of applied current values with a predicted maximum phase shift of 0.96 times the measured value.

  16. Sector Shifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1994-01-01

    Several superintendents have recently left school administration for careers in private education companies such as Education Alternatives, Inc., the Edison Project, and Sylvan Learning Systems, Inc. Former superintendents from New York, Rochester, Saint Paul, and Detroit reflect on their reasons for switching careers. Salary considerations…

  17. 60 GHz 5-bit digital controlled phase shifter in a digital 40 nm CMOS technology without ultra-thick metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ying, K.; Matters-Kammerer, M.K.; Harpe, P.; Wang, B.; Liu, B.; Serdijn, W.A.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    A 5-bit digital controlled switch-type passive phase shifter realised in a 40 nm digital CMOS technology without ultra-thick metals for the 60 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band is presented. A patterned shielding with electromagnetic bandgap structure and a stacked metals method to

  18. Calibration of the High Resolution Phase Shifter (HRPS) in Linac 3/Rex using a dedicated LabView program

    CERN Document Server

    Winsvold, D

    2013-01-01

    This is a document describing how to calibrate the High Resolution Phase Shifters of Linac 3 and REX. The document also describes how to do tests on the Delay Lines in Linac 2, 3 and REX, but these cannot be calibrated.

  19. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Based Phase Shifter and Phased Array in a Ferrite Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.

    2014-03-01

    Phased array antennas, capable of controlling the direction of their radiated beam, are demanded by many conventional as well as modern systems. Applications such as automotive collision avoidance radar, inter-satellite communication links and future man-portable satellite communication on move services require reconfigurable beam systems with stress on mobility and cost effectiveness. Microwave phase shifters are key components of phased antenna arrays. A phase shifter is a device that controls the phase of the signal passing through it. Among the technologies used to realize this device, traditional ferrite waveguide phase shifters offer the best performance. However, they are bulky and difficult to integrate with other system components. Recently, ferrite material has been introduced in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) multilayer packaging technology. This enables the integration of ferrite based components with other microwave circuitry in a compact, light-weight and mass producible package. Additionally, the recent concept of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) allowed realization of synthesized rectangular waveguide-like structures in planar and multilayer substrates. These SIW structures have been shown to maintain the merits of conventional rectangular waveguides such as low loss and high power handling capabilities while being planar and easily integrable with other components. Implementing SIW structures inside a multilayer ferrite LTCC package enables monolithic integration of phase shifters and phased arrays representing a true System on Package (SoP) solution. It is the objective of this thesis to pursue realizing efficient integrated phase shifters and phased arrays combining the above mentioned technologies, namely Ferrite LTCC and SIW. In this work, a novel SIW phase shifter in ferrite LTCC package is designed, fabricated and tested. The device is able to operate reciprocally as well as non-reciprocally. Demonstrating a measured maximum

  20. Aluminum nitride electro-optic phase shifter for backend integration on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2016-06-13

    An AlN electro-optic phase shifter with a parallel plate capacitor structure is fabricated on Si using the back-end complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which is feasible for multilayer photonics integration. The modulation efficiency (Vπ⋅Lπ product) measured from the fabricated waveguide-ring resonators and Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) modulators near the 1550-nm wavelength is ∼240 V⋅cm for the transverse electric (TE) mode and ∼320 V⋅cm for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode, from which the Pockels coefficient of the deposited AlN is deduced to be ∼1.0 pm/V for both TE and TM modes. The methods for further modulation efficiency improvement are addressed.

  1. Investigation of Asymmetrical Modes of Three-Phase Three Leg Combined Transformer-Phase-Shifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosneaga V.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available On the base of previously proposed model of three-phase three leg transformer windings connection scheme for combined transformer-phase shifter was made, for which calculations and analysis of specific characteristics of different steady state asymmetric modes were performed. At this the electromagnetic coupling of the windings, located on different legs of transformer core was taken into account. As the base 10 kV transformer was used, and different short circuits, combined with phase failures at feeding source were investigated. For the considered regimes vectorial diagrams for windings currents, voltages and relative values of magnetic fluxes in the legs and zero sequence magnetic flux, flows out of magnetic circuit, were constructed, giving clear idea about their particular features.

  2. Improvement of Transient Stability of Power System by Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The improvement of transient stability of the power system was one of the most challenging research areas in power engineer. Approach: This study presents the method to improve transient stability of power system by Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter Transformer (TCPST. The mathematical model of power system equipped with a TCPST was systematically derived. The parameters of TCPST are modeled into power flow equation and thus it was used to determine control strategy. The swing curves of the three phase faulted power system without and with a TCPST are tested and compared in various cases. Results: The swing curve of system without a TCPST gets increases monotonically and thus the system can be considered as unstable whereas the swing curves of system with a TCPST can return to stable equilibrium point. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the TCPST can increase transient stability of power system.

  3. High figure-of-merit compact phase shifters based on liquid crystal material for 1-10 GHz applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longzhu; Xu, Huan; Li, Jinfeng; Chu, Daping

    2017-01-01

    A liquid crystal (LC) based tunable microstrip line (ML) phase shifter featuring high performance is presented. The experimental results show an electrically tunable differential phase up to 360° at 10 GHz with an overall insertion loss impedance matching structure is applied, and the measured return loss is considerably improved. The FoM and phase tuning property of the fabricated device as optimized are compared with the state-of-art results published recently and show better performance for both of them.

  4. Possibilities of achromatization of coaxial asymmetric phase shifters with an even number of reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V. I.; Ali, M.; Kovalev, S. V.; Kovalev, V. V.

    2014-07-01

    Two types of coaxial phase shifters (PSs) are considered. They are designed for spectral ellipsometry, where achromatism is improved using a pair of parallel Al mirrors oriented at small angle θ2 with respect to the incident laser beam. In a phase device based on a fused silica Fresnel rhomb, a high degree of achromatism (Δ = 440° ± 0.4° in the wavelength range of 250-1000 nm) is obtained with the aid of two Al mirrors coated by a native oxide layer about 5 nm thick and tilted at θ2 = 18°. The achromatism of four-mirror PSs can be improved using two mirrors with a thin dielectric coating (Al2O3 or MgF2) 20-80 nm thick, for which phase shift Δ is close to 180° at small angles θ2 and there are fragments of spectrum Δ(λ) where Δ decreases with an increase in the light wavelength.

  5. Thin-Film Ferro Electric-Coupled Microstripline Phase Shifters With Reduced Device Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert; Mueller, Carl H.; VanKeuls, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the performance of coupled microstripline phase shifters (CMPS) fabricated using BaxSr 1 -xTiO 3 (BST) ferroelectric thin films. The CMPS were fabricated using commercially available pulsed laser deposition BST films with Ba:Sr ratios of 30:70 and 20:80. Microwave characterization of these CMPS was performed at upper Kuband frequencies, particularly at frequencies near 16 and 18 GHz. X-ray diffraction studies indicate that the 30:70 films exhibit almost a 1:1 ratio between the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters, suggesting that their cubics create strain -free films suitable for producing CMPS devices with reduced hysteresis in the paraelectric state. The quality of performance of the CMPS was studied based on their relative phase shift and insertion loss within the DC bias range of 0 to 400 V (i.e., E-field ranges within 0 to 53 V/micron). The performance of the CMPS was tested as a function of temperature to investigate their operation in the paraelectric, as well as in the ferroelectric, state (i.e., above and below the Curie temperature, respectively). The novel behavior discussed here is based on the experimental observation of the CMPS. This behavior, observed for the aforementioned cation ratio, highlights the relevance of good crystalline structure for high-quality CMPS.

  6. Pulsed UCN production using a Doppler shifter at J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Imajo, S; Kitaguchi, M; Iwashia, Y; Yamada, N L; Hino, M; Oda, T; Ino, T; Shimizu, H M; Yamashita, S; Katayama, R

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a Doppler-shifter-type pulsed ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source at the Materials and Life Science Experiment Facility (MLF) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Very-cold neutrons (VCNs) with 136-$\\mathrm{m/s}$ velocity in a neutron beam supplied by a pulsed neutron source are decelerated by reflection on a m=10 wide-band multilayer mirror, yielding pulsed UCN. The mirror is fixed to the tip of a 2,000-rpm rotating arm moving with 68-$\\mathrm{m/s}$ velocity in the same direction as the VCN. The repetition frequency of the pulsed UCN is $8.33~\\mathrm{Hz}$ and the time width of the pulse at production is $4.4~\\mathrm{ms}$. In order to increase the UCN flux, a supermirror guide, wide-band monochromatic mirrors, focus guides, and a UCN extraction guide have been newly installed or improved. The count rate of the output neutrons with longitudinal wavelengths longer than $58~\\mathrm{nm}$ is $1.6 \\times 10^{2}~\\mathrm{cps}$, while that of the true UCNs is $80~\\mathrm{cps}$ at ...

  7. Efficient, Compact and Low Loss Thermo-Optic Phase Shifter in Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Nicholas C; Mower, Jacob; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Englund, Dirk; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We design a resistive heater optimized for efficient and low-loss optical phase modulation in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide and characterize the fabricated devices. Modulation is achieved by flowing current perpendicular to a new ridge waveguide geometry. The resistance profile is engineered using different dopant concentrations to obtain localized heat generation and maximize the overlap between the optical mode and the high temperature regions, while simultaneously minimizing optical loss due to free-carrier absorption. A 61.6 micrometer-long phase shifter was fabricated in a CMOS process with oxide cladding and two metal layers. The device features a phase-shifting efficiency of 24.77 +/- 0.43 mW/pi and a -3 dB modulation bandwidth of 130.0 +/- 5.59 kHz. The insertion loss measured for 21 devices across an 8-inch wafer was only 0.23 +/- 0.13 dB. Considering the prospect of densely integrated photonic circuits, we also quantify the separation necessary to isolate thermo-optic devices in the standar...

  8. Efficient, compact and low loss thermo-optic phase shifter in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicholas C; Ma, Yangjin; Mower, Jacob; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Englund, Dirk; Hochberg, Michael; Galland, Christophe

    2014-05-05

    We design a resistive heater optimized for efficient and low-loss optical phase modulation in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide and characterize the fabricated devices. Modulation is achieved by flowing current perpendicular to a new ridge waveguide geometry. The resistance profile is engineered using different dopant concentrations to obtain localized heat generation and maximize the overlap between the optical mode and the high temperature regions of the structure, while simultaneously minimizing optical loss due to free-carrier absorption. A 61.6 μm long phase shifter was fabricated in a CMOS process with oxide cladding and two metal layers. The device features a phase-shifting efficiency of 24.77 ± 0.43 mW/π and a -3 dB modulation bandwidth of 130.0 ± 5.59 kHz; the insertion loss measured for 21 devices across an 8-inch wafer was only 0.23 ± 0.13 dB. Considering the prospect of densely integrated photonic circuits, we also quantify the separation necessary to isolate thermo-optic devices in the standard 220 nm SOI platform.

  9. 采用微波移相网络实现PSK调制的新技术%Realization of PSK using a microwave phase shifter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 黄友火; 白小平; 刘卫星

    2012-01-01

    The new realization of PSK using a digital microwave phase system is presented. A microwave phase shifter controlled by FPGA is used to shift the phase of the radio carrier wave to finish PSK modulation, The new design can realize 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 PSK modulations. When the new design is used in an antenna array system, only one phase shifter is needed to finish both PSK modulation and beam-forming. Tests of the wireless transmitter that is fabricated according to the new design show that the phase shifting error is lower than 1.2°and the BER is lower than 10-5, which leads to the BER level of the common PSK realization of orthogonal modulation. The new design does not need an orthogonal modulator and a mixer which are necessary in the common PSK realization of orthogonal modulation, thus simplifying the system and reducing its cost.%提出了一种采用数字微波移相系统实现相移键控(PSK)的技术,用现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)控制下的微波移相器对射频载波进行移相的方法实现PSK调制.新设计可以实现2,8,16,32,64进制的PSK调制.该技术应用于天线阵系统时能够采用同一个调相网络同时实现PSK调制和波束合成.采用新技术制作的无线发射系统的实测表明,该系统的移相误差小于1.2°,误码率低于10-5,达到了常见的正交调制PSK实现技术的误码水平.新设计不需要常见的正交调制PSK实现技术必需的正交调制器和混频器,简化了系统,降低了成本.

  10. Installation and Commissioning of a 6-Tesla Superconducting Wavelength Shifter at Taiwan Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Chang, H. P.; Chen, Jenny; Chen, J. R.; Fan, T. C.; Hwang, C. S.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Hsu, K. T.; Kuo, C. C.; Luo, G. H.; Wang, D. J.; Wang, M. H.

    2005-09-01

    The Taiwan Light Source (TLS) is the first third-generation light source in Asia. The storage ring has six straight sections one section for injection, one for the RF cavities and diagnostic instrumentation and four sections for insertion devices, which are U5, U9, EPU and W20. Generating high-energy X-ray photons is a high priority at TLS. A single hybrid type wiggler is associated with three beam lines to serve X-ray users. The installed Superconducting Wavelength Shifter (SWLS) is very compact in size and can produce very high-energy photons. The injection section at TLS can barely accommodate the SWLS. The expected multipole components of the SWLS are strong, shrink the dynamic aperture; perturb the beta function, and reduce the beam lifetime. The increase in the synchrotron radiation by the SWLS also changes beam emittance and increases the energy spread. The influence of SWLS on the low-energy, 1.5 GeV, storage-ring should not be neglected. The downstream kicker with the water-cooled copper mask must be modified to prevent a potential meltdown of the welding junction of the ceramic chamber because the heat load is high. The 1.2 μs half-sine pulse field of the kicker is then altered by the copper-made radiation mask, which is installed inside the ceramic chamber. The operating capability of cryogenic system is established to ensure the smooth commissioning of the SWLS. The magnetic field mapping, the dynamic aperture simulation data and commissioning results will be presented and discussed herein.

  11. Frequency translation of light waves by propagation around an optical ring circuit containing a frequency shifter: II. Theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1994-05-20

    Theoretical aspects of the frequency-translation ring circuit are considered through numerical simulations. We analyze the signal and noise propagation around an optical ring circuit that contains a frequency shifter, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and a bandpass filter (BPF). The relations between the frequency-translation limit and some important parameters such as the BPF bandwidth and the polarization state are clarified. Numerical results for the frequency-translation limit are compared with reported experiments and a frequency translation of more than 100 GHz is predicted.

  12. Enhancement of the low-frequency response of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier slow light-based microwave phase shifter by forced coherent population oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Aidan; Connelly, Michael J.

    2014-05-01

    The enhancement of the low frequency gain response of a microwave phase shifter based on slow light in a bulk reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA), by using forced coherent population oscillations (FCPO), is experimentally demonstrated. FCPO is achieved by simultaneously modulating the input optical power and bias current. The beat signal gain improvement ranges from 45 to 0 dB over a frequency range of 0.5 to 2.5 GHz, thereby improving the noise performance of the phase shifter. Tunable phase shifts of up to 40º are possible over this frequency range.

  13. Precise measurement of the line width of the photoassociation spectra of ultracold molecules by using a frequency shifter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ji-Zhou; Ma Jie; Ji Zhong-Hua; Zhang Yi-Chi; Li Yu-Qing; Wang Li-Rong; Zhao Yan-Ting; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2012-01-01

    We propose a technique to precisely measure the line width of the photoassociation spectra of the excited cesium molecule by using a frequency shifter to generate two laser beams with a precise frequency difference. A series of photoassociation (PA) spectra are recorded with two laser beam induced molecular lines,whose peak separation serves as an accurate frequency ruler to measure the line width of the PA spectra.The full width half maximum line width was studied as a function of PA laser intensity.The extrapolated value at zero laser intensity is (34.84 ± 0.22) MHz.By analyzing other broadening mechanisms,a value of (32.02 ± 0.70) MHz was deduced.It is shown that this scheme is inexpensive,simple,robust,and is promising for applications in a variety of other atomic species.

  14. Frequency translation of light waves by propagation around an optical ring circuit containing a frequency shifter: I. Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1993-11-20

    A technique for the external frequency translation of light waves is reported. The technique permits the stepwise sweeping of an optical frequency over a wide range with high linearity with respect to time. The frequency translator is composed of an optical pulse modulator and an optical ring circuit containing an acousto-optic frequency shifter and an optical amplifier. The pulse launched into the ring circuit undergoes a constant frequency shift for each circulation around the circuit and the frequency can be translated to a considerable degree from that of the original input pulse. We report a stepwise frequency translation over approximately 68 GHz for a 1.5-µm light wave with a strictly constant frequency-sweep rate and an approximately constant intensity.

  15. Design of a vector-sum integrated microwave photonic phase shifter in silicon-on-insulator waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Liu, Caixia; Dong, Wei; Chen, Weiyou; Li, Fumin; Li, Haibin; Gong, Zhaoxin; Ruan, Shengping; Zhang, Xindong; Zhou, Jingran

    2011-06-10

    An orthogonal vector-sum integrated microwave photonic phase shifter (IMWPPS), consisting of mode-order converter multiplexers (MOCMs), a variable optical power splitter (VOPS), an optical switch (OS) and fixed time delay lines (FTDLs), was theoretically demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator wafer. MOCMs, as a key element of our device, were employed to generate orthogonal vector signals and served as lossless optical combiners. Combining with the thermo-optical VOPS, OS and FTDLs, the microwave phase shift of 0∼2π could be achieved by a refractive index variation of 0∼15×10(-3) in the millimeter wave band. The corresponding tuning resolution was about 1.64°/°C. This work, for the first time to our knowledge, provides an attractive solution to transferring a vector-sum method based bulk MWPPS into a integrated one, which is very important for large-scale optically controlled phase array antenna.

  16. Low noise optical multi-carrier generation using optical-FIR filter for ASE noise suppression in re-circulating frequency shifter loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiachuan; Xi, Lixia; Li, Jianrui; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xia; Niazi, Shahab Ahmad

    2014-04-07

    In this paper, an improved multi-carrier generation scheme based on single-side-band recirculating frequency shifter with optical finite impulse response (FIR) filter for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise suppression is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The carrier-to-noise-ratio (CNR) instead of tone-to-noise-ratio (TNR) is introduced to more reasonably and exactly evaluate the signal-to-noise-ratio of a multi-carrier source with non-flat noise floor. We have experimentally attain the worst case CNR of 22.5dB and 19.1dB for generated 50 and 69 flat low noise carriers, which has shown significant improvement than the previous cited works based on recirculating frequency shifter.

  17. Research on a Defects Detection Method in the Ferrite Phase Shifter Cementing Process Based on a Multi-Sensor Prognostic and Health Management (PHM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cementing manufacturing process of ferrite phase shifters has the defect that cementing strength is insufficient and fractures always appear. A detection method of these defects was studied utilizing the multi-sensors Prognostic and Health Management (PHM theory. Aiming at these process defects, the reasons that lead to defects are analyzed in this paper. In the meanwhile, the key process parameters were determined and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC tests during the cure process of resin cementing were carried out. At the same time, in order to get data on changing cementing strength, multiple-group cementing process tests of different key process parameters were designed and conducted. A relational model of cementing strength and cure temperature, time and pressure was established, by combining data of DSC and process tests as well as based on the Avrami formula. Through sensitivity analysis for three process parameters, the on-line detection decision criterion and the process parameters which have obvious impact on cementing strength were determined. A PHM system with multiple temperature and pressure sensors was established on this basis, and then, on-line detection, diagnosis and control for ferrite phase shifter cementing process defects were realized. It was verified by subsequent process that the on-line detection system improved the reliability of the ferrite phase shifter cementing process and reduced the incidence of insufficient cementing strength defects.

  18. Research on a Defects Detection Method in the Ferrite Phase Shifter Cementing Process Based on a Multi-Sensor Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Bo; Fu, Guicui; Li, Yanruoyue; Zhao, Youhu

    2016-01-01

    The cementing manufacturing process of ferrite phase shifters has the defect that cementing strength is insufficient and fractures always appear. A detection method of these defects was studied utilizing the multi-sensors Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) theory. Aiming at these process defects, the reasons that lead to defects are analyzed in this paper. In the meanwhile, the key process parameters were determined and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests during the cure process of resin cementing were carried out. At the same time, in order to get data on changing cementing strength, multiple-group cementing process tests of different key process parameters were designed and conducted. A relational model of cementing strength and cure temperature, time and pressure was established, by combining data of DSC and process tests as well as based on the Avrami formula. Through sensitivity analysis for three process parameters, the on-line detection decision criterion and the process parameters which have obvious impact on cementing strength were determined. A PHM system with multiple temperature and pressure sensors was established on this basis, and then, on-line detection, diagnosis and control for ferrite phase shifter cementing process defects were realized. It was verified by subsequent process that the on-line detection system improved the reliability of the ferrite phase shifter cementing process and reduced the incidence of insufficient cementing strength defects. PMID:27517935

  19. Research on a Defects Detection Method in the Ferrite Phase Shifter Cementing Process Based on a Multi-Sensor Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Bo; Fu, Guicui; Li, Yanruoyue; Zhao, Youhu

    2016-08-10

    The cementing manufacturing process of ferrite phase shifters has the defect that cementing strength is insufficient and fractures always appear. A detection method of these defects was studied utilizing the multi-sensors Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) theory. Aiming at these process defects, the reasons that lead to defects are analyzed in this paper. In the meanwhile, the key process parameters were determined and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests during the cure process of resin cementing were carried out. At the same time, in order to get data on changing cementing strength, multiple-group cementing process tests of different key process parameters were designed and conducted. A relational model of cementing strength and cure temperature, time and pressure was established, by combining data of DSC and process tests as well as based on the Avrami formula. Through sensitivity analysis for three process parameters, the on-line detection decision criterion and the process parameters which have obvious impact on cementing strength were determined. A PHM system with multiple temperature and pressure sensors was established on this basis, and then, on-line detection, diagnosis and control for ferrite phase shifter cementing process defects were realized. It was verified by subsequent process that the on-line detection system improved the reliability of the ferrite phase shifter cementing process and reduced the incidence of insufficient cementing strength defects.

  20. Harmonics Phase Shifter for a Three-Phase System with Voltage Control by Integral-Cycle Triggering Mode of Thyristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available n integral-cycle triggering mode of voltage control, subharmonic as well as higher order harmonic components are generated in the load voltage waveforms of a three-phase system. These harmonic components are found to be unbalanced in phase displacement. The correction of the unbalanced phase displacement angles of a particular subharmonic or higher order harmonic for this type of triggering is investigated to solve the limitation of use of this important type of control as a drive and many other industrial applications. In this research a new phase shifting technique is proposed to correct the unbalanced phase displacement angles in the three-phase system. This technique depends on shifting the waveforms of either phase B or phase C or both by multiples of 2π. A microprocessor-based harmonic phase shifter is designed and tested with three-phase resistive and induction motor loads. It is found that there is a well agreement between the theoretical and experimental results and it is believed that the major problem of harmonics phase unbalances associated with the integral-cycle triggering mode of thyristors when used with three-phase circuits have been solved in the present research.

  1. Precise NMR measurement and stabilization system of magnetic field of a superconducting 7 T wave length shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Borovikov, V M; Karpov, G V; Korshunov, D A; Kuper, E A; Kuzin, M V; Mamkin, V R; Medvedko, A S; Mezentsev, N A; Repkov, V V; Shkaruba, V A; Shubin, E I; Veremeenko, V F

    2001-01-01

    The system of measurement and stabilization of the magnetic field in the superconducting 7 T wave length shifter (WLS), designed at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics are described. The measurements are performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnetometer at two points of the WLS magnetic field. Stabilization of the field is provided by the current pumping system. The stabilization system is based on precise NMR measurement of magnetic field as a feedback signal for computer code which control currents inside the superconducting coils. The problem of the magnetic field measurements with NMR method consists in wide spread of field in the measured area (up to 50 Gs/mm), wide temperature range of WLS operating, small space for probe and influence of iron hysteresis. Special solid-state probes were designed to satisfy this requirements. The accuracy of magnetic field measurements at probe locations is not worse than 20 ppm. For the WLS field of 7 T the reproducibility of the magnetic field of 30 ppm has be...

  2. A pilot study of the novel J-PET plastic scintillator with 2-(4-styrylphenyl)benzoxazole as a wavelength shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Wieczorek, A; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Czerwiński, E; Danel, A; Gajos, A; Gruntowski, A; Kamińska, D; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Kubicz, E; Molenda, M; Pałka, M; Raczyński, L; Rudy, Z; Rundel, O; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Uchacz, T; Wiślicki, W; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2015-01-01

    For the first time a molecule of 2-(4-styrylphenyl)benzoxazole containing benzoxazole and stilbene groups is applied as a scintillator dopant acting as a wavelength shifter. In this article a light yield of the plastic scintillator, prepared from styrene doped with 2 wt% of 2,5-diphenylbenzoxazole and 0.03 wt% of 2-(4-styrylphenyl)benzoxazole, is determined to be as large as 60% $\\pm$ 2% of the anthracene light output. There is a potential to improve this value in the future by the optimization of the additives concentrations.

  3. Vector Resultant Phase Shifter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Vector Resultant Phase Shifter¥JiangJunzhangandWangFangThemechanicalphaseshifterhastransientinterruptionofoutputsignalsinthep...

  4. Theoretical analysis of polarization control for the stable output of multi-carrier source based on a re-circulating frequency shifter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhou; Lixia Xi; Jianping Li; Xiaoguang Zhang; Na Liu

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuating polarization state-of-light in the optical loop is an important factor that seriously influences the output performance of a multi-carrier source based on re-circulating frequency shifter (RFS).The reason for output spectrum instability when no polarization controller (PC) is present in the loop is analyzed theoretically.Numerical simulations for the output spectra of the multi-carrier source with and without PC are conducted,and the trajectories of the several frequency components polarization states on the Poincare sphere with and without PC are compared.The results show that the performance of multi-carrier source based on a RFS can be improved effectively by adjusting the PC in the configuration properly.

  5. Luminescent and Scintillating Properties of Lanthanum Fluoride Nanocrystals in Response to Gamma/Neutron Irradiation: Codoping with Ce Activator, Yb Wavelength Shifter, and Gd Neutron Captor

    CERN Document Server

    Vargas, José M; Sidelnik, Iván; Brito, David Rondón; Palomino, Luis A Rodríguez; Mayer, Roberto E

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept for detection and spectroscopy of gamma rays, and detection of thermal neutrons based on codoped lanthanum fluoride nanocrystals containing gadolinium is presented.The trends of colloidal synthesis of the mentioned material, LaF3 co-doped with Ce as the activator, Yb as the wavelength-shifter and Gd as the neutron captor, is reported. Nanocrystals of the mentioned material were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Gamma detection and its potential spectroscopy feature have been confirmed. The neutron detection capability has been confirmed by experiments performed using a 252Cf neutron source.

  6. Thin Film Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 Ku- and K-Band Phase Shifters Grown on MgO Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKeuls, F. W.; Mueller, C. H.; Miranda, F. A.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Horwitz, J. S.; Chang, W.; Kim, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    We report measurements of gold circuits fabricated on four Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 films doped with 1% Mn grown on MgO substrates by laser ablation. Low frequency measurements of epsilon(sub r) and tan(delta) on interdigital capacitors are compared with high frequency measurements of phase shift and insertion loss on coupled microstrip phase shifters done on the same films. The variation in temperature of both high and low frequency device parameters is compared. Annealed and unannealed films are compared. Room temperature figures of merit of phase shift per insertion loss of up to 58.4 C/dB at 18 GHz and 400 V dc bias were measured.

  7. All-optically tunable waveform synthesis by a silicon nanowaveguide ring resonator coupled with a photonic-crystal fiber frequency shifter

    KAUST Repository

    Savvin, Aleksandr D.

    2011-03-01

    A silicon nanowaveguide ring resonator is combined with a photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) frequency shifter to demonstrate an all-optically tunable synthesis of ultrashort pulse trains, modulated by ultrafast photoinduced free-carrier generation in the silicon resonator. Pump-probe measurements performed with a 50-fs, 625-nm second-harmonic output of a Cr:forsterite laser, used as a carrier-injecting pump, and a 1.50-1.56-μm frequency-tunable 100-fs soliton output of a photonic-crystal fiber, serving as a probe, resolve tunable ultrafast oscillatory features in the silicon nanowaveguide resonator response. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperature dependence of alpha-induced scintillation in the 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene wavelength shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Veloce, L M; Di Stefano, P C F; Noble, A J; Boulay, M G; Nadeau, P; Pollmann, T; Clark, M; Piquemal, M; Schreiner, K

    2015-01-01

    Liquid noble gas based particle detectors often use the organic wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) which shifts UV scintillation light to the visible regime, facilitating its detection, but which also can scintillate on its own. Dark matter searches based on this type of detector commonly rely on pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) for background mitigation. Alpha-induced scintillation therefore represents a possible background source in dark matter searches. The timing characteristics of this scintillation determine whether this background can be mitigated through PSD. We have therefore characterized the pulse shape and light yield of alpha induced TPB scintillation at temperatures ranging from 300 K down to 4 K, with special attention given to liquid noble temperatures. We find that the pulse shapes and light yield depend strongly on temperature. In addition, the significant contribution of long time constants above ~50 K provides an avenue for discrimination between alpha decay events ...

  9. A Compact W-Band Reflection-Type Phase Shifter with Extremely Low Insertion Loss Variation Using 0.13 µm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reflection-type phase shifter (RTPS at W-band in a 0.13 µm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The RTPS is composed of a 90° hybrid coupler and two identical reflection loads. Lumped-distributed element transmission line is introduced in the 90° hybrid coupler to reduce the chip size. Series inductor-capacitor (LC resonators are used as the reflective loads and parallel inductors are deployed to reduce insertion loss variation. By cascading two-stage RTPS, 90° phase shifting range and 10.5 dB insertion loss with 1 dB variations from 80 GHz to 90 GHz are achieved. An impressive 0.1 dB variation is obtained at 86 GHz.

  10. Generation of coherent and frequency-lock multi-carriers using cascaded phase modulators and recirculating frequency shifter for Tb/s optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan; Yu, Jianjun; Shao, Yufeng; Zhu, Jiangbo; Huang, Bo; Tao, Li

    2011-07-04

    We investigate to generate coherent and frequency-lock optical multi-carriers by using cascaded phase modulators and recirculating frequency shifter (RFS) based on an EDFA loop. The phase and amplitude relation of RF signals on two cascaded phase modulators and the impact of EDFA gain are investigated. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The performance of 113 coherent and frequency-lock subcarriers with tone-to-noise ratio larger than 26dB and amplitude difference of 5dB obtained after a tilt filter covering totally 22.6nm shows that this scheme is a promising technique for the coming Tb/s optical communication.

  11. Room Temperature Thin Film Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 Ku-Band Coupled MicrostripPhase Shifters: Effects of Film Thickness, Doping, Annealing and Substrate Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKeuls, F. W.; Mueller, C. H.; Miranda, F. A.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Canedy, C. L.; Aggarwal, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Ramesh, R.; Horwitz, S.; Chang, W.

    1999-01-01

    We report on measurements taken on over twenty Ku-band coupled microstrip phase shifters (CMPS) using thin ferroelectric films of Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3. This CMPS design is a recent innovation designed to take advantage of the high tunability and tolerate the high dielectric constant of ferroelectric films at Ku- and K-band frequencies. These devices are envisioned as a component in low-cost steerable beam phased area antennas, Comparisons are made between devices with differing film thickness, annealed vs unannealed, Mn-doped vs. undoped, and also substrates of LaAlO3 and MgO. A comparison between the CMPS structure and a CPW phase shifter was also made oil the same ferroelectric film.

  12. Several Microstrip-Based Conductor/Thin Film Ferroelectric Phase Shifter Designs Using (YBa2Cu3O(7 - Delta), Au)/SrTiO3/LaAlO3 Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKeuls, F. W.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Miranda, F. A.

    1998-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested several novel microstrip-base YBa2Cu3O7-delta/SrTiO3/LaAlO3 (YBCO/STO/LAO) and Au/SrTiO3ALO3 (Au/STO/LAO) phase shifters. The first design consists of eight coupled microstrip phase shifters (CMPS) in series. This design using YBCO achieved a relative insertion phase shift (Delta f) of 484 degrees with a figure of merit of 80 degrees/dB at Vdc = 375 V, 16 GHz, and 40 K. A Delta f of 290 degrees was observed while maintaining the insertion loss below 4.5 dB. At 77 K, a Delta of 420 degrees was obtained for this phase shifter at the same bias and frequency. Both results correspond to an effective coupling length of 0.33 cm. A second compact design, consisting of an Au meander line and a CMPS section was also tested. Of the two samples tested, the best showed a figure of merit of 43 degrees/dB with Delta f = 290 degrees and 6.8 dB loss, at 40 K, 10 GHz and 400 V. Experimental and modeling results on these circuits will be discussed in the context of potential applications.

  13. Applications of Kinetic Inductance: Parametric Amplifier & Phase Shifter, 2DEG Coupled Co-planar Structures & Microstrip to Slotline Transition at RF Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdi, Harshad

    Kinetic inductance springs from the inertia of charged mobile carriers in alternating electric fields and it is fundamentally different from the magnetic inductance which is only a geometry dependent property. The magnetic inductance is proportional to the volume occupied by the electric and magnetic fields and is often limited by the number of turns of the coil. Kinetic inductance on the other hand is inversely proportional to the density of electrons or holes that exert inertia, the unit mass of the charge carriers and the momentum relaxation time of these charge carriers, all of which can be varied merely by modifying the material properties. Highly sensitive and broadband signal amplifiers often broaden the field of study in astrophysics. Quantum-noise limited travelling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifiers offer a noise figure of around 0.5 K +/- 0.3 K as compared to 20 K in HEMT signal amplifiers and can be designed to operate to cover the entire W-band (75 GHz -- 115 GHz). The research cumulating to this thesis involves applying and exploiting kinetic inductance properties in designing a W-band orthogonal mode transducer, quadratic gain phase shifter with a gain of ~49 dB over a meter of microstrip transmission line. The phase shifter will help in measuring the maximum amount of phase shift Deltaφmax(I) that can be obtained from half a meter transmission line which helps in predicting the gain of a travelling wave parametric amplifier. In another project, a microstrip to slot line transition is designed and optimized to operate at 150 GHz and 220 GHz frequencies, that is used as a part of horn antenna coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector proposed to operate from 138 GHz to 250 GHz. In the final project, kinetic inductance in a 2D electron gas (2DEG) is explored by design, simulation, fabrication and experimentation. A transmission line model of a 2DEG proposed by Burke (1999), is simulated and verified experimentally by fabricating a

  14. Studies of nitride- and oxide-based materials as absorptive shifters for embedded attenuated phase-shifting mask in 193 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-ming; Chang, Keh-wen; Lee, Ming-der; Loong, Wen-An

    1999-07-01

    Abstract-Five materials which are PdSixOy, CrAlxOy, SiNx, TiSixNy, and TiSixOyNz as absorptive shifters for attenuated phase-shifting mask in 193 nm wavelength lithography are presented. PdSixOy films were deposited by dual e-gun evaporation. CrAlxOy, TiSixNy and TiSixOyNz films were formed by plasma sputtering and SiNx films were formed with LPCVD. All of these materials are shown to be capable of achieving 4 percent - 15 percent transmittance in 193 nm with thickness that produce a 180 degrees phase shift. Under BCl3:Cl2 equals 14:70 sccm; chamber pressure 5 mtorr and RF power 1900W, the dry etching selectivity of TiSixNy over DQN positive resist and fused silica, were found to be 2:1 and 4,8:1 respectively. An embedded layer TiSixNy with 0.5 micrometers line/space was successfully patterned.

  15. Load frequency stabilization by coordinated control of Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifters and superconducting magnetic energy storage for three types of interconnected two-area power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Praghnesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Charotar Institute of Technology, Changa 388 421, Gujarat (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209, West Bengal (India); Roy, Ranjit [Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, automatic generation control with interconnected two-area multi-unit all-hydro power system and two more test systems as all-thermal and thermal-hydro mixed haves been investigated. The transfer function of hydro turbine having non-minimum phase characteristics makes it different from the steam turbine. Upon application of small load perturbation to such all-hydro system, the frequency is severely disturbed and the system eventually becomes unstable. To stabilize the system for such load disturbance, comparative transient performance of two cases as (a) Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) installed in series with the tie-line in coordination with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and (b) SMES located at each terminal of both areas are analyzed. It is observed that the case (b) i.e. SMES located at each terminal of both areas suppresses the frequency oscillations more effectively in integral controller assisted AGC of two-area multi-unit all-hydro system and the other two systems as well. In addition, the effectiveness of proposed frequency stabilizers is guaranteed by analyzing the transient responses of the system with different system parameters, various load patterns and in the event of temporary and permanent tie-line outage. Gains of the integral controller in AGC loop and parameters of TCPS and SMES are optimized with the help of a relatively novel particle swarm optimization, developed by the authors, called as craziness-based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO). The optimizing performance has been compared to that of real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA) to establish its superiority. (author)

  16. Cracking Reason for Li-Zn Ferrite Tablets in Failure Phase Shifters%失效移相器中Li-Zn铁氧体片的开裂原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史光华; 包生祥; 庄立波; 叶建海

    2011-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microstructure of cracking Li-Zn ferrite tablets in failure phase shifters, and reasons of its cracking was analyzed. The results show that short of density and uniformity, which constituted the main reasons for the cracking of the Li-Zn ferrite tablets during service process,were majorly resulted from adding PVA binder excessively in suppressing process. Lower sintering temperature which led to inadequate sintering densification and high porosity in the Li-Zn ferrite tablets played the secondary part in cracking causes of Li-Zn ferrite tablets in failure phase shifters. Good PVA amount was 8%(mass) and sintering temperature was 1 020 ℃. Li-Zn ferrite tablets obtained at above conditions would not crack after short term service in phase shifters.%利用扫描电子显微镜对失效移相器中开裂Li-Zn铁氧体片进行了显微组织观察,对其开裂原因进行了分析.结果表明:压制工艺中聚乙烯醇(PVA)粘结剂添加过多导致铁氧体片致密度及均匀性降低,这是铁氧体片服役过程中开裂的主要原因;另烧结温度过低,导致烧结致密化不充分,气孔率偏高,这是铁氧体片在服役过程中开裂的另一个原因.较佳的PVA添加量为8%(质量分数),烧结温度为1 020℃,此条件下得到的铁氧体片可在移相器中长期服役而不开裂.

  17. Design of an S-band power combiner system with two parallel power amplifiers and phase shifters

    OpenAIRE

    Özbey, Burak

    2011-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and the Institute of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2011. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2011. Includes bibliographical references leaves 70-72. RF power amplifiers are important blocks in a wireless communication system that play a vital role in determining the level of overall performance. In some situations, more power than a single power amplifier can alone provide is required in...

  18. 一款高精度90°移相器实用电路的设计%The Design of A High-precision 90° Phase Shifter Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑振宇; 晋芳; 鲁永康

    2012-01-01

    With the RC components and the corresponding circuit design low-frequency fixed frequency 90°±△δ phase shifter is commonly used scheme, however, aging condition and environment (especially temperature) changes of RC phase shifter components seriously influenced the stability of phase shifter. This paper adopted a series of measures: (1) low temperature coefficient precision components; (2) aging treatment to componets; (3) temperature coefficient measured components; (4) resistance temperature coefficient with opposite according to certain proportion components, so as to make RC compensate temperature coefficient within ±lppm/℃ The temperature testing of 90°± △δ p phase shifter showed that the temperature coefficient of the circuit reached 2.88ppm/℃. This paper also gave the selected part of RC components measured at home and abroad for temperature coefficient, which have an important reference value to readers using RC component design some high stability circuit (such as HPF,BPF,LPF etc).%用RC元件及相应电路设计低频固定频率90°±Δ(ψ)移相器是人们常用的方案,然而RC移相器元件的老化、环境(尤其是温度)的变化严重地影响了移相器的稳定性.本文采用了一系列措施:(1)选用低温度系数的精密阻容元件;(2)对阻容元件进行老化处理;(3)分别测量元件的温度系数;(4)用相反温度系数的阻容元件按一定的比例进行补偿等,使RC元件温度系数达到±1ppm/℃以内.对90°±Δ(ψ)移相器的温度试验表明,电路的温度系数达到2.88ppm/℃.文中还给出所选用的部分国内外RC元件实测的温度系数,对读者利用RC元件设计某些高稳定性电路(如HPF、BPF、LPF等)有重要的参考价值.

  19. 多路集成有机聚合物光子学射频移相器%Multiple Output Photonic RF Phase Shifter using a novel polymer nested Mach- Zehnder modulators configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志浩

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a new integrated photonic RF phase shifters in the optically controlled phased array radar system and analyses the characteristics and the operation of the device . This device involves a nested Mach - Zehnder modulator and realizes the phase control of each unit by itself; low loss; high stability of the optical output intensity. Measurements of these devices show that multioutputs are independent and have highly linear RF phases over 360° with negligible RF power fluctuation ( below 3 dB ) at the modulation frequency.%本文简要介绍一种新型的集成光子学射频移相器,并对移相器的工作原理及特点进行分析。该新型移相器能够实现对每一阵元的相移量进行独立的调控、相移线性度大、插入损耗小、相移精度和幅度稳定度高等优点。结果表明,输出的射频信号的功率波动小于3dB,得到360°连续线性相移。

  20. NASA Tech Briefs, December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Topics include: A Deep Space Network Portable Radio Science Receiver; Detecting Phase Boundaries in Hard-Sphere Suspensions; Low-Complexity Lossless and Near-Lossless Data Compression Technique for Multispectral Imagery; Very-Long-Distance Remote Hearing and Vibrometry; Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis; Stream Flow Prediction by Remote Sensing and Genetic Programming; Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints; Radiometer on a Chip; Measuring Luminescence Lifetime With Help of a DSP; Modulation Based on Probability Density Functions; Ku Telemetry Modulator for Suborbital Vehicles; Photonic Links for High-Performance Arraying of Antennas; Reconfigurable, Bi-Directional Flexfet Level Shifter for Low-Power, Rad-Hard Integration; Hardware-Efficient Monitoring of I/O Signals; Video System for Viewing From a Remote or Windowless Cockpit; Spacesuit Data Display and Management System; IEEE 1394 Hub With Fault Containment; Compact, Miniature MMIC Receiver Modules for an MMIC Array Spectrograph; Waveguide Transition for Submillimeter-Wave MMICs; Magnetic-Field-Tunable Superconducting Rectifier; Bonded Invar Clip Removal Using Foil Heaters; Fabricating Radial Groove Gratings Using Projection Photolithography; Gratings Fabricated on Flat Surfaces and Reproduced on Non-Flat Substrates; Method for Measuring the Volume-Scattering Function of Water; Method of Heating a Foam-Based Catalyst Bed; Small Deflection Energy Analyzer for Energy and Angular Distributions; Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen; Pyrotechnic Simulator/Stray-Voltage Detector; Inventions Utilizing Microfluidics and Colloidal Particles; RuO2 Thermometer for Ultra-Low Temperatures; Ultra-Compact, High-Resolution LADAR System for 3D Imaging; Dual-Channel Multi-Purpose Telescope; Objective Lens Optimized for Wavefront Delivery, Pupil Imaging, and Pupil Ghosting; CMOS Camera Array With Onboard Memory; Quickly Approximating the Distance Between Two Objects; Processing Images of Craters for

  1. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  2. High dynamic range low noise amplifier and wideband hybrid phase shifter for SiGe BiCMOS phased array T/R modules

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Transmit/Receive Module (T/R Module) is one of the most essential blocks for Phased Array Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) system; due to being very influential on system level performance. To achieve high performance specifications, T/R Module structures are constructed with using III-V devices, which has some significant disadvantages; they are costly, and also consume too much area and power. As a result, application area of T/R Module is mainly restricted with the military and dedicate...

  3. 基于矢量和的微波光子移相器研究%Research on the microwave photonic phase shifter based on the vector-sum principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海斌; 陈维友; 瞿鹏飞; 肖永川; 董玮

    2011-01-01

    A microwave photonic phase shifter is constructed and tested, which is based on the vector-sum principle and integrates 50 : 50 couplers, variable opticaI delay line and variable optical attenuator. Broadband optical source is used as the carrier to effectively eliminate signal's instability which is caused by different phase signalsr coupling. The 10 GHz microwave signal's 350° phase-shift tuning range can be obtained by using the reversal phase characteristic of the Mach-Zehnder LiNbO3 intensity modulator and by tuning the optical power ratio of the carriers between two branches. According to measurements of microwave signal power,the maximal power attenuation appears when the power ratio reaches 1 : 1.%基于矢量和(vectorsum)原理,利用50:50光纤耦合器、可变光延时线(VDL)、可变光衰减器(VOA)构建了微波光子移相器。以宽带光为载波有效地解决了合波处光波相位不同引起的微波信号不稳定的问题;利用马赫-曾德(M—Z)LiNbO3调制器在不同工作电压下的反相调制特性,设定调制器的不同偏置电压,同时配合调节两支路的光信号的功率比,采用两分支结构使10GHz的微波信号实现了350°的相位调谐。对微波信号的功率进行了测量,当两分支的光功率比为1:1时,微波功率的衰减最大。

  4. Ferrite Phase Shifters Using Stress Insensitive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    ORGANIZATION EMS Technologies Inc.1 (if aplicable ) Naval Research Laboratory i I I 6C. ADDRESS (Cty, State, and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City, State, and...8217- -~ ’ 0) N- CD 90 00 E Z0 -4 E gIa_ C5 049 0 CIO CI CN C) 0 ~LL - -0 __ 10.0 REFR -NS 1. S. Chikazumi, Physics of Magnetism. Nev York: Wiley, Chapter 12

  5. Ka波段DMTL移相器用RF MEMS电容式并联开关研制%Development of RF MEMS Capacitive Shunt Switch for Ka-Band DMTL Phase Shifter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杨; 贾小慧; 秦燃; 官承秋

    2012-01-01

    A MEMS capacitive shunt switch for Ka-band 5-bit distributed MEMS transmission line (DMTL) phase shifter was presented in this paper.The structural dimensions of MEMS capacitive shunt switch were roughly defined by theoretical calculation and engineering experience.The 3D electromagnetic model of the switch was established,and the structural dimensions were optimized by using HFSS software.Simulation results show that the insertion loss of the switch was lower than 0.15 dB and the isolation loss was higher than 15 dB in Ka-band.The driving voltage of the switch was 2.1 V,which was obtained from the simulation of electromechanical coupling by using CoventorWare software.After several modifications of device layout and fabrication process according to the surface micro-machining process restriction of the foundry,preliminary MEMS capacitive shunt switch process sample was obtained.Dynamic characteristics of a single MEMS switch were tested.The results show that the height pulled down by microbridge was about 2 μm with 36 V driving voltage applied.There was a big difference between the tested driving voltage 36 V and the originally designed value 2.1 V,due to the temporary structural design modification according to the process restriction of the foundry.The modifications mainly involve increasing the microbridge height,and increasing the initial distance between the microbridge (top electrode) and the bottom electrode.%本文设计并制作了一种用于Ka波段分布式MEMS传输线(DMTL)移相器的MEMS电容式并联开关.通过理论计算和工程经验,大致定义了开关的结构尺寸.采用HFSS软件建立了开关的三维电磁场模型并优化了关键结构参数.仿真表明:开关在Ka波段插入损耗小于0.15 dB,回波损耗大于15 dB.采用CoventorWare软件进行了开关的机电耦合仿真,得出其驱动电压为2.1V.为了满足流片单位表面微加工工艺的约束,对开关的设计版图和微加工工艺进行了多轮改进,

  6. Architectural-level power estimation and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wu

    With the emergence of a plethora of embedded and portable applications and ever increasing integration levels, power dissipation of integrated circuits has moved to the forefront as a design constraint. Recent years have also seen a significant trend towards designs starting at the architectural (or RT) level. Those demand accurate yet fast RT level power estimation methodologies and tools. This thesis addresses issues and experiments associate with architectural level power estimation. An execution driven, cycle-accurate RT level power simulator, SimplePower, was developed using transition-sensitive energy models. It is based on the architecture of a five-stage pipelined RISC datapath for both 0.35mum and 0.8mum technology and can execute the integer subset of the instruction set of SimpleScalar . SimplePower measures the energy consumed in the datapath, memory and on-chip buses. During the development of SimplePower , a partitioning power modeling technique was proposed to model the energy consumed in complex functional units. The accuracy of this technique was validated with HSPICE simulation results for a register file and a shifter. A novel, selectively gated pipeline register optimization technique was proposed to reduce the datapath energy consumption. It uses the decoded control signals to selectively gate the data fields of the pipeline registers. Simulation results show that this technique can reduce the datapath energy consumption by 18--36% for a set of benchmarks. A low-level back-end compiler optimization, register relabeling, was applied to reduce the on-chip instruction cache data bus switch activities. Its impact was evaluated by SimplePower. Results show that it can reduce the energy consumed in the instruction data buses by 3.55--16.90%. A quantitative evaluation was conducted for the impact of six state-of-art high-level compilation techniques on both datapath and memory energy consumption. The experimental results provide a valuable insight for

  7. Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, James M.

    2011-06-01

    The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360° range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.

  8. Design of all-optical multi-level regenerators based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangjian; Wu, Baojian; Zhou, Xingyu; Wan, Qingyao; Jiang, Shanglong; Wen, Feng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-12-01

    We propose a design method for all-optical multi-level regenerators by mimicking the normalized power transfer function (PTF) in the first-order approximation to the ideal step-like PTF, in which a key step is to appropriately select the amplitude and phase conditions of Mach-Zehnder-interferometer (MZI)-based regenerators. As an example, we describe the design process of the self-phase-modulation (SPM)-based MZI regenerator constructed by a section of nonlinear fiber and an optical phase shifter (OPS). It is shown that the parameter of reference power level (RPL) can be regarded as the upper limit of input power, which is useful for the measure of the multi-level regeneration performance. The number of regenerative power levels increases with the RPL parameter. For 4-level pulse amplitude modulated (4PAM) optical signals degraded by the Gaussian noises with the standard deviation of 0.02, the SPM-based MZI regenerator has an average noise reduction ratio (NRR) of 6.5 dB, better than that of 1st-order regenerator by about 5 dB.

  9. Alternating phase-shifted mask for logic gate levels, design, and mask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Graur, Ioana C.; Leipold, William C.; Oberschmidt, James M.; O'Grady, David S.; Regaill, Denis

    1999-07-01

    While the benefits of alternating phase shifted masks in improving lithographic process windows at increased resolution are well known throughout the lithography community, broad implementation of this potentially powerful technique has been slow due to the inherent complexity of the layout design and mask manufacturing process. This paper will review a project undertaken at IBM's Semiconductor Research and Development Center and Mask Manufacturing and Development facility to understand the technical and logistical issues associated with the application of alternating phase shifted mask technology to the gate level of a full microprocessor chip. The work presented here depicts an important milestone toward integration of alternating phase shifted masks into the manufacturing process by demonstrating an automated design solution and yielding a functional alternating phase shifted mask. The design conversion of the microprocessor gate level to a conjugate twin shifter alternating phase shift layout was accomplished with IBM's internal design system that automatically scaled the design, added required phase regions, and resolved phase conflicts. The subsequent fabrication of a nearly defect free phase shifted mask, as verified by SEM based die to die inspection, highlights the maturity of the alternating phase shifted mask manufacturing process in IBM's internal mask facility. Well defined and recognized challenges in mask inspection and repair remain and the layout of alternating phase shifted masks present a design and data preparation overhead, but the data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of designing and building manufacturing quality alternating phase shifted masks for the gate level of a microprocessor.

  10. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the ...

  11. Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesterollevels.html Cholesterol Levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  12. Leveling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

  13. Substrate integrated ferrite phase shifters and active frequency selective surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, B M

    2002-01-01

    There are two distinct parts to this thesis; the first investigates the use of ferrite tiles in the construction of printed phase shifting transmission lines, culminating in the design of two compact electromagnetic controlled beam steered patch and slot antenna arrays. The second part investigates the use of active frequency selective surfaces (AFSS), which are later used to cover a uPVC constructed enclosure. Field intensity measurements are taken from within the enclosure to determine the dynamic screening effectiveness. Trans Tech G-350 Ferrite is investigated to determine its application in printed microstrip and stripline phase shifting transmission lines. 50-Ohm transmission lines are constructed using the ferrite tile and interfaced to Rogers RT Duroid 5870 substrate. Scattering parameter measurements are made under the application of variable magnetic fields to the ferrite. Later, two types of planar microwave beam steering antennas are constructed. The first uses the ferrites integrated into the Dur...

  14. Monolithic GaAs Dual-Gate FET Phase Shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    and P. Hats-op. "Dual-gae MESPET phase stutter with gainappioodwsel the43*phas alltif (Fi. 6. Net apliier is atl 12 Hz." Elcron. Lett.. vol. 16. O.14...Park Redondo Beach, CA 90278 Watkins -Johnson Co. 1 E. J. Crescenzi, Jr./ Professor L. Eastman 1 K. Niclas Phillips Hall 3333 Hillview Ave. Cornell

  15. Sentiment Classification of Social Issues Using Contextual Valence Shifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kumar Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of science and technology contributes in the growth of social website and electronic media at vast scale. Due to development in field of information technology, all information about anything is globally available on internet, which is great source of data and information. Data or data sets available on internet in unstructured form. To analysis the unstructured data, we need method which convert it into structured data then analyze those data. NLP, Linguistic Computation and text mining are used to analyze/extract the opinion of people from given source data (comments, blogs, feedback and reviews. Sentiment analysis is emerged as the text analysis method, which extracts the opinion from comments, feedbacks and reviews. Sentiment Classification techniques are widely used for sentiment classification of reviews and feedbacks of customers and viewers on movie, product and services. The given feedbacks and reviews are classified into two class- positive and negative class. This paper focuses on study of negative sentences, identification of those negative sentences and calculation of sentiment score of negative sentences.

  16. Simulation and Design of High Power Phase Shifter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Yu

    2015-01-01

    Particle accelerators have a wide application in scientific research,medical treatment and other fields.To satisfy the need of scientific research and industrial production,high power and high intensity accelerators are under development.The related technology of each part is required to be improved,

  17. Silicon graphene waveguide tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Capmany, Jose; Muñoz, Pascual

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of silicon graphene waveguides to implement a tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifte based on integrated ring cavities. Numerical computation results show the feasibility for broadband operation over 40 GHz bandwidth and full 360 degree radiofrequency phase-shift with a modest voltage excursion of 0.12 volt.

  18. Silicon photonics thermal phase shifter with reduced temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L; Kekatpure, Rohan D; DeRose, Christopher; Davids, Paul; Watts, Michael R

    2013-12-17

    Optical devices, phased array systems and methods of phase-shifting an input signal are provided. An optical device includes a microresonator and a waveguide for receiving an input optical signal. The waveguide includes a segment coupled to the microresonator with a coupling coefficient such that the waveguide is overcoupled to the microresonator. The microresonator received the input optical signal via the waveguide and phase-shifts the input optical signal to form an output optical signal. The output optical signal is coupled into the waveguide via the microresonator and transmitted by the waveguide. At an operating point of the optical device, the coupling coefficient is selected to reduce a change in an amplitude of the output optical signal and to increase a change in a phase of the output optical signal, relative to the input optical signal.

  19. A diffusive thermal phase shifter; Dephaseur thermique diffusif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachal, B.; Hollmuller, P.; Zgraggen, J.-M. [Universite de Geneve, Centre universitaire d' etude des problemes de l' energie(CUEPE), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    The investigations carried out in this project show that dephasing a thermal oscillation carried by an air flow by utilizing the heat exchange with a diffusive heat store made of thin layers, is possible without any significant damping of the oscillation. The practical application of this phenomenon, with a time shift of 8 to 12 hours, looks particularly attractive for space cooling of buildings during summertime or in hot climates. The possibilities of dephasing completely a thermal wave (i.e. by a half period) carried by a stream of air have been investigated both theoretically by model calculations and experimentally by building two prototypes. Promising results have been obtained for the case of a daily phase shift. In the case of a summer-winter shift the required volumes and lengths seem too large to enable such a storage system becoming cost effective.

  20. Method on double-pass acousto-optic frequency shifter in absolute distance measurement using Fabry-P~rot interferometry%法-珀干涉绝对距离测量中的声光移频器双通道配置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽琼; 冬若; 朱敏昊; 张继涛

    2012-01-01

    为在能量天平动圈位移测量中实现大范围纳米精度法.珀干涉绝对距离测量,提出了声光移频器双通道配置,实现了调谐范围为200MHz的可调谐频差.通过分析声光移频器调制带宽与衍射效率的平衡与入射光束聚焦透镜的关系,确定透镜的最佳焦距范围;利用零级光斑分布特点准确定位入射光束,保证一级衍射光束质量.声光移频器在调制带宽内的实验单通道和双通道峰值衍射效率分别为79.54%,61.41%;声光移频器双通道配置输出的一级衍射光束与入射本征光束的拍频范围为440—640MHz,是单通道调制带宽输出220—320MHz的两倍,信噪比好.理论分析表明,声光移频器双通道配置方法实现的可调谐频差可测量腔长变化范围约为53mm的折叠法一珀腔.%In order to realize nanometer-scale absolute distance measurements based on Fabry-P6rot interferometry for long-range displace- ment measurement of the moving coil in Joule balance, the acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS) in double-pass configuration is presented, and a tunable frequency difference in a range of 200 MHz is achieved. The focus length of the lens is determined by ana- lyzing the relationship of the tradeoff between the AOFS modulation bandwidth and its diffraction efficiencies; the beam spot of the first-order diffraction beam is guaranteed by accurately positioning the focused beam according to the distribution of the zero-order diffraction beam spot. The experimental single-pass and double-pass peak diffraction efficiency of the AOFS are 79.54% and 61.41%, respectively; the tunable frequency difference of 440--4540 MHz, which is twice the single-pass modulation bandwidth output of 220---320 MHz, is obtained by the beat note between the incident beam and the first-order diffraction beam of the double-pass AOFS, and has a good signal-to-noise ratio. Theoretical analysis shows that a folded Fabry-P6rot

  1. Multifrequency Arrays: Design and Cost Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-08

    Alverson, W. K., Pippin, J. E., Simon, J. W., "A Reciprocal TEM Latching Ferrite Phase Shifter," 1966 IEEE-GMTT International Symposium Digest, p 241...of Reciprocal Latching Ferrite Phase Shifters to Lightweight Electronic Scanner Phased Arrays," Proc. IEEE, vol 56, p 1931-1939, Nov 1968. 14...8 Switched -line phase shifter for a two-frequency ratio ... 9 Dual frequency array concept... 10 Phase error effects on side-lobe level... 16

  2. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  3. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  4. Cognitive Levels Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Martin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)

  5. Multi-Level Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is an original paper, which contains a hierarchical model with three levels, for determining the linearized non-homogeneous and homogeneous credibility premiums at company level, at sector level and at contract level, founded on the relevant covariance relations between the risk premium, the observations and the weighted averages. We give a rather explicit description of the input data for the multi- level hierarchical model used, only to show that in practical situations, there will always be enough data to apply credibility theory to a real insurance portfolio.

  6. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  7. System level ESD protection

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection.  It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD...

  8. Nonuniversality in level dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kunstman, P; Zakrzewski, J A; Kunstman, Pawe{\\l}; Zyczkowski, Karol \\.; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    1997-01-01

    Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general non-universal and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced.

  9. Nonuniversality in level dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstman, P.; Zyczkowski, K.; Zakrzewski, J. [Instytut Fizyki Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    1997-03-01

    Statistical properties of parametric motion in ensembles of Hermitian banded random matrices are studied. We analyze the distribution of level velocities and level curvatures as well as their correlation functions in the crossover regime between three universality classes. It is shown that the statistical properties of level dynamics are in general {ital nonuniversal} and strongly depend on the way in which the parametric dynamics is introduced. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Definition of Virtual Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Bruce W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an examination of graphical displays of solutions to time-dependent Schrodinger equation modeling a laser-excited three-level atom. It suggests that an energy level may be regarded as virtual when it is detuned from resonance by more than two Rabi frequencies. (Author/HM)

  11. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  12. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  13. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  14. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  15. Projecting future sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  16. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  17. Three Levels of Semiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a second-order semiotic framework for ontological levels, which is based on the structure of semiosis in a more fundamental way than other existing approaches to semiotic levels. Building on the key semiotic concept of representation, three levels are posited: (1) non- or proto-semiotic...... processes, without representation, such as physical or causal processes, (2) semiotic processes, with representation, such as the processes of life and cognition, and (3) second-order semiotic processes, with representation of representation, such as self-conscious and self-reflexive communicative processes....... This semiotic framework for ontological levels is compared with recent discussions of different ontological kinds of kinds such as indifferent and interactive kinds. This leads to the distinction between not two, but three kinds of kinds: indifferent, adaptive and reflexive kinds, of which the last two hitherto...

  18. Low potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or vomiting Using too much laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure and high blood pressure Eating disorders (such as bulimia ) Low magnesium level Sweating

  19. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  20. Low magnesium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating the condition that is causing low magnesium can help. If you play sports or do other vigorous activity, drink fluids such as sports drinks that contain electrolytes to keep your magnesium level in a healthy range.

  1. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  2. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  3. Level Eulerian Posets

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenborg, Richard; Readdy, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The notion of level posets is introduced. This class of infinite posets has the property that between every two adjacent ranks the same bipartite graph occurs. When the adjacency matrix is indecomposable, we determine the length of the longest interval one needs to check to verify Eulerianness. Furthermore, we show that every level Eulerian poset associated to an indecomposable matrix has even order. A condition for verifying shellability is introduced and is automated using the algebra of walks. Applying the Skolem--Mahler--Lech theorem, the ${\\bf ab}$-series of a level poset is shown to be a rational generating function in the non-commutative variables ${\\bf a}$ and ${\\bf b}$. In the case the poset is also Eulerian, the analogous result holds for the ${\\bf cd}$-series. Using coalgebraic techniques a method is developed to recognize the ${\\bf cd}$-series matrix of a level Eulerian poset.

  4. PANJABI READER, LEVEL 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    THIS SECOND-LEVEL READER IN THE PANJABI LANGUAGE CAN BE USED IN A SECOND- OR THIRD-YEAR COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. THE GRAMMAR APPENDIX INCLUDED IS IDENTICAL TO THAT FOUND IN THE FIRST-LEVEL PANJABI READER (ED 010 485). THE MAIN PORTION OF THE BOOK CONSISTS OF 23 UNITS,…

  5. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  6. ANDROGEN LEVELS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valadan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. Several independent investigators have demonstrated the association of androgens with hypertension. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal levels of sex hormones, especially testosterone, are higher in patients with preeclampsia than in matched normotensive control subjects. Serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S and estradiol were measured in 60 subjects in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy with documented preeclampsia (including 30 cases of mild and 30 cases of severe preeclampsia and 60 healthy normotensive women with similar maternal and gestational ages and body mass index (BMI and neonatal sex. All subjects were primigravid with singleton pregnancies. Cases of polycystic ovary (PCO, diabetes, chronic hypertension and chronic systemic diseases such as lupus and patients using steroid hormones and anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Levels of testosterone, DHEA-S and estradiol were not higher in primigravid women with preeclampsia than in normotensive women with similar gestational and maternal ages, BMI and neonatal sex. There were no significant differences in sex hormones measured between groups of mild and severe preeclampsia and normotensive women. There were also no significant differences in sex hormone levels according to neonatal sex. These findings are against the hypothesis of mediating or amplifying role of high androgen levels in pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  7. Service level agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimwood, A

    1998-02-01

    Service level agreements provide clearer descriptions of the services to be provided and the objectives to be met. In many instances it is the first time that services have been defined allowing their performance to be suitably measured. They should be output based and not too prescriptive on how the services are to be delivered. The emphasis should be on establishing outputs and the arrangements for monitoring achievement. Customer expectations can exceed available resources and arbitration may become necessary if agreement cannot be reached on internal service level agreements. The main requirements of customers for change through service level agreements is usually improved communications on job status that includes notification of any delays and that agreed response times will be met.

  8. Nuclear level density predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucurescu Dorel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple formulas depending only on nuclear masses were previously proposed for the parameters of the Back-Shifted Fermi Gas (BSFG model and of the Constant Temperature (CT model of the nuclear level density, respectively. They are now applied for the prediction of the level density parameters of all nuclei with available masses. Both masses from the new 2012 mass table and from different models are considered and the predictions are discussed in connection with nuclear regions most affected by shell corrections and nuclear structure effects and relevant for the nucleosynthesis.

  9. Resistance/reactance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E; Harwood, T Mark; Michelson, Aaron; Song, Xiaoxia; Holman, John

    2011-02-01

    Psychotherapists from all professions and perspectives periodically struggle to effectively manage a patient's resistance to change. This article provides definitions and examples of patient-treatment matching applied to patient resistance or reactance. We report the results from an original meta-analysis of 12 select studies (N = 1,102) on matching therapist directiveness to patient reactance. Our findings support the hypothesis that patients exhibiting low levels of trait-like resistance respond better to directive types of treatment, while patients with high levels of resistance respond best to nondirective treatments (d = .82). Limitations of the research reviewed are noted, and practice recommendations are advanced. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHOURY, JOSEPH F.

    A TEACHING MANUAL FOR AN ELEMENTARY (FIRST LEVEL) COURSE IN THE ARABIC LANGUAGE IS PRESENTED. THE COURSE USES AN AUDIOLINGUAL-TO-GRAPHIC APPROACH OF INSTRUCTION, DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR PARTS. THE FIRST PART EMPHASIZES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL SKILLS IN PREREADING INSTRUCTIONAL EXERCISES. PART TWO CONSISTS OF A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE…

  11. PANJABI READER. LEVEL 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    A FIRST-LEVEL READER IS PRESENTED, PRIMARILY FOR THOSE STUDENTS WHO HAVE A SPEAKING KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI AND SOME KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI GRAMMAR. THIS VOLUME CAN BE USED IN A GENERAL PANJABI LANGUAGE COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. A GLOSSARY AND A BRIEF GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX HAVE…

  12. Happiness levels stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the ideological foundations of the modern welfare states is the belief that people can be made happier by providing them with better living conditions. This belief is challenged by the idea that happiness tends to remain at the same level and will therefore hardl

  13. Knowledge-Level Reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Bredeweg, Bert; Schreiber, G.; Karbach, Werner; Reinders, Martin; Voss, A.; Akkermans, H.; Bartsch-Spoerl, Brigitte; Vinkhuyzen, Erik

    This paper presents an overview of the REFLECT project. It defines the notion of knowledge level reflection that has been central to the project, it compares this notion with existing approaches to reflection in related fields, and investigates some of the consequences of the concept of knowledge le

  14. Leveraging Stress Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a costly business expense that affects both employee health and company profits. At the backdrop of this, the present research study is an attempt to explore and analysis the findings of the research studies which have been concluded in resolving and managing conflict arising through variances in stress level at the organizational hierarchy.

  15. Happiness levels stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the ideological foundations of the modern welfare states is the belief that people can be made happier by providing them with better living conditions. This belief is challenged by the idea that happiness tends to remain at the same level and will therefore hardl

  16. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy;

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  17. Levels of Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Vera; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010), qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (un)pleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self-(in)congruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative “common currency” to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro) to valence at another level (macro), leading to new hypotheses, and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation. PMID:23717292

  18. Multi-Level Semiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Giorgi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    is assumed to be a scalar property that endows living systems at different levels and domains with the capacity to ponder selectively the overall structural coherence and functional compatibility of their heterarchical processing, which is increasingly less conditioned by the underlying molecular determinism....

  19. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    , and we discuss some of the most central dilemmas in today's social work with young drug users. Among other things, we identify pervasive marginalizing dynamics in the social system that result partly from the deep-rooted cultural dichotomy between stigma and taboo that organizes the drug issue......, and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...... - sites of alternate ordering - where issues of drug use and other social problems can be dealt with and objectified in more flexible ways and handled as part of ongoing social practices of everyday life....

  20. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    , and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias......This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and we discuss some of the most central dilemmas in today's social work with young drug users. Among other things, we identify pervasive marginalizing dynamics in the social system that result partly from the deep-rooted cultural dichotomy between stigma and taboo that organizes the drug issue...

  1. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    report summarising the results of the research, together with a set of recommendations arising from the research. This report describes progress to...Southampton University at HR Wallingford and subsequent teleconference with Heidi Moritz and Kate White. The notes summarising the findings of the...suggestion was made that we may want to begin talking about extreme water levels separate from storms. Ivan mentioned an analysis of storminess which

  2. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjec...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  3. Level up Book Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  4. Tissue-level cytoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Hightower, L E; Brown, M A; Renfro, J.L.; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T.; House, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprote...

  5. Subquantum level of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sannikov-Proskuryakov, S S

    2002-01-01

    Not long ago spinors were considered as the simplest and most fundamental objects of particle physics. However it turns out that there exist more fundamental objects, from which spinors may be built (and, in this sense, they play the role of Kummer ideal numbers). We call they fundors. They are used in the description of a new more deep level of physical reality - pre-matter, from which usual elementary particles arise. Here, a mathematical carcass of the theory is built.

  6. Zinc level and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Doaa S.E Zaky; Eman A Sultan; Mahmoud F Salim; Rana S Dawod

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a chronic condition that is associated with disturbances in the metabolism of zinc. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum zinc level and different clinical and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Patients and methods Twenty-four individuals with BMI more than 30 kg/m 2 and 14 healthy controls (BMI < 24 kg/m 2 ) were assessed for BMI and waist circumference using anthropometric measurements. Colorimetric tes...

  7. The Knowledge Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    precisely to realizing mental functions in physical systems. In the hands of Daniel Dennett (1978), a philosopher who has concerned himself rather...illustrated repeatedly by Dennett with the gross flow diagrams of AI programs. The intentional stance corresponds to the knowledge level. In...particular, Dennett takes the important step of jettisoning the major result-cum- assumption of the original doctrine, to wit, that the intentional is

  8. Service Level Status

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopienski, S

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them.

  9. Level Width Broaden Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2004-01-01

    In fitting the double-differential measurements thelevelwidth broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg uncertainty.Besides level width broadening effect the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in this procedure.In general,the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed.However,the research indicates that to do so in this way the energy balance could not hold.For this reason,the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced,with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could hold exactly in the analytical form.

  10. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  11. Network security risk level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil BURTESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of the existence of a computers network within any company with pretensions are obvious. But the construction and the existence of a network without meeting some minimum security requirements, although it would be preferable to be optimal, can lead to bad functioning in the performance of the company’s business. The vulnerability of a grouping, such as a network, is given by the weakest point in its competence. The establishing of the risk level of each component of the network, and implicitly of the grouping, is highly necessary

  12. Black hole's quantum levels

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a black hole's effective temperature, which takes into account both of the non-strictly thermal and non-strictly continuous characters of Hawking radiation, we recently re-analyzed black hole's quasi-normal modes and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels for emissions of particles. After a careful review of previous results, in this work we improve such an analysis by removing an approximation that we implicitly used in our previous work and by obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its sub-leading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize unitary quantum gravity theory, like functions of the quantum overtone number e (emission) and, in turn,of the black hole's quantum excited level. Another approximation concerning the maximum value of e is also corrected. We also consider quasi-normal modes in terms ...

  13. Learning to read and write in evolution: from static pseudoenzymes and pseudosignalers to dynamic gear shifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukelimu, Abulikemu; Mondeel, Thierry D G A; Barberis, Matteo; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2017-06-15

    We present a systems biology view on pseudoenzymes that acknowledges that genes are not selfish: the genome is. With network function as the selectable unit, there has been an evolutionary bonus for recombination of functions of and within proteins. Many proteins house a functionality by which they 'read' the cell's state, and one by which they 'write' and thereby change that state. Should the writer domain lose its cognate function, a 'pseudoenzyme' or 'pseudosignaler' arises. GlnK involved in Escherichia coli ammonia assimilation may well be a pseudosignaler, associating 'reading' the nitrogen state of the cell to 'writing' the ammonium uptake activity. We identify functional pseudosignalers in the cyclin-dependent kinase complexes regulating cell-cycle progression. For the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we illustrate how a 'dead' pseudosignaler could produce potentially selectable functionalities. Four billion years ago, bioenergetics may have shuffled 'electron-writers', producing various networks that all served the same function of anaerobic ATP synthesis and carbon assimilation from hydrogen and carbon dioxide, but at different ATP/acetate ratios. This would have enabled organisms to deal with variable challenges of energy need and substrate supply. The same principle might enable 'gear-shifting' in real time, by dynamically generating different pseudo-redox enzymes, reshuffling their coenzymes, and rerouting network fluxes. Non-stationary pH gradients in thermal vents together with similar such shuffling mechanisms may have produced a first selectable proton-motivated pyrophosphate synthase and subsequent ATP synthase. A combination of functionalities into enzymes, signalers, and the pseudo-versions thereof may offer fitness in terms of plasticity, both in real time and in evolution. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Resonant 90 degree shifter generator for 4-phase trapezoidal adiabatic logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bargagli-Stoffi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Many adiabatic logic families make use of multi phase trapezoidal or sinusoidal power clocks to recover the energy stored in the load capacitances. A key aspect for the evaluation of the performance of adiabatic logic is then the study of a system that includes the power clock generator. A four-phase trapezoidal power clock generator, according to the requirements of the most promising architectures, namely the ECRL and PFAL, has been designed and simulated. The proposed circuit, realized with a double-well 0.25 µm CMOS technology and external inductors, is a resonant generator designed to oscillate at a frequency of 7 MHz, which is within the optimum frequency range for adiabatic circuits realized with this CMOS technology. The generator has been simulated with the equivalent load of fifty 1-bit adders and the operating behavior of a 4-bit adder has been evaluated. The key aspects of a generator for adiabatic logic are its power consumption and the phase relationships between its output signals. The proposed generator has a conversion efficiency higher than 80%, and it is robust with respect to variations of technology parameters. The four power supplies exhibit the correct relationship of phase also in the presence of no equally distributed loads.

  15. Printable luminescent down shifter for enhancing efficiency and stability of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettle, J.; Bristow, N.; Gethin, D.T.

    2016-01-01

    , with a 51% enhancement in the measured stability (T75%). Significantly, the work provides clear experimental evidence that the LDS layer can act as a UV filter in OPVs without compromising the efficiency of the solar cell, thus providing an added benefit over commercial UV filters.......The proof of concept of using luminescent down shifting (LDS) layers as alternative UV filters for P3HT:PCBM OPVs is demonstrated using a lanthanide-based metal complex. The results are verified using a combination of indoor light soaking, with single cell devices, and outdoor performance...... monitoring, using a 16-cell monolithically connected OPV module. By applying the LDS layer, a ~5% relative enhancement in photocurrent is observed for both sets of devices. More significantly, indoor light soaking tests on single cell devices without encapsulation showed an 850% enhancement in the measured...

  16. Changelings and Shape Shifters? Identity Play and Pedagogical Positioning of Staff in Immersive Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study that used narrative inquiry to explore staff experiences of learning and teaching in immersive worlds. The findings introduced issues relating to identity play, the relationship between pedagogy and play and the ways in which learning, play and fun were managed (or not). At the same time there was a sense of imposed or…

  17. Broadband Multifunctional Efficient Meta-Gratings Based on Dielectric Waveguide Phase Shifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Capasso, Federico

    2015-10-14

    Molding the wavefront of light is a basic principle of any optical design. In conventional optical components such as lenses and waveplates, the wavefront is controlled via propagation phases in a medium much thicker than the wavelength. Metasurfaces instead typically produce the required phase changes using subwavelength-sized resonators as phase shift elements patterned across a surface. This "flat optics" approach promises miniaturization and improved performance. Here we introduce metasurfaces which use dielectric ridge waveguides (DRWs) as phase shift elements in which the required phase accumulation is achieved via propagation over a subwavelength distance. By engineering the dispersive response of DRWs, we experimentally realize high resolving power meta-gratings with broadband (λ = 1.2-1.7 μm) and efficient routing (splitting and bending) into a single diffraction order, thus overcoming the limits of blazed gratings. In addition, we demonstrate polarization beam splitting capabilities with large suppression ratios.

  18. Asymmetric Fabry-Perot-inspired subwavelength phase shifters for tunable metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Colburn, Shane; Majumdar, Arka

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces with tunable spatial phase functions could benefit numerous applications. Currently, most approaches to tuning rely on mechanical stretching which cannot control phase locally, or by modulating the refractive index to exploit rapid phase changes with the drawback of also modulating amplitude. Here, we propose a method to realize phase modulation at subwavelength length scales while maintaining unity amplitude. Our device is inspired by an asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator, with pixels comprising a scattering nanopost on top of a distributed Bragg reflector, capable of providing a nearly 2{\\pi} nonlinear phase shift with less than 2% refractive index modulation. Using the designed pixels, we simulate a tunable metasurface composed of an array of moderately coupled nanopost resonators, realizing axicons, vortex beam generators, and aspherical lenses with both variable focal length and in-plane scanning capability, achieving nearly diffraction-limited performance. The experimental feasibility of the ...

  19. High CW power, phase and amplitude modulatorrealized with fast ferrite phase-shifters

    CERN Document Server

    Valuch, D

    2004-01-01

    Superconducting cavity resonators are suffering from detuning effects caused by high internal electromagnetic fields (Lorentz force detuning). For classical resonators working with continuous wave signals, this detuning is static and compensated by the slow mechanical tuning system. However, pulsing of superconducting cavities, an operational mode only recently considered, results in dynamic detuning effects. New ways to handle this effect have to be found and worked out. A way to supply several superconducting cavities in the particle accelerator by one large transmitter while keeping the possibility of controlling the field in each individual cavity is shown. By introducing a fast phase and amplitude modulator into each cavity feeder line, the individual deviations of each cavity with respect to the average can be compensated in order to equalize their behaviour for the main control loop, which will compensate the global detuning of all cavities. Several types of phase and amplitude modulators suitable for ...

  20. Optimization of electro-optic phase shifters for integrated optical phased arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macik, Dwayne D.; Bravo, Tyler E.; Pentecost, Seeley M.; Espinal, Francisco A.; Madsen, Christi K.

    2017-05-01

    A low-loss, high-speed optical phased array (OPA) has been designed and fabricated. Two different platforms have been utilized in combination to leverage electro-optic (EO) tuning. A lithium niobate (LiNbO3) optical phased array was fabricated and used in conjunction with a silicon nitride (Si3N4) 8x8 waveguide array that condenses the output pitch and utilizes the TriplexTM waveguide technology. This OPA allows for the non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) of 1550 nm light on an edge coupled optic platform and takes advantage of the high electro-optic coefficient and high speed capability of LiNbO3 for electro-optic phase tuning. This coupled OPA has an overall insertion loss of 3.5 dB which is advantageous to silicon-on-insulator OPAs that have shown overall insertion losses of 14 dB. To characterize and tune this device, a 3 lens imaging system was employed to produce both near- and far- field intensity patterns of the output of the OPA on a static image plane. At the image plane, a high resolution infrared camera was used to observe the resulting intensity pattern. The control software for tuning the OPA reads the intensity incident at a specified position on the detector array, and has a PWM interface to drive the electro-optic phase controls. Beam steering was accomplished using an iterative tuning algorithm.

  1. A Validation System for the Complex Event Processing Directives of the ATLAS Shifter Assistant Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, Gabriel; The ATLAS collaboration; Kazarov, Andrei; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Santos, Alejandro; Soloviev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a methodology that combines data from different sources in order to identify events or patterns that need particular attention. It has gained a lot of momentum in the computing world in the past few years and is used in ATLAS to continuously monitor the behaviour of the data acquisition system, to trigger corrective actions and to guide the experiment’s operators. This technology is very powerful, if experts regularly insert and update their knowledge about the system’s behaviour into the CEP engine. Nevertheless, writing or modifying CEP directives is not trivial since the used programming paradigm is quite different with respect to what developers are normally familiar with. In order to help experts verify that the directives work as expected, we have thus developed a complete testing and validation environment. This system consists of three main parts: the first is the persistent storage of all relevant data streams that are produced during data taking, the second is a...

  2. A Validation System for the Complex Event Processing Directives of the ATLAS Shifter Assistant Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Alejandro; The ATLAS collaboration; Avolio, Giuseppe; Kazarov, Andrei; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Soloviev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a methodology that combines data from many sources in order to identify events or patterns that need particular attention. It has gained a lot of momentum in the computing world in the past few years and is used in ATLAS to continuously monitor the behaviour of the data acquisition system, to trigger corrective actions and to guide the experiment’s operators. This technology is very powerful, if experts regularly insert and update their knowledge about the system’s behaviour into the CEP engine. Nevertheless, writing or modifying CEP rules is not trivial since the used programming paradigm is quite different with respect to what developers are normally familiar with. In order to help experts verify that the directives work as expected, we have thus developed a complete testing and validation environment. This system consists of three main parts: the first is the data reader from existing storage of all relevant data streams that are produced during data taking, the second...

  3. Wideband 360 degrees microwave photonic phase shifter based on slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, Jose;

    2010-01-01

    oscillations, enhanced by optical filtering, in combination with a regeneration stage realized by four-wave mixing effects. This combination provides scalability: three hybrid stages are demonstrated but the technology allows an all-integrated device. The microwave operation frequency limitations...

  4. Identification of platform levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    reduction, ability to launch a wider product portfolio without increasing resources and reduction of complexity within the whole company. To support the multiple product development process, platform based product development has in many companies such as Philips, VW, Ford etc. proven to be a very effective...... because the nature of developing platforms and applications are very different. In single product development reuse is often determined by individual designers, in multiple product development reuse is to a large degree a management issue. It is difficult for a company to switch from single to multiple...... development will be examined. Based on the identification of the above characteristics five platform levels are described. The research presented in this paper is a result of MSc, Ph.D projects at the Technical University of Denmark and consultancy projects within the organisation of Institute of Product...

  5. Switch wear leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  6. Tissue-level cytoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, L E; Brown; Renfro, J L; Perdrizet, G A; Rewinski, M; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T; House, S D

    2000-11-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprotected tissues. These functions include transepithelial transport in renal epithelium and attachment and transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelium in response to mediators of inflammation. Evidence pointing to inflammation as a major venue for the heat shock response in vertebrates continues to mount. One such venue is wound healing. Heat shock proteins are induced early in wound responses, and some are released into the extracellular wound fluid where they appear to function as proinflammatory cytokines. However, within responding cells in the wound, heat shock proteins contribute to the acquisition of a state of cytoprotection that protects cells from the hostile environment of the wound, an environment created to destroy pathogens and essentially sterilize the wound. We propose that the cytoprotected state is an anti-inflammatory state that contributes to limiting the inflammatory response; that is, it serves as a brake on inflammation.

  7. LHC Report: Level best

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is special: there is a limit to the number of the events the detector can handle per bunch crossing. Consequently the maximum luminosity provided in 2012 has been around 4 x1032 cm-2s-1 (compared to the maximum of 7.7 x1033 cm-2s-1 seen by ATLAS and CMS). Nonetheless LHCb still wants to integrate as much luminosity as possible.    To meet LHCb's requirements a luminosity leveling technique is used. A machine setup is chosen that would give a peak luminosity well above the required maximum if the beams are collided head-on at LHCb's interaction point. This peak luminosity is then reduced to the required maximum by moving the two beams transversely apart at the interaction point. As the beam current goes down during a fill, the beams can be moved together in small increments to keep the collision rate constant throughout the fill. In practice, when the LHC goes into collisions in LHCb, the initial luminosity is safely below LHCb's demanded le...

  8. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  9. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  10. Higher Level Orderings on Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Guang Xing ZENG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate higher level orderings on modules over commutative rings. On the basis of the theory of higher level orderings on fields and commutative rings, some results involving existence of higher level orderings are generalized to the category of modules over commutative rings. Moreover, a strict intersection theorem for higher level orderings on modules is established.

  11. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P. [and others

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  12. Levels in Games for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Moderator Tom; Belchior, Participants Patricia; Chamberlin, Barbara; Mellecker, Robin

    2014-04-01

    There is a time-honored procedure in games for pure entertainment wherein games challenge their players by offering successfully higher levels of difficulty. An eminent researcher proposed that player engagement and enjoyment require the player being constantly challenged, but at a level she or he can handle. A game's difficulty levels enable the player to face more difficult challenges as she or he builds gameplaying skills. Although levels work in games for entertainment, it is not clear how effective or important levels are in games for health, or how they are designed. We invited several accomplished games for health designers and researchers to discuss levels.

  13. The space of Whitney levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Illanes, Alejandro

    1991-01-01

    ...) is always homeomorphic to 12 (this answers a question by Nadler). Keywords: Whitney maps, Whitney levels, Whitney decompositions, space of Whitney levels, space of Whitney maps. AMS (MOS) Subj....

  14. Elevated Vitamin B12 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Sezgin Evim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential to all cells in the body. Both high levels and low levels of vitamin B12 are significant. High serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 levels are found particularly in hematological disorders, solid tumors, autoimmune diseases, renal diseases and infectious diseases; and this elevation is associated with prognosis in some of these diseases. High levels of serum vitamin B12 should be taken into consideration and more studies should be performed on this issue.

  15. Missing levels in correlated spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bohigas, O

    2004-01-01

    Complete spectroscopy (measurements of a complete sequence of consecutive levels) is often considered as a prerequisite to extract fluctuation properties of spectra. It is shown how this goal can be achieved even if only a fraction of levels are observed. The case of levels behaving as eigenvalues of random matrices, of current interest in nuclear physics, is worked out in detail.

  16. Helium II level measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  17. OCR A level computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Rouse, George; O'Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Develop confident students with our expert authors: their insight and guidance will ensure a thorough understanding of OCR A Level computer science, with challenging tasks and activities to test essential analytical and problem-solving skills. - Endorsed by OCR for use with the OCR AS and A Level Computer Science specification and written by a trusted and experienced author team, OCR Computer Science for A Level:- Endorsed by OCR for use with the OCR AS and A Level Computer Science specification and written by a trusted and experienced author team, OCR Computer Science for A Level:- Builds stu

  18. Digital Levelling in Subterranean Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Jiřikovský

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For precision levelling works are now more often used digital levels and code-scale staffs. Advantages in (and problems with their application to the regular line-levelling are well known and described. However, when using the digital levelling for measurements in specific local geodetic networks, monitoring networks and inside of buildings and underground spaces, new problems appear with the signalisation of the observed points, readability of the code (non-uniform illumination, temperature changes etc. The article informs about the application of two types of digital levels (Sokkia SDL-2, Trimble Zeiss DiNi 12T in the experimental subterranean levelling network for the basement settlement monitoring of a ten-floor building; the solution of marking of the points, field calibration and the system calibration of digital levels.

  19. Pellissier H5 hydrostatic level

    CERN Document Server

    Imfeld, H L

    2003-01-01

    Conventional spirit leveling using double scale invar rods has been in use at SLAC for some time as the standard method of obtaining very precise height difference information. Typical accuracy of +- 100 (micro)m and better can routinely be achieved. Procedures and software have evolved to the point where the method is relatively fast and reliable. However, recent projects such as the Final Focus Test Beam have pushed the requested vertical positioning tolerances for alignment of quadrupoles to the 30 mu m level. It is apparent that conventional spirit leveling cannot achieve this level of accuracy. To meet the challenge, the alignment group contracted with Pellissier, Inc. to develop a portable hydrostatic leveling system. The H5 grew out of this development effort and is expected to provide the needed accuracy and ease of use required for such vertical positioning projects. The H5 hydrostatic level is a portable instrument that under ideal operating conditions will provide elevation differences with an accu...

  20. Developing new levels of edit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1985, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) staff have had four levels of edit to choose from for technical reports. When a CQI survey showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, LANL set about revising them. The goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure value added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product--three author-based levels of edit.

  1. Developing new levels of edit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, J.; DeLanoy, M.; Deupree, R.; Skiby, J.; Thompson, B.

    1998-07-01

    In 1985, the writing and editing group at Los Alamos National Laboratory established four levels of edit for technical reports. When a survey in 1994 showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, the authors set about revising them. Their goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure that value was added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product -- three author-based levels of edit.

  2. Low Light Level TV Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, J

    1970-10-01

    As the science of low light level sensing becomes better understood, the demand for systems with this capability has increased considerably in recent years. Low light level television systems are part of these low light sensing devices in which interest has grown. Development of low light level TV systems has, in turn, stimulated technical advances in new tube types with improved performance, development of electronic techniques which enhance the over-all performance, and design techniques which make the system more versatile and adaptable. A general look at some of these developments and techniques gives insight into the versatility and adaptability of low light level TV.

  3. AQA A level computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Bob

    2015-01-01

    AQA A-level Computer Science gives students the chance to think creatively and progress through the AQA AS and A-level Computer Science specifications. Detailed coverage of the specifications will enrich understanding of the fundamental principles of computing, whilst a range of activities help to develop the programming skills and computational thinking skills at A-level and beyond. - Enables students to build a thorough understanding of the fundamental principles in the AQA AS and A-Level Computer Science specifications, with detailed coverage of programming, algorithms, data structures a

  4. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  5. Sea level and climate variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1985-01-01

    Review paper, ESA Symposium on Application of Satellite Data to Climate Modelling. Alpbach (Austria) Sea level is an essential component of the climate system, on which many human activities in the coastal zone depend. Climate variations leading to changes in relative sea level are

  6. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  7. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  8. Landau levels for electromagnetic wave

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that the frequencies of propagating electromagnetic wave (photon) in rotating dielectric media obey Landau quantization. We show that the degeneracy of right and left helicities of photons is broken on the lowest Landau level. In spatially homogeneous system this level is shown to be helical, i.e. left and right helical photons counter-propagate.

  9. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  10. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  11. Conceptual framework for biosecurity levels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

    2004-10-01

    Biosecurity must be implemented without impeding biomedical and bioscience research. Existing security literature and regulatory requirements do not present a comprehensive approach or clear model for biosecurity, nor do they wholly recognize the operational issues within laboratory environments. To help address these issues, the concept of Biosecurity Levels should be developed. Biosecurity Levels would have increasing levels of security protections depending on the attractiveness of the pathogens to adversaries. Pathogens and toxins would be placed in a Biosecurity Level based on their security risk. Specifically, the security risk would be a function of an agent's weaponization potential and consequences of use. To demonstrate the concept, examples of security risk assessments for several human, animal, and plant pathogens will be presented. Higher security than that currently mandated by federal regulations would be applied for those very few agents that represent true weapons threats and lower levels for the remainder.

  12. Are There Levels of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim; Hohwy, Jakob; Owen, Adrian M

    2016-06-01

    The notion of a level of consciousness is a key construct in the science of consciousness. Not only is the term employed to describe the global states of consciousness that are associated with post-comatose disorders, epileptic absence seizures, anaesthesia, and sleep, it plays an increasingly influential role in theoretical and methodological contexts. However, it is far from clear what precisely a level of consciousness is supposed to be. This paper argues that the levels-based framework for conceptualizing global states of consciousness is untenable and develops in its place a multidimensional account of global states. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  14. Affine morphisms at zero level

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Given a finite index subfactor, we show that the {\\em affine morphisms at zero level} in the affine category over the planar algebra associated to the subfactor is isomorphic to the fusion algebra of the subfactor as a *-algebra.

  15. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  16. Methane Liquid Level Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Technologies Group, Inc. proposes the development of a Methane Liquid-Level Sensor, (MLS) for In-Space cryogenic storage capable of continuous monitoring of...

  17. Time orientation and construal level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Jannette; Handgraaf, Michel J.J.; Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Eating and exercising behaviour are both characterized by immediate and future consequences. Consequently, consideration of these consequences (i.e. time orientation) predicts eating and exercising behaviour. We investigate whether construal level acts as an underlying mechanism of these relations.

  18. Website-Level Data Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yu

    This paper proposes a website-level data extraction approach to identify the object relevant information distributed across multiple web pages. Page-level data extraction is widely studied with assumption that each input web page contains multiple data records of interested objects. However, in many cases for web mining, the multiple pages describing an object are sparsely distributed in a website. It makes page-level solutions no longer applicable. We exploit the hierarchy model of websites for web page organization to solve the problem of website-level data extraction. A new resource, the Hierarchical Navigation Path (HNP), which can be discovered from the website structure, is introduced for object relevant web page filtering. The found web pages are clustered using the URL and semantic hyperlink analysis, and then the entry page and the detailed profile pages of each object are identified. The empirical experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Antioxidant enzyme levels in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oberley, T. D.; Oberley, L W

    1997-01-01

    Normal cells are protected by antioxidant enzymes from the toxic effects of high concentrations of reactive oxygen species generated during cellular metabolism. Even though cancer cells generate reactive oxygen species, it has been demonstrated biochemically that antioxidant enzyme levels are low in most animal and human cancers. However, a few cancer types have been found to have elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes, particularly manganese superoxide dismuta...

  20. Cambridge technicals level 3 IT

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Victoria; Middleton, Saundra

    2016-01-01

    Support your teaching of the new Cambridge Technicals 2016 suite with Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT, developed in partnership between OCR and Hodder Education; this textbook covers each specialist pathway and ensures your ability to deliver a flexible course that is both vocationally focused and academically thorough. Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT is matched exactly to the new specification and follows specialist pathways in IT Infrastructure Technician, Emerging Digital Technology Practitioner, Application Developer, and Data Analyst. - Ensures effective teaching of each specialis

  1. Landau level quantization and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akera, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; MacDonald, A.H. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Norman, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A microscopic calculation of vortex-lattice states in two-dimensional electron systems at strong magnetic fields is made taking fully the Landau level quantization into account within the mean field scheme. Results of the order parameter and the local density of states are presented both in the limit of pairing in a single Landau level and in the semiclassical regime of weaker fields and differences from the Abrikosov vortex state are discussed.

  2. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml, only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid.

  3. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, Amos A. de, E-mail: amosdejong@gmail.com [Innovation Management, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Section of Environmental Governance, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Runhaar, Piety R., E-mail: piety.runhaar@wur.nl [Organisational Psychology and Human Resource Development, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: Akolhoff@eia.nl [The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@geo.uu.nl [Department of Innovation and Environment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better

  4. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  5. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  6. Landau Levels in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Giordano, Matteo; Katz, Sandor D; Kovacs, Tamas G; Pittler, Ferenc; Wellnhofer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of the two-dimensional continuum Dirac operator in the presence of a uniform background magnetic field consists of Landau levels, which are degenerate and separated by gaps. On the lattice the Landau levels are spread out by discretization artefacts, but a remnant of their structure is clearly visible (Hofstadter butterfly). If one switches on a non-Abelian interaction, the butterfly structure will be smeared out, but the lowest Landau level (LLL) will still be separated by a gap from the rest of the spectrum. In this talk we discuss how one can define the LLL in QCD and check how well certain physical quantities are approximated by taking into account only the LLL.

  7. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  8. Modeling Multi-Level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2011-01-01

    This book is devoted to modeling of multi-level complex systems, a challenging domain for engineers, researchers and entrepreneurs, confronted with the transition from learning and adaptability to evolvability and autonomy for technologies, devices and problem solving methods. Chapter 1 introduces the multi-scale and multi-level systems and highlights their presence in different domains of science and technology. Methodologies as, random systems, non-Archimedean analysis, category theory and specific techniques as model categorification and integrative closure, are presented in chapter 2. Chapters 3 and 4 describe polystochastic models, PSM, and their developments. Categorical formulation of integrative closure offers the general PSM framework which serves as a flexible guideline for a large variety of multi-level modeling problems. Focusing on chemical engineering, pharmaceutical and environmental case studies, the chapters 5 to 8 analyze mixing, turbulent dispersion and entropy production for multi-scale sy...

  9. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2001-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported.

  10. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported.

  11. Levels of Outsourcing and Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring and outsourcing over time and highlight strategic considerations underpinning this process in companies. On the basis of four case studies of Danish and German industrial companies, this paper develops a holistic framework...... conceptualizing various levels of outsourcing and offshoring as well as factors driving the transition between these levels. The framework adds to better understanding of the process and challenges the linear nature of it and suggests that ‘backsourcing’ and repatriation of activities should receive more...

  12. The CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Deldicque, C; Ero, J; Frühwirth, R; Jeitler, Manfred; Kastner, K; Köstner, S; Neumeister, N; Porth, M; Padrta P; Rohringer, H; Sakulinb, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Walzel, G; Wulz, C E; Lowette, S; Van De Vyver, B; De Lentdecker, G; Vanlaer, P; Delaere, C; Lemaître, V; Ninane, A; van der Aa, O; Damgov, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampen, T; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lehti, S; Nysten, J; Tuominiemi, J; Busson, P; Todorov, T; Schwering, G; Gras, P; Daskalakis, G; Sfyrla, A; Barone, M; Geralis, T; Markou, C; Zachariadou, K; Hidas, P; Banerjee, S; Mazumdara, K; Abbrescia, M; Colaleoa, A; D'Amato, N; De Filippis, N; Giordano, D; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Silvestris, L; Zito, G; Arcelli, S; Bonacorsi, D; Capiluppi, P; Dallavalle, G M; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Marcellini, S; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Travaglini, R; Costa, S; Tricomi, A; Ciulli, a V; Magini, N; Ranieri, R; Berti, L; Biasotto, M; Gulminia, M; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Bellato, M; Gasparini, U; Lacaprara, S; Parenti, A; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Zotto, S; Ventura P L; Perugia; Benedetti, D; Biasini, M; Fano, L; Servoli, L; Bagliesi, a G; Boccali, T; Dutta, S; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Palla, F; Segneri, G; Starodumov, A; Tenchini, R; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Amapane, a N; Bertolino, F; Cirio, R; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Pac, Y; Joo, K; Kim, S B; Suwon; Choi, Y I; Yu, I T; Cho, K; Chung, J; Ham, S W; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, W; CKim, J; Oh, S K; Park, H; Ro, S R; Son, D C; Suh, J S; Aftab, Z; Hoorani, H; Osmana, A; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, K; Kazana, M; Królikowski, J; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, Krzysztof T; Zabolotny, W M; Zalipska, J; Zych, P; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Almeida, C; Almeida, N; Da Silva, J C; Santos, M; Teixeira, I; Teixeira, J P; Varelaa, J; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Konoplyanikov, V F; Urkinbaev, A R; Toropin, A; Gavrilov, V; Kolosov, V; Krokhotin, A; Oulianov, A; Stepanov, N; Kodolova, O L; Vardanyan, I; Ilic, J; Skoro, G P; Albajar, C; De Troconiz, J F; Calderón, A; López-Virto, M A; Marco, R; Martínez-Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Vila, I; Cucciarelli, S; Konecki, M; Ashby, S; Barney, D; Bartalini, P; Benetta, R; Brigljevic, V; Bruno, G; Cano, E; Cittolin, S; Della Negra, M; de Roeck, A; Favre, P; Frey, A; Funk, W; Futyan, D; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Innocente, V; Jacobs, C; Jank, W; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Lenzi, M; Magrans, I; Mannelli, M; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Mirabito, L; Murray, S J; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Palomares-Espiga, C; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Reynaud, S; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sguazzoni, G; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, P; Spiropulu, M; Strandlie, A; Taylor, B G; Van Vulpen, I; Wellisch, J P; Winkler, M; Villigen; Kotlinski, D; Zurich; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Dumanoglu, I; Bristol; Bailey, S; Brooke, J J; Cussans, D; Heath, G P; Machin, D; Nash, S J; Newbold, D; Didcot; Coughlan, A; Halsall, R; Haynes, W J; Tomalin, I R; Marinelli, N; Nikitenko, A; Rutherford, S; Seeza, C; Sharif, O; Antchev, G; Hazen, E; Rohlf, J; Wu, S; Breedon, R; Cox, P T; Murray, P; Tripathi, M; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Kreuzer, P; Lindgren, M; Mumford, J; Schlein, P E; Shi, Y; Tannenbaum, B; Valuev, V; Von der Mey, M; Andreevaa, I; Clare, R; Villa, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G; Fisk, I; Letts, J; Mojaver, M; Paar, H P; Trepagnier, E; Litvine, V; Shevchenko, S; Singh, S; Wilkinson, R; Aziz, S; Bowden, M; Elias, J E; Graham, G; Green, D; Litmaath, M; Los, S; O'Dell, V; Ratnikova, N; Suzuki, I; Wenzel, H; Acosta, D; Bourilkov, D; Korytov, A; Madorsky, A; Mitselmakher, G; Rodríguez, J L; Scurlock, B; Abdullin, S; Baden, D; Eno, S; Grassi, T; Kunori, S; Pavlon, S; Sumorok, K; Tether, S; Cremaldi, L M; Sanders, D; Summers, D; Osborne, I; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Fisher,W C; Mans6, J; Stickland, D P; Tully, C; Wildish, T; Wynhoff, S; Padley, B P; Chumney, P; Dasu, S; Smith, W H; CMS Trigger Data Acquisition Group

    2006-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider at CERN the proton bunches cross at a rate of 40MHz. At the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment the original collision rate is reduced by a factor of O (1000) using a Level-1 hardware trigger. A subsequent factor of O(1000) data reduction is obtained by a software-implemented High Level Trigger (HLT) selection that is executed on a multi-processor farm. In this review we present in detail prototype CMS HLT physics selection algorithms, expected trigger rates and trigger performance in terms of both physics efficiency and timing.

  13. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  14. Cotinine Levels in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Delpisheh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthmatic children are more at risk to environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS due to impaired lower airway function. Objective: To investigate the association of low socio-economic status and ETS exposure in asthmatic children. Design: A cross-sectional study on 425 primary school children (aged 5-11years in Merseyside, using a parent completed questionnaire and childrens’ saliva samples. Results: 25.9 % of children had doctor diagnosed asthma and 12 % had a history of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses. The symptom triad of cough, wheeze and breathlessness were reported for 8.5% of children. Mean cotinine level was 2.1 ng/ml (±0.6 SD. 45.6% of children were ETS exposed (cotinine levels >1.0 ng/ml. Asthmatic children and those from disadvantaged households were more likely to be ETS exposed, compared to non-asthmatic and those from advantaged households [OR=1.7 (95%CI=1.1-2.4] and [OR=2.1(1.8-3.2 respectively]. A synergic effect of parental asthma, deprivation and high cotinine levels on childhood asthma was observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: A high cotinine level was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma in children particularly amongst disadvantaged households. Interventions aimed at limiting ETS exposure particularly among disadvantaged groups with asthmatic children are needed.

  15. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  16. Trainer Talk: Levels of Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present examples of trainer talk that scaffold trainee teachers' understanding of teaching in a post-observation feedback session. Previous research into scaffolding in a teacher training context describes scaffolding at a technique or strategy level, without describing how, in linguistic terms, the trainer can support and…

  17. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave stati...

  18. REVERSE LOGISTICS RETAIL LEVEL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Bajor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting scientific research regarding reverse logistics systems includes certain difficulties. Developed logistics systems are aimed at analysing reverse logistics issues and tend to continuously detect differences and oscillations in the flow of returned products and their characteristics. Developing logistics systems, as Croatian, find reverse logistics issues, regarding product returns, significantly complex and very often these issues are not observed as issues of priority. As distributive flow, reverse logistics systems fundaments should be also based on detailed analysis. Analysis in this flow presents amounts, reasons, process flows and quality of returned items. Because of complex product evaluation on individual level, reverse logistics procedures should be implemented as a methodology individually developed for every supply chain subject. This paper presents a research of retail level returns on the Croatian market, where the analysis implicated that the majority of products in return for this level is directed from final consumers and presents noncurrent inventories of distribution chain. The paper will present conducted research regarding characteristics of returns and routing these products from the retail level.

  19. GOCE level 2 gravity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.; Fiorot, S.; Fuchs, M.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Tscherning, C.C.; Veicherts, M.; Visser, P.N.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Two of the GOCE Level 2 products are the gravity gradients (GGs) in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and the GGs in the Local North-Oriented Frame (LNOF). The GRF is an instrument frame and the GGs are derived from the L1b GGs. The L1b to L2 GG processing involves corrections for temporal gravi

  20. Biopower at the molar level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Martin; Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade or so much social science research on the developments in the life sciences and biomedicine seems to be focusing too narrowly on individualization or, more recently, on geneticization, that is, the ‘molecular’ level. This article argues that current public health policies in ...

  1. Reduction of parathyoid hormone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A method of acutely reducing the plasma level of PTH of a patient having an elevated PTH comprising the administration of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a GLP-2, or a variant, an analogue, or derivative of GLP-2 having the ability to bind and activate a GLP-2 receptor such as GLP-2 1-34...

  2. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A; Shastry, B Sriram; Yuzbashyan, Emil A

    2016-09-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable N×N matrices linear in a real parameter x. The matrix H(x) is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number n>1 of linearly independent commuting partners H^{i}(x) (integrals of motion) [H(x),H^{i}(x)]=0, [H^{i}(x),H^{j}(x)]=0, for all x. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052114 (2016)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.93.052114], we developed a basis-independent construction of H(x) for any n from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determining how to choose a typical integrable matrix from the ensemble. Here, we find that typical integrable matrices have Poisson statistics in the N→∞ limit provided n scales at least as logN; otherwise, they exhibit level repulsion. Exceptions to the Poisson case occur at isolated coupling values x=x_{0} or when correlations are introduced between typically independent matrix parameters. However, level statistics cross over to Poisson at O(N^{-0.5}) deviations from these exceptions, indicating that non-Poissonian statistics characterize only subsets of measure zero in the parameter space. Furthermore, we present strong numerical evidence that ensembles of integrable matrices are stationary and ergodic with respect to nearest-neighbor level statistics.

  3. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  4. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…

  5. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.

    2016-09-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable N ×N matrices linear in a real parameter x . The matrix H (x ) is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number n >1 of linearly independent commuting partners Hi(x ) (integrals of motion) "]Hi(x ) ,Hj(x ) ]">H (x ) ,Hi(x ) =0 , for all x . In a recent work [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052114 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.052114], we developed a basis-independent construction of H (x ) for any n from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determining how to choose a typical integrable matrix from the ensemble. Here, we find that typical integrable matrices have Poisson statistics in the N →∞ limit provided n scales at least as logN ; otherwise, they exhibit level repulsion. Exceptions to the Poisson case occur at isolated coupling values x =x0 or when correlations are introduced between typically independent matrix parameters. However, level statistics cross over to Poisson at O (N-0.5) deviations from these exceptions, indicating that non-Poissonian statistics characterize only subsets of measure zero in the parameter space. Furthermore, we present strong numerical evidence that ensembles of integrable matrices are stationary and ergodic with respect to nearest-neighbor level statistics.

  6. An optoelectronic fuel level sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashkina, T. I.; Badeeva, E. A.; Badeev, A. V.; Savochkina, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The block and schematic construction diagrams of a new optoelectronic fuel level sensor are considered. The operating principle of the sensor is based on registering the intensity value of the optical path reflected from the mirror, located on the reservoir bottom.

  7. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine…

  8. Energy levels of 56Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Assche, P. H. M.; Baader, H. A.; Koch, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of the 55Mn(n,γ)56 Mn reaction has been studied with a γ-diffraction spectrometer. These data allowed the construction of a level scheme for 56Mn with two previously unobserved doublets. High-energy γ-transitions to the low-energy states have been measured for different...

  9. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL; ENEA CONSTANTA

    2014-01-01

    The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a...

  10. Developing first-level leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestland, Andreas; Hanig, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Oil and energy corporation BP was well aware of the importance of its work group managers on the front lines. Their decisions, in aggregate, make an enormous difference in BP's turnover, costs, quality control, safety, innovation, and environmental performance. There were about 10,000 such supervisors, working in every part of the company-from solar plants in Spain, to drilling platforms in the North Sea, to marketing teams in Chicago. Some 70% to 80% of BP employees reported directly to these lower-level managers. Yet, until recently, the corporation didn't have a comprehensive training program--let alone an official name--for them. For their part, the frontline managers felt disconnected; it was often hard for them to understand how their individual decisions contributed to the growth and reputation of BP as a whole. In this article, BP executive Andreas Priestland and Dialogos VP Robert Hanig describe how BP in the past five years has learned to connect with this population of managers. After one and a half years of design and development, there is now a companywide name--"first-level leaders"--and a comprehensive training program for this cohort. The authors describe the collaborative effort they led to create the program's four components: Supervisory Essentials, Context and Connections, the Leadership Event, and Peer Partnerships. The design team surveyed those it had deemed first-level leaders and others throughout BP; extensively benchmarked other companies' training efforts for lower-level managers; and conducted a series of pilot programs that involved dozens of advisers. The training sessions were first offered early in 2002, and since then, more than 8000 of BP's first-level leaders have attended. The managers who've been through training are consistently ranked higher in performance than those who haven't, both by their bosses and by the employees who report to them, the authors say.

  11. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  12. Landau levels and Riemann zeros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Germán; Townsend, Paul K

    2008-09-12

    The number N(E) of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function with positive imaginary part less than E is the sum of a "smooth" function N[over ](E) and a "fluctuation." Berry and Keating have shown that the asymptotic expansion of N[over ](E) counts states of positive energy less than E in a "regularized" semiclassical model with classical Hamiltonian H=xp. For a different regularization, Connes has shown that it counts states "missing" from a continuum. Here we show how the "absorption spectrum" model of Connes emerges as the lowest Landau level limit of a specific quantum-mechanical model for a charged particle on a planar surface in an electric potential and uniform magnetic field. We suggest a role for the higher Landau levels in the fluctuation part of N(E).

  13. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  14. Landau levels and Riemann zeros

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, German

    2008-01-01

    The number $N(E)$ of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function with positive imaginary part less than $E$ is the sum of a `smooth' function $\\bar N(E)$ and a `fluctuation'. Berry and Keating have shown that the asymptotic expansion of $\\bar N(E)$ counts states of positive energy less than $E$ in a `regularized' semi-classical model with classical Hamiltonian $H=xp$. For a different regularization, Connes has shown that it counts states `missing' from a continuum. Here we show how the `absorption spectrum' model of Connes emerges as the lowest Landau level limit of a specific quantum mechanical model for a charged particle on a planar surface in an electric potential and uniform magnetic field. We suggest a role for the higher Landau levels in the fluctuation part of $N(E)$.

  15. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  16. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  17. Metallochaperones regulate intracellular copper levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lee Pang

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an important enzyme co-factor that is also extremely toxic at high intracellular concentrations, making active efflux mechanisms essential for preventing Cu accumulation. Here, we have investigated the mechanistic role of metallochaperones in regulating Cu efflux. We have constructed a computational model of Cu trafficking and efflux based on systems analysis of the Cu stress response of Halobacterium salinarum. We have validated several model predictions via assays of transcriptional dynamics and intracellular Cu levels, discovering a completely novel function for metallochaperones. We demonstrate that in addition to trafficking Cu ions, metallochaperones also function as buffers to modulate the transcriptional responsiveness and efficacy of Cu efflux. This buffering function of metallochaperones ultimately sets the upper limit for intracellular Cu levels and provides a mechanistic explanation for previously observed Cu metallochaperone mutation phenotypes.

  18. Technology Performance Level Assessment Methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Malins, Robert Joseph; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    The technology performance level (TPL) assessments can be applied at all technology development stages and associated technology readiness levels (TRLs). Even, and particularly, at low TRLs the TPL assessment is very effective as it, holistically, considers a wide range of WEC attributes that determine the techno-economic performance potential of the WEC farm when fully developed for commercial operation. The TPL assessment also highlights potential showstoppers at the earliest possible stage of the WEC technology development. Hence, the TPL assessment identifies the technology independent “performance requirements.” In order to achieve a successful solution, the entirety of the performance requirements within the TPL must be considered because, in the end, all the stakeholder needs must be achieved. The basis for performing a TPL assessment comes from the information provided in a dedicated format, the Technical Submission Form (TSF). The TSF requests information from the WEC developer that is required to answer the questions posed in the TPL assessment document.

  19. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  20. System-level musings about system-level science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.

    2009-12-01

    In teleology, a system has a purpose. In physics, a system has a tendency. For example, a mechanical system has a tendency to lower its potential energy. A thermodynamic system has a tendency to increase its entropy. Therefore, if geospace is seen as a system, what is its tendency? Surprisingly or not, there is no simple answer to this question. Or, to flip the statement, the answer is complex, or complexity. We can understand generally why complexity arises, as the geospace boundary is open to influences from the solar wind and Earth’s atmosphere and components of the system couple to each other in a myriad of ways to make the systemic behavior highly nonlinear. But this still begs the question: What is the system-level approach to geospace science? A reductionist view might assert that as our understanding of a component or subsystem progresses to a certain point, we can couple some together to understand the system on a higher level. However, in practice, a subsystem can almost never been observed in isolation with others. Even if such is possible, there is no guarantee that the subsystem behavior will not change when coupled to others. Hence, there is no guarantee that a subsystem, such as the ring current, has an innate and intrinsic behavior like a hydrogen atom. An absolutist conclusion from this logic can be sobering, as one would have to trace a flash of aurora to the nucleosynthesis in the solar core. The practical answer, however, is more promising; it is a mix of the common sense we call reductionism and awareness that, especially when strongly coupled, subsystems can experience behavioral changes, breakdowns, and catastrophes. If the stock answer to the systemic tendency of geospace is complexity, the objective of the system-level approach to geospace science is to define, measure, and understand this complexity. I will use the example of magnetotail dynamics to illuminate some key points in this talk.

  1. The ALICE high level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  2. Level structure of 159Lu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Hai-Qing; ZHAI Jian; LI Xian-Feng; MA Ying-Jun; ZHAO Yan-Xin; WANG Ya-Kun; ZHAO Lei; ZHU Li-Hua; WU Xiao-Guang; HE Chuang-Ye; LIU Yin; HAO Xin; LI Xue-Qin

    2009-01-01

    The high-spin states of 159Lu were populated by fusion-evaporation reaction 144Sm (19F, 4n) with beam energy 106 MeV. A new level scheme was established, which consists of the yrast band with negative parity, the octupole vibration band based on the states and quasipartical band with positive parity. The high spin states of 159Lu were discussed by systemic characteristics.

  3. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  4. Biosafety Level 3 Recon Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, Brian Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chavez, Melanie Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heimer, Donovan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Knudsen, Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Velasquez, Celina Carmelita [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-12

    The Biosafety Level 3 Recon training is a 3D virtual tool developed for the Counter WMD Analysis Cell (CWAC) and the Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) by the Application Modeling and Development Team within the NEN-3 International Threat Reduction Group. The training simulates a situation where friendly forces have secured from hostile forces a suspected bioweapons development laboratory. The trainee is a squad member tasked to investigate the facility, locate laboratories within the facility, and identify hazards to entrants and the surrounding area. Before beginning the 3D simulation, the trainee must select the appropriate MOPP level for entering the facility. The items in the simulation, including inside and outside the bioweapon facility, are items that are commonly used by scientists in Biosafety Level (BSL) laboratories. Each item has clickable red tags that, when activated, give the trainee a brief description of the item and a controllable turn-around view. The descriptions also contain information about potential hazards the item can present. Trainees must find all tagged items in order to complete the simulation, but can also reference descriptions and turn-around view of the items in a glossary menu. Training is intended to familiarize individuals whom have little or no biology or chemistry background with technical equipment used in BSL laboratories. The revised edition of this simulation (Biosafety Level 3 Virtual Lab) changes the trainee into a investigator instead of a military combatant. Many doors now require a virtual badge swipe to open. Airlock doors may come in sets such that the open door must be closed before the next door in the set can be opened. A user interface was added so that the instructor can edit the information about the items (the brief descriptions mentioned above) using the simulation software instead of the previous method of manually entering the material in xml settings files. Facility labels, such as "No Parking" and "Men

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  6. System level modeling and component level control of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xingjian

    This dissertation investigates the fuel cell systems and the related technologies in three aspects: (1) system-level dynamic modeling of both PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); (2) condition monitoring scheme development of PEM fuel cell system using model-based statistical method; and (3) strategy and algorithm development of precision control with potential application in energy systems. The dissertation first presents a system level dynamic modeling strategy for PEM fuel cells. It is well known that water plays a critical role in PEM fuel cell operations. It makes the membrane function appropriately and improves the durability. The low temperature operating conditions, however, impose modeling difficulties in characterizing the liquid-vapor two phase change phenomenon, which becomes even more complex under dynamic operating conditions. This dissertation proposes an innovative method to characterize this phenomenon, and builds a comprehensive model for PEM fuel cell at the system level. The model features the complete characterization of multi-physics dynamic coupling effects with the inclusion of dynamic phase change. The model is validated using Ballard stack experimental result from open literature. The system behavior and the internal coupling effects are also investigated using this model under various operating conditions. Anode-supported tubular SOFC is also investigated in the dissertation. While the Nernst potential plays a central role in characterizing the electrochemical performance, the traditional Nernst equation may lead to incorrect analysis results under dynamic operating conditions due to the current reverse flow phenomenon. This dissertation presents a systematic study in this regard to incorporate a modified Nernst potential expression and the heat/mass transfer into the analysis. The model is used to investigate the limitations and optimal results of various operating conditions; it can also be utilized to perform the

  7. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pself-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  8. Reading comprehension levels in scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2009-01-01

    important reading performance measurements are related to how and to what extent a child understands a written text. to study the performance of primary school (Ensino Fundamental) students in reading comprehension tasks according to the variables grade and type of school. 160 students from the 3rd to the 6th grades were screened and later evaluated based on the retelling and question answering about a given text. students of the 5th and 6th grades of private schools presented a better performance on issues related to implicit information when compared to students of public schools. The overall analysis of the educational level revealed, through the retelling task, a better performance of the 6th grade students in terms of the number of present macro propositions and a low performance of the 5th grade students in terms of the achieved comprehension level, in both types of school. When answering text-derived questions, the 4th, 5th and 6th grade students performed better than the 3rd grade students regarding explicit questions. When considering implicit questions, the 4th grade students performed better than all the other grades, in both types of school. These results gave evidence to the influence of the different texts used in each grade. the 5th and 6th grades from private schools were the only grades that performed better when compared to public schools in general, regarding answering implicit knowledge questions. All students achieved some level of reading comprehension.

  9. Level of Sexual Myths Level in Premature Ejaculation Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine level of belief in sexual myths in the cases of premature ejacula­tion (PE which is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Methods: This study included 100 cases who applied Di­cle University Faculty of Medicine hospitals meet prema­ture ejaculation criteria of DSM-5 and 70 healthy controls. Sociodemographic data form, Hamilton Depression Rat­ing Scale (HDS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAS, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASES-Men form and Sexual Myths Evaluation Form were applied to partici­pants. Results: In the study, rate of belief in sexual myths in PE cases was found significantly higher than healthy controls. In the PE cases, education time less than 10 years, the presence of comorbid sexual dysfunction were found to be statistically significant factors that increase the level of belief in sexual myths in the PE cases, HDS (p=0.0002, HAS (p=0.0001, ASES (p=0.0004 scores were statisti­cally significantly higher than the control group. In the loss of sexual desire in men with comorbid ASES (p=0.0001, with ED, ASES (p=0.001 and HDS (p=0.040 scores were found statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Sexual information should be given in the appropriate age by educated person in educational insti­tutions.

  10. Macroeconomic level of technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available World practice of economic management has proved that the best indicator of competitiveness is achieved by that economic system, the economic units of which timely and adequately update the resource and technical base, thus achieving higher financial and economic indicators. Ensuring that sustainable development becomes possible due to the transfer of technological innovations, namely the diffusion from the developer to the customer on both commercial and free of charge basis. The article focuses on functioning of technology transfer at the macro level, namely the creation of its domestic models.

  11. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  12. Glutathione Levels in Human Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamcsik, Michael P.; Kasibhatla, Mohit S.; Teeter, Stephanie D.; Colvin, O. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes clinical studies in which glutathione was measured in tumor tissue from patients with brain, breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, head and neck and lung cancer. Glutathione tends to be elevated in breast, ovarian, head and neck and lung cancer and lower in brain and liver tumors compared to disease-free tissue. Cervical, colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancers show both higher and lower levels of tumor glutathione. Some studies show an inverse relationship between patient survival and tumor glutathione. Based on this survey, we recommend approaches that may improve the clinical value of glutathione as a biomarker. PMID:22900535

  13. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable $N\\times N$ matrices linear in a real parameter $x$. The matrix $H(x)$ is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number $n>1$ of linearly independent commuting partners $H^i(x)$ (integrals of motion) $\\left[H(x),H^i(x)\\right] = 0$, $\\left[H^i(x), H^j(x)\\right]$ = 0, for all $x$. In a recent work, we developed a basis-independent construction of $H(x)$ for any $n$ from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determin...

  14. Level Structure in 190Tl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XieChengying; ZhouXiaohong; ZhangYuhu; GuoYingxiang; LeiXiangguo; SongLitao; WangHualei; LiuMinliang; ZhengYong; GuoWentao; YuHaiping; LuoPeng; WenShuxian; ZhuLihua; WuXiaoguang

    2003-01-01

    The high-spin states of very neutron-deficient doubly odd nucleus 190T1 have been investigated via the 160Gd(35C1, 5n)190T1 reaction by using techniques of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Measurements of X-γ and γ-γ-t coincidences were performed with 12BGO(AC)HPGe detectors. Based on the gated spectra, γ-γ coinci-dence relationships, γ ray energy sums, γ ray relative intensities and the previous work, the level scheme

  15. Level structure of 89Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermúdez, G.; Cardona, M. A.; Ribas, R. V.; Filevich, A.; Achterberg, E.; Szybisz, L.

    1993-10-01

    The level structure of 89Mo has been studied with the 60Ni(32S,2pn) reaction at 110 MeV beam energy. Mainly two bands of γ rays depopulating states of probable spin-parity values ranging up to (27/2)+ were determined from the excitation function, neutron and γ-γ coincidences, and γ-ray angular distributions. The high-spin states of 89Mo show a scheme very similar to that of the 87Zr isotone. The interpretation of these states in terms of the three neutron-hole configuration (νg9/2)-3 and core-excited states is discussed.

  16. Radiation Levels around the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mala, P; Calviani, M; Nordt, A

    2013-01-01

    This work discuss on the radiation levels measured around the LHC machine during the 2012 operational year. The doses and particle fluences are measured primarily by RadMon detectors – about 300 RadMons are installed around the accelerator – and by thermoluminescent detectors. In addition, BLMs, IG5/PMI ionisation chambers as well as FGCs can be used for corresponding cumulated dose evaluations. The probability of SEE depends directly on the high-energy hadron (HEH) fluence, so this is the main parameter that is calculated based on RadMons counts.

  17. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  18. System-level flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Eardley, D. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Happer, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; LeLevier, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Nierenberg, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Press, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Ruderman, M. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Sullivan, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; York, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  19. Linking Diverse Levels of Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Organisations start strategic renewal initiatives more often than ever before. Many initiatives, however, have little practical effect on the practices they are meant to change. They do not seem to submerge to the level where they become part of the actionable knowledge of the organisation....../or knowledge intensive companies (Starbuck 1992), which, due to their unsettled form and process, rely on the sense their members make of the change inputs and their creative enactment of these inputs. In such companies, change is a part of everyday practice that (re)produces organisational configurations...

  20. Levels 3-4 English

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together the essential close reading skills needed by students taking part in the Broad General Education, Levels 3-4 (in S1 to S3).Split into two parts, the first section uses examples, models and active-learning tasks to teach key concepts of reading for understanding, analysis and evaluation. The second section provides 15 practice assessments, based on a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts, which become progressively more challenging. As well as allowing learners to demonstrate BGE reading skills, this section serves as a useful precursor to the

  1. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pParathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  2. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  3. About disposition of energy levels

    CERN Document Server

    Liverts, Evgeny Z

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of central potential of the form $-\\beta e^{-r}r^{\\gamma}$ were studied using the recently developed critical parameter technique. The particular cases of $\\gamma=0$ and $\\gamma=-1$ yield, respectively, the exponential and Yukawa potentials widely used in the atomic, molecular and nuclear physics. We found different behavior of the energy levels of this potential for three different ranges of the value of $\\gamma$. For $\\gamma\\geq0$ it was found that the energy of bound states with the same principal quantum number $N$ decreases with increasing angular momentum $\\ell$. The Gaussian and Woods-Saxon potentials also show this behavior. On the contrary, for $-2\\leq\\gamma\\leq-1$ increasing $\\ell$ gives a higher energy, resembling the Hulthen potential. However, a potential with $-1<\\gamma<0$ possesses mixed properties, which give rise to several interesting results. For one, the order of energy levels with different quantum numbers is not preserved when varying the parameter $\\beta$. Th...

  4. Making predictions skill level analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarína, Krišková; Marián, Kireš

    2017-01-01

    The current trend in the education is focused on skills that are cross-subject and have a great importance for the pupil future life. Pupils should acquire different types of skills during their education to be prepared for future careers and life in the 21st century. Physics as a subject offers many opportunities for pupils' skills development. One of the skills that are expected to be developed in physics and also in other sciences is making predictions. The prediction, in the meaning of the argument about what may happen in the future, is an integral part of the empirical cognition, in which students confront existing knowledge and experience with new, hitherto unknown and surprising phenomena. The extent of the skill is the formulation of hypotheses, which is required in the upper secondary physics education. In the contribution, the prediction skill is specified and its eventual levels are classified. Authors focus on the tools for skill level determination based on the analysis of pupils` worksheets. Worksheets are the part of the educational activities conducted within the Inquiry Science Laboratory Steelpark. Based on the formulation of pupils' prediction the pupils thinking can be seen and their understanding of the topic, as well as preconceptions and misconceptions.

  5. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Using a digital micromirror device to control both amplitude and phase, we inject arbitrary optical modes into our resonator. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We show that there is a conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  6. CO2 and sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

  7. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  8. Symmetry and Asymmetry Level Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Symmetry and Asymmetry are considered as two opposite sides of a coin: an object is either totally symmetric, or totally asymmetric, relative to pattern objects. Intermediate situations of partial symmetry or partial asymmetry are not considered. But this dichotomy on the classification lacks of a necessary and realistic gradation. For this reason, it is convenient to introduce "shade regions", modulating the degree of Symmetry (a fuzzy concept. Here, we will analyze the Asymmetry problem by successive attempts of description and by the introduction of the Asymmetry Level Function, as a new Normal Fuzzy Measure. Our results (both Theorems and Corollaries suppose to be some new and original contributions to such very active and interesting field of research. Previously, we proceed to the analysis of the state of art.

  9. Principles for system level electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

  10. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  11. Arctic research at three levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Steven

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a posthumous publication of a Steven McNabb's presentation to the 1993 annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association. In it he described how the Social Transitions in the North research project involved explicit cross-cultural contact or participation at three levels: between scientists and public agencies; between scientists and study populations; and between research teams themselves. He explored a few of the entanglements and opportunities that arise in those interactions. Dr. McNabb urged northern researchers to avoid embracing rigid standards, for they will result in more entanglements and fewer opportunities. On the otherhand, if researchers are open-minded, they will be able to treat each dilemma as an opportunity that will make for better science.

  12. Biocards and Level of Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Keshwani, Sonal; Chakrabarti, Amaresh;

    2015-01-01

    in biocards. This was done in two workshops conducted with design students in Denmark and India. Students were given a design assignment and instructions for how to perform the BID ideation work. Half of the students were given biocards with abstract descriptions while the other half got biocards...... with concrete descriptions. The novelty of found solutions was evaluated by the students by rating novelty of each solution on a scale from 1 to 5. Mean values for abstract descriptions were 0,3 higher than for concrete descriptions indicating that more innovative solutions were found when students used...... biocards with abstract descriptions compared to concrete descriptions. The difference in mean value is significant with a confidence level better than 1%. It seems likely that more abstract descriptions in biocards helps avoiding design fixation in biomimetic design work....

  13. FINANCIAL CRISIS FROM THE MACROECONOMIC LEVEL TO THE MICROECONOMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA GHEORGHE GABRIEL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis, beyond the problems it generates both at micro and macro level, should determine an adaptation of the mechanisms, institutions and monetary / financial policies to the real economy we are facing. The issue of financial crises is extremely complex, including a series of quantitative and qualitative factors, financial, economic, social, ethical, technological and human, which can intervene and influence the financial operations in a country or several countries simultaneously. We believe that it is difficult to appreciate that a traditional model might explain a financial crisis, given that every context of occurrence, conditions of development and crisis settlement programs are unique and unrepeatable. Every crisis has in its structure certain issues that may be capitalized and can lead to success. Perhaps more obvious are the ways that can lead to total failure of the organization. Finding and capitalizing the potential success is the essence of the crisis management. The essence of the mismanagement of the crisis is to worse situation. The successful management of a crisis involves admitting that you are facing a crisis, taking reasonable measures to remedy the situation, to be seen taking them and heard saying the right words. The issue at this stage of crisis management is that perception becomes true reality. Crisis management is a set of factors designed to combat the crisis and reduce the damage caused by the crisis. In other words, crisis management attempts to prevent or reduce the negative effects of the crisis and protect the organization, the public involved and the specific field by the possible damages. The effective management of the crisis includes crisis communication. This is an essential component through which the organization faced with the difficult situation can rehabilitate it’s publicly image or even to improve it. The crisis communication occurs between the organization and

  14. Microwave phase shifter with controllable power response based on slow-and fast-light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, Jose

    2009-01-01

    We suggest and experimentally demonstrate a method for increasing the tunable rf phase shift of semiconductor waveguides while at the same time enabling control of the rf power. This method is based on the use of slow- and fast-light effects in a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers combined...

  15. Teacher as "Shape-Shifter": Exploring the Intersection of New Times and the Teaching of English Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the current era in which we live, "New Times," a term used to characterize the changing social, economic, and technological conditions of our current era, both affords and constrains the identities of future teachers. The case of Anna Cunningham, a pre-service English language arts teacher, is highlighted as a…

  16. Broadband microwave phase shifter based on high speed cross gain modulation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present a scheme to achieve tunable ~180 degrees microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on high speed cross gain modulation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers.......We present a scheme to achieve tunable ~180 degrees microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on high speed cross gain modulation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  17. Large Signal Modulation and Distortion in a Microwave Phase Shifter Based on Slow Light in a Semiconductor Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We model slow/light propagation in an active semiconductor waveguide in the large modulation depth regime. Distortion from higher harmonics is countered by filtering and the regenerating properties of the device further increase the modulation depth.......We model slow/light propagation in an active semiconductor waveguide in the large modulation depth regime. Distortion from higher harmonics is countered by filtering and the regenerating properties of the device further increase the modulation depth....

  18. Hybrid Differential Evolution with Biogeography-Based Optimization for Design of a Reconfigurable Antenna Array with Discrete Phase Shifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangtao Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multibeam antenna arrays have important applications in communications and radar. This paper presents a new method of designing a reconfigurable antenna with quantized phase excitations using a new hybrid algorithm, called DE/BBO. The reconfigurable design problem is to find the element excitation that will result in a sector pattern main beam with low sidelobes with additional requirement that the same excitation amplitudes applied to the array with zero-phase should be in a high directivity, low sidelobe pencil-shaped main beam. In order to reduce the effect of mutual coupling between the antenna-array elements, the dynamic range ratio is minimized. Additionally, compared with the continuous realization and subsequent quantization, experimental results indicate that the performance of the discrete realization of the phase excitation value can be improved. In order to test the performances of hybrid differential evolution with biogeography-based optimization, the results of some state-of-art algorithms are considered, for the purposed of comparison. Experiment results indicate the better performance of the DE/BBO.

  19. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  20. The LHC at level best

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    On 10 March, a team of CERN surveyors descended into the LHC tunnel. Their aim: to take measurements of the height of the LHC magnets to see how geological shifts might be affecting the machine and to take reference positions of the machine before the interconnects are opened.    CERN surveyors take levelling measurements of the LHC magnets during LS1. The LHC tunnel is renowned for its geological stability: set between layers of sandstone and molasse, it has allowed the alignment of the world’s largest accelerators to be within sub-millimetre precision. But even the most stable of tunnels can be affected by geological events. To ensure the precise alignment of the LHC, the CERN survey team performs regular measurements of the vertical position of the magnets (a process known as “levelling”). Over the past month, the team has been taking measurements of the LHC before the temperature of the magnets reaches 100 K, beyond which there may be some mechanic...

  1. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock-Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen-Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  2. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  3. Optical clearing at cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Bykov, Alexander V.; Tuorila, Juho; Haapalainen, Tomi; Karmenyan, Artashes V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-07-01

    Strong light scattering in tissues and blood reduces the usability of many optical techniques. By reducing scattering, optical clearing enables deeper light penetration and improves resolution in several optical imaging applications. We demonstrate the usage of optical tweezers and elastic light scattering to study optical clearing [one of the major mechanisms-matching of refractive indices (RIs)] at the single particle and cell level. We used polystyrene spheres and human red blood cells (RBCs) as samples and glycerol or glucose water solutions as clearing agents. Optical tweezers kept single microspheres and RBCs in place during the measurement of light scattering patterns. The results show that optical clearing reduces the scattering cross section and increases g. Glucose also decreased light scattering from a RBC. Optical clearing affected the anisotropy factor g of 23.25-μm polystyrene spheres, increasing it by 0.5% for an RI change of 2.2% (20% glycerol) and 0.3% for an RI change of 1.1% (13% glucose).

  4. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  5. On reinitializing level set functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chohong

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we consider reinitializing level functions through equation ϕt+sgn(ϕ0)(‖∇ϕ‖-1)=0[16]. The method of Russo and Smereka [11] is taken in the spatial discretization of the equation. The spatial discretization is, simply speaking, the second order ENO finite difference with subcell resolution near the interface. Our main interest is on the temporal discretization of the equation. We compare the three temporal discretizations: the second order Runge-Kutta method, the forward Euler method, and a Gauss-Seidel iteration of the forward Euler method. The fact that the time in the equation is fictitious makes a hypothesis that all the temporal discretizations result in the same result in their stationary states. The fact that the absolute stability region of the forward Euler method is not wide enough to include all the eigenvalues of the linearized semi-discrete system of the second order ENO spatial discretization makes another hypothesis that the forward Euler temporal discretization should invoke numerical instability. Our results in this paper contradict both the hypotheses. The Runge-Kutta and Gauss-Seidel methods obtain the second order accuracy, and the forward Euler method converges with order between one and two. Examining all their properties, we conclude that the Gauss-Seidel method is the best among the three. Compared to the Runge-Kutta, it is twice faster and requires memory two times less with the same accuracy.

  6. A 8.9-ENOB 2.5-εW 150-KS/s non-binary redundant successive approximation ADC in 0.18-microm CMOS for bio-implanted devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok Lim; Lee, Andreas Astuti; Yuan, Xiaojun; Krishna, Kotlanka R; Je, Minkyu

    2010-01-01

    A successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) with a split-capacitor switching scheme implementing the generalized non-binary redundant SAR algorithm and an energy efficient level shifter is proposed for bio-implanted applications. The generalized non-binary redundant SAR algorithm removes the radix constraint in conventional non-binary redundant SAR algorithm, and the energy efficient level shifter allows optimal power supplies to be chosen independently for the analog and digital blocks. A FOM of 34.7fJ/step has been achieved.

  7. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  8. Opinions on College Students' Improving English level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis includes three aspects: discuss the necessity of improving English level, analyze the present situation of students' level, propose some methods to improve English level. Its aim is to encourage college students to improve their English level as possible as they can for the purpose of social development.

  9. 34 CFR 361.86 - Performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.86 Performance levels. (a) General. (1) Paragraph (b) of this..., new performance levels. (b) Performance levels for each performance indicator. (1)(i) The performance levels for Performance Indicators 1.1 through 1.6 are— Performance indicator Performance......

  10. Manufacturable Tri-Stack AlSb/InAs HEMT Low-Noise Amplifiers Using Wafer-Level-Packaging Technology for Light-Weight and Ultralow-Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    CA, USA yeong-chang.chou@ngc.com J. B. Boos, B. R. Bennett, and N. A. Papanicolaou Naval Research Laboratory Washington DC, USA boos...introduce negative factors to affect RF yield and performance of power amplifiers, switches, and phase shifters. Figure 7 shows the on-wafer rf...Barsky, J. B. Boos, B. R. Bennett, J. L. Lee, N. A. Papanicolaou et al., “Metamorphic AlSb/InAs HEMTs for low-power, high-speed electronics,” the

  11. Guide for intervention levels in radiological accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tai; Khang, Byung Oui; Lee, Goan Yup; Han, Gee Yang [Korea Atomic Energy Resesrch Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Based on IAEA SS109 and ICRP63, intervention levels and action levels are derived using cost-benefit approach method. Intervention levels are optimized so that the net benefit from protective measures will be maximized. Evacuation, sheltering, relocation, permanent resettlement, administration of stable iodine and food restriction are included in protective measures. Intervention levels are calculated using site specific parameters in Korea. As a results of calculation, general intervention levels are similar to IAEA recommendation and action levels for food restriction are a little higher than IAEA recommendation and Japan guide. Guide on intervention levels in Korea is also suggested based on the calculated results.

  12. Placental lactogen levels in diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursell, W; Brudenell, M; Chard, T

    1973-04-14

    A prospective study has been carried out of placental lactogen levels in pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus. The levels were higher than those in normal pregnant subjects; the higher levels were related to increased placental and fetal weight but more closely to the former; and lower levels were found when there was clinical evidence of placental dysfunction. Those patients requiring the largest insulin increment for the control of their diabetes in the pregnancy have placental lactogen levels in the higher range.

  13. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  14. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  15. EMI-EDGI Operational Level Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This document is the Operational Level Agreement signed by EMI and EDGI for the contribution of middleware from EDGI into the EMI distribution and the definition of service levels compatible with the existing EMI SLAs

  16. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  17. BACKGROUND NOISE LEVELS IN STUDIOS AND AUDITORIA

    OpenAIRE

    James, A.

    1990-01-01

    The specification of background noise levels for auditoria must strike a balance between the lowest possible noise level from services and the need for some "masking" of extraneous sources. Studios are often designed to provide a suitable level of masking, using either aerodynamic or electronically-generated white noise. Data on noise levels in a large number of auditoria have been examined to determine whether a similar process is applicable to these. A wide range of seemingly arbitrary desi...

  18. Level of evidence gap in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Bernstein, Joseph; Ahn, Jaimo; McKay, Scott D; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2012-09-01

    Level of evidence is the most widely used metric for the quality of a publication, but instances exist in which a Level I study is neither feasible nor desirable. The goal of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence gap in current orthopedic research, which the authors defined as the disparity between the level of evidence that would be required to optimally answer the primary research question and the level of evidence that was actually used. Five orthopedic surgeons (K.D.B., J.B., J.A., S.D.M., W.N.S.) evaluated blinded articles from the first 6 months of 2010 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume) (JBJS-Am), classifying the study type and design and extracting a primary research question from each article. Each evaluator then defined the study type and method, along with the level of evidence that would ideally be used to address the primary research question. The level of evidence gap was then calculated by subtracting the actual level of evidence of the manuscript from the level of evidence of the idealized study. Of the 64 JBJS-Am manuscripts eligible for analysis, the average level of evidence was between Level II and III (mean, 2.73). The average level of evidence gap was 1.06 compared with the JBJS-Am-designated level of evidence and 1.28 compared with the evaluators' assessment. Because not all questions require Level I studies, level of evidence alone may not be the best metric for the quality of orthopedic surgery literature. Instead, the authors' concept of a level of evidence gap may be a better tool for assessing the state of orthopedic research publications.

  19. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The...

  20. Introducing GIS across Levels: Designing for Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Joana

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a strategy for designing introductory GIS modules at Birkbeck, University of London. Seven design aspects or elements (content, practical exercises, assessment, pace, mode, level of support, and level of difficulty) for tailoring modules at appropriate levels and for diversity are introduced and their application in Birkbeck's…

  1. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  2. Rapid neural adaptation to sound level statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Isabel; Robinson, Ben L; Harper, Nicol S; McAlpine, David

    2008-06-18

    Auditory neurons must represent accurately a wide range of sound levels using firing rates that vary over a far narrower range of levels. Recently, we demonstrated that this "dynamic range problem" is lessened by neural adaptation, whereby neurons adjust their input-output functions for sound level according to the prevailing distribution of levels. These adjustments in input-output functions increase the accuracy with which levels around those occurring most commonly are coded by the neural population. Here, we examine how quickly this adaptation occurs. We recorded from single neurons in the auditory midbrain during a stimulus that switched repeatedly between two distributions of sound levels differing in mean level. The high-resolution analysis afforded by this stimulus showed that a prominent component of the adaptation occurs rapidly, with an average time constant across neurons of 160 ms after an increase in mean level, much faster than our previous experiments were able to assess. This time course appears to be independent of both the timescale over which sound levels varied and that over which sound level distributions varied, but is related to neural characteristic frequency. We find that adaptation to an increase in mean level occurs more rapidly than to a decrease. Finally, we observe an additional, slow adaptation in some neurons, which occurs over a timescale of tens of seconds. Our findings provide constraints in the search for mechanisms underlying adaptation to sound level. They also have functional implications for the role of adaptation in the representation of natural sounds.

  3. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Timlin MD, MSc; Kirthi Machireddy; Michelle Petri MD, MPH

    2017-01-01

    Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis.

  4. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Timlin MD, MSc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis.

  5. Levels of Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of the second level (intermediate acoustical processing of rhyming words) and the third level (deep-semantic processing of words in sentences) of the "levels of processing" framework on memory performance of four types of intermediate-grade students (52 "normal" students, 50 students with…

  6. Career shift phenomenon among doctors in tacloban city, philippines: lessons for retention of health workers in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labarda Meredith P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the height of the global demand for nurses in the 1990s, a phenomenon of grave concern arose. A significant number of medical doctors in the Philippines shifted careers in order to seek work as nurses overseas. The obvious implications of such a trend require inquiry as to the reasons for it; hence, this cross-sectional study. The data in the study compared factors such as personal circumstances, job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, perceived benefits versus costs of the alternative job, and the role of social networks/linkages among doctors classified as career shifters and non-shifters. Methodology A combined qualitative and quantitative method was utilized in the study. Data gathered came from sixty medical doctors practicing in three major hospitals in Tacloban City, Philippines, and from a special nursing school also located in the same city. Respondents were chosen through a non-probability sampling, specifically through a chain referral sampling owing to the controversial nature of the research. A set of pre-set criteria was used to qualify doctors as shifters and non-shifters. Cross-tabulation was carried out to highlight the differences between the two groups. Finally, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was utilized to assess if these differences were significant. Results Among the different factors investigated, results of the study indicated that the level of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction and certain socio-demographic factors such as age, length of medical practice, and having children to support, were significantly different among shifters and non-shifters at p ≤ 0.05. This suggested that such factors had a bearing on the intention to shift to a nursing career among physicians. Conclusion Taken in the context of the medical profession, it was the level of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction that was the immediate antecedent in the intention to shift careers among medical doctors. Personal factors, specifically

  7. Characteristics of serum endocan levels in infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Seo

    Full Text Available Endocan is a newly recognized biomarker of sepsis. However, there have been no studies of the trends in endocan levels during infection and their associations with other clinical factors. The aim of this study was to assess the time course of endocan levels and the associations of endocan with clinical factors during infection by comparison with other biomarkers.Serum samples and blood cultures were obtained from patients who were diagnosed with infection from June 2013 to March 2014. Serum endocan, C-reactive protein (CRP, and procalcitonin (PCT levels during four periods during infection were measured (day 0, day 1-2, day 3-5, and day 6-10.A total of 78 patients were enrolled in this study. The median endocan level decreased by only 23% during infection, whereas both serum CRP and PCT levels decreased by more than 80%. Endocan levels were correlated to neither CRP levels nor PCT levels in each period. Endocan levels at day 0 in patients with bacteremia were higher than those without bacteremia (1.09 ng/mL vs 0.82 ng/mL, P=0.002, but neither CRP levels nor PCT levels at day 0 were different between the two groups. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves of endocan, CRP, and PCT at day 0 were 0.662, 0.343, and 0.563, respectively. Positive blood cultures tended to be related to high endocan levels, but not significantly (odds ratio: 4.24, 95% CI: 0.99-10.34, P=0.05.In bacteremic cases, serum endocan levels in bacteremia tended to be higher than in non-bacteremic cases. Although endocan level was not identified as a prognostic factor of bacteremia, further prospective study concerning the relationship between serum endocan level and bacteremia would be needed.

  8. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  9. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bello Garrote, F.L.; Eriksen, T.K.; Giacoppo, F.; Goergen, A.; Hagen, T.W.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A.C.; Nyhus, H.T.; Renstroem, T.; Rose, S.J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T.G.; Tveten, G.M. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Aiche, M.; Ducasse, Q.; Jurado, B. [University of Bordeaux, CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 120, Gradignan (France); Bernstein, L.A.; Bleuel, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Byun, Y.; Voinov, A. [Ohio University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Athens, Ohio (United States); Gunsing, F. [CEA Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SPhN, Cedex (France); Lebois, L.; Leniau, B.; Wilson, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay Cedex (France); Wiedeking, M. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West (South Africa)

    2015-12-15

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. From the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold. (orig.)

  10. An architectural approach to level design

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Explore Level Design through the Lens of Architectural and Spatial Experience TheoryWritten by a game developer and professor trained in architecture, An Architectural Approach to Level Design is one of the first books to integrate architectural and spatial design theory with the field of level design. It explores the principles of level design through the context and history of architecture, providing information useful to both academics and game development professionals.Understand Spatial Design Principles for Game Levels in 2D, 3D, and Multiplayer ApplicationsThe book presents architectura

  11. Service level agreements for cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Wieder, Philipp; Theilmann, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing provides a unique combination of business-driven application scenarios and advanced research in the area of service-level agreements for Clouds and service-oriented infrastructures. Current state-of-the-art research findings are presented in this book, as well as business-ready solutions applicable to Cloud infrastructures or ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) environments. Service Level Agreements for Cloud Computing contributes to the various levels of service-level management from the infrastructure over the software to the business layer, includ

  12. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Guttormsen, M; Garrote, F L Bello; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Byun, Y; Ducasse, Q; Eriksen, T K; Giacoppo, F; Görgen, A; Gunsing, F; Hagen, T W; Jurado, B; Klintefjord, M; Larsen, A C; Lebois, L; Leniau, B; Nyhus, H T; Renstrøm, T; Rose, S J; Sahin, E; Siem, S; Tornyi, T G; Tveten, G M; Voinov, A; Wiedeking, M; Wilson, J

    2015-01-01

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. From the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold.

  13. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  14. Laws, Causation and Dynamics at Different Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (Section 2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (Sections 3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different 'levels'. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that 'ride free' of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasising how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed 'micro' and 'macro' which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation.

  15. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution.

  16. Saliency Detection via Combining Region-Level and Pixel-Level Predictions with CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Youbao; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel saliency detection method by combining region-level saliency estimation and pixel-level saliency prediction with CNNs (denoted as CRPSD). For pixel-level saliency prediction, a fully convolutional neural network (called pixel-level CNN) is constructed by modifying the VGGNet architecture to perform multi-scale feature learning, based on which an image-to-image prediction is conducted to accomplish the pixel-level saliency detection. For region-level saliency estima...

  17. Level of evidence in hand surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Roberto S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few investigations have been done to analyze the level of evidence in journals related to hand surgery, compared to other related research fields. The objective of this study was to assess the level of evidence of the clinical research papers published in the Ibero-american (RICMA, the European (JHSE and American (JHSA Journals of Hand Surgery. Methods A total of 932 clinical research papers published between 2005 and 2009 (RICMA 60, JHSE 461, and JHSA 411 were reviewed. Two independent observers classified the level of evidence based on the Oxford International Classification, 5 being the lowest level and 1 the highest level. The observed frequencies of the level of evidence for each journal were compared with the expected frequencies by a chi-square (χ 2 test for categorical variables with a significance level of 0.05. Results Inter-observer agreement analysis showed a Kappa of 0.617. Intra-observer agreement analysis presented a Kappa of 0.66 for the observer 1, and a Kappa of 0.751 for the observer 2. More than 80% of the papers in RICMA and JHSE and a 67.6% in the JHSA presented a level of 4. No level 1 or 2 studies were published in RICMA, compared to JHSE (0.9% level 1 and 5.0% level 2 and JHSA (8.3% level 1 and 10% level 2. The percentage of papers with level 3 published in RICMA (16.7% was higher compared to the JHSE (11.1% and the JHSA (14.1%. All the results were statistically significant (χ2=63.945; p Conclusions The level of evidence in hand surgery is dependent on the type of journal; being the highest level evidence papers those published in the JHSA, followed by the JHSE and finally the RICMA. Knowing the status of the level of evidence published in hand surgery is the starting point to face the challenges of improving the quality of our clinical research

  18. Russian State Leveling Network (present and future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurova, Elena; Kopeikin, Sergei; Karpik, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    In August 2016 the sixth session of the United Nations Committee of Experts of Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) endorsed the roadmap for the development of a Global Geodetic Reference Frame (GGRF) and urged countries to join efforts for its creation. In response to the UN appeal in this article describes the current state of the high-precision Leveling Network in Russia and prospects of its development. In this paper, we consider projects related to the construction of new high-precision leveling lines by the classical methods, as well as issues of creating high-precision leveling network, associated with the development and implementation of a fundamentally new method of determining heights in geodesy - chronometric leveling based on the application of quantum metrology of time and the fundamental laws of general relativity. Keywords: leveling network, chronometric leveling, quantum metrology of time, the general theory of relativity.

  19. Circulating levels of homocysteine in preeclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

    2011-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that maternal hyperhomocysteinemia to be associated with preeclampsia. The aims of the present study were to examine maternal serum levels of total homocysteine in preeclamptic women and its association with the severity of the disease. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 matched healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total homocysteine were assessed using enzyme immunoassay method. Maternal serum levels of total homocysteine were significantly higher in preeclamptic group than in normal pregnant women. Women with severe preeclampsia had higher serum levels of total homocysteine than mild preeclamptic patients. Levels of total homocysteine correlated positively with systolic blood pressure values in preeclamptic women. In summary, maternal serum levels of total homocysteine were increased in preeclamptic women and hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with severity of preeclampsia.

  20. Elevated B6 levels and peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K; Zeris, S; Kothari, M J

    2008-01-01

    Polyneuropathy related to decreased levels of Vitamin B6 are well known. In contrast, the association between elevated levels of pyridoxine and neuropathy is not well described. This study is a retrospective review of patients in our neuromuscular clinic that were found to have elevated B6 levels. Twenty-six patients were found to have elevated serum B6 levels. The mean B6 level was 68.8 ng/ml. Twenty patients (76.9%) reported daily vitamin use. Twenty-one patients (80.8%) reported only sensory complaints. The most common symptoms reported were numbness (96%), burning pain (49.9%), tingling (57.7%), balance difficulties (30.7%), and weakness (7.8%). Nine (out of 26) had an abnormal EMG/NCS. Eight patients had an abnormal quantitative sensory study. We conclude that elevated pyridoxine levels should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy.

  1. Handbook on multi-level governance

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship of multi-level governance has developed into one of the most innovative themes of research in political science and public policy. This accessible Handbook presents a thorough review of the wide-ranging literature, encompassing various theoretical and conceptual approaches to multi-level governance and their application to policy-making in domestic, regional and global contexts. The importance of multi-level governance in specific policy areas is highlighted, and the contribut...

  2. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  3. Placental lactogen levels in rhesus isoimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R H; Letchworth, A T; Niven, P A; Chard, T

    1974-03-02

    A prospective study of the plasma levels of human placental lactogen (HPL) in pregnancies complicated by rhesus isoimmunization showed that in mild and moderately affected cases the levels were normal, while in severely affected cases they were raised. Serial levels of HPL before the 26th week provide a valuable indication of fetal outcome, and we suggest that this estimation should be used routinely as an adjunct to other tests in the management of rhesus isoimmunization.

  4. Level statistics for nearly integrable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-Magd, A Y

    2009-07-01

    We assume that the level spectra of quantum systems in the initial phase of transition from integrability to chaos are approximated by superpositions of independent sequences. Each individual sequence is modeled by a random matrix ensemble. We obtain analytical expressions for the level spacing distribution and level number variance for such a system. These expressions are successfully applied to the analysis of the resonance spectrum in a nearly integrable microwave billiard.

  5. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule; Chinedu Cletus Obinwa; Christian Ebele Okekeze; Eyo Ifreke

    2012-01-01

    The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower) and maximum (upper) level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, ...

  6. Serum ferritin levels in hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    竹田, 芳弘; 平木, 祥夫; 森本,節夫; 戸上, 泉; 白神, 敏明; 白石,則之; 木本, 真; 上者,郁夫; 橋本, 啓二; 青野, 要

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels were determined in 75 hematologic, 1205 malignant, and 538 benign diseases. In hematologic diseases the serum ferritin level was generally low in iron deficiency anemia, but high in hemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. In malignant diseases the serum ferritin concentration was increased remarkably in lung, liver, biliary, and urogential diseases and in malignant lymphoma. Among benign diseases hepatitis cases showed a tendency for high serum ferritin levels. S...

  7. Core-level spectra from graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Sernelius, Bo

    2014-01-01

    We calculate core-level spectra for pristine and doped free-standing graphene sheets. Instructions for how to perform the calculations are given in detail. Although pristine graphene is not metallic the core-level spectrum presents low-energy tailing which is characteristic of metallic systems. The peak shapes vary with doping level in a characteristic way. The spectra are compared to experiments and show good agreement. We compare to two different pristine samples and to one doped sample. Th...

  8. Modelling Inteligent Systems with Level Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina BOCĂNEALĂ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Level Petri Nets are formalism for modeling hierarchical multi-agent system. They are a Petri nets extension, allowing tokens to be nets themselves. This paper is inspired by two classes of level Petri nets: object Petri nets and nested Petri nets. We present some concepts from the artificial intelligence field and we use them to illustrate the modeling power of Petri nets with multi levels.

  9. Serum ferritin levels in hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    竹田,芳弘; 平木,祥夫; 森本, 節夫; 戸上, 泉; 白神, 敏明; 白石, 則之; 木本, 真; 上者, 郁夫; 橋本, 啓二; 青野,要

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels were determined in 75 hematologic, 1205 malignant, and 538 benign diseases. In hematologic diseases the serum ferritin level was generally low in iron deficiency anemia, but high in hemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. In malignant diseases the serum ferritin concentration was increased remarkably in lung, liver, biliary, and urogential diseases and in malignant lymphoma. Among benign diseases hepatitis cases showed a tendency for high serum ferritin levels. S...

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL LEVEL OF PRODUCTION OF RUSSIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Sagieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the technological level of production of Russian organizations. Areas of study cover the characteristics of the use of technology in manufacturing (the extent of use and level of technology, the problems solved by using specific types of technologies and the use in the production process of intellectual property; factors driving growth of technological level of the surveyed medium and large organizations and provides them with a competitive advantage

  11. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...

  12. Mortality level, trends and differentials in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamuleni, M E

    1994-01-01

    "This article examines the levels, and trends and differentials in mortality in Malawi.... The study has shown that (i) the level of mortality is very high in Malawi; (ii) mortality has declined during the period under review; (iii) there was reduction in the rate of mortality decline in the seventies; and (iv) [there are] interesting differences in mortality in terms of rural-urban localities, regions and age-sex differentials. The observed levels, trends and differentials in mortality are however consistent with the level of social and economic development in the country."

  13. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, Andrei C; van der Laan, Wladimir J; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive simulations has been limited due to the high computational demands involved. In this paper, we address this computational challenge by leveraging the increased computing power of graphics processors, to achieve fast simulations based on level sets. Our efficient, sparse GPU level-set method is substantially faster than other state-of-the-art, parallel approaches on both CPU and GPU hardware. We further investigate its performance through a method for surface reconstruction, based on GPU level sets. Our novel multiresolution method for surface reconstruction from unorganized point clouds compares favorably with recent, existing techniques and other parallel implementations. Finally, we point out that both level-set computations and rendering of level-set surfaces can be performed at interactive rates, even on large volumetric grids. Therefore, many applications based on level sets can benefit from our sparse level-set method.

  14. Systematics of nuclear level density parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, Dorel [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Egidy, Till von [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The level density parameters for the back-shifted Fermi gas (both without and with energy-dependent level density parameter) and the constant temperature models have been determined for 310 nuclei between {sup 18}F and {sup 251}Cf by fitting the complete level schemes at low excitation energies and the s-wave neutron resonance spacings at the neutron binding energies. Simple formulae are proposed for the description of the two parameters of each of these models, which involve only quantities available from the mass tables. These formulae may constitute a reliable tool for extrapolating to nuclei far from stability, where nuclear level densities cannot be measured.

  15. Level design concept, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kremers, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Good or bad level design can make or break any game, so it is surprising how little reference material exists for level designers. Beginning level designers have a limited understanding of the tools and techniques they can use to achieve their goals, or even define them. This book is the first to use a conceptual and theoretical foundation to build such a set of practical tools and techniques. It is tied to no particular technology or genre, so it will be a useful reference for many years to come. Kremers covers many concepts universal to level design, such as interactivity, world building, im

  16. Renin and angiotensin levels in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Broughton Pipkin, F; Smales, O R; O'Callaghan, M.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma renin activity, plasma renin concentration, and angiotensin II levels were measured in 63 normal children aged between 2 months and 12 years. The results showed that the high levels of renin and angiotensin II present in infancy remained above adult levels throughout the first decade of life but that there was a decline with age. Boys less than 8 years old had lower plasma renin activity and angiotensin II levels than girls of a similar age; this may be due to a relative substrate defi...

  17. On sea level - ice sheet interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Natalya Alissa

    This thesis focuses on the physics of static sea-level changes following variations in the distribution of grounded ice and the influence of these changes on the stability and dynamics of marine ice sheets. Gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in grounded ice mass lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. I outline a revised theory for computing post-glacial sea-level predictions and discuss the dominant physical effects that contribute to the patterns of sea-level change associated with surface loading on different timescales. I show, in particular, that a large sea-level fall (rise) occurs in the vicinity of a retreating (advancing) ice sheet on both short and long timescales. I also present an application of the sea-level theory in which I predict the sea-level changes associated with a new model of North American ice sheet evolution and consider the implications of the results for efforts to establish the sources of Meltwater Pulse 1A. These results demonstrate that viscous deformational effects can influence the amplitude of sea-level changes observed at far-field sea-level sites, even when the time window being considered is relatively short (≤ 500 years). Subsequently, I investigate the feedback of sea-level changes on marine ice-sheet stability and dynamics by coupling a global sea-level model to ice-sheet models of increasing complexity. To begin, I incorporate gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into an equilibrium marine ice-sheet stability theory to show that the sea-level changes have a stabilizing influence on ice-sheet retreat. Next, I consider the impact of the stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat using a 1D dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model. Simulations with the coupled model, which incorporate viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, show that local sea-level changes at the grounding line act to slow, and in some cases, halt

  18. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  19. MISR Level 2 Surface parameters V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 Land Surface product contains information on land directional reflectance properties,albedos(spectral & PAR integrated),FPAR,asssociated radiation...

  20. Combinatorial nuclear level-density model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aberg, Sven [LUND SWEDEN; Uhrenhoit, Henrik [LUND SWEDEN; Ickhikawa, Takatoshi [RIKEN

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic nuclear level-density model is presented. The model is a completely combinatorial (micro-canonical) model based on the folded-Yukawa single-particle potential and includes explicit treatment of pairing, rotational and vibrational states. The microscopic character of all states enables extraction of level distribution functions with respect to pairing gaps, parity and angular momentum. The results of the model are compared to available experimental data: neutron separation energy level spacings, data on total level-density functions from the Oslo method and data on parity ratios.

  1. Levels of Security Issues in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Charanya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Cloud computing is booming in most of the IT industry. Most of the organizations are moving to cloud computing due to various reasons. It provide elastic architecture accessible through internet and also it eliminate the setting up of high cost computing infrastructure for the IT based solutions and services. Cloud computing is pay-per-use model, on-demand network access to a sharedpool of configurable computing resources like Application-as a service, Platform as a services and infrastructure as a services. In this paper, survey of security issues at different levels such as application level, host level and network level is presented.

  2. High-level binocular rivalry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn't stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism.

  3. Modeling category-level purchase timing with brand-level marketing variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurchase timing of households is usually modeled at the category level. Marketing efforts are however only available at the brand level. Hence, to describe category-level interpurchase times using marketing efforts one has to construct a category-level measure of marketing efforts from

  4. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  5. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  6. Modeling category-level purchase timing with brand-level marketing variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurchase timing of households is usually modeled at the category level. Marketing efforts are however only available at the brand level. Hence, to describe category-level interpurchase times using marketing efforts one has to construct a category-level measure of marketing efforts from t

  7. Serum Levels of Progranulin Do Not Reflect Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Dubois, Evelyn; Hobert, Markus A; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Krüger, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Hruscha, Michael; Kaeser, Stephan A; Heutink, Peter; Maetzler, Walter; Synofzik, Matthis

    2016-01-01

    Altered progranulin levels play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), even in the absence of GRN mutations. Increasing progranulin levels could hereby provide a novel treatment strategy. However, knowledge on progranulin regulation in neurodegenerative diseases remains limited. We here demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid progranulin levels do not correlate with its serum levels in AD, FTD and ALS, indicating a differential regulation of its central and peripheral levels in neurodegeneration. Blood progranulin levels thus do not reliably predict central nervous progranulin levels and their response to future progranulin-increasing therapeutics.

  8. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  9. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 1045.17 Section 1045.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.17 Classification levels. (a) Restricted...

  10. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.3 Classification levels. Information...

  11. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  12. Problems of Level in Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna T. Balmagambetova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . The article is focused on the problems of level approach to communicative competence formation in the course of the second language learning. The change of educational paradigm demands turn of linguists to differentiated learner-centered education – level system of language learning

  13. Four Levels of Cross-cultural Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    In order to attain intercultural awareness, we have to know Robert Hanvey's statement of four levels of inter-cultural awareness described in his book An Attainable Global Perspective (1976). This passage anazlyes the four levels of cross-cultural awareness.

  14. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen;

    the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...

  15. Structural Biology for A-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…

  16. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  17. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  18. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further

  19. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  20. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  1. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  2. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  3. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...

  4. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  5. Multi level configuration of ETO products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces and defines central concepts related to multi level configuration and analyzes which challenges an engineer to order company must deal with to be able to realize a multi level configuration system. It is argued that high flexibility can be achieved and focus can be directed i...

  6. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  7. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  8. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each nurs

  9. Carnitine Level Changes with the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD on carnitine levels were determined in 38 consecutive patients with epilepsy treated at Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke’s Medical Center, Chicago, IL Carnitine levels were determined at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 months of diet treatment.

  10. Educational Justice, Epistemic Justice, and Leveling Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that education is a positional good; this, they hold, implies that there is a qualified case for leveling down educational provision. In this essay, Ben Kotzee discusses Brighouse and Swift's argument for leveling down. He holds that the argument fails in its own terms and that, in presenting the problem…

  11. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each

  12. Deep levels of copper in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, S. D.; Ayres, J. R.; Gill, A.; van Kesteren, H. W.; Greidanus, F. J. A. M.

    1987-09-01

    Defect impurity levels have been examined in copper-diffused p-and n-type silicon using deep level transient spectroscopy. Levels at Ev+0.09, Ev+0.23, and Ev+0.42 eV have been observed in both types of material, although the deeper levels were only oberved in n-type material after post-diffusion annealing at 200 °C. Associated with the appearance of these levels in n-type material was another level at Ec-0.16 eV. This may be a further charge state of the center responsible for the Ev+0.23 eV and Ev+0.42 eV levels or the two centers may be decomposition products of a thermally unstable complex. Luminescence measurements have revealed the previously reported Cu-Cu spectrum in all the copper-diffused samples. The occurrence of this signal could not be correlated with the presence of the levels at Ev+0.23, Ev+0.42, or Ec-0.16 eV; this leaves the center at Ev+0.09 eV as the likely origin of the signal.

  13. Sea level rise: A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes du

  14. Gain leveling using electromagnetically induced transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo, Z.C. [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Opto-Electronics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Su, X.M. [Key Laboratory of Coherent Light and Atom and Molecule Spectroscopy of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)]. E-mail: euxmsu@public.cc.jl.cn; Zhang, Y.S. [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Opto-Electronics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2005-02-28

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme of gain leveling for erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) by applying a strong coherent field to a three level amplified system using electromagnetically induced transparency. Due to the effect of this coupling field on the Stark-splitting sublevels, this scheme can be realized a flat gain operating around 1.53 {mu}m.

  15. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Laan, Wladimir J. van der; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive sim

  16. Swarm Level 2 Comprehensive Inversion, 2016 Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, Terence; Olsen, Nils;

    In the framework of the ESA Earth Observation Magnetic Mapping Mission Swarm, the Expert Support Laboratories (ESL) provides high quality Level 2 Products describing a.o. the magnetic fields of the Earth. This poster provides details of the Level 2 Products from the Comprehensive Inversion chain ...

  17. Educational Justice, Epistemic Justice, and Leveling Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that education is a positional good; this, they hold, implies that there is a qualified case for leveling down educational provision. In this essay, Ben Kotzee discusses Brighouse and Swift's argument for leveling down. He holds that the argument fails in its own terms and that, in presenting the problem…

  18. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  19. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  20. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  1. Food and Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Florida. Elementary Level, Middle/Junior High Level, Senior High Level, Post-Secondary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Myrna P.; Baum, Rosemere

    This curriculum guide contains competency-based curricula suggested for teaching foods and nutrition courses on the elementary, middle/junior high school, senior high school, and postsecondary levels in Florida. For each level, concepts and subconcepts are presented, referenced to competencies or terminal performance objectives. For each…

  2. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further inc

  3. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important factors in

  4. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important

  5. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the first in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the kindergarten level: arithmetic concepts, number concepts, reading readiness, vocabulary, language, listening, social behavior,…

  6. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the second in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subjects areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior, art, music, and…

  7. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the third in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior,…

  8. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the last in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning and problem solving, social behavior,…

  9. Interpersonal leveling, independence, and self-enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim; Fiske, Alan Page

    2007-01-01

    in self-enhancement. However, Danes practiced interpersonal leveling, preferring equality of outcome more than did Americans. This leveling strongly and inversely predicted self-enhancement within both cultures and mediated Danish-American differences in self-enhancement. In contrast, no independence...

  10. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Kodex, M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. This has enhanced the interest in identifying agents that can normalize elevated plasma fibrinogen levels. Agents that have this capacity are the lipid lowering fibric acid derivatives (e.g. ciprofibrate) and the plate

  11. Valuing Initial Teacher Education at Master's Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Clare; Brant, Jacek; Abrahams, Ian; Yandell, John

    2012-01-01

    The future of Master's-level work in initial teacher education (ITE) in England seems uncertain. Whilst the coalition government has expressed support for Master's-level work, its recent White Paper focuses on teaching skills as the dominant form of professional development. This training discourse is in tension with the view of professional…

  12. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  13. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  14. Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from never thought about starting a business to thinking ab

  15. Entrepreneurial Engagement Levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from “never thought about starting a business” to “thinking ab

  16. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  17. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii) abil...

  18. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  19. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  20. Construal levels and moral judgment: Some complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eyal, T., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y., (2008. Judging near and distant virtue and vice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204-1209, explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lower-level construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.

  1. On Abstraction Levels For Software Architecture Viewpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2005-01-01

    abstraction levels defined in this paper, viewpoints can be described more accurately and applied more consistently. This can help developers easier gain proficiency in the use of viewpoints to describe software architectures of systems. In this paper concepts which clarify the relation between the defined......In the field of software architecture the abstraction level of a viewpoint has often been defined on a scale from low to high. However, the definition of abstraction levels on a scale from low to high makes it very subjective what is at each level. This makes it difficult to apply the different...... existing viewpoints in practice, because each viewpoint can be applied at many different levels of abstraction which the architect has to consider. This also makes it hard for people to enter the field of software architecture and become proficient in using its techniques and methods. By using the three...

  2. Lead levels on traffic-less islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Blaney, R; Robb, R C; Essex-Cater, A J; Davies, B E; Toothill, C

    1985-09-01

    Surveys were conducted on three traffic-less islands: Tory and Aran, off the coast of Ireland, and Sark, one of the Channel Islands off the coast of France. Identical methods were used in surveys in three other areas, all of which have heavy gasoline driven traffic. These were Jersey, another of the Channel Islands, Ebbw Vale--a mixed industrial area, and Cardiff--the capital city of Wales. Environmental lead levels were very low in two of the traffic-less islands, but on the third, house dust lead levels were comparable with levels found throughout Wales. Blood lead levels on one of the islands were similar to those which have been reported for unaccultured remote tribes, but on the other two traffic-less islands blood lead levels were comparable with those of areas on the mainland of Wales.

  3. [Cybernetic conceptualization of the levels of hypnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollina Mangiameli, G

    1980-04-28

    The synaptic function of the different associational levels of cortex and cortico-subcortical depending on inputs memorised in synchronism at each level, is probably responsible, on a broad scale of values, for auto- or heteroinducible levels of hypnosis due to inputs solicited by extraneuronal values determining feed-back with inputs recorded in neuronal DNA. This hypothesis is outlined here with reference to the same Author's "Metodica psicoterapica su elementi di cultura cibernetica" (Minerva Medica, 63, 968, 1972). Sophronic levels, and levels of hypnosis and hypnotism are, in the light of elements of cybernetic culture, neurophysiologically referrable not only to qualitatively different causes, and more specifically to the final cause triggering electrobiochemical reactions. They are, in other words, referrable to the electron and its dynamics, increasingly well known today to students of cybernetics.

  4. LEVEL SET METHODS BASED ON DISTANCE FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德军; 唐云; 于洪川; 唐泽圣

    2003-01-01

    Some basic problems on the level set methods were discussed, such as the method used to preserve the distance function, the existence and uniqueness of solution for the level set equations. The main contribution is to prove that in a neighborhood of the initial zero level set, the level set equations with the restriction of the distance function have a unique solution, which must be the signed distance function with respect to the evolving surface. Some skillful approaches were used: Noticing that any solution for the original equation was a distance function, the original level set equations were transformed into a simpler alternative form. Moreover, since the new system was not a classical one, the system was transforned into an ordinary one, for which the implicit function method was adopted.

  5. The architecture and fiction in level design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2006-01-01

     The architect's professional field has expanded with the new virtual medias There is a new set of rules different from the scenography of the film and different from the architecture of amusement parks. The new rules are fiction, interaction, complexity, and artificial intelligence...... the architect and designer approach the world of level design? What tools are necessary for creating a game flow in first-person shooter's level design? Is it possible to look at experienced architecture for the origin of Level design? And is it possible to establish a number of rules for creating a good or bad...... architecture in level design? We will look at two different games FarCry and Half-Life 2.   Keywords: World design, experience architecture, level design, game flow and gameplay....

  6. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in gingival inflammation. Twenty-eight systemically and orally healthy nonsmokers abstained from oral hygiene protocols for 10 days. After that, self-performed cleaning was resumed for 14 days. Plaque and gingival indexes were measured......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte......, and saliva samples were collected at days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 24. Salivary cytokines were detected with Luminex®-xMAP™. Salivary IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and VEGF levels decreased after 10 days' development of experimental gingivitis and reached baseline levels at the end of the 2-week resolution period. Salivary IL-8...

  7. Procalcitonin serum levels in tertian malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwakata Collins B

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Procalcitonin (PCT is closely correlated with parasite burden and clinical outcome in falciparum malaria. The role of PCT in tertian malaria has not previously been investigated. Patients and methods PCT serum levels in 37 patients with tertian malaria were analysed. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed and statistically correlated both to the initial PCT levels and during the course of the disease. Results PCT levels rose for one day after commencing treatment and declined thereafter. However, there was no significant correlation with parasite burden, clinical parameters, laboratory values, or the presence of semi-immunity. Before treatment, the majority of patients showed normal or slightly elevated PCT levels ( Conclusions There is a fundamental difference in the relationship of PCT with tertian malaria not seen in other infectious diseases in which elevated PCT levels have been observed. This suggests distinct pathophysiological pathways in malaria.

  8. Spiking models for level-invariant encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eBrette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of ecological sounds vary over several orders of magnitude,but the firing rate and membrane potential of a neuron are much more limited in range.In binaural neurons of the barn owl, tuning to interaural delays is independent oflevel differences. Yet a monaural neuron with a fixed threshold should fire earlier in responseto louder sounds, which would disrupt the tuning of these neurons. %, resulting in shifts in delay tuning for interaural level differences.How could spike timing be independent of input level?Here I derive theoretical conditions for a spiking model tobe insensitive to input level.The key property is a dynamic change in spike threshold.I then show how level invariance can be physiologically implemented,with specific ionic channel properties.It appears that these ingredients are indeed present inmonaural neurons of the sound localization pathway of birds and mammals.

  9. Vitamin D level in patients with pterygium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Necip; Ceri, Seda

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate blood vitamin D level in patients with pterygium. This prospective study, compared 58 eyes of 58 healthy individuals (control group) with 63 eyes of 63 patients with pterygium (study group). Subjects were stratified by time spent indoors or outdoors. Participants were given comprehensive ophthalmic examinations; blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (nmol/L) was assayed. Vitamin D level was significantly higher in men with pterygium than without it (p=0.020), but the difference was not significant in women (p=0.86). In the pterygium group, vitamin D level was significantly increased in participants with outdoor activity (p=0.010). In the control group, vitamin D levels did not differ significantly with indoor and outdoor activity (p=0.126). Vitamin D level in participants with pterygium was significantly increased only in men and in those with more outdoor activity.

  10. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  11. Global Sea Level Change and Thermal Contribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; ZHANG Jianli; DU Ling; LI Peiliang; LI Lei

    2009-01-01

    The global long-term sea level trend is obtained from the analysis of tide gauge data and TOPEX/Poseidon data. The linear trend of global mean sea level is highly non-umiform spatially, with an average rate of 2.2 mm year-1 in T/P sea-level rise from October 1992 to September 2002. Sea level change duc to temperature vanation (the thermosteric sea level) is discussed. The results are compared with TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data in the same temporal span at different spatial scales. It is indicated that the ther-mal effect accounts for 86% and 73% of the observed seasonal variability in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The TOPEX/Poseidon observed sea level lags behind the TSI, by 2 months in the zonal band of 40°-60° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Systematic differences of about 1-2cm between TOPEX/Poseidon observations and thermosteric sea level data are obtained. The potential causes for these differences include water exchange among the atmosphere, land, and oceans, and some pos-sible deviations in thermosteric contribution estimates and geophysical corrections to the TOPEX/Poseidon data.

  12. Groundwater Level Predictions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓敏; 尚松浩; 刘翔

    2002-01-01

    The prediction of groundwater level is important for the use and management of groundwater resources. In this paper, the artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to predict groundwater level in the Dawu Aquifer of Zibo in Eastern China. The first step was an auto-correlation analysis of the groundwater level which showed that the monthly groundwater level was time dependent. An auto-regression type ANN (ARANN) model and a regression-auto-regression type ANN (RARANN) model using back-propagation algorithm were then used to predict the groundwater level. Monthly data from June 1988 to May 1998 was used for the network training and testing. The results show that the RARANN model is more reliable than the ARANN model, especially in the testing period, which indicates that the RARANN model can describe the relationship between the groundwater fluctuation and main factors that currently influence the groundwater level. The results suggest that the model is suitable for predicting groundwater level fluctuations in this area for similar conditions in the future.

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN FIBRINOGEN LEVEL AND CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-cheng Zhu; Li-ying Cui; Bao-lai Hua; Jia-qi Pan

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between plasma fibrinogen level and cerebral infarction (CI) as well as the difference of fibrinogen among subtypes of CI.Methods A case-controlled study was conducted with 131 cases of CI and 148 controls. Plasma fibrinogen levels were detected by the Clauss method.Results High fibrinogen level (3.09±0.94 g/L) was correlated with CI (OR=2.47, 95% CI:1.51-4.04,P<0.005) at the onset stage of the disease. Persistent high fibrinogen level (3.14±0.81 g/L) at 6-month after stroke onset was detected and correlated with CI (OR=4.34, 95% CI: 1.80-10. 51,P=0.001). Higher fibrinogen level was correlated with total anterior circulation infarction (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarction (PACI), and posterior circulation infarction (POCI) (OR = 4.008, P<0.001). Higher fibrinogen level was correlated with extracranial atherosclerosis (OR=3.220, P<0.05), but not with intracranial atherosclerosis.Conclusion Fibrinogen level may be a risk factor of CI and probably correlates with subtypes of CI and distributions of atherosclerosis.

  14. Level of service at airport passenger terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Tamara D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport terminals are designed by level of service standards which are regulated by International Air Transport Association (IATA. Level of service offered to passengers, regarding to the primary processes, is not necessarily equivalent to the level of service perceived by them. The fact that passengers spending longer times in terminals makes the secondary processes more important in passenger experience. Aiming to improving airport attractiveness, and business success, passenger perception is approached by paying close attention. This paper discusses the two aspects of level of service. Concept of level of service used in air traffic industry with purpose of designing and planning of passenger terminal is derived from the Highway Capacity Manual. Subject of the paper regards last changes which have been introduced during 2014. Second part of the paper explains the needs of examining and analyzing passenger perception from the management point of view, and gives overview of methods which are conducted during researches. Similarities and differences are shown among measurements of level of service and perceived level of service, including the importance of these aspects mutual complementing.

  15. Clinical problems and levels of psychosomatic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Martins

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction, some doctrinary and technical problems dealing with the complexity of the human mind and the possible approaches to investigate and treat the personality are discussed and, among them, the "medical model" is emphasized. A brief description of some cases in the author's experience are presented; they, at first, had been very difficult to diagnose. However, after some time, they were found to be of indisputable neuro-psychogenetic pathogenesis. The psychosomatic aspects of each case are analyzed, with emphasis on the different levels of pathogenic action and the means of elaboration to defend and readapt the affected personality, resulting in its final clinical expression. There are four possible levels where the primary dysfunction may act; (a physiopathologic neuronal level; (b cerebral subsystemic level; (c psychodynamic level; (d psychosocial level. The primary dysfunction, acting as a new stimulus on each of these levels, may determine in the personality pathologic responses that may assume very complex clinical situations. Many of these responses are quite different from the precipitating primary dysfunction, although there are still many evident links among them.

  16. Core level shifts of intercalated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Ulrike A.; Petrović, Marin; Gerber, Timm; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Grånäs, Elin; Arman, Mohammad A.; Herbig, Charlotte; Schnadt, Joachim; Kralj, Marko; Knudsen, Jan; Michely, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Through intercalation of metals and gases the Dirac cone of graphene on Ir(111) can be shifted with respect to the Fermi level without becoming destroyed by strong hybridization. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the C 1s core level shift (CLS) of graphene in contact with a number of structurally well-defined intercalation layers (O, H, Eu, and Cs). By analysis of our own and additional literature data for decoupled graphene, the C 1s CLS is found to be a non-monotonic function of the doping level. For small doping levels the shifts are well described by a rigid band model. However, at larger doping levels, a second effect comes into play which is proportional to the transferred charge and counteracts the rigid band shift. Moreover, not only the position, but also the C 1s peak shape displays a unique evolution as a function of doping level. Our conclusions are supported by intercalation experiments with Li, with which, due to the absence of phase separation, the doping level of graphene can be continuously tuned.

  17. Hölder Scales of Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of sea level is essential in the field of geosciences, ranging from ocean dynamics to climates. The fractal properties of sea level, such as long-range dependence (LRD or long memory, 1/f noise behavior, and self-similarity (SS, are known. However, the description of its multiscale behavior as well as local roughness with the Hölder exponent h(t from a view of multifractional Brownian motion (mBm is rarely reported, to the best of our knowledge. In this research, we will exhibit that there is the multiscale property of sea level based on h(ts of sea level data recorded by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC at six stations in the Florida and Eastern Gulf of Mexico. The contributions of this paper are twofold as follows. (i Hölder exponent of sea level may not change with time considerably at small time scale, for example, daily time scale, but it varies significantly at large time scale, such as at monthly time scale. (ii The dispersion of the Hölder exponents of sea level may be different at different stations. This implies that the Hölder roughness of sea level may be spatial dependent.

  18. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Noise levels of amusement ride operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Thies, Liza E; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2017-04-01

    One of the leading causes of noise-induced hearing loss is occupational noise exposure; however, little attention has been given to the exposure among amusement ride operators. According to the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, 600,000 ride operators are employed in the U.S. The first objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate if ride operators were exposed to noise levels over 85 dB. The second objective was to classify the ride features that led to the highest noise levels. 136 rides were measured at 17 total amusement parks, county fairs, and festivals in southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois during summer 2015. A sound level meter recorded noise measurements as close in proximity to the ride operator as possible. Each ride was measured for two or three complete ride cycles, which included loading and operating the ride. The sound level meter was programmed to measure noise as recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and with no threshold. 18% of rides measured had projected noise levels greater than American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendation of 85 dB. A repeated measures model was used to analyze the complete ride cycle decibel levels. The model found that traveling carnival rides had significantly higher levels compared to the stationary amusement park rides (p levels than those without midway music (p amusement ride operators would be at risk for noise induced hearing loss and would require a hearing conservation program if the 8-hr time weighted averages were to follow the same trends as the complete ride cycle levels.

  20. Blood creatinine level in postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Funaki, Hironao; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuka; Akasaka, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Blood chemical analysis for the diagnosis of diseases in forensic cases should be conducted in the same way as for clinical cases. However, it is sometimes difficult to obtain serum samples in forensic cases because of postmortem changes such as hemolysis and putrefaction. This study aimed to evaluate renal function in postmortem cases by blood creatinine analysis. The blood creatinine level was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using whole blood samples taken from 77 postmortem cases, and the relationships between blood creatinine level, postmortem interval, and cause of death were examined. The median blood creatinine level was found to be 1.15 mg/dL, with no significant differences between blood samples taken from different parts of the body. The blood creatinine level was stable for 3 days after death and gradually increased after that period, in line with a previous study using enzymatic analysis that found the serum creatinine level was stable in the early postmortem period. The blood creatinine level was high in the cases of blunt injury, intoxication, and in deaths caused by fire. This was considered to reflect acute renal dysfunction. However, the postmortem blood creatinine level remained higher than the clinical normal value despite omitting cases with renal dysfunction from the analysis. Therefore, we next investigated the change in postmortem creatinine levels in mice and found that the blood creatinine level increased with the emergence of rigor mortis. Our findings indicate that HPLC is useful in the postmortem evaluation of renal function even in the cases where serum cannot be obtained. However, the presence of rigor mortis should be considered in the evaluation of blood creatinine values.

  1. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  2. Lamb shift of Unruh detector levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITF) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-06-07

    We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

  3. Klinefelter syndrome with low gonadotropin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Kripa Elizabeth; Jebasingh, Felix K; Kapoor, Nitin; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2015-12-29

    Klinefelter syndrome is usually characterised by the presence of a eunuchoid body habitus and testes that are usually small and firm, with low testosterone, and elevated luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, consistent with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Low levels of gonadotropins in karyotypically proven cases are not expected, they are extremely rare occurrences. We report a case of a patient who was diagnosed to have Klinefelter syndrome (47 XXY) with low gonadotropin levels. The rest of his anterior pituitary hormonal profile was normal with no lesions in the pituitary gland on imaging. He was continued on androgen replacement therapy.

  4. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  5. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  6. Application of Adaptive Fuzzy PID Leveling Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the levelling precision, speed and stability of suspended access platform, this paper put forward a new adaptive fuzzy PID control levelling algorithm by fuzzy theory. The method is aided design by using the SIMULINK toolbox of MATLAB, and setting the membership function and the fuzzy-PID control rule. The levelling algorithm can real-time adjust the three parameters of PID according to the fuzzy rules due to the current state. It is experimented, which is verified the algorithm have better stability and dynamic performance.

  7. Lamb Shift of Unruh Detector Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, B; Garbrecht, Bjorn; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2006-01-01

    We argue that the energy levels of an Unruh detector experience an effect similar to the Lamb shift in Quantum Electrodynamics. As a consequence, the spectrum of energy levels in a curved background is different from that in flat space. As examples, we consider a detector in an expanding Universe and in Rindler space, and for the latter case we suggest a new expression for the local virtual energy density seen by an accelerated observer. In the ultraviolet domain, that is when the space between the energy levels is larger than the Hubble rate or the acceleration of the detector, the Lamb shift quantitatively dominates over the thermal response rate.

  8. Pituitary and placental hormone levels in pseudocyesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osotimehin, B O; Ladipo, O A; Adejuwon, C A; Otolorin, E O

    1981-10-01

    Twelve patients with clinical features of pseudocyesis were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of galactorrhea. The mean serum prolactin level of patients with galactorrhea was significantly higher than the normal values of the patients without galactorrhea. The mean serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were markedly elevated in patients without galactorrhea. This was especially true of luteinizing hormone. Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin were undetectable in all patients. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  9. Performance evaluation of laser guided leveler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hoque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI farm on clay loam soil during Rabi season of 2010-2011. The treatments consisted of laser land leveling (T1 and control (non-leveled (T2. A preliminary field survey was done using staff gage. Initially a base station was established to dispense laser ray uniformly. The laser ray erected from base station guided the sensor of the stuff gage and the leveler. Elevation data was collected from the different points of the field and made an average. The maximum gage reading were 247.0 cm and the minimum gage reading was 219.2 cm. Average gage readings of the laser leveled plot was 235.66 cm that was settled for auto adjustment. Therefore, huge amount of soils (16.46 cm high was cut from the highest point and subsequently had to fill to the low points. Finally, an equal gage reading of 235.66 cm was observed after leveling the plot. The laser leveler (Leica MLS700 was used hitching with a TAFE tractor. The field was leveled with manual control initially and finally it was operated with auto adjustment. Two operators, 25 litter diesels and total 6 hours time were required during this leveling. Wheat was cultivated in leveled land (T1 and non-leveled land (T2. Laser leveling was insured for improvement in nutrient use efficiencies, option for precision farming, reduces weed problems, and improves uniformity of crop maturity. There was better distribution of water in leveled plot, which helped to reduce irrigation application time 1 hour. Due to uniformity of moisture content improved germination and crop establishment was found which reflected in higher plant population (239 m-2. Maximum yield (3.41 t ha-1 was obtained in T1 due to longer panicle (10.89 cm, more grain per plant (27.47 and 1000 grain weight (47.38 g compared to yield of T2 (2.62 t ha-1.

  10. Stochasticity in cell biology: Modeling across levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Juan Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Effective modeling of biological processes requires focusing on a particular level of description, and this requires summarizing de details of lower levels into effective variables and properly accounting for the constrains that other levels impose. In the context of stochasticity in gene expression, I will show how the details of the stochastic process can be characterized by a few effective parameters, which facilitates modeling but complicates interpretation of current experiments. I will show how the resulting noise can provide advantageous or deleterious phenotypic fluctuation and how noise control in the copy number control system of plasmids can change the selective pressures. This system illustrates the direct connection between molecular dynamics and evolutionary dynamics.

  11. Level II Ergonomic Analyses, Dover AFB, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    IERA-RS-BR-TR-1999-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IERA Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover AFB, DE Andrew Marcotte Marilyn Joyce The Joyce...Project (070401881, Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover...1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Purpose Of The Level II Ergonomie Analyses : 1-1 1.2 Approach 1-1 1.2.1 Initial Shop Selection and Administration of the

  12. Neutrino masses beyond the tree level

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2011-01-01

    Models for Majorana neutrino masses can be classified according to the level in perturbation theory at which the effective dimension five operator $LLHH$ is realized. The possibilities range from the tree-level up to the three-loop level realizations. We discuss some general aspects of this approach and speculate about a model independent classification of the possible cases. Among all the realizations, those in which the effective operator is induced by radiative corrections open the possibility for lepton number violation near -or at- the electroweak scale. We discuss some phenomenological aspects of two generic radiative realizations: the Babu-Zee model and supersymmetric models with bilinear R-parity violation.

  13. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  14. Accounting Conservatism:A Study of Market-Level and Firm-Level Explanatory Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Xu; Changjiang Lu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors affecting the conservatism of accounting reports at the market-level and firm-level. At the market-level, law and institutional factors explain conservatism, while at the firm-level contracting is the driver. We predict and observe that while both levels jointly affect conservatism, it is firm-level factors that play a dominant role. The conclusion suggests that it is more effective to improve the quality of accounting reports by motivating the firm’s own demand rather than through listing in a developed capital market.

  15. Legacy HMSRP NWHI Sea Level Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Island elevation data use in publication by Baker JD, Littnan CL, Johnston DW. "2006. Potential effects of sea level rise on the terrestrial habitats of endangered...

  16. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

  17. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6,6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of h sub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal to 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  18. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszynski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of /sup 151/Ho. High spin levels in /sup 151/Ho have been populated in the /sup 141/Pr + /sup 16/O and /sup 144/Sm + /sup 12/C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6.6 MeV energy and the spins and parities determined up to 49/2/sup -/. Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of hsub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units.

  19. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  20. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    in empirical industrial organization often rely on the availability of very detailed market-level data with information on prices, quantities sold, characteristics of products and more recently supplemented with consumer-level attributes. Often, both researchers and government agencies cannot rely...... on such detailed data, but still need an assessment of whether changes in the operating environment of firms had an impact on markups and therefore on consumer surplus. In this paper, we derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using standard production plant-level data based on the insight of Hall (1986...... and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...