WorldWideScience

Sample records for fleshfly sarcophaga bullata

  1. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Brain Tissue and Fat Body from the Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, Envenomated by the Ectoparasitic Wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Rivers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis targets brain tissue and fat body from its flesh fly host, Sarcophaga bullata. By 1 h postenvenomation, some brain neurons began to show irregularities in nuclear shape, and though they were predominately euchromatic, there was evidence of heterochromatin formation. Irregularity in the nuclear envelope became more prominent by 3 h after envenomation, as did the condensation of heterochromatin. The severity of ultrastructural changes continued to increase until at least 24 h after parasitoid attack. At this point, cellular swelling and extensive heterochromatic inclusions were evident, multivesicular bodies occurred in the cytoplasm of some cells, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated in many of the cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant apoptosis in neurons located in brain tissues. By contrast, there was no evidence of any morphological or ultrastructural disturbances in fat body tissues up to 24 h after envenomation, nor did any of the cells display signs of cell death.

  2. Immunolocalization of a tachykinin-receptor-like protein in the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria migratorioides and neobellieria bullata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veelaert, D; Oonk, H B; Vanden Eynde, G; Torfs, H; Meloen, R H; Schoofs, L; Parmentier, M; De Loof, A; Vanden Broeck, J

    1999-05-10

    Antisera raised against two distinct peptide regions of the Drosophila neurokinin-like receptor NKD were used to immunolocalize tachykinin-receptor-like proteins in the central nervous system of two insect species: the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, and the gray fleshfly, Neobellieria bullata. The resulting immunopositive staining patterns were identical for both antisera. Moreover, a very similar distribution of the immunoreactive material was observed in fleshflies and locusts. Immunoreactivity was found in nerve terminals of the retrocerebral complex, suggesting a presynaptic localization of the receptor in this part of the brain. Cell bodies were stained in the subesophageal ganglion: an anterior group of four larger cells and a posterior group of about 20 cells. These cells have axons projecting into the contralateral nervus corporis allati (NCA) II, bypassing the corpus allatum and projecting through the NCA I into the storage part of the corpus cardiacum. In the glandular part of the corpus cardiacum, the glandular adipokinetic hormone-producing cells did not show any immunopositive staining. In the locust, additional immunopositive staining was observed in internolaterally located neurons of the tritocerebrum and in important integrative parts of the neuropil such as the central body and the mushroom bodies.

  3. Disruption of pupariation and eclosion behavior in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), by venom form the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rivers, D. B.; Žďárek, Jan; Denlinger, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 57, - (2004), s. 78-91 ISSN 0739-4462 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/01/0501 Grant - others:USDA-NRI(US) 98-35302-6659; USDA-NRICGP(US) 2001-1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : ectoparasitoid * ecdysone * fly development Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.173, year: 2004

  4. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  5. Evidence for resistance polymorphism in the Bromus tectorum/Ustilago bullata pathosystem: implications for biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. E. Meyer; D. L. Nelson; S. Clement

    2001-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass or downy brome) is an important exotic weed in natural ecosystems as well as in winter cereal cropland in semiarid western North America. The systemic, seedling-infecting head smut pathogen Ustilago bullata Berk. commonly infects cheatgrass stands, often at epidemic levels. We examined factors...

  6. Ecological genetics of the Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) - Ustilago Bullata (Ustilaginaceae): A role for frequency dependent selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; David L. Nelson; Suzette Clement; Alisa Ramakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary processes that maintain genetic diversity in plants are likely to include selection imposed by pathogens. Negative frequency-dependent selection is a mechanism for maintenance of resistance polymorphism in plant - pathogen interactions. We explored whether such selection operates in the Bromus tectorum - Ustilago bullata pathosystem. Gene-for-gene...

  7. Novel Juvenogens (Insect Hormonogenic Agents): Preparation and Biological Tests on Neobellieria bullata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurček, Ondřej; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Bennettová, Blanka; Moravcová, J.; Drašar, P.; Šaman, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 22 (2009), s. 10852-10858 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06024; GA ČR GA206/08/0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Neobellieria bullata * insecticide * juvenoid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  8. Gene discovery using massively parallel pyrosequencing to develop ESTs for the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Daniel A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flesh flies in the genus Sarcophaga are important models for investigating endocrinology, diapause, cold hardiness, reproduction, and immunity. Despite the prominence of Sarcophaga flesh flies as models for insect physiology and biochemistry, and in forensic studies, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for members of this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a substantial EST dataset for the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from whole bodies of all life stages and normalized the cDNA pool after reverse transcription. Results We obtained 207,110 ESTs with an average read length of 241 bp. These reads assembled into 20,995 contigs and 31,056 singletons. Using BLAST searches of the NR and NT databases we were able to identify 11,757 unique gene elements (ES. crassipalpis unigenes among GO Biological Process functional groups with that of the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome suggests that our ESTs are broadly representative of the flesh fly transcriptome. Insertion and deletion errors in 454 sequencing present a serious hurdle to comparative transcriptome analysis. Aided by a new approach to correcting for these errors, we performed a comparative analysis of genetic divergence across GO categories among S. crassipalpis, D. melanogaster, and Anopheles gambiae. The results suggest that non-synonymous substitutions occur at similar rates across categories, although genes related to response to stimuli may evolve slightly faster. In addition, we identified over 500 potential microsatellite loci and more than 12,000 SNPs among our ESTs. Conclusion Our data provides the first large-scale EST-project for flesh flies, a much-needed resource for exploring this model species. In addition, we identified a large number of potential microsatellite and SNP markers that could be used in population and systematic

  9. Effects of x rays on histogenesis of abnormal epidermis and age dependency of radiosensitivity during metamorphosis of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Sakka, M.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of x rays on metamorphosis of the abdominal epidermis in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina, and age dependence of radiosensitivity were studied. The imaginal epidermis of abdomen is formed from the histoblast nests, which are composed of undifferentiated tiny cells lying between large larval epidermal cells. There were two types of effects of x rays: (1) the arrest of metamorphosis including degeneration of larval epidermal cells and histogenesis of imaginal epidermis; (2) partial deficit of imaginal epidermis at the final stage of development. It was suggested that the second type of effect was brought about by a decrease in the number of abdominal histoblasts caused by x rays. Age dependency of radiosensitivity on the second type of effect was examined in detail, and it was shown that the most sensitive stage occurred just before transition to a highly radiation-resistant period

  10. Arrest of metamorphosis induced by x rays in flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Sakka, M.

    1976-01-01

    Arrest of metamorphosis induced by x irradiation at prepupal stage was studied histologically, and age dependency of radiosensitivity with regard to this effect was examined. Prepupae did not cease their development soon after irradiation, but continued to develop and evaginated the head and the thorax. At this point, development came to a stop. In these animals, not only the histogenesis of imaginal tissues but also the histolysis of larval tissues was arrested. Since the arrest of development was not observed after irradiation at the pupal stage, the effect was considered to result from inhibition of initiation of postpupation development. A possible mechanism of the arrest of postpupation development in the irradiated animals was discussed in connection with the neuroendocrine control of insect development

  11. The role of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the CNS metamorphosis in flesh fly (Neobellieria bullata) larvae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myška, Petr; Žďárek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2005), s. 21-26 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/01/0501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : ecdysteroids * metamorphosis behaviour * pupariation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2005

  12. UJI EFEKTIVITAS LARVASIDA DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica TERHADAP LARVA LALAT Sarcophaga PADA DAGING UNTUK UPAKARA YADNYA DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    i wayan karta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cara mengusir lalat daging pada sarana upacara yadnya di Bali belum efektif, sehingga diperlukan cara alternatif menggunakan daun mimba (Azadirachta indica. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan efektivitas larvasida daun mimba terhadap larva lalat Sarchopaga pada daging yang digunakan sebagai sarana upakara di Bali. Kelompok perlakuan ini yaitu penggunaan daun mimba 25% sebagai larvasida, kelompok kontrol positif yaitu penggunaan minuman bersoda, dan kelompok kontrol negatif yaitu tidak mendapat perlakuan. Hasil uji Kruskal Wallis diperoleh hasil nilai probabilitas p (0,000 < α (0,05 yang menunjukkan adanya perbedaan jumlah kematian larva pada perlakuan rebusan daun mimba 25 %, kontrol negatif dan kontrol positif. Perlakuan daun mimba konsentrasi 25% memberikan jumlah kematian larva yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan terhadap kontrol positif dengan perbedaan persentase sebesar 60%. Daun mimba lebih efektif sebagai larvasida jika dibandingkan dengan minuman bersoda.  Perebusan daging dengan menambahkan daun mimba dapat digunakan untuk menghindari pembusukan yang disebarkan oleh lalat daging (Sarchopaga.

  13. Transitions in the heartbeat pattern during pupal diapause and adult development in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel; Denlinger, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 8 (2013), s. 767-780 ISSN 0022-1910 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) IOS-0840772 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : overwintering * heartbeat reversal * discontinuous cycles Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191013001169#

  14. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.

  15. Morphological Features of Regurgitate and Defecatory Stains Deposited by Five Species of Necrophagous Flies are Influenced by Adult Diets and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; McGregor, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of artifacts from five species of necrophagous flies were examined following feeding on several types of diets. Four types of insect stains were produced by each species: regurgitate, defecatory, translocation, and tarsal tracks. Regurgitate was the most frequent type deposited (70.9 ± 2.4%), followed by defecatory (19.8 ± 4.0%), tarsal tracks (8.6 ± 1.2%), and translocation (0.7 ± 0.1%). Artifact shapes, sizes, and color were highly variable and species and diet specific. Calliphora vicina and Sarcophaga bullata consistently deposited the largest artifacts after feeding, whereas Chrysomya rufifacies and Ch. megacephala produced more tarsal tracks than the other species examined. Artifacts with tails were infrequently observed (4.1 ± 0.6% of all stains) but occurred as either defecatory or regurgitate stains. The widely variable morphologies of all types of fly artifacts underscores the view that insect stains cannot be distinguished from human bloodstains based on morphology alone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae A cronologia e as mudanças morfológicas que ocorrem durante o desenvolvimento intra-pupal de Chrysomya albiceps são descritos com base em 254 espécimes criados em laboratório. As larvas foram obtidas a partir os ovos postos por uma única fêmea. As pré-pupas foram separadas de acordo com a redução do comprimento larval, o grau de pigmentação e esclerotização da cutícula, depois da formação das pupas, 10 indivíduos foram fixados em solução de Carnoy e conservados em etanol

  17. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Antonio Carlos de; Brito, Lavinia C; Tanizaki, Kenny F; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais (LARAMG)-Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Pavilhao Haroldo Lisboa da Cunha Subsolo, Maracana-20550-013, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Franco, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Laboratorio de Bioquimica de Insetos, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2008-08-07

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of {sup 7}Be and {sup 40}K in E. crotonoides, {sup 210}Pb in T. bullata and {sup 137}Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of {sup 7}Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies.

  18. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Brito, Lavinia C.; Tanizaki, Kenny F.; Franco, Marcia; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S.

    2008-08-01

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of 7Be and 40K in E. crotonoides, 210Pb in T. bullata and 137Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of 7Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of 7Be and 210Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies.

  19. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Antonio Carlos de; Brito, Lavinia C.; Tanizaki, Kenny F.; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S.; Franco, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of 7 Be and 40 K in E. crotonoides, 210 Pb in T. bullata and 137 Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of 7 Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of 7 Be and 210 Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies

  20. Preparation and preliminary biological screening of cholic acid–juvenoid conjugates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurček, Ondřej; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Hana; Bennettová, Blanka; Kolehmainen, E.; Drašar, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 9 (2009), s. 779-785 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Neobellieria bullata * Cholic acid * Juvenoid Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2009

  1. Notes on New World Salacioideae (Celastraceae incl. Hippocrateaceae). I. New species of Salacia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, A.M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Three new species of Salacia are described. Salacia bullata spec. nov., a liana, characterized by bullate leaves, was collected in Brazil, Territorio Amapa. It comes closest to S. amplectens. A.C. Smith’s key (1940) should be amended to include a new group ‘Amplectentes’. This group, containing S.

  2. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera) under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiravi, AH; Mostafavi, R; Akbarzadeh, K; Oshaghi, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. Methods: Rate of development (ROD) and accumulated degree day (ADD) of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C) was calculated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata) in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K) were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD) for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively. Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study. PMID:22808410

  4. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Shiravi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp.Methods: Rate of development (ROD and accumu­lated degree day (ADD of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C was calcu­lated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively.Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study.

  5. Occurrence of oriental flies associated with indoor and outdoor human remains in the tropical climate of north Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Disney, R H L; Abu Hassan, A; Flores, Micah; Hwa, Tan Siew; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; CheSalmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2012-06-01

    Flies attracted to human remains during death investigations were surveyed in north Peninsular Malaysia. Six families, eight genera, and 16 species were identified from human remains, with the greatest fly diversity occurring on remains recovered indoors. The total relative frequency of species was led by Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (46%), followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (22%), Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1974) (5%), Sarcophaga spp. (4%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp, 1883 (6%), Megaselia spp. (3%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), (2%), Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz, 1938 (2%), and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, 1922 (2%). Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot, 1877), Desmometopa sp., Megaselia curtineura (Brues, 1909), Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann 1830, Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga princeps Wiedemann 1830, Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758), and unidentified pupae each represented 1%, respectively. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. IJS v10 n1.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De Don

    27: 29-38. Knipling, B., 1956.Acomparativestudy ofthefirst instarlarva ofthe genus Sarcophaga (Diptera: Calliphoridae)" with notes on the biology. The J. Paras ito/. 22: 417-454. Sian sky Jr. F. and Rodriguez, J.G., 1987. Nutritional ecology of insects, miles, spiders and related invertebrates, New. York, Wiley, 1016 pp. Smith.

  7. EST Table: BY915319 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BY915319 fbpv0592 10/09/28 52 %/103 aa dbj|BAA86911.1| homologue of Sarcophaga 26,29kDa proteinase [Periplan...eta americana] 10/08/29 49 %/102 aa FBpp0127246|DanaGF24054-PA 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/1

  8. EST Table: BP124521 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP124521 epV32477 10/09/28 59 %/164 aa dbj|BAA86911.1| homologue of Sarcophaga 26,29kDa proteinase [Periplan...eta americana] 10/08/29 55 %/163 aa FBpp0160847|DmojGI11630-PA 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/1

  9. EST Table: BP123885 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP123885 epV31590 10/09/28 57 %/174 aa dbj|BAA86911.1| homologue of Sarcophaga 26,29kDa proteinase [Periplan...eta americana] 10/08/29 55 %/163 aa FBpp0160847|DmojGI11630-PA 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/1

  10. EST Table: BP125106 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP125106 fbpv0387 10/09/28 58 %/165 aa dbj|BAA86911.1| homologue of Sarcophaga 26,29kDa proteinase [Periplan...eta americana] 10/08/29 56 %/165 aa FBpp0212871|DsimGD14469-PA 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/1

  11. EST Table: BP125521 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP125521 fbpv0944 10/09/28 59 %/165 aa dbj|BAA86911.1| homologue of Sarcophaga 26,29kDa proteinase [Periplan...eta americana] 10/08/29 56 %/164 aa FBpp0160847|DmojGI11630-PA 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/1

  12. EST Table: BP125005 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BP125005 fbpv0197 10/09/28 58 %/185 aa dbj|BAA86911.1| homologue of Sarcophaga 26,29kDa proteinase [Periplan...eta americana] 10/08/29 58 %/173 aa FBpp0160847|DmojGI11630-PA 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/1

  13. Use of inter-simple sequence repeats and amplified fragment length polymorphisms to analyze genetic relationships among small grain-infecting species of ustilago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, J G; Bakkeren, G; Matheson, F; Procunier, J D; Woods, S

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In the smut fungi, few features are available for use as taxonomic criteria (spore size, shape, morphology, germination type, and host range). DNA-based molecular techniques are useful in expanding the traits considered in determining relationships among these fungi. We examined the phylogenetic relationships among seven species of Ustilago (U. avenae, U. bullata, U. hordei, U. kolleri, U. nigra, U. nuda, and U. tritici) using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to compare their DNA profiles. Fifty-four isolates of different Ustilago spp. were analyzed using ISSR primers, and 16 isolates of Ustilago were studied using AFLP primers. The variability among isolates within species was low for all species except U. bullata. The isolates of U. bullata, U. nuda, and U. tritici were well separated and our data supports their speciation. U. avenae and U. kolleri isolates did not separate from each other and there was little variability between these species. U. hordei and U. nigra isolates also showed little variability between species, but the isolates from each species grouped together. Our data suggest that U. avenae and U. kolleri are monophyletic and should be considered one species, as should U. hordei and U. nigra.

  14. Molecular Identification of Necrophagous Muscidae and Sarcophagidae Fly Species Collected in Korea by Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I Nucleotide Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of insect species is an important task in forensic entomology. For more convenient species identification, the nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene have been widely utilized. We analyzed full-length COI nucleotide sequences of 10 Muscidae and 6 Sarcophagidae fly species collected in Korea. After DNA extraction from collected flies, PCR amplification and automatic sequencing of the whole COI sequence were performed. Obtained sequences were analyzed for a phylogenetic tree and a distance matrix. Our data showed very low intraspecific sequence distances and species-level monophylies. However, sequence comparison with previously reported sequences revealed a few inconsistencies or paraphylies requiring further investigation. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report of COI nucleotide sequences from Hydrotaea occulta, Muscina angustifrons, Muscina pascuorum, Ophyra leucostoma, Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, Sarcophaga harpax, and Phaonia aureola.

  15. Insect acetyl-CoA carboxylase: activity during the larval, pupal and adult stages of insect development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, J P; Read, J S

    1993-12-01

    1. The activity of the lipogenic enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, was investigated in four insect species; Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera), Glossina morsitans and Sarcophaga nodosa (Diptera). 2. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in larval, pupal and adult forms was compared with the saponifiable lipid mass at each stage of the life-cycle, and found to follow similar patterns except for Tenebrio molitor. 3. The results are examined in relation to known metabolic requirements for each insect.

  16. Ecological Assessment of Vandenburg Air Force Base, California. Volume 2. Biological Inventory 1974/75

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    Conium maculatum 15 15 ə-100 Urtica holcserioea 15 < 1 - 1 - 5 Z-jvphularia atvata 15 •1 di ichus bullata 35 <. 1 ə turn tclmateia 15 < 1 1 - 5...33.0 Pteridium aquilir.um 22.0 Horkelia auneata 19.0 Staohys rigida 19-0 Conium maculatum 19-0 Viola queroetonon 16.5 Pterostegia dvymarioides l6...Apiastrwn angustifolium Baaaharis ep. B. Douglaaii Bras sioa sp. Caulanthup oalifomiaua Chenopodiim sp. Conium maoulatum Eriophyllum

  17. Oostatic peptides containing d-amino acids: synthesis, oostatic activity, degradation, accumulation in ovaries and NMR study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Jan; Tykva, Richard; Holík, Josef; Bennettová, Blanka; Buděšínský, Miloš; Vlasáková, Věra; Černý, Bohuslav; Slaninová, Jiřina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2012), s. 1715-1725 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1272 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : D-amino acids * oostatic peptide synthesis * H-3 labeling * oostatic activity in Neobellieria bullata * H-3 incorporation * Peptide degradation * NMR study Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2012

  18. Applicability of partial characterization of cytochrome oxidase I in identification of forensically important flies (Diptera) from China and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sanaa Mohamed; Wen, Jifang

    2013-07-01

    Precise species identification of every insect sample collected from criminal scenes play an essential role in the accurate estimation of postmortem interval. The morphological similarity poses a great challenge for forensic entomologists. DNA-based method can be used as a supplemental means of morphological method. In the present study, we demonstrate the applicability of the 304-bp cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment in molecular identification of forensically important Diptera. We analyzed 75 specimens belonging to 19 species of 3 families originating from China (Calliphoridae: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Aldrichina grahami; Lucilia bazini, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia porphyrina; Muscidae: Musca autumnalis, Musca domestica, Fannia canicularis, Stomoxys calcitrans; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga albiceps, Sarcophaga dux, Helicophagella melanura) and Egypt (Calliphoridae: C. megacephala, C. albiceps, L. sericata; Muscidae: M. domestica, F. canicularis, S. calcitrans, Synthesiomyia nudiseta; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga argyrostoma). This region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing of the amplification products. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the Kimura two-parameter distance model and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree generated. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0-0.8 % and interspecific variation occurred between 1-19 %. Although all examined specimens were assigned to the correct species and formed distinct monophyletic clades, the data of the phylogenetic analysis were not completely in accordance with the traditional morphological classification. As both C. nigripes and A. grahami unexpectedly joined with Muscidae and Sarcophagidae groups respectively. Moreover, both Calliphorinae and Luciliinae clades failed to represent Calliphoridae as a separate group. Therefore, although molecular methods are beneficial

  19. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921) including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037). A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21%) while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34%) targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882) including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244) and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244). Others (n=155) including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart) and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication "Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan" (Zaidi et al., 2016) [1].

  20. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Zaidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921 including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037. A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21% while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34% targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882 including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244 and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244. Others (n=155 including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia illustris (Meigen, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker, Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication “Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan” (Zaidi et al., 2016 [1].

  1. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative morphology and identification key for females of nine Sarcophagidae species (Diptera with forensic importance in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe identification of female flesh flies was always considered a difficult task since morphological descriptions and keys for females are rare. Even in a forensic entomology framework, where females play a major role, female flesh flies are usually not identified. In order to fill this gap in Southern Brazil fauna we provide detailed descriptions and key for the female of nine species included in four genera: Microcerella halli (Engel, Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis (Mattos, Oxysarcodexia riograndensis (Lopes, Peckia (Euboettcheria australis (Townsend, Peckia(Euboettcheria florencioi (Prado and Fonseca, Peckia (Pattonella intermutans (Walker, Peckia(Pattonella resona (Lopes, Peckia (Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann, and Sarcophaga(Bercaea africa (Wiedemann. These species are distinguished mainly by genital characters as tergite 6 divided or undivided, presence of tergite 8, spermatheca morphology and vaginal plate shape.

  3. Differences in the reliance on cuticular hydrocarbons as sexual signaling and species discrimination cues in parasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buellesbach, Jan; Vetter, Sebastian G; Schmitt, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been documented to play crucial roles as species- and sex-specific cues in the chemical communication systems of a wide variety of insects. However, whether they are sufficient by themselves as the sole cue triggering sexual behavior as well as preference of con- over heterospecific mating partners is rarely assessed. We conducted behavioral assays in three representative species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to determine their reliance on CHC as species-specific sexual signaling cues. We found a surprising degree of either unspecific or insufficient sexual signaling when CHC are singled out as recognition cues. Most strikingly, the cosmopolitan species Nasonia vitripennis , expected to experience enhanced selection pressure to discriminate against other co-occurring parasitoids, did not discriminate against CHC of a partially sympatric species from another genus, Trichomalopsis sarcophagae . Focusing on the latter species, in turn, it became apparent that CHC are even insufficient as the sole cue triggering conspecific sexual behavior, hinting at the requirement of additional, synergistic sexual cues particularly important in this species. Finally, in the phylogenetically and chemically most divergent species Muscidifurax uniraptor, we intriguingly found both CHC-based sexual signaling as well as species discrimination behavior intact although this species is naturally parthenogenetic with sexual reproduction only occurring under laboratory conditions. Our findings implicate a discrepancy in the reliance on and specificity of CHC as sexual cues in our tested parasitioid wasps. CHC profiles were not sufficient for unambiguous discrimination and preference behavior, as demonstrated by clear cross-attraction between some of our tested wasp genera. Moreover, we could show that only in T. sarcophagae , additional behavioral cues need to be present for triggering natural mating behavior, hinting at an interesting

  4. The pro-apoptotic action of the peptide hormone Neb-colloostatin on insect haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarniewska, E; Mrówczynska, L; Kuczer, M; Rosinski, G

    2012-12-15

    The gonadoinhibitory peptide hormone Neb-colloostatin was first isolated from ovaries of the flesh fly Neobellieria bullata. This 19-mer peptide is thought to be a cleaved product of a collagen-like precursor molecule that is formed during remodelling of the extracellular matrix. In this study, we report that upon injection of picomolar and nanomolar doses, this peptide exerts a pro-apoptotic action on haemocytes of Tenebrio molitor adults, as visualized by changes in morphology and viability. The F-actin cytoskeleton was found to aggregate into distinctive patches. This may be responsible for the observed inhibition of adhesion of haemocytes and for the stimulation of filopodia formation. However, Neb-colloostatin injection did not induce the formation of autophagic vacuoles. Our results suggest that physiological concentrations of Neb-colloostatin play an important role in controlling the quantity and activity of haemocytes in insect haemolymph. They also suggest that during periods in which Neb-colloostatin is released, this peptide may cause a weakening of the insects' immune system. This is the first report that exposure to a peptide hormone causes apoptosis in insect haemocytes.

  5. Phytoplankton diversity in the bioremediation pool in PTAPB-BATAN Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijiyono; Artiningsih, Sri

    2013-01-01

    Research has been done on Phytoplankton Diversity in Bioremediation Pool in PTAPB-BATAN Yogyakarta. This study aims to determine the diversity of phytoplankton and phytoplankton species are numerous in the bioremediation pool in PTAPB BATAN. This study is an observational study conducted from September to November 2012. The population in this study is all kinds of phytoplankton that live in the bioremediation pool. The sample was filtered with all phytoplankton plankton net at each sampling point. This study was conducted to determine the point of sampling as much as 3 points, namely at the inlet, the center of the pond, and exit channel, with each point done 3 times repetition. Sampling was done by taking as much as 50 liters of water at each sample point, the water sample is filtered directly into the plankton net. Filtered water put into flakon bottles. Observation and identification of plankton were done in the laboratory. The research found as many as 21 species of phytoplankton consisting of Scenedesmus acuminatus, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Closterium moniiferum, Pleurosigma sp., Rivularia bullata, Chroococcus sp., Cocconeis sp., Pinnularia viridis, Navicula sp., Spirogyra sp., Thiopedia rosea, Cyclotella sp., Minidiscus sp., Achnantes sp., ChIorella sp., Oscillatoria sp., Hemiaulus sp., Surirella sp., Chattonella sp., Thalasiossira mala, Leuvenia sp. Phytoplankton density value of 5.330 ind / I. Phytoplankton diversity index value was 2.6062, included in the medium category. (author)

  6. Las miasis como entidad de interés en Medicina del Trabajo Myiasis as an entity of interest in occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro González Medina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En escasas ocasiones se ha hecho referencia a las miasis en el ámbito de la Medicina del Trabajo. Es un error bastante generalizado pensar que este tipo de parasitación es exclusiva de países subdesarrollados o de estratos sociales carentes de las mínimas medidas de higiene. Sin embargo, es importante conocer los agentes etiológicos y advertir del riesgo que afecta a ciertos sectores laborales expuestos a materia orgánica en descomposición o a ciertos alimentos que por sus características químicas actúan de atrayentes para los dípteros. Para ello, estudiamos los casos de miasis que se diagnosticaron en varios centros sanitarios ubicados en Granada, Málaga, Almería y Jaén durante el periodo comprendido entre septiembre de 2010 y junio de 2011 y consideramos con especial interés los que se iniciaron por una infestación durante el periodo laboral. Se observa en las miasis laborales un predominio de las especies Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758 y Sarcophaga (Bercaea africa (Wiedemann, 1824. Asimismo, exponemos las principales características del ciclo vital de los dípteros de interés sanitario y las medidas de seguridad que deben adoptarse para evitar este tipo de accidente laboral.In few occasions, reference to myiasis in the scope of Occupational Medicine has been done. It is a generalized mistake to think that this type of parasitation is exclusive of underdeveloped countries or social layers without the minimal hygiene measures. Nevertheless, it is important to know the etiological agents and to notice the risk that affects certain occupational sectors exposed to organic matter in decay proccess or to certain foods that by their chemical characteristics act of appealing to the Diptera. We studied the cases of myiasis diagnosed in some medical centers located in Granada, Málaga, Almería and Jaén during the period between September 2010 and June 2011 and we considered with special interest those that began by an infestation

  7. Estudo cariométrico dos poliplóides de Coffea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Schreiber

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o volume nuclear de uma série de plantas de café com 22-44-66-88 cromossômios: C. congensis, C. arabica var. monosperma, C. arabica var. typica e C. arabica var. bullata e pelo método estatístico cariométrico. Das curvas de frequência (que não são "normais", foi calculado o valor normal (modo para cada número de cromossômios. Com êstes valores modais e os respectivos números de cromossômios foi calculada a equação de regressão, o êrro de estimação e o coeficiente de correlação. A correlação é perfeita, sendo, porém, a espécie C. congensis discordante dos demais elementos da série por ter um valor volumétrico correspondente a 33 cromossômios apesar dos 22 encontrados nas metáfases somáticas. Êste resultado é apontado para ulteriores investigações citogenéticas sôbre esta espécie. O resultado geral destas pesquisas mostra a perfeita correlação entre o número de genomas haplóides e o volume nuclear ; deve ser considerado, porém, válido somente no confronto entre núcleos que se encontram na mesma fase do ciclo de crescimento interfásico.Caryometric researches on Coffea polyploids. General discussion of the problem and preliminary results. A series of polyploid plant of Coffea with 22, 44, 66, and 88 chromosomes (C. congensis, C. arabica var. monosperma, C. arabica var. typica, C. arabica var. bullata have been studied with caryometric statistical method. The chromosome numbers have been plotted again,st the modal value of the frequency curves of nuclear volume and the regression equation, standard error of estimation and correlation coefficent have been calculated. The correlation results perfect between the chromosome number and the nuclear volume for all the elements of the polyploid series of Coffea arabica. Coffea congensis, althought with 22 chromosomes, has a nuclear volume exactly correspondent to that of C. arabica with 33 chromosomes. This fact is appointed for further

  8. JENIS JAMUR DAN LALAT YANG DITEMUKAN PADA MAKANAN JAJANAN DARI PASAR DAN WARUNG DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik St. Aminah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hasil penelitian terhadap makanan jajanan yang dijual di pasar dan warung, banyak yang tidak memenuhai syarat kesehatan, dan tercemar oleh bakteri serta jamur tertentu. Penelitian tentang bakteri yang mencemari makanan  jajanan seperti Entamoeba coli, Staphylococcus dan Salmonella telah banyak diketahui, tetapi mengenai data jenis jamur yang mencemari makanan jajanan belum banyak diketahui. Kontaminasi tersebut disebabkan cara penanganan, sanitasi yang kurang bersih, pembungkus makanan jajanan, tempat menjajakan makanan jajanan dan lokasi menjual makanan jajanan tersebut sebaiknya jauh dari tempat pembuangan sampah. Tempat pembuangan sampah sering ditemukan lalat seperti lalat rumah (Musca domestica, Chysomia megacephala, C. safferanea dan Sarcophaga sp. Hampir semua kue basah maupun kue kering yang dijual di pasar tradisional maupun di warung umumnya tercemar oleh khamir. Kue-kue tersebut yang dijual di pasar lebih banyak tercemar khamir dibandingkan yang dijual di warung. Hal ini kemungkinan kue yang dijual di warung penanganannya lebih baik dari pada yang dijual di pasar. Begitu juga mutu kue yang dijual di pasar biasanya lebih cepat rusak. Kerusakan kue tersebut disebabkan antara lain karena tercemar spora jamur yang terbawa oleh debu maupun oleh lalat yang terkontaminasi jamur/bakteri pada kaki-kaki lalat tersebut,  yang hinggap pada makanan jajanan. Sehingga jenis-jenis jamur yang terdapat di tempat sampah, udara dan tanah dapat mencemari makanan jajanan yang dijual di pasar maupun di warung.

  9. Non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) as carriers of intestinal human parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Sisay; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Erko, Berhanu; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa from January 2004 to June 2004. A total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol-ether concentration method. The dominant fly species was Chrysomya rufifacies (34.9%) followed by Musca domestica (31%), Musca sorbens (20.5.%), Lucina cuprina (6.8%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.8%), Calliphora vicina (2.2%) and Wohlfahrtia sp. (1.8%). Six intestinal helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis) and at least four protozoan parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp.) were isolated from both the external and gut contents of the flies. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites detected both on the external and in the gut contents of the flies, but occurring more in the latter. Among the flies, C. rufifacies and M. sorbens were the highest carriers of the helminth and protozoan parasites, respectively. The public health significance of these findings is highlighted.

  10. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Human myiasis in rural South Africa is under-reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuria, Simon Kamande; Kingu, H J C; Villet, M H; Dhaffala, A

    2015-01-08

    Myiasis is the infestation of live tissue of humans and other vertebrates by larvae of flies. Worldwide, myiasis of humans is seldom reported, although the trend is gradually changing in some countries. Reports of human myiasis in Africa are few. Several cases of myiasis were recently seen at the Mthatha Hospital Complex, Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa (SA). Because of a paucity of literature on myiasis from this region, surgeons and scientists from Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, decided to document myiasis cases presenting either at Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital or Umtata General Hospital from May 2009 to April 2013. The objective was to determine the incidence, epidemiology, patient age group and gender, and fly species involved. The effect of season on incidence was also investigated. Twenty-five cases (14 men and 11 women) were recorded in the 4-year study period. The fly species involved were Lucilia sericata, L. cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. chloropyga and Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) nodosa, the latter being confirmed as an agent for human myiasis for the first time. The patients were 3 - 78 years old (median 56). Cases were most numerous during spring and summer, and were associated with underlying pathologies typical of ageing. Myiasis is a more common medical condition than expected in the Mthatha region. The study shows that human myiasis is still frequently encountered in SA, and there is a need to understand its epidemiology better.

  12. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  13. Intestinal myiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udgaonkar, U S; Dharamsi, R; Kulkarni, S A; Shah, S R; Patil, S S; Bhosale, A L; Gadgil, S A; Mohite, R S

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar). This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  14. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Baculovirus comprise the largest group of insect viruses most studied worldwide, mainly because they efficiently kill agricutural insect pests. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses containing the ScathL gene from Sarcophaga peregrina (vSynScathL), and the Keratinase gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (vSynKerat), were constructed. and their insecticidal properties analysed against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Results Bioassays of third-instar and neonate S. frugiperda larvae with vSynScathL and vSynKerat showed a decrease in the time needed to kill the infected insects when compared to the wild type virus. We have also shown that both recombinants were able to increase phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda larvae. The expression of proteases in infected larvae resulted in destruction of internal tissues late in infection, which could be the reason for the increased viral speed of kill. Conclusions Baculoviruses and their recombinant forms constitute viable alternatives to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses containing protease genes can be added to the list of engineered baculoviruses with great potential to be used in integrated pest management programs. PMID:20587066

  15. INSULIN SIGNALING AND THE REGULATION OF INSECT DIAPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolho eSim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A rich chapter in the history of insect endocrinology has focused on hormonal control of diapause, especially the major roles played by juvenile hormones (JHs, ecdysteroids, and the neuropeptides that govern JH and ecdysteroid synthesis. More recently, experiments with adult diapause in Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Culex pipiens, and pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis provide strong evidence that insulin signaling is also an important component of the regulatory pathway leading to the diapause phenotype. Insects produce many different insulin-like peptides (ILPs, and not all are involved in the diapause response; ILP-1 appears to be the one most closely linked to diapause in C. pipiens. Many steps in the pathway leading from perception of daylength (the primary environmental cue used to program diapause to generation of the diapause phenotype remain unknown, but the role for insulin signaling in mosquito diapause appears to be upstream of JH, as evidenced by the fact that application of exogenous JH can rescue the effects of knocking down expression of ILP-1 or the Insulin Receptor. Fat accumulation, enhancement of stress tolerance, and other features of the diapause phenotype are likely linked to the insulin pathway through the action of a key transcription factor, FOXO. This review highlights many parallels for the role of insulin signaling as a regulator in insect diapause and dauer formation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  16. COII "long fragment" reliability in characterisation and classification of forensically important flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sanaa M; Mahmoud, Shereen M

    2016-01-01

    Molecular identification of collected flies is important in forensic entomological analysis guided with accurate evaluation of the chosen genetic marker. The selected mitochondrial DNA segments can be used to properly identify species. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of the 635-bp-long cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII) in identification of forensically important flies. Forty-two specimens belonging to 11 species (Calliphoridae: Chrysomya albiceps, C. rufifacies, C. megacephala, Lucilia sericata, L. cuprina; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga carnaria, S. dux, S. albiceps, Wohlfahrtia nuba; Muscidae: Musca domestica, M. autumnalis) were analysed. The selected marker was amplified using PCR followed by sequencing. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the K2P (Kimura two-parameter) distance model, and a NJ (neighbour-joining) phylogenetic tree was constructed. All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species, formed distinct monophyletic clades and ordered in accordance with their taxonomic classification. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0 to 1% and interspecific variation occurred between 2 and 20%. The 635-bp-long COII marker is suitable for clear differentiation and identification of forensically relevant flies.

  17. Utility of Multi-Gene Loci for Forensic Species Diagnosis of Blowflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Wei, Shu-jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary studies in forensic entomology exhaustively evaluate gene sequences because these constitute the fastest and most accurate method of species identification. For this purpose single gene segments, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in particular, are commonly used. However, the limitation of such sequences in identification, especially of closely related species and populations, demand a multi-gene approach. But this raises the question of which group of genes can best fulfill the identification task? In this context the utility of five gene segments was explored among blowfly species from two distinct geographic regions, China and Pakistan. COI, cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), were sequenced for eight blowfly species including Chrysomya megacephala F. (Diptera: Calliphoidae), Ch. pinguis Walker, Lucilia sericata Meigen L. porphyrina Walker, L. illustris Meigen Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann, Aldrichina grahami Aldrich, and the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Muscidae), from Hangzhou, China; while COI, CYTB, and ITS2 were sequenced for four species, i.e. Ch. megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, L. cuprina, and the flesh fly, Sarcophaga albiceps Meigen (Sarcophagidae), from Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan. The results demonstrate a universal utility of these gene segments in the molecular identification of flies of forensic importance. PMID:21864153

  18. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  19. Photoperiodic plasticity in circadian clock neurons in insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiko eShiga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Bünning’s observation of circadian rhythms and photoperiodism in the runner bean Phaseolus multiflorus in 1936, many studies have shown that photoperiodism is based on the circadian clock system. In insects, involvement of circadian clock genes or neurons has been recently shown in the photoperiodic control of developmental arrests, diapause. Based on molecular and neuronal studies in Drosophila melanogaster, photoperiodic changes have been reported for expression patterns of the circadian clock genes, subcellular distribution of clock proteins, fiber distribution, or the number of plausible clock neurons in different species. Photoperiod sets peaks of per or tim mRNA abundance at lights-off in Sarcophaga crassipalpis, Chymomyza costata and Protophormia terraenovae. Abundance of per and Clock mRNA changes by photoperiod in Pyrrhocoris apterus. Subcellular Per distribution in circadian clock neurons changes with photoperiod in P. terraenovae. Although photoperiodism is not known in Leucophaea maderae, under longer day length, more stomata and longer commissural fibers of circadian clock neurons have been found. These plastic changes in the circadian clock neurons could be an important constituent for photoperiodic clock mechanisms to integrate repetitive photoperiodic information and produce different outputs based on day length.

  20. COII ”long fragment” reliability in characterisation and classification of forensically important flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Aly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Molecular identification of collected flies is important in forensic entomological analysis guided with accurate evaluation of the chosen genetic marker. The selected mitochondrial DNA segments can be used to properly identify species. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of the 635-bp-long cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII in identification of forensically important flies. Material and methods: Forty-two specimens belonging to 11 species ( Calliphoridae: Chrysomya albiceps , C. rufifacies , C. megacephala , Lucilia sericata , L. cuprina ; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga carnaria , S. dux , S. albiceps , Wohlfahrtia nuba ; Muscidae: Musca domestica , M. autumnalis were analysed. The selected marker was amplified using PCR followed by sequencing. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the K2P (Kimura two-parameter distance model, and a NJ (neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results : All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species, formed distinct monophyletic clades and ordered in accordance with their taxonomic classification. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0 to 1% and interspecific variation occurred between 2 and 20%. Conclusions : The 635-bp-long COII marker is suitable for clear differentiation and identification of forensically relevant flies.

  1. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus carcasses, and the experiments were conducted in areas of pasture and semideciduous forest. A total of 85,694 adult flesh flies belonging to 57 species were collected from all carcasses. New records for nine species of Sarcophaginae are provided, including the first record of Blaesoxipha (Acridiophaga caridei (Brèthes, 1906 to Brazil, and new occurrences of the following species for the Cerrado and/or for the state of Minas Gerais: Blaesoxipha (Acanthodotheca acridiophagoides (Lopes & Downs, 1951, Malacophagomyia filamenta (Dodge, 1964, Nephochaetopteryx orbitalis (Curran & Walley, 1934, Nephochaetopteryx cyaneiventris Lopes, 1936, Nephochaetopteryx pallidiventris Townsend, 1934, Oxysarcodexia occulta Lopes, 1946, Ravinia effrenata (Walker, 1861 and Sarcophaga (Neobellieria polistensis (Hall, 1933.

  2. Insect Fauna of Human Cadavers in Tehran District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Talebzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post- mortem interval (PMI estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran dis­trict.Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identi­fied using morphological characteristics.Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae, one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae, and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae and a beetle Der­mestes maculatus (Dermestidae was observed on the human cadavers. Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant species on the corpses temporally and spatially.Conclusion: Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant insect species on human cadavers in the area study spatio­temporally. The data make C. albiceps as a valuable entomological indicator for PMI estimation in Tehran and other parts of the country. However, further biological and ecological data such as its behavior, life tables, and consistent developmental time should be investigated when establishing a PMI in the region.

  3. Stable isotope-assisted NMR characterization of interaction between lipid A and sarcotoxin IA, a cecropin-type antibacterial peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi-Utsumi, Maho [Institute for Molecular Science and Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8787 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8603 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoshiki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8603 (Japan); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Boonsri, Pornthip [Institute for Molecular Science and Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8787 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Iguchi, Takeshi [Bioscience Research Laboratory, Fujiya Co., Ltd., Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0031 (Japan); Okemoto, Kazuo [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, National Institute of Infectious Disease, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Natori, Shunji [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba 305-8602 (Japan); Kato, Koichi, E-mail: kkatonmr@ims.ac.jp [Institute for Molecular Science and Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8787 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8603 (Japan); The Glycoscience Institute, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo 135-0064 (Japan); GLYENCE Co., Ltd., Nagoya 474-0858 (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► Recombinant sarcotoxin IA was successfully produced with {sup 13}C- and {sup 15}N-labeling. ► Sarcotoxin IA adopts an N-terminal α-helix upon binding to lipid A-embedding micelles. ► Two lysine residues are involved in lipid A-mediated antibacterial activities. -- Abstract: Sarcotoxin IA is a 39-residue cecropin-type peptide from Sarcophaga peregrina. This peptide exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria through its interaction with lipid A, a core component of lipopolysaccharides. To acquire detailed structural information on this specific interaction, we performed NMR analysis using bacterially expressed sarcotoxin IA analogs with {sup 13}C- and {sup 15}N-labeling along with lipid A-embedding micelles composed of dodecylphosphocholine. By inspecting the stable isotope-assisted NMR data, we revealed that the N-terminal segment (Leu3–Arg18) of sarcotoxin IA formed an amphiphilic α-helix upon its interaction with the aqueous micelles. Furthermore, chemical shift perturbation data indicated that the amino acid residues displayed on this α-helix were involved in the specific interaction with lipid A. On the basis of these data, we successfully identified Lys4 and Lys5 as key residues in the interaction with lipid A and the consequent antibacterial activity. Therefore, these results provide unique information for designing chemotherapeutics based on antibacterial peptide structures.

  4. Case Report of Human Urinary Myiasis Caused by Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae with Morphological Description of Larva and Pupa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ali El-Dib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary myiasis is a form of myiasis caused mainly by larvae of Fannia scalaris, Musca, Sarcophaga, Lucilia, Wohlfahrtia, Calliphora, and rarely by Eristalis and Clogmia albipunctata.Methods: This report presents a case of female patient complaining of dysuria and frequency of micturition associ­ated with intermittent passage of small, motile, dark-colored worm-like organisms in urine. She was a married housewife aged 24 years old referred from the Tropical Outpatient Clinic of Beni-Suef University Hospital, Egypt. The patient was subjected to a full questionnaire sheet and investigations such as CBC, stool and urine analysis and uri­nary ul­traso­nography. Collected larvae and pupae from urine samples were examined macroscopically and micro­scopically.Results: The examined larvae and pupae belonged to C. albipunctata. Ivermectin was prescribed to the patient with complaint withdrawal and complete disappearance of the larvae from urine.Conclusion: This study reports the first case of urinary myiasis caused by C. albipunctata in Beni-Suef Governorate, the second in Egypt and third case worldwide. The study throws some light on the medical importance and manage­ment of urinary myiasis.

  5. Characteristics of leachate in Foot and Mouth Disease Carcass Disposal using Molecular Biology Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E. J.; Kim, B. J.; Wi, D. W.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Min, J. E.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Leachate from Foot and Mouth Disease(FMD) carcass disposal by is one of the types of high-concentration contaminated wastewater with the greatest environmental impact. This is due to its pollutants: nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and pathogenic microorganisms. Satisfactory treatment of leachate is not an easy task for its high concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore suitable FMD leachate treatment processes should be adopted to improve treatment performance and to reduce overall running costs. The objective of this study was to determine the leachate characteristics through environmental analysis and molecular biology method (bacteria identification and Polymerase Chain Reaction) using FMD leachate samples for optimal FMD leachate treatment processes. The Sixteen FMD leachate samples was obtained from carcass disposal regions in Korea. Results of environmental analysis showed that pH and Eh was observed from 5.57 to 7.40, -134~358mV. This data was exhibited typical early carcass disposal (Neutral pH and Reducing Environment by abundant organic matter). TOC and nitrate nitrogen high concentrations in FMD leachate showed a large variability from 2.3 to 38,730 mg/L(mean - 6,821.93mg/L) and 0.335 ~231.998mg/L(mean - 37.46mg/L), respectively. The result of bacteria identification was observed Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter ursingii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia liquefaciens, Brevundimonas naejangsanensis, Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter ursingii. The results of Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) using EzTaxon server data revealed Pseudoclavibacter helvolus, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum, Corynebacterium callunae, Paenibacillus lautus, Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus arvi, Brevundimonas bullata, Acinetobacter ursingii, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus psychrodurans, Pseudomonas sp.

  6. Predicting plant invasions under climate change: are species distribution models validated by field trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Christine S; Burns, Bruce R; Stanley, Margaret C

    2014-09-01

    Climate change may facilitate alien species invasion into new areas, particularly for species from warm native ranges introduced into areas currently marginal for temperature. Although conclusions from modelling approaches and experimental studies are generally similar, combining the two approaches has rarely occurred. The aim of this study was to validate species distribution models by conducting field trials in sites of differing suitability as predicted by the models, thus increasing confidence in their ability to assess invasion risk. Three recently naturalized alien plants in New Zealand were used as study species (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Psidium guajava and Schefflera actinophylla): they originate from warm native ranges, are woody bird-dispersed species and of concern as potential weeds. Seedlings were grown in six sites across the country, differing both in climate and suitability (as predicted by the species distribution models). Seedling growth and survival were recorded over two summers and one or two winter seasons, and temperature and precipitation were monitored hourly at each site. Additionally, alien seedling performances were compared to those of closely related native species (Rhopalostylis sapida, Lophomyrtus bullata and Schefflera digitata). Furthermore, half of the seedlings were sprayed with pesticide, to investigate whether enemy release may influence performance. The results showed large differences in growth and survival of the alien species among the six sites. In the more suitable sites, performance was frequently higher compared to the native species. Leaf damage from invertebrate herbivory was low for both alien and native seedlings, with little evidence that the alien species should have an advantage over the native species because of enemy release. Correlations between performance in the field and predicted suitability of species distribution models were generally high. The projected increase in minimum temperature and reduced

  7. Actividad contra Leishmania sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae de plantas en una Reserva Biológica de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniosis es una enfermedad muy importante para el ser humano pero su tratamiento es bastante difícil. Por esta razón muchos investigadores han venido buscando plantas que contengan componentes químicos activos contra esta parasitosis. En Costa Rica no se tienen estudios al respecto y por eso el objetivo de este estudio fue la búsqueda de componentes activos contra Leishmania sp. en plantas de Costa Rica; 67 especies de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB fueron seleccionadas para realizar este trabajo. Para ello se prepararon extractos crudos hidro-alcohólicos de material fresco o desecado de raíz, tallo, hojas maduras o tiernas, flores y frutos inmaduros o maduros. Usando pruebas presuntivas y luego específicas, se analizó el efecto de tales extractos sobre una cepa de Leishmania (OCR. Se consideraron plantas promisorias solamente aquellas en que al menos una de sus partes presentara un CI50<100µg/mL. Las plantas seleccionadas fueron: Bocconia frutescens, Clematis dioica,Cordia megalantha, Eugenia austin-smithii, Guarea bullata, Guateria tonduzii, Mikania holwayana, Nectandra membranacea,Neurolaena lobata, Persea povedae, Piper auritum, Rollinia pittieri, Solanum arboreum, Tetrorchidium euryphyllum, Witheringia solanacea y Zanthoxylum juniperinum. Existió una ligera tendencia de positividad mayor para los extractos frescos y la actividad se presentó en una y hasta más de cuatro partes de la planta. La mayoría de los extractos activos no fueron tóxicos. Se discute la importancia de estos nuevos hallazgos, en relación con el nuevo conocimiento científico y su proyección en el tratamiento de la leishmaniosis.

  8. Flesh flies species (Diptera: Sarcophagidae from a grassland and a woodland in a Nature Reserve of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo R Mulieri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal changes of flesh flies abundance were simultaneously recorded at monthly intervals during a year in a woodland and in a grassland at the "Reserva Ecológica Costanera Sur" (RECS, Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Samples were taken at monthly intervals (February 2004-January 2005. Hourly captures of adult flies (10:00 am - 04:00 pm were taken each sampling date with a hand net. Temperature was recorded at each hourly capture. The baits used were 200 g of rotten cow liver and 200 g of fresh dog faeces. Records of abundance included only species whose abundance was ≥30 individuals accumulated during the whole sampling period. Considering overall abundance, a non-parametric Chi-square test was used to estimate deviations of an expected habitat and bait preference ratios of 1:1. The same criterion was applied to include species in a contingency table to describe their seasonality. The final matrix included four species whose associations to seasons were analyzed by using a Correspondence Analysis. To normalize the data, a log 10(n+1 transformation was applied prior to the analysis of correlation. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to examine the relationship between flesh-fly abundance with temperature and habitat preference. The entire sample accumulated 1 305 individuals and 18 species. The flies were more abundant in the grassland than in the woodland. Microcerella muehni, Oxysarcodexia paulistanensis, O. varia and Tricharaea (Sarcophagula occidua exhibited the higher relative abundance, representing the remaining species less than 8 % of the entire sample. Most of the recorded species showed preference for faces as bait. Concerning the dominant species, all of them but M. muehni, a suggestively termophobic species, prevailed in late spring-summer. The observed species arrangement at both sites indicates low species diversity and equitability and high information per individual in the average. The referred community traits would

  9. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina Dípteros de importancia sanitaria asociados al compostaje de biosólidos en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.OBJETIVO: Los compuestos odoríferos producidos en la Planta de Compostaje de Biosólidos de Bariloche (NO Patagonia atraen diferentes insectos, principalmente moscas (Orden Diptera. Con el objeto de caracterizarlas, se colectaron especímenes que fueron identificados taxonómicamente. Se describieron sus características comunitarias y se determinó su importancia

  10. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene Atividades antibacterianas de Myroides odoratimimus isolada de moscas varejeiras adultas (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são independentes do gene metalo beta lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Dharne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp. and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS. The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery.Moscas varejeiras (Diptera: Sarcophagidae são causa conhecida de miíase e as bactérias de seus intestinos nunca foram estudadas quanto à atividade antibacteriana. Estudos antimicrobianos de Myroides spp restringem-se à cepas hospitalares. Uma bactéria Gram negativa, Myroides sp, foi isolada do intestino de moscas varejeiras adultas (Sarcophaga sp e submetida

  11. Chrpsomva bezziana, The Cause of Myiasis on animal And Human : Problem and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an infestation of larvae (Diptera into the live host tissue of warm-blooded animals including humans . This disease is often found in tropical countries, particularly in the community with low socio-economic level. From many flies causing myiasis, Chrysomya bezziana is medically the most important agent due to its obligate parasite property and causing economies losses . Some myiasis cases on humans and animals in Indonesia are caused by C. bezziana larvae infestation or mixed infestation with Sarcophaga sp . Sulawesi, East Sumba, Lombok, Sumbawa, Papua and Java islands were reported as myiasis endemic areas . Myiasis cases on animals occurred after parturition (vulval myiasis then is followed by umbilical myiasis on their calf or traumatic wounds, while myiasis on humans are caused by untreated fresh wounds or chronic wounds such as leprosy, diabetes, etc . Besides, nature holes like nose, eyes, ears or mouth are also reported as entry port for those larvae . Clinical signs of myiasis are various and non-specific depends on location of infested part of body, i.e . fever, inflammation, pruritus, headache, vertigo, swelling and hipereosinophilia . There would be serious conditions with secondary infection by bacteria . Myiasis treatment on animals is simpler than humans . Surgical operation is often carried out on infested human part of bodies . Insecticides were used to treat animal myiasis but had raised resistant . Myiasis treatment on humans may be done locally or systemically . Antibiotic broad spectrum or which is suitable with culture and resistance status of bacteria were given for systemic treatment . Chloroform and turpentine with ratio 1 : 4 were used for local treatment . Some of essential oils have also been tested in laboratory as an alternative medicine for both humans and animals myiasis .

  12. First record of Phormia regina (Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Calliphoridae from mummies at the Sant’Antonio Abate Cathedral of Castelsardo, Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Giordani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies of insects from archaeological contexts can provide an important supplement of information to reconstruct past events, climate and environments. Furthermore, the list of the species present in an area in the past allows the reconstruction of the entomofauna on that area at that time, that can be different from the nowadays condition, providing information about biodiversity changes. In this work, the results of a funerary archaeoentomological study on samples collected from mummified corpses discovered during the restoration of the crypt of the Sant’Antonio Abate Cathedral of Castelsardo (Sardinia, Italy are reported. The majority of the sampled specimens were Diptera puparia, whereas only few Lepidoptera cocoons and some Coleoptera fragments were isolated. Among Diptera, Calliphoridae puparia were identified as Phormia regina (Meigen, 1826 and Calliphora vicina, (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 both species typical of the first colonization waves of exposed bodies. Three puparia fragments were also identified as belonging to a Sarcophaga Meigen, 1826, species (Sarcophagidae. Several Muscidae puparia of the species Hydrotaea capensis (Weidmermann, 1818, a late colonizer of bodies, and typical of buried bodies were also collected. The few moth (Lepidoptera cocoons were identified as belonging to the family Tineidae. This family comprises species feeding on dry tissues and hair typical of the later phases of the human decomposition. Among Coleoptera a single specimen in the family Histeridae, Saprinus semistriatus (Scriba, 1790 and a single elytra, potentially of a species in the family Tenebrionidae, were also collected. Overall, the samples collected indicated an initial colonization of the bodies in an exposed context, mainly in a warm season. This research allows the finding of elements indicating the presence, at least in the past, of P. regina in Sardinia. This species at the moment seems extinct from Sardinia while it is quite common

  13. Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Khisroon, Muhammad; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-10-01

    North West Pakistan (NWP) is characterized by four eco-zones: Northern Montane Region, North Western Hills, Submontane Region and Indus Plains. Present study identified 1037 cases of traumatic myiasis in the region during 2012-2015. Screw worm larvae were classified as 12 species: Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), Chryomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart), Sarchophaga species. Among these C. bezziana, L. cuprina and W. magnifica with approximately 882 case reports were the principal agents of traumatic myiasis. The species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. In order to investigate spatial distribution of these dominant species we used MaxEnt niche model. Our results revealed a well-established occurrence of C. bezziana and L. cuprina in the four eco-regions while W. magnifica is currently contained in the Submontane Region. Several hot spot areas of infestation were detected all characterized by high human population density showing synanthropic nature of these species. Wohlfahrtia magnifica was excluded from Northern Montane Region with severe winters and Southern Indus Plains with harsh summers revealing that invasive species are initially sensitive to extreme of temperatures. Presence of L. cuprina in the wet areas of North Humid Belt (Maximum annual precipitation: 1641mm) depicted a moisture preference of the species. In perspective of changing climate and future predictions of severe events such as droughts and flooding in NWP, W. magnifica can potentially alter the species composition. Considering these findings in an eco-geographically dynamic region of Pakistan we predict that two factors (1) Growing human population (2) Climatic conditions, equally contribute to range

  14. Review of forensically important entomological specimens in the period of 1972 - 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H L; Krishnasamy, M; Abdullah, A G; Jeffery, J

    2004-12-01

    Forensic entomological specimens received by the Unit of Medical Entomology, IMR., from hospitals and the police in Malaysia in the last 3 decades (1972 - 2002) are reviewed. A total of 448 specimens were received. From these, 538 identifications were made with the following results: Eighteen species of cyclorrphaga flies were identified consisting of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) 215 cases (47.99%), Ch. rufifacies (Masquart) 132 (29.46%), Ch. villeneuvi Patton 10 (2.23%), Ch. nigripes Aubertin 7 (1.56%), Ch. bezziana Villeneuve 4 (0.89%), Ch. pinguis (Walker) 1 (0.22%), Chrysomya sp. 47 (10.49%), Sarcophaga sp. 28 (6.25%), Lucilia sp. 21 (4.69%), Hermetia sp. 15 (3.35%), He. illucens (Linnaeus) 1 (0.22%), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) 3 (0.67%), Hemipyrellia sp. 2 (0.45%), Ophyra spinigera 1 (0.22%), Ophyra sp. 6 (1.34%), Calliphora sp. 24 (5.36%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) 1 (0.22%) and Eristalis sp. 1 (0.22%). Other non - fly insect specimens are Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus) (Pubic louse) 2 (0.45%) and Coleoptera (Beetles) 1 (0.22%). Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in cadavers from different ecological habitats. Sy. nudiseta is an uncommon species, thus far found only on cadavers from indoors. Sy. nudiseta is reported for the second time in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 329 cases (73.44%) had a single fly infestation, 109 cases (24.33%) had double fly infestation and 10 cases (2.23%) had triple fly infestation. Five cases (1.12%) had eggs and 3 cases (0.67%) had larval stages that were not identifiable. No arthropods were retrieved from cadavers in 8 cases (1.79%). In conclusion, although large number of fly species were found on human cadavers, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya.

  15. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀ , Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀ , Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀ . Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp . (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on

  16. Comparative venom toxicity between Pteromalus puparum and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) toward the hemocytes of their natural hosts, non-target insects and cultured insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Cai, Jun; Hu, Cui

    2005-09-01

    Crude venoms from two parasitoid species, Pteromalus puparum and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were assayed for biological activities toward hemocytes from two species of their natural hosts and eight species of their non-natural hosts as well as two lines of cultured Lepidoptera cells, respectively. By inhibiting the spreading and viability of insect hemocytes, the venom from P. puparum displayed significantly higher activities toward plasmatocytes and granular cells from both larvae and pupae of two natural hosts, Pieris rapae and Papilio xuthus, and lower activity toward those from Spodoptera litura, Musca domestica and Sarcophaga peregrina. However, no effect was found towards any type of hemocytes from other five insects tested, namely, Ectropis oblique, Galleria mellonella, Sesamia inferens, Bombyx mori and Parnara guttata. In contrast, the venom from N. vitripennis showed a narrower range of targeted insects. It appeared to have highly adverse effects on the spreading and viability of plasmatocytes and granular cells only from the natural hosts, M. domestica and S. peregrina, little toxicity to cells from P. rapae and P. xuthus, and no effect on any of the other insects tested. Pteromalus puparum venom also apparently presented a high ability to block the spreading of Tn-5B1-4 cells derived from Trichoplusia ni, and high cytotoxicity to the cells and Ha cells derived from Helicoverpa armigera. Nasonia vitripennis venom, however, only had a marked lethal effect to Ha cells. In addition, the possibility that the host range of a defined parasitoid could be assessed using our method of treating hemocytes from candidate insects with venom in vitro, and the potential of our venoms tested in the development of bio-insecticides, insect-resistant transgenic plants, are discussed.

  17. Factors related to the attraction of flies at a biosolids composting facility (Bariloche, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laos, F.; Semenas, L.; Labud, V.

    2004-01-01

    The composting process is used to treat biosolids from the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Bariloche (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Since 1998, an odourless, innocuous and stable organic amendment has been produced at the Biosolids Composting Plant of Bariloche. However, volatile compounds produced during this process, attract different vectors, mainly insects belonging to the Order Diptera, particularly in summer. To evaluate factors associated with the attraction of Diptera to composting windrows, volatile compounds, wind velocity, ambient and windrow temperatures were measured and their relationships with the taxa of flies found were determined. Sampling was conducted several months on newly formed windrows during 3 weeks of the thermophilic composting period. Composite samples from each windrow were taken on the first day of each sampling week, from November 1999 to March 2000 to analyze volatile compounds using an 'electronic nose'. Windrow and ambient temperatures and wind velocity were recorded on three consecutive days of each week, from January to March 2000; also the capture of flies was performed in this period. A weekly mean value was calculated for each environmental variable. Canonical Correspondence Analysis was employed to determine relationships between taxa of flies and the studied factors. The electronic nose discriminated among odours emitted, differentiating windrows by the bulking agent employed and by week of the thermophilic composting period. Ambient temperatures increased slightly during the sampling weeks; the highest values of wind velocity were registered during the second sampling week while windrow temperatures were sustained approximately 60 degree sign C. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that attraction of flies to composting windrows was related to minimum and maximum ambient temperatures and volatile compounds for Muscina stabulans, Fannia sp. and Acaliptratae and to wind velocity for Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga sp., Cochliomyia

  18. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  19. Gamma irradiation for disinfestation of salted and dried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.

    1975-01-01

    About 60-70% of commercially salted and dried fish were found to be infested by flies of 6 different species, i.e. the Cheese skipper (Piophila casei, L.) the Bronze bottle fly (Paenicia cuprina), the Screw worm fly (Chrysomya megacephala, Fab.), the Red-tailed flesh fly (Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, Fallen), Lucilia illustris, Meigen and Chrysomya marginalis, Weidemann. Larvae of the Cheese skipper were found to be the least radiation-sensitive, as 225 krad was required to prevent 99% of the larvae from developing into pupae. This dose was completely lethal to other developmental stages of the Cheese skipper and to all stages of other species. Irradiation at this doselevel also has some beneficial microbiological effects. Doses between 3 and 12,5 krad prevented larvae of all insects mentioned above from reaching the adult stage, though they did not inhibit the transition into the pupal form. No significant difference was observed on the organoleptic properties between salted and dried mackerel and Pla salid (Trichogaster pectoralis, Regan), a fresh water fish, irradiated up to 300 krad and those of untreated samples when tested up to 6 months of storage time at room temperature. Polypropylene bags of 0,13 and 0,20 mm thickness and polyethylene bags of 0,20 mm thickness could prevent re-infestation of the samples. Transportation tests by truck for a distance of 800 km revealed that both polypropylene and polyethylene bags of 0,13 and 0,20 mm thickness were suitable to package the mackerel samples but only polypropylene bags of 0,20 mm thickness were sufficient to protect the Pla salid samples. It appeared that salted and dried mackerel irradiated up to 300 krad and stored for 4 months was not considered rancid. No change in fat, protein and ash contents of irradiated samples was observed. It was concluded that gamma irradation could be considered as an effective method for disinfesting and preserving salted and dried fish. (author)

  20. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LEARNING-RELATED NEUROMODULATION IN MOLLUSCAN MECHANOSENSORY NEURONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William G; Kirschman, David; Rozen, Danny; Maynard, Barbara

    1996-12-01

    to 5-HT over a wide range of concentrations. We also performed experiments on two outgroup species (Akera bullata and Bulla gouldiana) and found that spike duration was unaffected by 5-HT, whereas excitability was increased. This study suggests that 5-HT-induced spike broadening arose more recently in opisthobranch evolution, whereas 5-HT-induced excitability increase is a more ancestral trait that may have been expressed in the earliest opisthobranchs. Both traits are absent in the aplysiid species D. dolabrifera, demonstrating that a lineage can lose learning-related mechanisms. The phylogenetic variation observed in the present study presents the opportunity to test general models about learning mechanisms and their evolution in unique ways. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. [[Anti-leishmanial activity in plants from a Biological Reserve of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Valerio-Campos, Idalia; Sánchez-Porras, Ronald; Bagnarello-Madrigal, Vanessa; Martínez-Esquivel, Laura; González-Paniagua, Antonieta; Alpizar-Cordero, Javier; Cordero-Villalobos, Maribel; Rodríguez-Chaves, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Leishmaniosis is an important human disease very difficult to treat. For this reason, many researchers in the world have been look- ing for anti-leishmanial chemical components present in several plant species. In Costa Rica, since no studies have been done in this field, this work aimed at the search of active chemical components in local plants that may have an activity against Leishmania sp. A total of 67 plants were selected from the Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve (REBAMB). For these collected plants, fresh or dried hidroalcoholic extracts of root, stem, mature or young leaves, flowers, and immature or mature fruits, were prepared under conventional methods. All extracts were tested for their effect against a strain of Leishmania (OCR with known characteristics). Firstly, by presumptive tests, we selected only those with some activity, and then, more specific studies were done to determine the IC50 in μg/mL; a promising plant was considered only if at least one of its parts presented an IC50 plants were obtained and their lowest and highest IC50 obtained values presented (μg/mL): Bocconia frutescens (0.6 and 66.7), Clematis dioica (27.5 and 44.4), Cordia megalantha (80.0), Eugenia austin-smithi (90.6), Guarea bullata (98.8), Guateria tonduzii (44.4 and 66.3), Mikania holwayana (45.0 and 95.6), Nectandra membranacea (44.5 and 58.6), Neurolaena lobata (25.0 and 100.0), Persea povedae (76.9), Piper auritum (60.0), Rollinia pittieri (43.1), Solanum arboreum (25.8 and 72.5), Tetrorchidiumn eurphyllum (53.8 and 95.0), Witheringia solanacea (15.9 and 98.1) and Zanthoxylum juniperinum (23.4 and 97.5). Although the parasitic effect of fresh or dried extracts were almost similar, the fresh material slightly showed better results. That anti-parasitic effect occurred in one or more than four parts of the plant. Most of the active extracts did not produce lysis and aglutination which indicates a low toxicity. Since the species studied are different from those

  2. Taxonomia de Coffea arabica L. VI: caracteres morfológicos dos haplóides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1952-06-01

    monosperma, bem como as plantas bullata, podem ser encontradas em qualquer variedade de café, motivo por que não devem ser consideradas como variedades, mas, apenas, como haplóides ou poliplóides das variedades de que se originaram.Haploid plants were found in progenies of the following varieties of Coffea arabica : typica, bourbon, maragogipe, semperflorens, laurina, erecta, caturra and San Ramon. These haploids resemble the normal plants from which they have originated ; they are reduced in size, their branches are more slender and the leaves are narrower and thinner. Flowers are normal, smaller, with very low fertility, due to abnormal meiosis. The dominant genetic factors maragogipe (Mg, erecta (Er, caturra (Ct, and San Ramon, and the recessive factors semperflorens (sf and laurina (lr have the same phenotypical expression both in haploid and normal plants. The Br (bronze young leaves gene shows incomplete dominance, the heterozygous plants having light bronze tips; the haploid with a single dose of Br has also a light bronze color of the young leaves. In the presence of tt the Na gene is incompletely dominant the heterozygotes having the murta phenotype (ttNana. Haploids derived from bourbon (ttNaNa, therefore hemizygotes t Na, do not resemble murta but bourbon. Attention was called to pure lines obtained through duplication of chromosome number of haploids, for use in progeny tests, in order to measure the environmental variation, and also to determine mutation rate in C. arabica. Observation on meiosis and the results of genetic analysis have already pointed out that C. arabica is probably an allotetraploid of ancient origin ; this has been confirmed by the study of the haploids here described. Monosperma coffee plants with 22 somatic chromosomes, and the bullata types with 66 or 88 chromoeomes, should not be considered any more as varieties of C. arabica, but only as haploids or polyploids of the varieties from which they originated.

  3. The effectiveness of habitat modification schemes for enhancing beneficial insects: Assessing the importance of trap cropping management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisnawati, Indah; Azis, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    . Three specific predator species were found on habitat modification field, i.e.: Crocothemis servilia, Orthetrum sabina and Paratrechina sp., as well as specific parasitoid species, i.e.: Polistes sp. (vegetative stage), Chloromyia sp., Theronia sp., Sarcophaga sp. and Cletus sp (generative stage), Condylodtylus sp., Trichogramma sp. (reproductive stage). Trends in predator abundance toward parasitoid insects were indicated a positive linear trend, with the abundance of predator on habitat modification field has an influence on the level of 67.1% parasitoid.

  4. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.