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Sample records for fleet street london

  1. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London's street network

    CERN Document Server

    Murcio, Roberto; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not su ce to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, that can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, that converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofracal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through di usion limited aggregation, evolve towards monofractality if their growth is constrained by a non-permeable boundary.

  2. Penciptaan Drama Musikal Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (Sweeney Todd:Tukang Cukur Haus Darah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Wardhana

    2013-11-01

    seluruh pertunjukan. Kata kunci: penyutradaraan, drama musikal, kisah legendaris, Sweeney Todd, teater sekolah. ABSTRACT The musical drama Sweeney Todd: Th e Demon Barber of Fleet Street. The creative directing process of this drama has given many good lessons to the art work of performing arts, especially to musical drama performance. The musical drama has its own unique characteristics in its process and performance. This type of drama is very popular in the USA, and has been the only contribution from the USA to enrich the typical of world theater. Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street is as an English legend, especially in England. This script created by Christopher Bond has been performed for several times in all around the globe. Having seen from its creating history, the story of a barber who takes revenge has been through long adaptation process. Some big authors in this era, before proceeded by Christopher Bond’s creative touch, had creatively recreated this script. The musical drama Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street was fi rstly created from the musical comedy drama and since 1920 has shown serious themes that are well known as Broadway music or American music. This drama has commonly been shown on a big stage West End and Broadway in London and New York, also in Australia and Asia. Moreover, it has also been performed by groups of school-theater and amateur theater. Most of the musical drama performances Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street are accompanied by music and are sung as well. The dialog is changed into songs. The actors are supposed to be able to sing, to act, and to dance. The musical drama is a performance that uses three main characteristics, namely: singing (solo, ensemble, and choir, dancing (individual and group, and acting, that dominates in most parts of the performance. Key words: directing, musical drama, legend story, Sweeney Todd, theater.

  3. Fleet Street(舰队街)一名的来历

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳守国

    2000-01-01

    Fleet Street 是伦敦的一条著名的大道,它曾经以众多的书店闻名遐迩,后来成为英国的报业中心,几家深有影响的大报报馆都设在这条街上。在电讯尚小发达的时代,报业自然是举足轻重,非同小可。因此 Fleet Street 几乎与 Downing Street(唐宁街,伦敦西区一街名,首相官邸和一些主要政府部门所在地)和 Buckingham(白金汉宫,英国王宫,在伦敦)齐名。fleet 意为“舰队”,源自古英语的 fléotan 一词,原意为“船只”。另外,在古条顿语中有 fleutan 一词,意为“水湾”,后来演变为 fleet,就是“小溪”、“小河”的意思。然而,作“舰队”解的 fleet 广为使用,知者甚多,作为“小溪”、“小河”解的 fleet 仅用于英国极个别地方,仿佛成了方言词,而它偏偏是 Fleet

  4. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  5. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  6. Exploring the Evolution of London's Street Network in the Information Space: a Dual Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Masucci, A Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We study the growth of London's street-network in its dual representation, as the city has evolved over the last 224 years. The dual representation of a planar graph is a content-based network, where each node is a set of edges of the planar graph, and represents a transportation unit in the so-called information space, i.e. the space where information is handled in order to navigate through the city. First, we discuss a novel hybrid technique to extract dual graphs from planar graphs, called the hierarchical intersection continuity negotiation principle. Then we show that the growth of the network can be analytically described by logistic laws and that the topological properties of the network are governed by robust lognormal distributions characterising the network's connectivity and small-world properties that are consistent over time. Moreover, we find that the double-Pareto-like distributions for the connectivity emerge for major roads and can be modelled via a stochastic content-based network model usin...

  7. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-03-21

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  8. Resilience of Self-Organised and Top-Down Planned Cities--A Case Study on London and Beijing Street Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiu Wang

    Full Text Available The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street networks then is evaluated in primal space and dual space by deactivating road links under random and intentional attack scenarios. The results show that the reliability of London street network differs from that of Beijing, which seems to rely more on its architecture and connectivity. It is found that top-down planned Beijing with its higher average degree in the dual space and assortativity in the primal space is more robust than self-organised London using the measures of maximum and second largest cluster size and network efficiency. The article offers an insight, from a network perspective, into the reliability of street patterns in self-organised and top-down planned city systems.

  9. A modelling exercise to examine variations of NOx concentrations on adjacent footpaths in a street canyon: The importance of accounting for wind conditions and fleet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J

    2016-04-15

    Personal measurement studies and modelling investigations are used to examine pollutant exposure for pedestrians in the urban environment: each presenting various strengths and weaknesses in relation to labour and equipment costs, a sufficient sampling period and the accuracy of results. This modelling exercise considers the potential benefits of modelling results over personal measurement studies and aims to demonstrate how variations in fleet composition affects exposure results (presented as mean concentrations along the centre of both footpaths) in different traffic scenarios. A model of Pearse Street in Dublin, Ireland was developed by combining a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model and a semi-empirical equation to simulate pollutant dispersion in the street. Using local NOx concentrations, traffic and meteorological data from a two-week period in 2011, the model were validated and a good fit was presented. To explore the long-term variations in personal exposure due to variations in fleet composition, synthesised traffic data was used to compare short-term personal exposure data (over a two-week period) with the results for an extended one-year period. Personal exposure during the two-week period underestimated the one-year results by between 8% and 65% on adjacent footpaths. The findings demonstrate the potential for relative differences in pedestrian exposure to exist between the north and south footpaths due to changing wind conditions in both peak and off-peak traffic scenarios. This modelling approach may help overcome potential under- or over-estimations of concentrations in personal measurement studies on the footpaths. Further research aims to measure pollutant concentrations on adjacent footpaths in different traffic and wind conditions and to develop a simpler modelling system to identify pollutant hotspots on our city footpaths so that urban planners can implement improvement strategies to improve urban air quality.

  10. Local and regional components of aerosol in a heavily trafficked street canyon in central London derived from PMF and cluster analysis of single-particle ATOFMS spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorio, Chiara; Tapparo, Andrea; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C S; Esser-Gietl, Johanna K; Healy, Robert M; Harrison, Roy M

    2015-03-17

    Positive matrix factorization (PMF) has been applied to single particle ATOFMS spectra collected on a six lane heavily trafficked road in central London (Marylebone Road), which well represents an urban street canyon. PMF analysis successfully extracted 11 factors from mass spectra of about 700,000 particles as a complement to information on particle types (from K-means cluster analysis). The factors were associated with specific sources and represent the contribution of different traffic related components (i.e., lubricating oils, fresh elemental carbon, organonitrogen and aromatic compounds), secondary aerosol locally produced (i.e., nitrate, oxidized organic aerosol and oxidized organonitrogen compounds), urban background together with regional transport (aged elemental carbon and ammonium) and fresh sea spray. An important result from this study is the evidence that rapid chemical processes occur in the street canyon with production of secondary particles from road traffic emissions. These locally generated particles, together with aging processes, dramatically affected aerosol composition producing internally mixed particles. These processes may become important with stagnant air conditions and in countries where gasoline vehicles are predominant and need to be considered when quantifying the impact of traffic emissions.

  11. Personal exposure of street canyon intersection users to PM 2.5, ultrafine particle counts and carbon monoxide in Central London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Colvile, R.

    Short-term human exposure to PM 2.5, ultrafine particle counts (particle range: 0.02-1 μm) and carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated at and around a street canyon intersection in Central London, UK. During a four-week field campaign, groups of four volunteers collected samples at three timings (morning, lunch and afternoon), along two different routes (a heavily trafficked route and a backstreet route) via five modes of transport (walking, cycling, bus, car and taxi). PM 2.5 was sampled using high-flow gravimetric personal samplers, ultrafine particle counts were measured using TSI P-TRAKs and Langans were used to measure CO exposure. Three hundred and ninety-four samples were collected—197 PM 2.5, 86 ultrafine particle count and 111 CO. Arithmetic means of PM 2.5 personal exposure were 27.5, 33.5, 34.5, 38.0 and 41.5 μg m -3, ultrafine particle counts were 67 773, 93 968, 101 364, 99 736 and 87 545 pt cm -3 and CO levels were 0.9, 1.1, 0.8, 1.3 and 1.1 ppm for walking, cycling, bus, car and taxi respectively. On the heavily trafficked route, personal exposure was 35.3 μg m -3, 101142 pt cm -3 and 1.3 ppm, and on the backstreet route it was 31.8 μg m -3, 71628 pt cm -3 and 0.6 ppm for PM 2.5, ultrafine particle counts and CO, respectively. Personal exposure levels were high during the morning measurements for all three pollutants (34.6 μg m -3, 106 270 pt cm -3 and 1.5 ppm for PM 2.5, ultrafine particle counts and CO, respectively).There was a moderately strong correlation between personal exposure of ultrafine particle counts and CO ( r=0.7, N=67) but a weaker correlation between PM 2.5 and ultrafine particle counts ( r=0.5, N=83) and a low correlation between PM 2.5 and CO exposure ( r=0.2, N=105). The exposure assessment also revealed that the background and kerbside monitoring stations were not representative of the personal exposure of individuals to PM 2.5 and CO at and around a street canyon intersection.

  12. DVD. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Egle Loo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loo, Egle

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalist "Sweeney Todd : The Demon Barber of Fleet Street" Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel : režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  13. Fritz London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  14. Turner's prize[London transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrington, M.

    2000-10-26

    The article describes Ken Livingstone's plans for solving London's traffic problems: Derek Turner will be 'in charge of the capital's streets' but Livingstone will chair the board meetings. The radical new scheme will apply to both the Greater London Authority, its transport branch Transport for London (TfL) and 33 London Boroughs. Within TfL there is a core division called 'street management services' which has five area teams for day-to-day street management including road maintenance and street lighting. Other departments are communications, support services, traffic technology services, service development and performance, a London bus department and a department concentrating on congestion charging. There are plans to support pedestrians and cyclists but 'bus travel is really what it is all about'.

  15. FleetDASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    FleetDASH helps federal fleet managers maximize their use of alternative fuel. This presentation explains how the dashboard works and demonstrates the newest capabilities added to the tool. It also reviews complementary online tools available to fleet managers on the Alternative Fuel Data Center.

  16. Loss and material culture in South London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.; Parrott, F.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the ways in which people, mainly selected from a single street in South London, utilize material culture in dealing with various experiences of separation and loss, such as death or the ending of a relationship. It starts from a dialectical approach to all relationships as con

  17. London, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  18. Fleet Feedback and Fleet Efficiency Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Marine Corps have 10 years of experience implementing a telematics program and several lessons to share with partner agencies. This presentation details results of a Marine Corps survey as well as methods of using telematics to promote fleet efficiency and optimize the vehicle acquisition process.

  19. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating stre

  20. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  1. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  2. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  3. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  4. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  5. The London Congestion Charge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leape, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    .... In early 2003, London imposed a congestion charge—a daily charge for driving or parking a vehicle on public roads within central London between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. on workdays...

  6. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  7. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    , can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...... to complex handling and timing restrictions. The objective of the problem is cost minimization, which translates nearly directly into the minimization of CO2 emissions and pollution. Additionally, it is important that all cost elements, including the ones that are only loosely coupled with activity choices...

  8. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...... source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were...

  9. White Tower, London, England

    OpenAIRE

    William the Conqueror; William Rufus; Henry I

    2007-01-01

    White Tower (Tower of London), London, England. Photograph taken by Terry Barry. There is restoration work being carried out on one of the towers. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was built by William the Conqueror and finished by his sons and successors, William Rufus and Henry I, around 1087. It is 90 feet high and is of massive construction, the walls varying from 15 feet thickness at the base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts. Above ...

  10. Taaskasutuses London / Marlen Promann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Promann, Marlen

    2007-01-01

    "100% Disain London" messist, kus peateemaks oli säästlikkus disainis, materjalides, tehnoloogias ja tootmises. Markko Karu jõudis sellel noore disainiettevõtja auhinna finaali (International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year)

  11. Materials modelling in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David

    2016-04-01

    Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.

  12. The London Congestion Charge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leape, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    .... Traffic congestion has declined substantially, and the program is largely popular. This article describes the origins of the London congestion charge, how it overcame practical and theoretical difficulties, and what effects it has had...

  13. Taaskasutuses London / Marlen Promann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Promann, Marlen

    2007-01-01

    "100% Disain London" messist, kus peateemaks oli säästlikkus disainis, materjalides, tehnoloogias ja tootmises. Markko Karu jõudis sellel noore disainiettevõtja auhinna finaali (International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year)

  14. Cask fleet operations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system.

  15. What makes london work like london?

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2014-08-01

    Urban data ranging from images and laser scans to traffic flows are regularly analyzed and modeled leading to better scene understanding. Commonly used computational approaches focus on geometric descriptors, both for images and for laser scans. In contrast, in urban planning, a large body of work has qualitatively evaluated street networks to understand their effects on the functionality of cities, both for pedestrians and for cars. In this work, we analyze street networks, both their topology (i.e., connectivity) and their geometry (i.e., layout), in an attempt to understand which factors play dominant roles in determining the characteristic of cities. We propose a set of street network descriptors to capture the essence of city layouts and use them, in a supervised setting, to classify and categorize various cities across the world. We evaluate our method on a range of cities, of various styles, and demonstrate that while standard image-level descriptors perform poorly, the proposed network-level descriptors can distinguish between different cities reliably and with high accuracy. © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  17. Street Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital Ronell

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the fragile intersection where rumor and a more "authentic" modality of language can be shown to cross over into one another. Treating the relationship of Benjamin, Heidegger and Rousseau to rumoro-logical paranoia, "Street-Talk" interprets the epistemological teetering between the knowing and not-knowing around which Fama articulates her power. All three of these thinkers are shown to be exemplarily afflicted by rumorous utterances and share a drive to create, in their works, a rumor control center. Often these controls take over the features which they attempt to disown; thus the greatest moment of truth-telling appropriates the form of inferential small-talk. The essay analyzes a temporality of writing disclosed by Rousseau's Promenades in terms of an après-ma-mort structure. Finally, guided by Blanchot's insights and Huet's notion of monsterized publicity, the essay addresses the rapport of rumor to oeuvre: Ecce Fama .

  18. SCHOLARSHIPS AT LONDON MET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜松

    2006-01-01

    London Metropolitan University has a widerange of scholarship programmes for internationalstudents.We offer full and partial scholarships tooustandifg students from all over the world. Ourprogrammes include joint scholarships with BBCWorld Service, Asia House, International StudentsHouse and other global organisations.If you have outstanding academic results,and an excellent track record, please see our

  19. Kommunisme i London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Nielsen, Kasper Porsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Begrebet ”kommunisme” var på dagsordenen, da over 800 mennesker mødtes i Birkbeck University College i London, den 13.-15. marts, 2009. En perlerække af talere var inviteret: Alain Badiou, Michael Hardt, Bruno Bosteels, Peter Hallward, Allesandro Russo, Alberto Toscano, Toni Negri, Terry Eagleton...

  20. Charmed Life in Contemporary London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Documentary film produced for the Miracles and Charms exhibition at the Wellcome Collection, London......Documentary film produced for the Miracles and Charms exhibition at the Wellcome Collection, London...

  1. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  2. London 2012: Medal projection

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We project the medal number and medal ranking for the Olympic Games in London in 2012. The largest relative increase is predicted for Brazil (80% more medals) and the UK (+28%). UK will continue to rank 4th. The largest decreases in medal numbers are predicted for Australia (-13%, but remains in 5th place) and the USA (-13%, remains No. 1). Germany should retain a rank of 6th and will win 38 medals (compared to 41 in 2008).

  3. Anomaly Detection in a Fleet of Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fleet is a group of systems (e.g., cars, aircraft) that are designed and manufactured the same way and are intended to be used the same way. For example, a fleet...

  4. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  5. Platform Design for Fleet-Level Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    accumulating unique tail numbers resulting in a fleet composition of 92 C-5s, 145 C-17s, and 69 747-Fs. In this 22-base problem, fleet size is reduced in...of upgrading or modifying aircraft (e.g., re-engining or addition of winglets ) in the fleet; in recent history, this approach is not uncommon to

  6. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  8. SPRUCE Mashup London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SPRUCE digital preservation mashups are a series of unique events that are being organized in the United Kingdom to bring together digital preservation practitioners and developers to work on real-world digital preservation challenges. During the 3-day event the digital preservation developers work to create practical solutions to real-world challenges the practitioners are having related to digital preservation. Meanwhile, the practitioners work to create compelling business cases for digital preservation at their institution. This article describes the SPRUCE Mashup London event held in September 2012.

  9. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  10. Robustness and Adaptiveness Analysis of Future Fleets

    CERN Document Server

    Wesolkowski, Slawomir; Whitacre, James M; Bender, Axel; Abbass, Hussein

    2009-01-01

    Making decisions about the structure of a future military fleet is a challenging task. Several issues need to be considered such as the existence of multiple competing objectives and the complexity of the operating environment. A particular challenge is posed by the various types of uncertainty that the future might hold. It is uncertain what future events might be encountered; how fleet design decisions will influence and shape the future; and how present and future decision makers will act based on available information, their personal biases regarding the importance of different objectives, and their economic preferences. In order to assist strategic decision-making, an analysis of future fleet options needs to account for conditions in which these different classes of uncertainty are exposed. It is important to understand what assumptions a particular fleet is robust to, what the fleet can readily adapt to, and what conditions present clear risks to the fleet. We call this the analysis of a fleet's strate...

  11. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary...

  12. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  13. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  14. Street typology in Kathmandu and street transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K. Shrestha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lively and pedestrian friendly streets of the Malla period and the unique streetscape of the Rana period, including streets in planned and haphazardly developed areas, are being rapidly transformed due to unmanaged urban growth, chaotic construction and a growing number of vehicles in Kathmandu. This has destroyed the physical form, reduced social activities, increased accidents and decreased pedestrian comfort on all types of streets. These negative consequences cannot be addressed through the existing legal and institutional frameworks of the urban development and traffic management authorities. Even recent street improvements have discouraged pedestrian movement, degraded the streetscape and replaced public spaces with traffic. This has further congested pedestrians and traffic in areas that were already crowded. To reverse this trend and to enhance the qualities of traditional streets of Kathmandu, a threefold urban design strategy is essential. This will decentralise business activities from urban centres, improve transitional spaces between streets (and sidewalks and ground floor activities of buildings on both sides of the streets, and strictly enforce traffic management, all supported by flexible design guidelines, incentives and consensus among various stakeholders.

  15. A cask fleet operations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs.

  16. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  17. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  18. The Philae Controversy – Muscular Modernization and Paternalistic Preservation in Aswan and London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2011-01-01

    Philae as it unfolded at the Foreign Office in Downing Street, in Egyptologists circles in Britain, among British administrators in Cairo, and in public spheres in late-Victorian London. Introducing the terms muscular modernization and paternalistic preservation the article analyses the tensions...

  19. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  20. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  1. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  2. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  3. CNG and Fleets: Building Your Business Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Two online resources help fleets evaluate the economic soundness of a compressed natural gas program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE 2.0) model and the accompanying report, Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications, are uniquely designed for fleet managers considering an investment in CNG and can help ensure wise investment decisions about CNG vehicles and infrastructure.

  4. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  5. William Blake:London VS William Wordsworth:London, 1802

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂莉媛

    2013-01-01

    Blake and Wordsworth are all important representatives of romantic poets. Though Blake is 13 years older than Word⁃sworth, they are both concerned with human beings, especially the lives of lower class. The poem, London and London, 1802 were created in different time, but they both reflect the miserable lives of common people during industrial revolution period to some extent. This article compares some similarities and differences between the two poems.

  6. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  7. INTERCONTINENTAL FINANCIAL STREET BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGCHUNYUE; FENGJIAYUN

    2005-01-01

    InterContinental Financial Street Beijing opened its doors on May 1st, 2005, just days before the world's business leaders flooded into town for the Fortune Global Forum.The first international luxury hotel in the Chinese capital's new and rapidly growing Financial Street business center, the InterContinental Financial Street Beijing is the flagship property of FnterContinental Hotels and Resorts on the Chinese mainland, and as such a pioneer in Beijing's future,

  8. Clean Cities Helps Fleets Go Green (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-01

    Green fleet programs, like those in Ohio and Illinois, certify vehicle fleets based on environmental and fuel-use requirements. The programs encourage the use of alternative fuels and provide a way to recognize fleets for participating.

  9. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  10. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  11. Widening Sesame Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T. Kay

    1979-01-01

    Traces the developmental history of Sesame Street from the initial efforts to obtain funding and set goals to present day importation of programs to other countries. It is recommended that Sesame Street producers incorporate Piagetian theories on cognitive development in order to realize learning gains. (Author)

  12. An investigation on the effect of street morphology to ambient air quality using six real-world cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jialei; Gao, Zhi; Ding, Wowo; Yu, Ying

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are vulnerable to air pollution mainly caused by vehicle emissions, which are therefore closely related to pedestrians' health. Previous studies have showed that air quality in street canyons is associated with street morphology, though the majority of them have focused on idealized street models. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship of street morphology to air quality for 6 irregular real-world cases selected from America, Europe, and China, i.e. Manhattan, Paris, Barcelona, Berlin, London and Nanjing. Each street is analyzed as a set of slices to propose a couple of morphology indices for quantitatively assessing the actual street morphology. Pollutant transport rate of mean flows and turbulent diffusion, net escape velocity and age of air are obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to assess the ventilations and pollutant dispersion within street canyons with a parallel approaching wind. The results show that the street morphology characteristics, including the street width, lateral openings and intersections, are closely related to the air flows in street canyons. The air quality improves with a decreasing aspect ratio of central street owing to a larger vertical exchange through the street roof, which suggests an open central street is of better air quality. The lateral openings and intersections of streets have important effects on the air flows in street canyons, and the effects are particularly pronounced when the street widths are similar. The street continuity ratio indicates street continuity. It relates to the openings and the symmetry of a street and impacts on the air flows and pollutant dispersion through the lateral openings of the central street. The street spatial closure ratio is determined by the street continuity ratio and the aspect ratio of the central street. When the aspect ratio of central street is not excessively high, higher values of street continuity ratio and spatial closure ratio

  13. 40 CFR 610.32 - Test fleet selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 610.32 Section... fleet selection. (a) The composition and size of the test fleet will be determined by the Administrator... test fleet will be determined by the Administrator in consultation with the FTC. (b) The goal of...

  14. Securing The Streets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chongqing takes back its streets from gangs six people were sentenced to death and another five received jail terms during trials in southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality on October 21 for their involvement in gang activity.

  15. Poole High Street study

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2007-01-01

    A presentation given to key decision makers within Poole to improve the retail offer in Poole High Street and leverage the benefit of improved town planning and the introduction of quality retail companies.

  16. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  17. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  18. Weekly Fleet Assignment Model and Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xing-hui; ZHU Jin-fu; GONG Zai-wu

    2007-01-01

    A 0-1 integer programming model for weekly fleet assignment was put forward based on linear network and weekly flight scheduling in China. In this model, the objective function is to maximize the total profit of fleet assignment, subject to the constraints of coverage, aircraft flow balance, fleet size, aircraft availability, aircraft usage, flight restriction, aircraft seat capacity,and stopover. Then the branch-and-bound algorithm based on special ordered set was applied to solve the model. At last, a realworld case study on an airline with 5 fleets, 48 aircrafts and 1 786 flight legs indicated that the profit increase was $1591276 one week and the running time was no more than 4 min, which shows that the model and algorithm are fairly good for domestic airline.

  19. GNSS systems in vehicle fleet management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arkadiusz TYSZKO; Tomasz TEMLIN; Stanisław OSZCZAK

    2007-01-01

    GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) in connection with othertechnologies, such as mobile telephone GSM will improve management of chains of orders and fleet management in all types of transport...

  20. Temporal Optimization Planning for Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state-of-the-art pla......Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state......-of-the-art planning and scheduling techniques do not offer cost models that are rich enough to represent essential objectives of these problems. To this end, we introduce a novel framework called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). TOP uses partial order planning to build optimization models associated...

  1. Sustainable Fishing Fleet; a Systems Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Utne, Ingrid Bouwer

    2007-01-01

    Many fisheries have significant challenges related to sustainable development, such as overexploitation and overcapacity in the fishing fleet. Overcapacity leads to increased pressure on fish resources, reduced profitability, and environmental problems such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and acidification fromfuel consumption. Sustainable management of the fish resources is an important objective in Norway, but overcapacity is a problem in several Norwegian fleet segments. Important issues...

  2. Eye casualty services in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  3. London´s erotic masterpiece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerchlango, Jørg

    2004-01-01

    Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork......Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork...

  4. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  5. Seventh Fleet field training exercise : Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo : fires initiatives final report

    OpenAIRE

    Schacher, G. E.; Pilnick, Steve; Irvine, Nelson; Gallup, Shelley

    2003-01-01

    Fleet Battle Experiment Kilo was conducted during Seventh Fleet exercise Tandem Thrust 03. During the Field Training Exercise phase, testing of Time Sensitive Targets processes using the Joint Fires Network was carried out. This report contains results obtained on contributions made by the Joint Fires Network to Navy Time Sensitive Targeting and experiment lessons learned. NA

  6. London: Endless Possibility for Enjoyment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      With over 30,000 shops and stores to choose from, as well as a burgeoning reputation in the fashion world, shoppers will not be disappointed - from designer labels in Bond Street to bustling street markets in Camden, Notting Hill or Brick Lane.The capital also has 400 live music venues,catering for everything from opera to Brit pop and sports fans will not be short of excitement whenever they come.The summer sees the world's largest classical musical festival at the Royal Albert Hall - the Proms.……

  7. London: Endless Possibility for Enjoyment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ With over 30,000 shops and stores to choose from, as well as a burgeoning reputation in the fashion world, shoppers will not be disappointed - from designer labels in Bond Street to bustling street markets in Camden, Notting Hill or Brick Lane.The capital also has 400 live music venues,catering for everything from opera to Brit pop and sports fans will not be short of excitement whenever they come.The summer sees the world's largest classical musical festival at the Royal Albert Hall - the Proms.

  8. London 2012 - Medal Projection - Medaillenvorausberechnung

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We project the medal number and medal ranking for the Olympic Games in London in 2012. The largest relative increase is predicted for Brazil (80% more medals) and the UK (+28%).UK will conti-nue to rank 4th. The largest decreases in medal numbers are predicted for Australia (-13%, but remains in 5th place) and the USA (-13%, remains No. 1). Germany should retain a rank of 6th and will win 38 medals (compared to 41 in 2008).

  9. A Street With History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of old and new,entertainment and business,Beijing’s Xidan Street is a booming area that attracts scores of visitors About 2 km west of Tiananmen Square is Xidan Street,one of the most famous com- mercial areas in Beijing and once the home of temples and entertainment venues. Xidan was a burgeoning commercial area as early as the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). At that time,businessmen,travelers and traders from southwest China used to stop in Xidan before heading for other parts of Beijing.They fuelled a boom in shops,markets,

  10. Contributing Data to the Fleet DNA Project (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial fleet transportation data helps vehicle manufacturers and developers optimize vehicle designs and helps fleet managers choose advanced technologies for their fleets. This online tool - available at www.nrel.gov/fleetdna - provides data summaries and visualizations similar to real-world 'genetics' for medium- and heavy-duty commercial fleet vehicles operating within a variety of vocations. To contribute your fleet data, please contact Adam Duran of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at adam.duran@nrel.gov or 303-275-4586.

  11. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  12. Benjamin Franklin Street Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Seth F.

    In this evaluation report of the sixth year of operation of the Benjamin Franklin-Urban League Street Academy in New York City, it is recommended that the program be continued for the seventh year despite the poorer than expected student gains in all studied components and the sporadic student attendance pattern and high dropout rate. Students…

  13. Saving Mango Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  14. Effects of electric vehicles on air quality in street canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Schöllnhammer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is one of the main causes of poor air quality in European cities. Electric vehicles (EV are often presented as climate friendly and as a solution for air quality problems in cities. The aim of this study is to investigate how much of this claim is true and to find out the necessary shares of electric vehicles of different types needed to solve air quality problems in street canyons. For example, the German government has formulated the ambitious goal of increasing the amount of electric vehicles in Germany to 1 million in 2020 and 6 million in 2030. Will this improve the air quality significantly? The focus of the present study is the air quality in street canyons, with a focus on PM10 and NO2 concentrations. We concentrate our investigation on road traffic, taking the fleet composition into account. A sensitivity study with a dispersion model was carried out for two street canyons in North Rhine-Westphalia, typical for moderately polluted street canyons in European cities. It is shown that the reduction potential is larger for NO2 than for PM10. The necessary share of electric vehicles to comply with the limit values lies at about 40 % for NO2 and 100 % for PM10, respectively. Thus, the share of electric vehicles needed to comply with the limit values is far above the goal of the German government.

  15. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  16. Federal Fleet Files: Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-12

    June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

  17. Air Pollution Modeling at Road Sides Using the Operational Street Pollution Model-A Case Study in Hanoi, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Ngo Tho; Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang

    2010-01-01

    In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out...... the operational street pollution model (OSPM) developed by the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark for a case study in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. OSPM predictions from five streets were evaluated against air pollution measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide...... the emission factors for Hanoi conditions. The average fleet emission factors estimated can be used for emission calculations at other streets in Hanoi and in other locations in Southeast Asia with similar vehicle types. This study also emphasizes the need to further eliminate uncertainties in input data...

  18. Bars in the Barkor Street

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In daytime,the Barkor Street is bustling with tourists,pious pilgrims and merchants crowded together.Only when darkness falls does the street become tranquil.Nevertheless,the area surrounding the Barkor Street(from Tibetan Hospital compound extending to east Beijing Road)is then revived by various kinds of bars.

  19. Multiply-interacting Vortex Streets

    CERN Document Server

    Oskouei, Babak G; Newton, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of an infinite array of (reverse) von K'arm'an streets. Our primary motivation is to model the wake dynamics in large fish schools. We ignore the fish and focus on the dynamic interaction of multiple wakes where each wake is modeled as a reverse von K'arm'an street. There exist configurations where the infinite array of vortex streets is in relative equilibrium, that is, the streets move together with the same translational velocity. We examine the topology of the streamline patterns in a frame moving with the same translational velocity as the streets which lends insight into fluid transport through the mid-wake region. Fluid is advected along different paths depending on the distance separating two adjacent streets. Generally, when the distance between the streets is large enough, each street behaves as a single von K'arm'an street and fluid moves globally between two adjacent streets. When the streets get closer to each other, the number of streets that enter into partnership in...

  20. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in...

  1. Chronological History of Federal Fleet Actions and Mandates (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-01

    This chronological history of Federal fleet actions and mandates provides a year-by-year timeline of the acts, amendments, executive orders, and other regulations that affect Federal fleets. The fleet actions and mandates included in the timeline span from 1988 to 2009.

  2. 46 CFR 296.21 - Participating Fleet Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participating Fleet Vessels. 296.21 Section 296.21... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Priority for Granting Applications § 296.21 Participating Fleet... priority, tank vessels, in § 296.20, the second priority is applicable to Participating Fleet Vessels....

  3. 40 CFR 86.422-78 - Administrator's fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrator's fleet. 86.422-78... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.422-78 Administrator's fleet. The Administrator... accordance with § 86.421. The number of vehicles selected shall not increase the size of the test fleet...

  4. Competitive interactions between two fishing fleets in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sys, Klaas; Poos, Jan Jaap; Meensel, van Jef; Polet, Hans; Buysse, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether the landing rates of Belgian beam trawlers in the Southern Bight of the North Sea were affected through competitive interactions with the Dutch beam trawler fleet and whether the development of a pulse trawler fleet has altered competitive interactions between both fleets. Effe

  5. 40 CFR 89.117 - Test fleet selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 89.117 Section... Certification Provisions § 89.117 Test fleet selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from each... of maximum torque and secondarily at rated speed. (b) Each engine in the test fleet must...

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.330 What is the Federal Fleet Report? The Federal Fleet Report (FFR) is an annual summary of Federal fleet statistics based upon fleet composition at the end of...

  7. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet FORMAT : Civilian Research Paper DATE: 25 February 2009 WORDS: 10,172 PAGES: 56 CLASSIFICATION... Barrancas , Florida, in 1910. Unfortunately, on its first test flight, it flew only 500 yards at an altitude of 100 feet before crashing. This flight

  8. Link-Net : improving railcar fleet management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, G.; Partington, M. [Procor Limited, Oakville, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Information about Link-Net, a new rail car information facility available on Netscape, was presented. Link-Net was developed by Ontario`s Procor Limited. It can be used to find a comprehensive list of data on rail fleet management, down to details about the status of single cars. 6 figs.

  9. GNSS systems in vehicle fleet management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz TYSZKO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System in connection with othertechnologies, such as mobile telephone GSM will improve management of chains of orders and fleet management in all types of transport. The paper describes existing navigation satellite systems (NAVSTAR GPS, GLONASS, EGNOS. It also presents advantages and barriers of using GNSS in transportation systems.

  10. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  11. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    , and we discuss some of the most central dilemmas in today's social work with young drug users. Among other things, we identify pervasive marginalizing dynamics in the social system that result partly from the deep-rooted cultural dichotomy between stigma and taboo that organizes the drug issue......, and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...... - sites of alternate ordering - where issues of drug use and other social problems can be dealt with and objectified in more flexible ways and handled as part of ongoing social practices of everyday life....

  12. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional oppositio......This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...... oppositional social movement alongside a legitimizing countermovement, but also a new notion of political community as an ensemble of discursive practices that are endogenous to the constitution of political regimes from the “inside out.” These new political identities are bound by thin ties of political...

  13. Modeling LED street lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ivan; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Saucedo-A, Tonatiuh; Bugarin, Alejandra

    2014-07-10

    LED luminaires may deliver precise illumination patterns to control light pollution, comfort, visibility, and light utilization efficiency. Here, we provide simple equations to determine how the light distributes in the streets. In particular, we model the illuminance spatial distribution as a function of Cartesian coordinates on a floor, road, or street. The equations show explicit dependence on the luminary position (pole height and arm length), luminary angle (fixture tilt), and the angular intensity profile (radiation pattern) of the LED luminary. To achieve this, we propose two mathematical representations to model the sophisticated intensity profiles of LED luminaries. Furthermore, we model the light utilization efficiency, illumination uniformity, and veiling luminance of glare due to one or several LED streetlamps.

  14. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    , and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias......This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and we discuss some of the most central dilemmas in today's social work with young drug users. Among other things, we identify pervasive marginalizing dynamics in the social system that result partly from the deep-rooted cultural dichotomy between stigma and taboo that organizes the drug issue...

  15. Back Street Bounty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID SPARKES

    2010-01-01

    @@ As soon as I stepped into the main street of the old city in Pingyao.Shanxi Province.I had a feeling I would not like the place.In fact.I basically made my mind up on the spot that I disliked it.It looked overly touristy.clichéd and lacking in the authenticity I was hoping for.My escape from Beijing's expat scene was looking shaky.

  16. How Fleet Bank fought employee flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantian, Haig R; Szostak, Anne

    2004-04-01

    In the late 1990s, Fleet Bank was facing high and rising employee turnover, particularly in its retail operations. Overall turnover had reached 25% annually, and among some groups, such as tellers and customer service reps, turnover was as high as 40%. Using a new methodology developed by Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Fleet set out to determine why so many employees were leaving and what could be done to retain them. It began examining data from HR, finance, operations, and sales about employee behavior and the factors that influence it in different locations and labor markets, departments or work groups, in positions with different pay and benefits, and under different supervisors. Fleet's analysis showed that people were leaving not so much for better pay--their personal testimony notwithstanding--but for broader experience, which they thought would enhance their marketability. Additionally, the analysis revealed a link between the turnover problem and the company's busy history of mergers and acquisitions. Fleet's mergers and acquisitions. frequently meant that it had to consolidate operations. That consolidation resulted in layoffs, which provoked higher levels of voluntary turnover, perhaps because remaining employees began worrying about their job security. While the obvious solution to the turnover problem might have been to compensate the remaining employees--say, with higher pay--the more effective and less costly solution, Fleet discovered, was to focus on employees' career opportunities within the company. Those who moved up the hierarchy, or who even made lateral moves, stayed longer. By offering better internal opportunities for career development, the bank was able to stanch much of the hemorrhaging in personnel. Its solutions required only modest investments, which in the end saved the company millions of dollars.

  17. TEMAS: fleet-based bio-economic simulation software to evaluate management strategies accounting for fleet behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Sparre, Per Johan

    2007-01-01

    TEMAS (technical management measures) is a fleet-based bio-economic software for evaluating management strategies accounting for technical measures and fleet behaviour. It focuses on mixed fisheries in which several fleets can choose among several fishing activities to target different stocks...

  18. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  19. CleanFleet. Volume 2, Project Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The CleanFleet alternative fuels demonstration project evaluated five alternative motorfuels in commercial fleet service over a two-year period. The five fuels were compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), M-85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent RFG), and electric vans. Eight-four vans were operated on the alternative fuels and 27 vans were operated on gasoline as baseline controls. Throughout the demonstration information was collected on fleet operations, vehicle emissions, and fleet economics. In this volume of the CleanFleet findings, the design and implementation of the project are summarized.

  20. Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste: The London Convention Implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-12-31

    The `Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project`, POLOS, is a three-year international research project in international law and international relations. This report is one of the publications under POLOS. The subject is the Soviet dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas. The most intensely radioactive waste is a number of submarine reactors still containing high-level spent fuel. Some of this dumping violated Soviet commitments to the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and this is the starting point of the report. The discussion focuses on how international regimes may affect the domestic implementation in member states, that is, how international agreements can be converted into behavioural adaptation on the part of target groups. Soviet and later Russian management of nuclear waste in the north has been significantly influenced by regulations and programmes generated under international dumping instruments. These international programmes have been supported by the active participation of the Navy itself in the belief that they would lead to transfer of technology and financial resources to Russia from the West. Inspection of military nuclear waste management is largely left to the Northern Fleet. As for monitoring, measurements were for a long time not taken near the dumping sites. As for regulations, the Northern Fleet continued dumping long into the 1990s without permission. Regarding compliance stimulation, foreign support has helped the Northern Fleet avoid dumping. 113 refs.

  1. Did policies to abate atmospheric emissions from traffic have a positive effect in London?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Anna; Fuller, Gary W

    2016-11-01

    A large number of policy initiatives are being taken at the European level, across the United Kingdom and in London to improve air quality and reduce population exposure to harmful pollutants from traffic emissions. Trends in roadside increments of nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM), black carbon (CBLK) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were examined at 65 London monitoring sites for two periods of time: 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Between 2005 and 2009 there was an overall increase in NO2 reflecting the growing evidence of real world emissions from diesel vehicles. Conversely, NO2 decreased by 10%·year(-1) from 2010 onwards along with PM2.5 (-28%·year(-1)) and black carbon (-11%·year(-1)). Downwards trends in air pollutants were not fully explained by changes in traffic counts therefore traffic exhaust emission abatement policies were proved to be successful in some locations. PM10 concentrations showed no significant overall change suggesting an increase in coarse particles which offset the decrease in tailpipe emissions; this was especially the case on roads in outer London where an increase in the number of Heavy Good Vehicles (HGVs) was seen. The majority of roads with increasing NOX experienced an increase in buses and coaches. Changes in CO2 from 2010 onwards did not match the downward predictions from reduced traffic flows and improved fleet efficiency. CO2 increased along with increasing HGVs and buses. Polices to manage air pollution provided differential benefits across London's road network. To investigate this, k-means clustering technique was applied to group roads which behaved similarly in terms of trends to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to mitigate traffic emissions. This is the first time that London's roadside monitoring sites have been considered as a population rather than summarized as a mean behaviour only, allowing greater insight into the differential changes in air pollution abatement policies.

  2. The spatial relationship between pedestrian flows and street characteristics around multiple destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Nakamura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility improvement for pedestrians has received increasing attention in planning. However, pedestrian space is more likely to be designed only for individual streets to secure minimum easiness of walking, and little attention has been paid to developing a street network for pedestrians to walk around multiple destinations on a neighbourhood scale. There is also a lack of empirical analysis of how much pedestrian accessibility would vary depending on the characteristics of streets on routes to specific destinations. This paper is aimed at examining the spatial relationship between pedestrian flows by street type and various street characteristics around multiple destinations in a city centre. First, a literature review summarises what street characteristics should be considered in accessibility analysis for pedestrians. Then, a pedestrian flow model is developed in a way that measures accessibility with street characteristics of origins, destinations, and routes on multi-scales from on-street ones to neighbourhood-scale ones. A multiple regression model is made using data from the West End area in London, in which street characteristics are taken for routes from each street segment to nearby stations and attractions. As a result, this analysis found that the route characteristics to a single nearest station and attraction can account for pedestrian flows well, but route characteristics to multiple nearby stations and attractions do not improve the model fit. These results are more prominent for pedestrianised streets. Their implication may be that these destinations are currently not linked well for pedestrians, and pedestrianisation is required to contribute more to the linkage.

  3. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Svante [VTI - Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Box 55685, SE-102 15 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO{sub 2} emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run. (author)

  4. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs......-integer program (MIP) and a novel method called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). We evaluate the performance of each of these techniques on a dataset of real-world instances from our industrial collaborator, and show that automated planning scales to the size of problems faced by industry....

  5. Future Fleet Project. What Can We Afford

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    planned growth in the Navy’s shipbuilding accounts . What are the alternatives for prioritizing this spending? Both the former and current Chiefs of...in its projected unit costs , the LCS program stabilized around two designs, which are both currently  in production. An issue for future fleet... currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES

  6. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  7. Evaluation of Fleeting Operations in Ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-31

    Ecology and Field Biology, 2nd ed. Harper and Row. New York. 1974. Southern Illinois Metropolitan and Regional Planning Commission. Alton and Southern Land...site character- istics: 1. Water access - interferes with existing docks, fleets, marinas . 2. Navigation - interferes with vessel transit through...erosion (including iaskiatdos f) benthos comnities 2. Effects of r~hysical Presence of and human diz -henae at fleetina are"s on: a) wading bird

  8. Implementation of Fleet Management in Train Traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Josip Mlinarić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of fleet management in the train tractionactivity is a must in the conditions of market operation ofthe railway sector, since good management of traction units hasnot alternative. The crucial issue of implementing such sophisticatedtools is in real environment, and therefore SWOT analysisof the most important technological indicators has been carriedout, in order to determine the most efficient method of itsimplementation. The defined technological indicators and therespective criteria have been used to evaluate the possible implementationof the total fleet management system in the HiVuca vlakova (Hi- Train Traction company. The pilot projectcarried out in the activities of the Hi- Train Traction hasresulted in great savings at the annual level in fuel consumption,creating also the preconditions for the savings in fleetmaintenance and work force recruitment. Based on the resultsof the pilot project the methodology for efficient implementationof fleet management was defined. The defined methodologywas tested in real conditions and can be implemented atany company which provides services of train traction or manoeuvringof locomotives.

  9. Determination of fleet hourly emission and on-road vehicle emission factor using integrated monitoring and modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, N. T.; Martel, M.; Pongkiatkul, P.; Berkowicz, R.

    Roadside air quality and vehicle emission are important and challenging issues in urban air quality management which need to be adequately characterized. This study involves designing a monitoring program that produces suitable data to determine the on-road hourly fleet emission and emission factors of individual vehicles in a street canyon. Simultaneous hourly monitoring of roadside gaseous pollutants (both windward and leeward sides), traffic volume and speed, and wind in a busy street of Bangkok was conducted in the rainy season when traffic emission was predominant in the city. Higher pollutant concentrations often occurred at midday (11:00 to 14:00h) when higher traffic density (3700-3800vehicles h - 1, weekdays) was observed. The levels of toluene and xylenes found in this study are higher than the roadside levels reported in other Asian cities. Hourly maximum concentrations reached 258ppb for toluene, 51ppb for m, p-xylenes, 15ppb for o-xylene, 526ppb for NO x, and 10.5ppm for CO. Hourly monitoring data during the periods when the street canyon effects were pronounced were selected for determination of the fleet hourly emission and vehicle emission factors by back calculation using a street canyon model (Operational Street Pollution Model). The average fleet hourly emission at daytime of NO x (6.2kg km - 1 h - 1), CO (54kg km - 1 h - 1), toluene (2.1kg km - 1 h - 1), m, p-xylenes (0.73kg km - 1 h - 1) and o-xylene (0.27kg km - 1 h - 1) did not vary much. However, the emission rates were substantially reduced at nighttime following the traffic pattern. The obtained pollutant emission factors varied within each group of vehicles with the average values agreed reasonably with the chassis dynamometer results for NO x but somewhat higher for CO and TX. The model estimated results are, however, considered to better represent the real driving conditions in the street at the average vehicle travel speed of around 20km h - 1. A statistical sampling design is proposed

  10. Sesame Street: Socialization by Surrogate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenthal, Norman A.

    This paper reviews some of the controversy surrounding "Sesame Street's" treatment of the socialization progress of preschool television viewers. Examined in detail are those portions of "Sesame Street" programs which contribute to children's learning of socially acceptable attitudes and behaviors. Some comparisons are made…

  11. The Regulation of Street Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkour, John Boulard; Samuelsen, Helle; Yeboah, Eric Henry

    2017-01-01

    the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt...

  12. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the make or buy problem

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Redmer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the first one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Methods: The paper discusses ways of fulfilling company's transportation needs (MAKE-or-BUY problem). It means the choice between using company's own and outside fleet (buying t...

  13. Humanitarian fleet management : impacts on humanitarian logistics by outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Hajdarovic, Mina; Jensen, Jannicke

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to contribute with insights to outsourcing in the humanitarian sector, by focusing on fleet management activities. The theoretical framework showed little research combining outsourcing and fleet literature with humanitarian science. Therefore we aimed to answer the following research question: How can outsourcing of fleet management activities influence humanitarian logistics? To provide an answer to this question we looked at both the demand-side and the s...

  14. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  15. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  16. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  17. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  18. Austere kindness or mindless austerity: the efects of gift-giving to beggars in east London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lenhard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current austerity policies in the United Kingdom are creating a precarious situation for many people on the margins of society. Employing micro-level ethnographic analysis, this article addresses how government decisions affect people living on the street. Observations of how local policies demonize gift-giving to street people led me to revisit arguments about the positive and negative effects of gifts. Four months of fieldwork amongst people who beg in the City of London confirmed the Maussian ambiguity of gift exchange. The material benefit of monetary gifts is often accompanied by shared time and conversation; gifts to beggars can go beyond materiality and are hence able to create bonds of sociability.

  19. 78 FR 23935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles, by any of...

  20. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  1. Young boys and street gangs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Pless, Mette

    of joining street gangs, this presentation demonstrates that, to the young boys, street gangs represent alternative societies that seems much more accessible than school and work communities. Street gangs seemingly gives access to social recognition and networks, economic opportunities and material status...... to the police sta- tion and a short police internship, show that the boys are very attracted to the police profession and find that it offers many of the same opportunities; network, recognition and thrills. Thus, indicating that, for the 40 boys, the line between civic and anti-civic participation can...

  2. Censura e street creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwige Comoy Fusaro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scopo di questo contributo è osservare la funzione seminale della censura nella street creativity e gli spostamenti dei confini tra lecito e illecito nei complessi rapporti tra censorship e creatività nell’ambiente urbano. Sono prese in considerazione tutte le produzioni iconografiche eseguite nello spazio pubblico, commissionate e non commissionate, qualunque siano i supporti prescelti e le tecniche di esecuzione, e  prescindendo da ogni giudizio estetico e artistico. Lo studio è basato su pezzi osservati in varie città d’Italia, Francia, Germania e Inghilterra nel 2014. Si prendono in considerazione la loro precisa collocazione, i motivi raffigurati e/o espressi e le motivazioni dei loro autori, quando sono note. Vari tipi di censura spingono i doers a esprimersi per strada: anzitutto la regolamentazione dell’occupazione visiva dell’ambiente urbano, le ingiunzioni e i divieti che emanano dai media autorizzati a occupare tale ambiente. I doers denunziano inoltre le menzogne delle autorità politiche, tramite rappresentazione delle verità censurate o azioni di artivism. All’origine del gesto espressivo di strada si trovano inoltre l’impulso trasgressivo, la volontà di comunicare con la gente e, soggiacente, la consapevolezza della caducità della vita.

  3. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the make or buy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the first one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Methods: The paper discusses ways of fulfilling company's transportation needs (MAKE-or-BUY problem. It means the choice between using company's own and outside fleet (buying transportation services in a market. The essence of the MAKE-or-BUY problem lies in a time dependency, a seasonal nature of transportation needs. It leads to the MAKE-and-BUY solutions including utilization of both in-house and outside fleets. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the MAKE-and-BUY analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows a low economic justification for using the MAKE option in practice. Especially when a fleet composed of brand new vehicles is considered. Conclusions: The paper will be continued in two further papers dedicated to strategic vehicle fleet management problems including fleet sizing / composition and fleet replacement.

  4. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  5. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  6. Uncertainty in Fleet Renewal: A Case from Maritime Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantuso, Giovanni; Fagerholt, Kjetil; Wallace, Stein W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the fleet renewal problem and particularly the treatment of uncertainty in the maritime case. A stochastic programming model for the maritime fleet renewal problem is presented. The main contribution is that of assessing whether or not better decisions can be achieved by usin...

  7. 40 CFR 86.421-78 - Test fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet. 86.421-78 Section 86.421... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.421-78 Test fleet. (a) A test vehicle will be selected by... prior to the start of testing and not later than 30 days following notification of the test...

  8. 40 CFR 86.418-78 - Test fleet selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fleet selection. 86.418-78 Section 86.418-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.418-78 Test fleet selection. (a) Test...

  9. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle t

  10. WIGGLE-MATCHING USING KNOWN-AGE PINE FROM JERMYN STREET, LONDON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyers, Cathy; Sidell, Jane; van der Plicht, Johannes; Marshall, Peter; Cook, Gordon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Bayliss, Alex

    2009-01-01

    A slice of pine from the period covered by single-year calibration data (Stuiver 1993) was selected to serve as part of the quality assurance procedures of the English Heritage radiocarbon dating program. following successful wiggle-matching, of (14)C measurements from structural 15th century Englis

  11. Sesame Street: Magic or Malevolence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Anne R.; Ratliff, Richard G.

    1972-01-01

    Despite its unusual potential, both educational and social, it seems that Sesame Street may be exposing children to unnecessary aggression...(which) often goes unpunished and, occasionally, is actively rewarded." (Author)

  12. Optimization of Fleet Assignment: A Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz OZDEMIR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since poor fleet assignment can cause a great increase in costs for airline companies, asolution of the type ‘right fleet for the right flight’ would be very useful. In this paper, a fleetassignment model is set up using the data of the largest Airline Company in Turkey, TurkishAirlines. The aim of this model is to assign the most appropriate fleet type to flights whileminimizing the cost and determining the optimal number of aircraft grounded overnight at eachairport. We set up a model with constraints with thinking all airline operations and solve ourproblem using integer linear programming. Finally, we get an optimum solution which minimizesthe total cost while assigning the fleet type to the flight leg. Using optimization software (Lindo6.1, the solution to this problem generates a minimum daily cost of fleet assignment.

  13. Spacecraft fleet to comet Halley - an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurutani, B.T.

    1985-01-01

    Questions related to the formation and the characteristics of comets are discussed, and it is suggested that an evolutionary link exists between comets, prebiotic organic synthesis, and the origin of life as it is known. Fundamental questions about the solar wind interaction with comets, are considered, giving attention to the ionization mechanisms in the different cometary regions, the presence of field-aligned currents, and the cometary plasma tail. It is pointed out that some of the questions will soon be answered when the NASA-ESA International Cometary Explorer (ICE) goes through the tail of Giacobini-Zinner in September 1985, and when a five spacecraft fleet arrives at comet Halley in March 1986. 14 references.

  14. Central American Street Gangs: Their Role in Communities and Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available – Territories of Violence: State, Marginal Youth, and Public Security in Honduras, by Lirio Gutiérrez Rivera. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.– Adiós Niño: The Gangs of Guatemala City and the Politics of Death, by Deborah T. Levenson. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2013.– The Rule of Law in Central America: Citizens’ Reactions to Crime and Punishment, by Mary Fran T. Malone. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012.– Ver, oír, callar. En las profundidades de una pandilla salvadoreña, by Juan José Martínez D’Aubuisson. San Salvador: AURA Ediciones, 2013.– Gangsters Without Borders: An Ethnography of a Salvadoran Street Gang, by T. W. Ward. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

  15. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  16. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement. T...

  17. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  18. Staging the orient. Aladdin London - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Marie-Louise

    2017-01-01

    En sammenligning af John O'Keefes / Charles Farleys sceniske opsætning af Aladdin-eventyret fra Tusind og én nats eventyr i London (1813) med Adam Oehlenschlägers Aladdin-lystspil i København (1805). Artiklen diskuterer de to versioner af eventyrstykket som fortolkning og respons på to forskellig...

  19. E. B. Nicholson and the London Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    This article provides a history of the London Institution from 1805 to 1912, with special emphasis on E. B. Nicholson's term of office. The last years of the Institution are considered, its financial difficulties being traced back to the terms of its original foundation, and to the changing situation of its members. (47 references) (Author/SJ)

  20. 50 CFR 660.338 - Limited entry permits-small fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry permits-small fleet. 660.338... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.338 Limited entry permits-small fleet. (a) Small limited entry fisheries fleets... another vessel that will continue to operate in the same certified small fleet, provided that the...

  1. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104 Notice of establishment of a fleet...

  2. 77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort... Fleet Week. 2012 Fleet Week will take place from Wednesday, April 25, 2012 through Monday, April 30... vessels participating in 2012 Fleet Week transit into and out of Port Everglades. The security zone...

  3. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1 Consolidations into a fleet...

  4. 40 CFR 80.59 - General test fleet requirements for vehicle testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General test fleet requirements for... test fleet requirements for vehicle testing. (a) The test fleet must consist of only 1989-91 MY... test fleet shall have no fewer than 4,000 miles of accumulated mileage prior to being included in...

  5. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  6. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  7. SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF STREET CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinović, Aleksandra; Batrnek Antonić, Daliborka; Perinović, Marija; Rončević, Nevenka

    2015-01-01

    Street children and youth are at risk of getting engaged in different behaviors including risky sexual behavior, which adversely affects their development and health. The aim of this study was to examine sexual behavior of street children and youth, and the risks and consequences associated with sexual behavior. A pilot study was conducted on a sample of 50 users of the Drop-in Centre for Street Children in Novi Sad, from 10 to 19 years of age. The study was conducted by a psychologist through structured interviews, with prior consent of the adolescent and parent. Among the respondents who were sexually active, 41.2% had had the first sexual intercourse by the age of 12, their median age at that time being 14 years, while the age at the time of the first sexual intercourse is 16 years in the general population of Serbia. The majority of sexually active adolescents had several partners, one male adolescent had sex with a person of the same sex, and one was paid for sex. Very few respondents used a condom. Among 15 male sexually active respondents, three (ages 11, 12 and 14) were forced to have unwanted sexual intercourse, and a quarter of adolescents (three boys and one girl) were forced to do something unwanted during sex. Despite a small and unrepresentative sample, the results of this study indicate serious problems and significant risks associated with sexual behavior of children and young people who live and work in streets. This pilot study suggests that it is necessary to conduct new research on sexual behavior of street children and youth on a representative sample and with appropriate methodology. The results of a new study should be used to plan and carry out appropriate preventive measures regarding sexual behavior of street children.

  8. Street Papers, Work, and Begging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Street papers are publications produced specifically for sale by the homeless and other vulnerable people in many countries around the world. Their social status is, however, often conspicuously unstable: ‘Get a job!’ has been reported as a common insult addressed to vendors, and street paper...... organisations have responded with their own rhetoric and strategies that aim at disrupting any analogy with begging. The present analysis frames these rhetorical confrontations as a struggle over economic legitimacy, highlighting some of the ways in which social actors build and sever the normatively...

  9. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  10. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalile "Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja" (Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel), režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  11. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  12. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  13. US Tune Purse Seine Fleet History & Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS SWR has collected historical vessel information on the U.S. tuna cannery baitboat and purse seine fleets for many years. The database's first record of a...

  14. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines the imp...... of vessel decommissioning. The Danish fishing fleet case serves as an empirical example in this regard. Comments on the future capacity management regime and the role of subsidies in EU fisheries are offered....

  15. Restructuring the budget for the Fleet Modernization Program (FMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbe, Jeffrey N.

    1996-01-01

    Management The Fleet Modernization Program (FMP) provides a systematic structure for planning, programming, budgeting, and installing improvements to ships of the active and reserve fleets. The procedures for budgeting and executing the FMP are governed by the rules of the current FMP Fiscal Appropriation. Since Fiscal Year (FY) 1989, a series of FMP appropriation decisions has resulted in each budget year program being budgeted and executed differently. These decisions have directly affec...

  16. Lung deposited surface area concentrations in a street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuluvainen, Heino; Hietikko, Riina; Järvinen, Anssi; Saukko, Erkka; Irjala, Matti; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Timonen, Hilkka; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2017-04-01

    Street canyons are interesting environments with respect to the dispersion of traffic emissions and human exposure. Pedestrians may be exposed to relatively high concentrations of fine particles and the vertical dispersion affects the human exposure above the ground level in buildings. Previously, particle concentrations have been measured in street canyons at a few different heights (Marini et al., 2015). The information on the lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, which is a relevant metric for the negative health effects, is very limited even at the ground level of street canyons (Kuuluvainen et al., 2016). More information especially on the vertical dispersion and the ground level concentrations is needed, for instance, for the use of urban planning and the design of ventilation systems in buildings. Measurements were carried out in a busy street canyon in Helsinki, Finland, at an urban super-site measurement station (Mäkelänkatu 50). The data included vertical concentration profiles measured in an intensive measurement campaign with a Partector (Naneos GmbH) installed into a drone, long-term measurements with an AQ Urban particle sensor (Pegasor Ltd.), and an extensive comparison measurement in the field with different devices measuring the LDSA. These devices were an AQ Urban, Partector, DiSCmini (Testo AG), NSAM (TSI Inc.), and an ELPI+ (Dekati Ltd.). In addition, continuous measurements of gas phase components, particle size distributions, and meteorology were run at the supersite. The vertical profile measurements were con-ducted in November 2016 during two days. In the measurements, the drone was flown from the ground level to an altitude of 50 or 100 m, which is clearly above the roof level of the buildings. Altogether, 48 up-and-down flights were conducted during the two days. The vertical profiles were supported by continuous measurements at the ground level on both sides of the street canyon. The long-term measurements were conducted

  17. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41).

  18. FLEET Velocimetry Measurements on a Transonic Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used to study the flowfield around a symmetric, transonic airfoil in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT facility. A nominal Mach number of 0.85 was investigated with a total pressure of 125 kPa and total temperature of 280 K. Two-components of velocity were measured along vertical profiles at different locations above, below, and aft of the airfoil at angles of attack of 0 deg, 3.5 deg, and 7deg. Measurements were assessed for their accuracy, precision, dynamic range, spatial resolution, and overall measurement uncertainty in the context of the applied flowfield. Measurement precisions as low as 1 m/s were observed, while overall uncertainties ranged from 4 to 5 percent. Velocity profiles within the wake showed sufficient accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to resolve both the mean and fluctuating velocities and general flow physics such as shear layer growth. Evidence of flow separation is found at high angles of attack.

  19. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  20. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  1. Youth and the City Streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

  2. Youth and the City Streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing,…

  3. Street Rhymes around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolen, Jane, Ed.

    Based on the idea that although children of every nation speak different languages the language of play is international, this collection of 32 street rhymes from 17 nations and republics offers each rhyme in its native language (Portuguese, Tamil, Hebrew, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, Spanish, Greek, German, Bantu (Mambwe), Danish, Cheyenne,…

  4. Street photography as social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Street photographers know quite well that taking a picture is a form of social interaction. The birth of this genre of photography, they have been discussing at length about the ethical problems involved in taking pictures of personal strangers in public places without asking permission.

  5. Red lantern Streets- Chinese Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INESAPLESKACHEUSKAYA

    2005-01-01

    WHEN speaking of ""red lantern streets,""what's the first thing that comes to mind?Sordid alleys, haunted by ladies of the night? While ""red lantern districts"" both in the East and the West have something in common, pleasures here in China are purely gastronomical in nature.

  6. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balamber, Burcak

    2016-01-01

    ... to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art...

  7. CITY OF LONDON: THE SECRETS OF STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Belyaev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasons why the City, oldest London global financial centre, keeps to hold up leading positions in the financial world, are thoroughly discussed. Initially, this phenomenon was explained by dominating position England held as world industrial power. However, the City has not lost its leadership over last decades when England economics suffered bad times. This is explained by traditions, by the history as well as by specific position London holds as place where «business is made» as well as by the trend to «clustering» i.e. concentration characteristic for the market of financial services, all this making it possible for financial companies to cut their costs and to provide their clients with services on more attractive conditions.

  8. "Moving On": Learning to Cross Streets Independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattavina, Sylvia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with severe disabilities was taught street-crossing skills through the use of photographs with verbal rehearsal of appropriate street crossing, followed by community-based instruction. The skills were acquired, maintained at follow up, and generalized to new streets. (JDD)

  9. Immunisation status in inner London primary schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, H E; Masters, J I; Kurtz, Z

    1992-01-01

    In one inner London district health authority, the immunisation status of children attending their routine school entry health interview was reviewed over four terms. During the course of these interviews, school nurses completed a questionnaire with parents that asked for their child's immunisation history and details of family and social background. Parental reporting of immunisation history was compared with district health authority records. Only 56% of children reviewed were found to be ...

  10. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement. T....... The data stems from archival records held by the College, complemented by external databases, and a survey conducted among all academic staff in 2013....

  11. Forty Years of Crime in London (Journal)

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    As a contribution to the fortieth anniversary celebrations of the London Journal, this article provides an overview of the twenty-seven articles which it has published about crime and criminal justice since its inception. While few articles were published in its early years, there has been a big increase in articles published in the last decade, pushing the Journal into the forefront of the historiography on these topics. A survey of the recurring themes in articles about crime, policing, jus...

  12. Street art - vandalismus nebo umění?

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis ‚Street Art - Vandalism or Art?' deals with a world-wide phenomenon of contemporary art. The thesis focuses on the characterization of street art and history of street art (its origin and development) and analyzes the difference between street art and graffiti. The thesis presents street art techniques as well as notable street artists. The thesis also observes street art scene in the Czech Republic and depicts features that street art has in common with other art movements...

  13. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Balamber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti movement, born as a result of an effort of the youth, who felt themselves socially excluded and alone, to show their existence and identities during the 1960s, expanded its scope owing to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art’. During this transformation of street art,street artists experimented with various methods from many different disciplines and hence created works in a wide range of varieties in terms of plastic and artistic values. Among these disciplines, printmakinghastaken its own place in street artas a discipline thatdeeply influenced street artists.Printmaking has fascinated street artists and become a part of their production process, not only with its philosophy sharing common grounds with street art and advantages in terms of its tecnical practices but also its unique plastic and linear values.Thanks to the opportunities of printmaking, street art has succeeded creating a tremendous impression worldwide, and even positioned itself into today’s greatest museums/gallery halls. This article aims to show how and in what way printmaking has influenced street art being in a transformation since the 1960s, and to put an emphasis on theimportance of printmaking on today’s street art.

  14. ADDITIONAL STREET BERBASIS APP INVENTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adib Adhi Prabowo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Seiring dengan perkembangan sistem operasi android, telah banyak aplikasi yang memanfaatkan fasilitas GPS dan Google Map, seperti untuk mencari rute, mendapatkan peta, mencari lokasi tertentu pada sebuah tempat. Akan tetapi seringkali pengguna perangkat bergerak kesulitan ketika ingin mengetahui beberapa tempat dan lokasi tertentu karena belum ada fasilitas yang menyediakan informasi lokasi suatu tempat. Walaupun ada informasi lokasi pada peta biasanya informasi yang diberikan lokasi tempat berskala besar, misalnya lokasi tempat wisata atau stasiun kereta api. Pengembangan aplikasi untuk skala kecil ini akan memberikan informasi yang dipresentasikan pada google map. Selama ini belum ada yang memberikan sebuah informasi lokasi tempat penting yang berskala kecil. Misalnya informasi lokasi  tambal ban, lokasi warung makan, lokasi laundry, dan lokasi bengkel motor. Oleh karena itu kami mencoba untuk mengembangkan aplikasi additional street berbasis android via App Inventor dengan bantuan google maps. Aplikasi additional street ini dapat memberikan informasi letak objek pada peta serta memberikan informasi jalan menuju lokasi tersebut dan detail informasi lokasi tersebut serta lokasi dari pengguna aplikasi tersebut. Kata Kunci: additional street, android, google maps, app inventor, GPS

  15. Tele-Supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.

    2009-01-01

    The Tele-supervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) is a multi-robot science exploration architecture and system that uses a group of robotic boats (the Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System, or OASIS) to enable in-situ study of ocean surface and subsurface characteristics and the dynamics of such ocean phenomena as coastal pollutants, oil spills, hurricanes, or harmful algal blooms (HABs). The OASIS boats are extended- deployment, autonomous ocean surface vehicles. The TAOSF architecture provides an integrated approach to multi-vehicle coordination and sliding human-vehicle autonomy. One feature of TAOSF is the adaptive re-planning of the activities of the OASIS vessels based on sensor input ( smart sensing) and sensorial coordination among multiple assets. The architecture also incorporates Web-based communications that permit control of the assets over long distances and the sharing of data with remote experts. Autonomous hazard and assistance detection allows the automatic identification of hazards that require human intervention to ensure the safety and integrity of the robotic vehicles, or of science data that require human interpretation and response. Also, the architecture is designed for science analysis of acquired data in order to perform an initial onboard assessment of the presence of specific science signatures of immediate interest. TAOSF integrates and extends five subsystems developed by the participating institutions: Emergent Space Tech - nol ogies, Wallops Flight Facility, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Carnegie Mellon University, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The OASIS Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) system, which includes the vessels as well as the land-based control and communications infrastructure developed for them, controls the hardware of each platform (sensors, actuators, etc.), and also provides a low-level waypoint navigation capability. The Multi-Platform Simulation Environment from GSFC is a surrogate

  16. Renaming Zagreb Streets and Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stanić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with changes in street names in the city of Zagreb. Taking the Lower Town (Donji grad city area as an example, the first part of the paper analyses diachronic street name changes commencing from the systematic naming of streets in 1878. Analysis of official changes in street names throughout Zagreb’s history resulted in categorisation of five periods of ideologically motivated naming/name-changing: 1. the Croatia modernisation period, when the first official naming was put into effect, with a marked tendency towards politicisation and nationalisation of the urban landscape; 2. the period of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians/Yugoslavia, when symbols of the new monarchy, the idea of the fellowship of the Southern Slavs, Slavenophilism and the pro-Slavic geopolitical orientation were incorporated into the street names, and when the national idea was highly evident and remained so in that process; 3. the period of the NDH, the Independent State of Croatia, with decanonisation of the tokens of the Yugoslavian monarchy and the Southern Slavic orientation, and reference to the Ustashi and the German Nazi and Italian Fascist movement; 4. the period of Socialism, embedding the ideals and heroes of the workers’ movement and the War of National Liberation into the canonical system; and, 5. the period following the democratic changes in 1990, when almost all the signs of Socialism and the Communist/Antifascist struggle were erased, with the prominent presence of a process of installing new references to early national culture and historical tradition. The closing part of the paper deals with public discussions connected with the selection of a location for a square to bear the name of the first president of independent Croatia, Franjo Tuđman. Analysis of these public polemics shows two opposing discourses: the right-wing political option, which supports a central position for the square and considers the chosen area to

  17. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use. PMID:27643788

  18. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  19. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  20. A Brief Analysis on William Blake's London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 尚彦飞

    2014-01-01

    William Blake (1757-1827) is a renowned British poet in the 18th century. His lyric poems display the characteristics of romantic spirit, and he is regarded as the forefather of the British Romanticism. His London is a well-known lyric poetry, which is thought to be the best vesicle in the West. This paper will analyse this poem in terms of its form, theme, and im-age and then draw a brief conclusion for the characteristics of William Blake's poem.

  1. On biocoloniality and 'respectability' in contemporary London.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Yasmeen

    2015-01-01

    This essay is framed by discussions on the civil unrest in British cities in 2011, the politics of austerity, the mass unemployment of the young, ‘the war on terror’ and ‘radicalisation’ and the vulnerability of the poor and ‘unrespectable’. It advances a concept of biocoloniality and explores ‘respectability’, class and transnational postcolonial urban cultures in contemporary London. The essay argues for a theorisation which can account for how a divided subject produces the effect of an un...

  2. "More Swimming Lessons from the London Whale"

    OpenAIRE

    Jan KREGEL

    2013-01-01

    This policy brief by Senior Scholar and Program Director Jan Kregel builds on an earlier analysis (Policy Note 2012/6) of JPMorgan Chase and the actions of the "London Whale", and what this episode reveals about the larger risks inherent in the financial system. It is clear that the Dodd-Frank Act failed to prevent massive losses by one of the world's largest banks. This is undeniable evidence that work remains to be done to reform the financial system. Toward this end, Kregel reviews the fin...

  3. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...... the smart charging behavior and detailed parameters needed for charging behavior of an individual EV are analyzed. The individual charging schedule is extended to the EV fleet. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model....

  4. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  5. [Rate of injuries in military men of the North Fleet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankevich, Iu R; Myznikov, I L; Askerko, I V; Sil'chenko, E S; Matochkina, A A

    2012-07-01

    Statistics of the rate of injuries in military men of the North Fleet during 2002-2010 is analyzed. Over the specified period rate of injuries, poisonings and consequences of influence of other external actions was 30,06% among the conscripts, 30,23% among the contract military men. The authors analyzed reasons and circumstances of injuries, prevention measures, and orgnisation of military physician expertise and indemnity insurance for the military men injured during the service. Ways of improvement of the system of injury prevention on the North Fleet are suggested.

  6. The Volunteering Legacy of London 2012 Games. A Pilot Study.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The hosting of the London 2012 Olympic Games was seen as an opportunity to harness the enthusiasm of the 70000 volunteers involved and to provide a volunteer legacy post event. A total of 77 London 2012 volunteers completed a web-based open-ended survey. The participants were asked to indicate their level of current volunteering engagement and whether volunteering at the Games had an impact on their current volunteering levels. The study found that the London Olympics were the first volunteer...

  7. Federal Fleet Files, FEMP, Vol. 1, No. 2 - June 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    June 2009 issue of the FEMP Federal Fleet Files monthly newsletter for the FEMP Federal Fleet Program that outlines vehicle, alternative fuel, infrastructure, and management strategy updates to Federal agencies.

  8. Five Rings: Enclosing the London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan William Gardner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the successive iterations of the fence surrounding the London 2012 Olympic site in Stratford, east London, I demonstrate that during the five periods of enclosure considered, these boundaries have highlighted the London Games’ contested past, present, and future. An examination of the material and discursive constructions of each of these boundaries shows the Janus-faced nature of their relationship to the wider ‘mega-event’. I conclude that though the purpose of such enclosures may initially seem obvious, in actuality they, as parts of a wider assemblage, can act unpredictably both to support and challenge the Olympic brand and its existence in this part of east London.

  9. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London's nocturnal urban heat island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Peace, Andrew; Hutchings, Tony R

    2014-09-15

    The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration.

  10. Structural value of Yerevan streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetisyan Arsen Grantovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The absence of the methods of urban analysis in the process of urban development of Yerevan is the reason of urban planning activities that tend to decrease the urban value of Yerevan territories. Meanwhile the studies in the sphere of urban planning and urban analysis prove the dependence of the life in the city on its structure and distribution of the functions. The mentioned issue highlights the importance of urban analysis. The paper discusses space syntax, which is one of the initial methods of urban analysis. The basic concept of Space syntax is based on the assumption that urban fabric can be presented and studied as a power graph. The method provides the measures that evaluate the land use, traffic and pedestrian movement, land value and even carbon emissions. The paper discusses also recent attempts of integration of space syntax method into GIS environment. GIS databases provide researchers with vast amount of urban data. Analyses presented in the current paper were performed on the basis of the open street map, which was imported from the GIS environment. With the application of space syntax methods analysis of connectivity, integration choice (betweenness and depth from the city center were performed to evaluate the structural value of Yerevan streets. Municipal regions of Yerevan were classified by the level of their accessibility and by their distances from the city center on the base of the results of depth measures from the city center. Evaluation of the street network aims to define the most integrated and centrally positioned parts of the city. These areas can be locations for the organization of sub centers of Yerevan in the municipal regions.

  11. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  12. Optical legacy of Imperial College London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidger Webb-Moore, Tina E.

    2016-10-01

    The Industrial Revolution, beginning primarily in the UK, generated an increasing need for highly skilled technical people. Throughout the 19th century, technical instruction increased dramatically and the formation of schools specializing in science and technology grew quickly. In England, there was much motivation in favour of a national prestige center for science and technology centered in London. Central among the motivating forces was Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert. Although there were already existing specialist science and technology institutions in major English cities, the growth of superior institutions in other countries within Europe, especially Germany and the Charlottenburg area of Berlin (e.g., the Berlin Technical High School), encouraged important English dignitaries to become more competitive with continental Europe. As a result of this strong continental motivation, several science and technology institutions were built in the south Kensington part of London during the latter half of the 19th century. Imperial College, founded at the start of the 20th century, was a culmination and consolidation of several of these 19th century English institutions. Optical science and technology was an early beneficiary of the founding of Imperial College. This paper will attempt to provide the reader with an understanding of how great was the influence of the optical section of Imperial College in the further development of the world's optical science and technology.

  13. James Henry Greathead and the London Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and early history of the device known as the ‘Greathead Shield’, an important innovation in Victorian engineering crucial to constructing the London Underground. The aim is to explore the basis on which, many years later, a South African engineer, James Henry Greathead, was accorded prominent public acknowledgment, in the form of a statue, for ‘inventing’ the Shield. From a cultural studies perspective, how is the meaning of ‘invention’ to be understood, given that several other brilliant engineers were involved? The question is adjudicated using the notion of cultural ‘extelligence’, seen in relation to several contemporary and historical accounts, including Greathead’s own record of his achievements in the proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers and presented in The City and South London Railway (1896, edited by James Forrest. The paper was first delivered at the conference on ‘Novelty and Innovation in the Nineteenth Century’ held at the North-West University in May 2016.

  14. Next Generation Tanker: Optimizing Air Refueling Capabilities in 2030 with a Divested KC-10 Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    NEXT GENERATION TANKER: OPTIMIZING AIR REFUELING CAPABILITIES IN 2030 WITH A DIVESTED KC-10 FLEET...OPTIMIZING AIR REFUELING CAPABILITIES IN 2030 WITH A DIVESTED KC-10 FLEET GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Department...CAPABILITIES IN 2030 WITH A DIVESTED KC-10 FLEET Christopher R. MacDonald, BS, MBA Major, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. Darryl

  15. 76 FR 3646 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels. All comments received will... availability of a draft policy regarding distant water tuna fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility...

  16. Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 - Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-02

    Document contains guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade and helps federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions.

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that —...

  18. 76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San... of the San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. The existing security zone is around the former Fleet Industrial... Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier. The pier is no longer owned by the U.S. Navy and the security zone...

  19. 75 FR 82141 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...-2010-0111] Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study AGENCY... locations to maximize stakeholder participation. The U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study will... promote the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet and Ports. Stakeholder input is an essential part of the...

  20. 47 CFR 80.55 - Application for a fleet station license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a fleet station license. 80.55... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.55 Application for a fleet... different vessels on the same application. Under these circumstances a fleet station license may be...

  1. 78 FR 72070 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing... Atlantic Fleet study area as described in Alternative 2 for the proposed action. Under Alternative 2, the... for Atlantic Fleet Training and Testing, dated August 2013 and supporting documents. Single copies...

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management... fleet motor vehicle? After meeting the replacement standards under subpart E of this part, you may dispose of a Government-owned domestic fleet motor vehicle. Detailed instructions for the transfer of...

  3. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-fuel fleet vehicles. 88.308-94 Section 88.308-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  4. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay... Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime Festival's Pier 66 Safety Zone in Elliott Bay, WA from 8 a.m... Guard will enforce the Safety Zone for the Fleet Week Maritime Festival in 33 CFR 165.1330 on August...

  5. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco... will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco...'' W (NAD83) for the Fleet Week Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, item number 25. This safety...

  6. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105-1 Transfers...

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet... that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  8. Increasing the Size of the Effective United States Control Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Bottomed; DH – Double Hulled; SH – Single Hulled; SBT – Segregated Ballast Tanks 2. Esso Petrolera Argentina SRL ( Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada ...new name for Esso SAPA ( Sociedad Anonima Petrolera Argentin) Source: Appendix E Table 5.2, M.I.T. EUSC, Militarily Useful Tanker Fleet for June 2002 85

  9. FLEET for Unseeded Velocity Measurements in All Speed Regimes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FLEET uses a 100 fs laser to excite a multi-photon process that makes the gas (N2 or air) glow.  Images of the glowing gas taken at set time intervals allow the...

  10. U.S. Liner Fleet and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    carried by its merchant fleet is due t.o a variety of reasons. Shipping as a catalyst for economic development is not a new concept. Adam Smith , the...34Our Nation’s Maritime Challenge," Congressional Information Bureau, Vol 96, #157, August 13, 1992. 3 Ibid. 4 Adam Smith , The Wealth of Nations

  11. 33 CFR 138.90 - Individual and Fleet Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER... for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.90 Individual and Fleet Certificates. (a) The Director, NPFC... individual Certificate naming the vessel is void and its further use is prohibited. In that case, the...

  12. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  13. [Disease control on the Russian fleet in XVIII century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, A V

    2014-03-01

    Disease control in domestic fleet in XVIII century was a part of government measures concerning protection of the territory of the Russian Empire from the penetration of dangerous infectious diseases. Understanding the role fleet could play in the spread of infection, the government sought to prevent its entry from the sea. Following this task, in the early 20-s of XVIII century on islands of the Gulf Seskar and Wolf organized sanitary quarantine stations where ships from unfavorable in relation to the epidemic areas stayed before they pester the Russian shore. Eventually when the Black Sea Fleet was created, similar items appeared in Ochakov, Sevastopol, Feodosia, Yalta and Kerch. In XVIII century health legislation was supplemented by a number of regulations relating to the activities of the fleet. In particular, during the reign of Peter I epidemic rules were composed, which, as it became known, lasted for about sixty years. In 1786, the band released a set of quarantine rules designed to streamline the work of sanitary and quarantine stations. Important for protection against the penetration of Russian borders infectious diseases had timely warning of epidemics broke out abroad. Cooperating with European countries in the prevention and control of communicable diseases, Russia has successfully developed methods antiepidemic protection.

  14. Kowloon Shangri-La,Hong Kong Launches New Limousine Fleet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In its constant pursuit to offer the highest level of services and luxury to its guests, Kowloon Shangri-La, Hong Kong has launched a new fleet of limousines, including seven bespoke Mercedes-Benz S350L Series sedans and two five-seat Viano vans. Together with the two existing seven-seat vans, Kowloon Shangri-La, Hong Kong

  15. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...

  16. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  17. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  18. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  19. Georges Charpak street sign unveiled

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2011-01-01

    While it might not be the only French street named in honour of the late Georges Charpak, who passed away in September 2010 at the age of 87, the street chosen by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly is certainly the only one located directly opposite the CERN "campus". The road overlooks buildings on the CERN Meyrin site, where Georges Charpak spent most of his career as a physicist, conducting the research that won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992.   From left to right: Sigurd Lettow, Dominique Charpak and the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. The unveiling took place on 17 October and was organised by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. George Charpak’s wife, Dominique, and Sigurd Lettow, CERN Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, attended what was an intimate and touching ceremony. The mayor’s speech at the event praised Georges’ commitment to scientific education. The highlight of the event, however, was a witty and humorous ...

  20. Identity management, negotiation and resistance among women in the sex trade in London, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Treena; Farr, Sara; Macphail, Susan; Wender, Cass; Young, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Sex work, and ideas about women in the trade, have long been represented as tragic and/or threatening. However, such portrayals tell us very little about how women think about themselves and the kinds of work they do. The data for this paper come from an ethnographic, community-based study in London, Ontario, that involves women in street-based, indoor and transactional sex work. This discussion focuses on how women develop different individual identities, including the management of multiple selves, their sexual identities and what we have termed the 'good junkie' identity. We also examine how these women employ aspects of dominant representation of sex workers, namely the low status accorded to those in street-based work and the defamatory term 'whore' or 'ho', when negotiating the moral hierarchies that exist within various kinds of sex work (i.e., stripping, massage parlours) and making sense of their professional and personal lives. The work that goes into the creation and maintenance of the women's divergent identities sheds important light on this complicated and tremendously demanding, yet inadequately understood, aspect of life as women in the sex trade.

  1. Path Planning Algorithms for the Adaptive Sensor Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric; Hosler, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The Adaptive Sensor Fleet (ASF) is a general purpose fleet management and planning system being developed by NASA in coordination with NOAA. The current mission of ASF is to provide the capability for autonomous cooperative survey and sampling of dynamic oceanographic phenomena such as current systems and algae blooms. Each ASF vessel is a software model that represents a real world platform that carries a variety of sensors. The OASIS platform will provide the first physical vessel, outfitted with the systems and payloads necessary to execute the oceanographic observations described in this paper. The ASF architecture is being designed for extensibility to accommodate heterogenous fleet elements, and is not limited to using the OASIS platform to acquire data. This paper describes the path planning algorithms developed for the acquisition phase of a typical ASF task. Given a polygonal target region to be surveyed, the region is subdivided according to the number of vessels in the fleet. The subdivision algorithm seeks a solution in which all subregions have equal area and minimum mean radius. Once the subregions are defined, a dynamic programming method is used to find a minimum-time path for each vessel from its initial position to its assigned region. This path plan includes the effects of water currents as well as avoidance of known obstacles. A fleet-level planning algorithm then shuffles the individual vessel assignments to find the overall solution which puts all vessels in their assigned regions in the minimum time. This shuffle algorithm may be described as a process of elimination on the sorted list of permutations of a cost matrix. All these path planning algorithms are facilitated by discretizing the region of interest onto a hexagonal tiling.

  2. School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not…

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2016-01-01

    of 2014, we conducted an ethnographic fieldwork (Atkinson & Hammersley 2007; Hastrup 2010; Spradley 1980) among urban youth in a mid-sized Danish provincial town. Different groupings of youth attended the skater and parkour facilities at the central squares, all of them with each their strategies....... Obviously, the skaters attend the site to skate. But also other, more vulnerable groupings, use the site to socialize, meet peers and perhaps escape an unreliable and risky family arena. One particular group, the self-named Thugz, primarily formed around a number of young boys with non-Danish ethnic...... the vulnerable urban youth cope with the obvious challenges related to the dissimilar imperatives of the street, the family and the school?...

  3. Assessing canopy cover over streets and sidewalks in street tree populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.E. Maco; E.G. McPherson

    2002-01-01

    Total canopy cover and canopy cover over street and sidewalk surfaces were estimated for street trees in Davis, California, U.S. Calculations were made using simple trigonometric equations based on the results of a sample inventory. Canopy cover from public trees over streets and sidewalks varied between 4% and 46% by city zone, averaging 14% citywide. Consideration of...

  4. Relationships between the Sociodemographic and Family Characteristics, Street Life Experiences and the Hopelessness of Street Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyan, Veli

    2005-01-01

    Throughout its history, street children have been a major concern of Turkish society and have lately been uppermost on social workers agenda. This study examines the relationships between sociodemographic and family characteristics, family relations, street life experiences and the hopelessness of street children. The study focuses on a population…

  5. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  6. Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Jemima C; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mindell, Jennifer S; Brunner, Eric J; Shelton, Nicola J

    2016-05-18

    Physical activity is essential for health; walking is the easiest way to incorporate activity into everyday life. Previous studies report positive associations between neighbourhood walkability and walking but most focused on cities in North America and Australasia. Urban form with respect to street connectivity, residential density and land use mix-common components of walkability indices-differs in European cities. The objective of this study was to develop a walkability index for London and test the index using walking data from the Whitehall II Study.  A neighbourhood walkability index for London was constructed, comprising factors associated with walking behaviours: residential dwelling density, street connectivity and land use mix. Three models were produced that differed in the land uses included. Neighbourhoods were operationalised at three levels of administrative geography: (i) 21,140 output areas, (ii) 633 wards and (iii) 33 local authorities. A neighbourhood walkability score was assigned to each London-dwelling Whitehall II Study participant (2003-04, N = 3020, mean ± SD age = 61.0 years ± 6.0) based on residential postcode. The effect of changing the model specification and the units of enumeration on spatial variation in walkability was examined. There was a radial decay in walkability from the centre to the periphery of London. There was high inter-model correlation in walkability scores for any given neighbourhood operationalisation (0.92-0.98), and moderate-high correlation between neighbourhood operationalisations for any given model (0.39-0.70). After adjustment for individual level factors and area deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighbourhoods operationalised as wards were more likely to walk >6 h/week (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.1-1.9) than those in the least walkable. Walkability was associated with walking time in adults. This walkability index could help urban planners identify and design neighbourhoods in

  7. Greening the streets of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This week, CERN took delivery of bi-fuel cars for the first time. Designed to run on petrol or natural gas, these vehicles represent a cost effective way to reduce our emissions immediately. With widely distributed sites and considerable personal transport needs, this is an important step forward and another clear indication of CERN’s green credentials.   CERN’s internal public transport service, if I can put it that way, consists of some 500 bicycles, an on-site shuttle service that has transported over 40000 people in the last 12 months, and a sizeable fleet of light vehicles numbering 866 in total. As vehicle contracts come to an end, we are constantly on the lookout for greener solutions to our transport needs. Today, natural gas is the ideal solution, being less polluting than either petrol or diesel. Although the vehicles cost slightly more than their petrol equivalents, the difference is partially subsidised by the Swiss natural gas industry, and we consider the emissio...

  8. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  9. Alternative Spaces of Learning in East London: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Raymonde; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article emerges from an ongoing exploration into how British minority ethnic communities in the London area create spaces in community-based programs to maintain or develop their languages and literacies. In London, more than one-third of the 850,000 school children speak a language other than English at home (Baker & Eversley, 2000).…

  10. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  11. Leading increasingly linguistically diverse London schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mehmedbegović

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging with bilingual parents, students and teachers with little awareness of the benefits of bilingualism has initiated a search for factors resulting in the low value attached to certain types of bilingualism. Working on the hypothesis that prevalent practice is influenced more by attitudes to bilingualism rather than relevant research and pedagogical theory, this research focuses on attitudes. This small-scale qualitative study conducted with a group of London headteachers provides an insight into the attitudes to bilingualism and how they impact on policy and practice in schools with significant proportions of multilingual learners. It also raises the question if schools which claim to support multilingual students in realising their full potential can achieve that without including home languages as an integral part of learning.

  12. RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric A; Simons, Ronald L

    2010-05-01

    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson's (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent's own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson's hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely.

  13. The Street Children Development in Open House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didin Saripudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The street children handling through open house has been developed in Indonesia since 1998. One of street children handling steps in open house is resocialization. This study is conducted to evaluate the effect of resocialization program implemention in open house on the street children and to determine how far such program reached its goal. Approach: The design of this study was program evaluation using quantitative approach. This study used Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP evaluation model by focusing on three of four components of CIPP evaluation model such as input, process and product. The population and sample of the study were administrator, facilitator and street children chosen from 16 open houses in Bandung City, West Java Province, Indonesia. Results: The perception of administrator, facilitator and street children on input relevance was positive in avarage level. The perception of administrator, facilitator and street children on process was positive in avarage and high level. This study also presents input and process variables contribute significantly toward the product variable. Conclusion/Recommendations: The street children resocialization program in open house in Bandung, from input, process and product components, is generally in average level, there are still some weaknesses that can be handled. In order to reach the goal of street children resocialization in open house, corrective action can be taken comprehensively and synergically by the responsible ones.

  14. Psychological Characteristics of South African Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Johann; Smith, Cheryl Sylvia

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to identify the psychological characteristics that predispose certain children to run away and to survive, often for long periods, on the streets of South Africa. Examines vulnerability and resilience as well as social conditions that mediate the psychological predisposition to become a street child. (Author/GCP)

  15. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    CERN Multimedia

    Matilda Heron

    2015-01-01

    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  16. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  17. Street Photography from the Subject's Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Emily

    To investigate the reaction of the public to being photographed on the street, a study was devised whereby seven photojournalists approached people on the street, photographed them, and requested identification for a questionnaire follow up. Of 102 people approached, 87% cooperated fully with the photographers and 81% of that group returned the…

  18. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  19. PLC based Smart Street Lighting Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.Pushpa Latha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional street lighting systems in most of the areas are Online at regular intervals of time irrespective of the seasonal variations. The street lights are simply switched on at afternoon and turned off in the morning. The consequence is that a large amount of Power is wasted meaninglessly. As energy consumption is an issue of increasing interest, possible energy savings in public street lighting systems are recently discussed from different viewpoints. The purpose of this work is to describe the Smart Street Lighting system, an approach to accomplish the demand for flexible public lighting systems using a Programmable Logic controller (PLC. The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armoured for severe conditions such as dust, moisture, heat, cold etc., and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O arrangements. In the proposed paper, street lights are controlled using millennium 3 PLC taking the seasonal variations into consideration.

  20. To Pursue Delicate Street Design-Discussion on Streetscape Guidance:A Guide to Better Lon-donStreets%追求精细化的街道设计--《伦敦街道设计导则》解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Gallagher(著); 王紫瑜(译)

    2015-01-01

    自20世纪90年代,英国的交通政策就在向整合交通和土地利用规划的方向努力。伦敦交通局于2004年发布了《伦敦街道设计导则》(以下简称《导则》),并于2009年修订。该导则作为“更好的街道”计划的一部分,对伦敦市区的街道项目具有重要的引导作用。首先通过叙述伦敦市街道形态与规划政策的演变,介绍《导则》的政策背景、概要内容及设计原则。从设计流程、材料面板、街道设计指引几个方面解析《导则》的特点。通过研究伦敦市的道路形态和街道设计现状,评述《导则》的落实与应用情况。最后,从全过程精细化指导、规范标准补充、街道设计理念转变三个方面总结《导则》对中国城市街道设计的借鉴意义。%Since the 1990s, the U.K. transportation policies have been oriented towards integrating trans-portation and land use planning. Streetscape Guidance:A guide to better London streets was released by Transport for London (TfL) in 2004 and revised in 2009. The Guidance, as a part of the Better Street pro-gram, plays an important guidance role in street projects of London urban area. By stating the evolution of street development and planning policies in London, this paper introduces the policy background, main contents and design principles of the Guidance. Characteristics of the Guidance are discussed from the per-spectives of design procedures, materials selection, and street design principles. By analyzing existing street development and design, the paper reviews the implementation and application of the Guidance. Fi-nally, the paper summarizes lessons learned from the Guidance for urban street design in China in three as-pects: whole-process delicate guidance, specifications and standards supplementation, and the change of street design concept.

  1. Air pollution modeling at road sides using the operational street pollution model--a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ngo Tho; Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-11-01

    In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out in many developed countries by a combination of air quality measurements and modeling. This study focuses on how to apply a dispersion model to cities in the developing world, where model input data and data from air quality monitoring stations are limited or of varying quality. This research uses the operational street pollution model (OSPM) developed by the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark for a case study in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. OSPM predictions from five streets were evaluated against air pollution measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and benzene (BNZ) that were available from previous studies. Hourly measurements and passive sample measurements collected over 3-week periods were compared with model outputs, applying emission factors from previous studies. In addition, so-called "backward calculations" were performed to adapt the emission factors for Hanoi conditions. The average fleet emission factors estimated can be used for emission calculations at other streets in Hanoi and in other locations in Southeast Asia with similar vehicle types. This study also emphasizes the need to further eliminate uncertainties in input data for the street-scale air pollution modeling in Vietnam, namely by providing reliable emission factors and hourly air pollution measurements of high quality.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of a road traffic immission model at urban street level. the case of street 3.1; Analyse de sensibilite d'un logiciel d'evaluation des immissions liees au trafic automobile, niveau de la rue. Le cas de STREET 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, Ch.; Jerphanion, M. de; Brou, M. [Targeting, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2000-07-01

    STREET is an immission model at urban street level. This software has been developed by TV Umwelt GmbH from Germany (Baden-Wuerttemberg). Based on the fluid mechanics 3-D Eulerian diffusion model MISCAM which does not take into account neither chemistry reaction, nor thermodynamic effects. The French version, STREET 3.1 integrates IMPACT, the ADEME software designed for vehicle emission calculations. IMPACT combines French car fleet data from 1995 to 2020 (INRETS Works) with COPERT II emission factors. The aim of this article is to show how the model reacts to parameters changes such as wind speed and direction, reference year, amount of passenger cars, traffic speech congestion rate. We also compared immissions due to travel by bus or by passenger car for a defined amount of travellers. With these different simulations, we illustrate the sensitivity of STREET 3.1. This model appears to enlarge the existing range of tools helping decision makers. It is also of value for communication purposes in order to enhance public awareness of the direct link between air pollution and traffic by using nearby examples and so preparing changes of behaviour towards car use in cities. (authors)

  3. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...... that are a function of their duration; for example, sailing slowly between two ports is cheaper than sailing quickly. Despite its great industrial importance, the LSFRP has received little attention in the literature. We model the LSFRP using PDDL and solve it using the planner....

  4. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  5. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  6. Identifying People with Soft-Biometrics at Fleet Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Forensics , Security and Intelligence, Firenze, Italy, 2010, pp. 25-30. [7] U. Park and A. Jain, "Face matching and retrieval using soft biometrics ...Identifying People with Soft- Biometrics at Fleet Week Eric Martinson NRC Post-Doctoral Fellow US Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC...number of different features by which people can be identified. This work describes three alternative, soft biometrics (clothing, complexion, and

  7. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  8. The Idea of a Fleet in Being in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    too great for the royal Navy’s Channel fleet to dare challenge. Meanwhile, in september 1781, the strategic crisis of the war occurred when the comte...333–41. for recent scholarly accounts of this battle, see e. taillemite et P. guillaume, Tourville et Béveziers (Paris: economica , 1991); daniel...commentaire de Mahan, preface by Hervé Coutau-bégarie (Paris: economica , 1996). originally written in english in about 1938, it has been published only in

  9. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...... in the literature. We introduce a novel mathematical model of the LSFRP with cargo flows based on a carefully constructed graph and evaluate it on real world data from our industrial collaborator....

  10. [Health status of military men serving on the North Fleet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Khankevich, Iu R; Ustimenko, L I; Burtsev, N N; Kuz'minov, O V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A; Trofimova, A Iu

    2014-06-01

    Authors analyzed data characterizing health status of military men serving on the North Fleet, peculiarities of changes in category of fitness for military service in 2002-2011. It was found that 75.1% of conscripts fell into first health group, 20.1%--fell into second health group, 4.8%--fell into third health group. Authors gave detailed characteristics of frequent diseases in military men. Authors formulated organizational solutions, ways of improvement of conscripts' health status.

  11. Fleet Replacement Squadron consolidation : a cost model applied.

    OpenAIRE

    Maholchic, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The consolidation of Fleet Replacement Squadrons (FRS) represents one method of achieving planned force reductions. This thesis utilizes the Cost of Base Realignment Actions (COBRA) cost model to develop cost estimates for determination of the cost effective site location. The A-6 FRS consolidation is used as a case study. Data were compiled using completed Functional Wing studies as well as local information sources. A comparison between the cost estimates provided by the COBRA cost model fo...

  12. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Ahdieh, N.; Bentley, J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  13. RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent w...

  14. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  15. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Hugo; Vaughan, Geraint; Wareing, David

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  16. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  17. Fleet manager's guide to testing vehicles for valid results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The managers of automotive fleets are vitally interested in saving money. Fleet procurement and operations costs are increasing rapidly. Fuel cost increases have been especially extreme. Conservation measures have included the purchase of more fuel-efficient vehicles, consolidation or reduction of unnecessary or redundant travel, upgraded and/or more frequent vehicle inspection, maintenance, repair, and the installation of fuel-saving components (or removal of fuel-consuming components). Virtually every significant cost saving measure has a cost associated with it, either a tangible financial cost, or an intangible (convenience) cost. In order to justify to his superiors that such measures should be taken, the fleet manager must be able to demonstrate clearly that the benefits derived from implementation of these measures will exceed the costs of doing so. In order to accomplish this, he must have unambiguous measures of both costs and benefits and methods of comparison which are easily usable and which yield unambiguous results. The analysis methods presented in this document are designed to accomplish this end.

  18. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.

  19. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  20. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  1. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  2. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  3. 3-D GIS : Virtual London and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Batty

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we outline how we have developed a series of technologies to enable detailed interactive 3-D Geographical Information Systems (GIS based models of cities to be created. Until relatively recently these models have been developed in Computer Aided Design (CAD software more often then in GIS. One of the main reasons was that ‘3-D GIS’ was often only 2.5-D under closer inspection. This is changing, and by straddling both technologies, and integrating others, we show how these models in turn enable planning information, statistics, pollution levels, sea level rises and much more to be visualised and analysed in the context of the 3-D city model. The client for ‘Virtual London’ is the Greater London Authority (GLA and their aim is to develop improved dissemination of planning information, which is explored. We then argue that virtual cities should go well beyond the traditional conceptions of 3-D GIS and CAD into virtual worlds and online design. But we also urge caution in pushing the digital message too far, showing how more conventional tangible media is always necessary in rooting such models in more realistic and familiar representations.

  4. Tracker electronics testing at Imperial College London

    CERN Document Server

    PPARC, UK

    2006-01-01

    Jonathon Fulcher and Rob Bainbridge testing a rack of CMS Tracker readout electronics at Imperial College London. The signals from the front end APV chips will be transmitted optically to racks of electronics ~100m away in an adjacent underground cavern where they are fed into ~20 crates where 500 CMS Front End Driver boards (FEDs) are located. The FED inputs are 8 fibre ribbons, each ribbon consisting of 12 fibres, each fibre carrying the serially multiplexed data originating from 2 APVs. To test the FEDs special tester boards have been designed to produce simulated APV data in optical form. In the picture the yellow cables are the fibres, which originate from the FED tester boards on the left hand side of the crate as 96 individual fibres, which are then combined into the 8 fibre ribbons feeding the FED board on the right hand side of the crate. Fig. 2 shows an APV25 test board mounted in the X-ray irradiation setup, Fig. 3 the X-ray machine where the chips are irradiated and Fig. 4 the MGPA (Multi-Gain Pre...

  5. Collider – the LHC in London

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Sanders

    2013-01-01

    In November the London Science Museum will open a major new exhibition about the LHC. The project marks an ambitious new approach for the museum who will work with an eclectic design team that includes a video artist and a playwright. Both Olivier Award winners, they are more renowned for their work on stage and screen than inside museums.   Image courtesy of Science Museum / Nissen Richards Studio. The Science Museum team came to Geneva expecting to be blown away by the extraordinary physics and engineering at CERN and they weren’t disappointed. But what impressed them most was the people who made it all happen. Physicists of all kinds, restaurant staff, engineers, administrators, those working in transport and logistics, all had in common a passion for CERN and an enthusiasm for communicating their work. “What really struck us was how every single person mentioned the spirit of international collaboration and the importance of curiosity,” Alison Boyle told the ...

  6. Bottomley fuels fears London issues are too hot to handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-13

    Rumours that the government is shying away from tackling , the difficult issue of London's hospitals were fuelled by remarks made by Health Secretary Virginia Bottomley at a Conservative Party fringe meeting last week.

  7. Opinions from senior managers of London's luxury hotels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jane.b

    consideration for hoteliers who are looking to open a luxury hotel within the city of London, ... the importance the spa plays to the hotel, its overall purpose of being in operation, .... market provide benefit by identifying different dynamics of.

  8. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghban, Marcia

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  9. The Growth Path and Future of London International Financial Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清娟

    2013-01-01

    London has grown up quickly to be a global financial center as a Phoenix in the past 100years,recorded history dating back to over 500 years ago.Though the financial services in London were berated to be "greedy"and as part of a giant casino led to the recession,this view was not accurate.London international financial center has become the core of the global financial industry,and played a crucial role in the development of the global economy.This article mainly discusses:the influence of London financial center on the world economy,the support to real economic development,the status of historical stages,and the development trend of the City.

  10. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  11. Marking Streets to Improve Parking Density

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Street parking spots for automobiles are a scarce commodity in most urban environments. The heterogeneity of car sizes makes it inefficient to rigidly define fixed-sized spots. Instead, unmarked streets in cities like New York leave placement decisions to individual drivers, who have no direct incentive to maximize street utilization. In this paper, we explore the effectiveness of two different behavioral interventions designed to encourage better parking, namely (1) educational campaigns to encourage parkers to "kiss the bumper" and reduce the distance between themselves and their neighbors, or (2) painting appropriately-spaced markings on the street and urging drivers to "hit the line". Through analysis and simulation, we establish that the greatest densities are achieved when lines are painted to create spots roughly twice the length of average-sized cars. Kiss-the-bumper campaigns are in principle more effective than hit-the-line for equal degrees of compliance, although we believe that the visual cues of...

  12. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  13. Hiding in Plain Sight: Street artists online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Barbour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identity and privacy concerns related to social media are the subject of widespread academic enquiry and mass media reporting. Although in most circumstances academic research tends to present identity play and online self­presentation as positive, media reporting in Australia makes much of the risks of identity theft, privacy breaches and online predators. This research explores the phenomenological experience of creating an online persona, focusing particularly on street artists. For street artists, the threat of unwanted exposure has to be balanced with the positive implications of sharing their creative work outside its geographical and temporal constraints. I argue that street artists use complex persona­creation strategies in order to both protect and promote themselves. The two street artists discussed in this article experience their engagement with social media and digital networks in ways that offer new insight into the opportunities and problems associated with the presentation of a persona online.

  14. F&G Street Marsh Contaminants Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — F&G Street Marsh, located in San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Chula Vista, San Diego, California, is a tidally influenced wetland providing habitat for...

  15. London house prices are power-law distributed

    CERN Document Server

    MacKay, Niall

    2010-01-01

    In this pilot study we explore the house price distributions for London, Manchester, Bristol, Newcastle, Birmingham and Leeds. We find Pareto (power law) behaviour in their upper tails, which is clearly distinct from lognormal behaviour in the cases of London and Manchester. We propose an index of Housing Wealth Inequality based on the Pareto exponent and analogous to the Gini coefficient, and comment on its possible uses.

  16. Eating fuet in London: From Autoethnography to Transnational Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rubio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available My own experience as a young Spanish migrant in London drove me to consider the importance that Spanish food has for emigrants and to consider its role within the community. This article presents food as a metaphor of the youth migration process to London during the economic crisis, and is based on three elements: how they construct their identity, their transition to adulthood and their condition as transmigrants.

  17. Mapping Arts, Health and Higher Education Collaborative Projects in London

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Jill; Pring, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This publication is based on a report commissioned by The London Centre for Arts and Cultural Enterprise (LCACE) and Arts Council England (ACE) who are committed, along with other partners to building and analysing evidence of the impact of arts activity in the health arena. It seeks to map collaborative projects which have taken place in London since 2002 between the arts, health and higher education institutions. The remit for the research defines arts and health as arts-based activities th...

  18. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the concept of equilibrium optimum to design heuristic algorithm for solving the model. Through case study and comparison, the heuristic algorithm is proved to be effective. By using the algorithm presented in this paper, the fleet operational profit is significantly increased compared with the use of the existing route-based model. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the fleet size and structure are more sensitive to the increase of fare price than to the increase of passenger demand.

  19. TRAFFIC EMISSION TRANSPORTATION IN STREET CANYONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-min; WANG Jia-song; HUANG Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Spatial distributions of traffic-related pollutants in street canyons were investigated by field measurements and Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD).Two typical street canyons were selected for field monitoring,and a three-dimensional numerical model was built based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations equipped with the standard k-ε turbulence models for CFD simulations.The study shows that the pollutant concentrations of vehicle emission correlate well with the traffic volume variation,wind direction and wind speed.The wind direction and speed at the roof level determine overwhellmingly the flow field and the distributions of pollutant concentrations in the street canyon.When the wind speed is equal to zero,the pollutant concentrations on the breath height of the both sides of the street canyon are almost the same.When the wind direction is perpendicular to the street,one main vortex is formed with a shape depending on the building structure on both sides of the street,the pollutant is accumulated on the leeward side,and the pollutant concentrations at the breath height on the leeward side are 2 to 3 times as those at the breath height on the windward side.If the wind direction makes some angles with the street canyon,the pollutant concentration will be higher on the leeward side because one main vortex will also be formed in the vertical section of the canyon by the perpendicular component of the wind.But pollutant concentrations decrease in the canyon because pollutants are dispersed along the axis of the street.Pollutants at different heights of the vertical section decrease with height,i.e.there are concentration gradients in the vertical section,and the pollutant concentrations on the leeward side of the upstream building are much higher than those on the windward side of the downstream building.

  20. Explaining temporal patterns in street robbery

    OpenAIRE

    Tompson, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with explaining spatio-temporal patterns in street robbery through the lens of environmental criminology. The research question ‘what makes a place criminogenic for street robbery at some times and not others?’ is used to frame seven hypotheses. These centre on some of the features of the natural and built environment that can be considered criminogenic (i.e. crime producing). Specifically, the hypotheses test the time-varying influence of darkness, weather conditions...

  1. OpenStreetMap over WMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přemysl Vohnout

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the issues which we faced, while preparing WMS server with OpenStreetMap data of whole Europe. This article is divided into three sections. First is about mandatory applications which are required for working WMS service with OpenStreetMap data. Second is focused on tuning up PostgreSQL. Third is focused on rendering time improvement of layers.

  2. Spectator Consumer Behaviors at the 2012 London Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Ekmekci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Paralympics are the world’s second largest sporting event after the Olympics and continue to grow in popularity, there is little available research regarding spectators of sport competitions for disabled athletes. The purpose of this study was to profile spectators’ consumer behaviors in order to understand what factors explain spectators’ spending, length of stay, and attendance at the London Paralympic Games. Data was collected in a six-day period from a sample of 504 people present in London at three Paralympic sport facilities during the 2012 Paralympic Games. The results of the regression analyses revealed that nationality, attended contests, group size, having a connection with a Paralympic athlete, length of stay, gender and London Olympics’ spectators were significant determinants of Paralympics spectators’ spending in London. The data also indicated that spending, being from England (or not, gender, and being a friend/relative of a Paralympic athlete significantly affected spectators’ length of stay in London. Additionally, spectators’ attendance at the London Paralympic contests was predicted by spending, the size of the travel group, Beijing Paralympics’ spectators and age.

  3. Child work in Bogotá streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Pinzón, MD, MPH

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Title: Child Labor in the Streets of Bogotá.There are many children working in the streetsof Bogotá. The exact number is unknown andthere is very little information available aboutthis group. Methodology: Descriptive study.Children working in certain streets of Bogotáwere surveyed on Saturday July 19th 2003.Results: A total of 162 children were surveyed,52.5% boys and 47.5% girls; 38.5% youngerthen 5 years and 64.2% older; 61.1% were bythemselves and the rest with an adult; 49.4% werechildren of displaced families and the others werechildren of families from Bogotá. A 33.3% rateof school desertion and a rate of 38.9% lack ofsocial security affiliation were found. The lack ofsocial security affiliation is higher in desplaced families and within this group it is higher in thefamilies that have been living a short period oftime in Bogotá. Discusion: Data suggest a strongrelationship between child labor in the street andthe problem of displaced families; a serious impacton school desertion, and long working hoursexposed to various security, phisical, chemical,ergonomic, and psicosocial risk factors. There arethree groups of children working in the streets ofBogotá: Children of displaced families; childrenthat work in the streets, and children that live inthe streets. Conclusions: Child labor in thestreets of Bogotá is a serious problem, whichrequires attention based on knowledge of causesand the pursuit of effective measures for itseradication.

  4. Street Cries and the urban ritornelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Kreutzfeldt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Street cries, though rarely heard in Northern European cities today, testify to ways in which audible practices shape and structure urban spaces. Paradigmatic for what Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari call ‘the refrain’, the ritualised and stylised practice of street cries may point at the dynamics of space-making, through which the social and territorial construction of urban space is performed. The article draws on historical material, documenting and describing street cries, particularly in Copenhagen in the years 1929 to 1935. Most notably, the composer Vang Holmboe and the architect Steen Eiler Rasmussen have investigated Danish street cries as a musical and a spatial phenomenon, respectably. Such studies – from their individual perspectives – can be said to explore the aesthetics of urban environments, since street calls are developed and heard specifically in the context of the city. Investigating the different methods employed in the two studies and presenting Deleuze and Guattari’s theory of the refrain as a framework for further studies in the field, this article seeks to outline a fertile area of study for sound studies: the investigation of everyday refrains and the environmental relations they express and perform. Today changed sensibilities and technologies have rendered street crying obsolete in Northern Europe, but new urban ritornells may have taken their place.

  5. London Tideway Tunnels: tackling London's Victorian legacy of combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G B; Crawford, D

    2011-01-01

    It takes a few millimetres of rainfall to cause the 34 most polluting combined sewer overflows (CSOs) to discharge into the River Thames. Currently, in a typical year, spillages to the tidal reaches of the River Thames occur about 60 times, with an estimated spill volume of 39 million cubic metres. Both the UK Government and the European Union have determined that the CSO discharges have an adverse environmental impact on fish species, introduce unacceptable aesthetics and elevate the health risks for recreational users of the Thames, with a frequency of discharge which is in breach of the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive. Studies have established that the environmental objectives can be fully met on the most cost-effective basis by completing both quality improvements to treatment works and by the provision of a storage and transfer tunnel to intercept unsatisfactory CSOs. Extensive modelling has been undertaken to develop an optimised solution. In parallel with the design development a rigorous and comprehensive site selection methodology has been established to select sites and consult stakeholders and the public on the preferred sites and scheme, with the first stage of public consultation planned for later in 2010. The London Tideway Tunnels are an essential part of the delivery of improvements to the water quality of the tidal River Thames, and this ambitious, historic scheme represents a vital strategic investment in London's infrastructure.

  6. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation.

  7. A FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING VALUE FROM FLEET DATA AT ECOSYSTEM LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini-Kaisu KINNUNEN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambi-tion of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal – to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possi-ble, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  8. A Framework for Creating Value from Fleet Data at Ecosystem Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Sini-Kaisu; Hanski, Jyri; Marttonen-Arola, Salla; Kärri, Timo

    2017-09-01

    As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambition of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal - to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possible, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  9. Measurements and modeling pollution from traffic in a street canyon: Assessing and ranking the influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Branimir Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half a century, the scientific community is trying to understand the mechanisms and conditions of pollution dispersion within urban areas. Thereat, special attention has been focused on specific areas, such as a street canyon, in which harmful concentrations higher than allowed are more likely registered. However, there is still a controversy about the conditions of occurrence and impact of the individual air pollution components due to fluctuations of key contributions. Given that OSPM model is a well-known semi-empirical model specializing in the assessment of air quality within a street canyon, after its testing and validation, the results of subsequent simulations were used as a basis for planning a special experiment in order to implement 48 full factorial designs, where using the response surface methodology, as the final objective, an answer was precisely given on the impact and contribution of urban air pollution components. In addition to the main objective of this study, as a secondary, but not less important result defining emission factors for CO and NOx can be emphasized, which to date have not been determined for the fleet of the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 35041

  10. Public Reactions to New Street Tree Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Rae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MillionTreesNYC, which has the goal of planting one million trees in New York City by 2017, is intended to make New York City a greener, more sustainable city and is part of the Mayor’s comprehensive long term strategic plan, PlaNYC. Through planting a tree at every suitable sidewalk location in the city, the City of New York is transforming blocks and communities, and providing a variety of environmental, social and aesthetic benefits. This article examines the large scale municipal planting of new street trees and the reaction by some of the pubic to this planting.Trees offer benefits to the city overall, but the public may not understand these benefits or the street tree planting process. Between 2007 and 2009, the Department of Parks & Recreation planted 53,235 new street trees, and received 4,108 items of correspondence from the public. The majority of this correspondence consisted of public comments about the City’s new street tree planting policies and processes including placement objections, maintenance concerns, reports of resultant damage from tree planting operations, requests for new street trees and reports of tree conditions.This study describes the operational policies that guide New York City's municipal street tree planting, and results of content and spatial analysis of the correspondence. Qualitative analysis of the correspondence revealed the public perceptions and concerns related to the MillionTreesNYC program. Spatial analysis explored the relationship between the planting locations of new street trees and the locations of the citizen correspondence.Public reactions to this large scale municipal planting are related to the dual public and private nature of the sidewalk, issues of territoriality, responsibility, aesthetics and place attachment. Correspondence volume was associated with the scale of the new street tree block planting program, and the effectiveness of NYC’s 311 Customer Service Center. The discussion

  11. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2016-04-01

    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  12. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    A full spatio-temporal four-dimensional characterization of the microphysics and dynamics of cloud formation including the onset of precipitation has never been reached. Such a characterization would yield a better understanding of clouds, e.g. to assess the dominant mixing mechanism and the main source of cloudy updraft dilution. It is the sampling strategy that matters: fully characterizing the evolution over time of the various parameters (P, T, 3D wind, liquid water content, aerosols...) within a cloud volume requires dense spatial sampling for durations of the order of one hour. A fleet of autonomous lightweight UAVs that coordinate themselves in real-time as an intelligent network can fulfill this purpose. The SkyScanner project targets the development of a fleet of autonomous UAVs to adaptively sample cumuli, so as to provide relevant data to address long standing questions in atmospheric science. It mixes basic researches and experimental developments, and gathers scientists in UAV conception, in optimal flight control, in intelligent cooperative behaviors, and of course atmospheric scientists. Two directions of researches are explored: optimal UAV conception and control, and optimal control of a fleet of UAVs. The design of UAVs for atmospheric science involves the satisfaction of trade-offs between payload, endurance, ease of deployment... A rational conception scheme that integrates the constraints to optimize a series of criteria, in particular energy consumption, would yield the definition of efficient UAVs. This requires a fine modeling of each involved sub-system and phenomenon, from the motor/propeller efficiency to the aerodynamics at small scale, including the flight control algorithms. The definition of mission profiles is also essential, considering the aerodynamics of clouds, to allow energy harvesting schemes that exploit thermals or gusts. The conception also integrates specific sensors, in particular wind sensor, for which classic

  13. Playing with the city: street art and videogames/Jugando con la ciudad: street art y videojuegos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Israel Márquez; Susana Tosca

    2017-01-01

    ... culture. Keywords: Street art; graffiti; videogames; play; city. [es] Jugando con la ciudad: street art y videojuegos Resumen. En este artículo se presenta y describe el fenómeno del street art inspirado en videojuegos como un tipo específico de street art. Se considera su materialidad e importancia, y se conceptualiza a partir de una doble mani...

  14. Multiobjective optimization for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios using COSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freynet David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of various fleet evolution options on material inventories and flux in fuel cycle and waste can be analysed by means of transition scenario studies. The COSI code is currently simulating chronologically scenarios whose parameters are fully defined by the user and is coupled with the CESAR depletion code. As the interactions among reactors and fuel cycle facilities can be complex, and the ways in which they may be configured are many, the development of optimization methodology could improve scenario studies. The optimization problem definition needs to list: (i criteria (e.g. saving natural resources and minimizing waste production; (ii variables (scenario parameters related to reprocessing, reactor operation, installed power distribution, etc.; (iii constraints making scenarios industrially feasible. The large number of scenario calculations needed to solve an optimization problem can be time-consuming and hardly achievable; therefore, it requires the shortening of the COSI computation time. Given that CESAR depletion calculations represent about 95% of this computation time, CESAR surrogate models have been developed and coupled with COSI. Different regression models are compared to estimate CESAR outputs: first- and second-order polynomial regressions, Gaussian process and artificial neural network. This paper is about a first optimization study of a transition scenario from the current French nuclear fleet to a Sodium Fast Reactors fleet as defined in the frame of the 2006 French Act for waste management. The present article deals with obtaining the optimal scenarios and validating the methodology implemented, i.e. the coupling between the simulation software COSI, depletion surrogate models and a genetic algorithm optimization method.

  15. Volatile organic compound fluxes and concentrations in London (ClearfLo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, Amy; Langford, Ben; Nemitz, Eiko; MacKenzie, Rob; Hewitt, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion or evaporative emissions can directly and indirectly affect human health. Some VOCs, such as benzene and 1,3- butadiene are carcinogens. These and other VOCs contribute to the formation of ozone (O3) and aerosol particles, which have effects on human health and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Although in the UK VOC emissions are subject to control under European Commission Directive 2008/50/EC and emission reducing technologies have been implemented, urban air pollution remains a concern. Urban air quality is likely to remain a priority since currently >50% of the global population live in urban areas with trends in urbanization and population migration predicted to increase. The ClearfLo project is a large multi-institutional consortium funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and provides integrated measurements of meteorology, gas phase and particulate composition of the atmosphere over London. Both long term and IOP measurements were made at street and elevated locations at a range of sites across London and its surroundings during 2011 and 2012. Mixing ratios of a selection of nine VOCs were measured using a high sensitivity proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) at a ground level urban background (North Kensington) and kerbside (Marylebone Road) site during the winter IOP. VOC fluxes were measured by virtually disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) at an elevated urban site (King's College Strand) in Aug-Dec 2012. Our results for the first IOP showed that most of the selected compound concentrations depended on traffic emissions, although there was a marked difference between the urban background and kerbside sites. We identified some temperature effects on VOC concentrations. We also present the first analyses of VOC flux measurements over London. Preliminary analyses indicate most compounds associated with vehicle emissions closely

  16. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...... introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against...

  17. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce

  18. From the street to the store. The formalization of street vendors in Quito, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ferragut (Sergio); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the support of local and international organisations, the municipality of Quito, Ecuador, relocated approximately 6000 street vendors from the streets to eleven Popular Commercial Centres. The research examines the extent to which formalisation has al-tered their

  19. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line shapefile that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  20. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  1. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  2. Evaluation of the source area of rooftop scalar measurements in London, UK using wind tunnel and modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Aidan; Boon, Alex; Barlow, Janet; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan

    2014-05-01

    The source area of an instrument is an estimate of the area of ground over which the measurement is generated. Quantification of the source area of a measurement site provides crucial context for analysis and interpretation of the data. A range of computational models exists to calculate the source area of an instrument, but these are usually based on assumptions which do not hold for instruments positioned very close to the surface, particularly those surrounded by heterogeneous terrain i.e. urban areas. Although positioning instrumentation at higher elevation (i.e. on masts) is ideal in urban areas, this can be costly in terms of installation and maintenance costs and logistically difficult to position instruments in the ideal geographical location. Therefore, in many studies, experimentalists turn to rooftops to position instrumentation. Experimental validations of source area models for these situations are very limited. In this study, a controlled tracer gas experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel based on a 1:200 scale model of a measurement site used in previous experimental work in central London. The detector was set at the location of the rooftop site as the tracer was released at a range of locations within the surrounding streets and rooftops. Concentration measurements are presented for a range of wind angles, with the spread of concentration measurements indicative of the source area distribution. Clear evidence of wind channeling by streets is seen with the shape of the source area strongly influenced by buildings upwind of the measurement point. The results of the wind tunnel study are compared to scalar concentration source areas generated by modelling approaches based on meteorological data from the central London experimental site and used in the interpretation of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration data. Initial conclusions will be drawn as to how to apply scalar concentration source area models to rooftop measurement sites and

  3. [Street children and AIDS in Haiti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, M; Ascensio, P

    1995-01-01

    This study is a qualitative inquiry KAP about sexuality, and adoption and preservation of safe sexual behaviors, among the children of the street in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Three groups of participating children of the street were observed in Port-au-Prince for three months, during June through August 1991. The information was collected with the use of pre-tested charts for each theme chosen. Then, individual interviews were conducted with leaders identified among the educators and children of the street. One of the main goals of Aids educational programs of street children should be to make them believe in the existence of the disease, and the real risk it poses for death. The strategies that we will use to convince them should deal with the different social, psychological, economical, and environmental factors that characterized the children as follows: 1) their adherence to a peer group and the relationship of power between the older and younger children; 2) the fundamental importance of money in their life, and that all relationships that they have are based on the capacity of people to give them something, such as money; 3) the role of their social appearance and their need to behave like other children for even one day; 4) their low self-esteem; 5) their feeling of powerlessness and resignation related to their living conditions; 6) the influence of the street culture; and 7) their understanding of sexuality as an immediate pleasure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. An Analysis of the Street-Children Phenomenon in the City of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Afshani

    2013-02-01

    Circumstances: Examples of Street and War-Traumatized Children," (Chapter 15 in Childhood and Adolescence: Cross-Cultural Perspectives and Applications. Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT.   Batmanghelidjh, C. (2006 Shattered Lives: Children Who Live With Courage and Dignity, Jessica Kingsley: London   Bose A. B. (1992. The Disadvantaged Urban Child in India, Innocenti Occasional Papers, Urban Child Series No. 1, UNICEF International Child Development Centre.   Boydon, J. (1986. Children in Development: Policy and Programming for Especially Disadvantaged Children in Lima, Peru. Oxford: United Nations Children’s Fund.   Baker, T. L. (1998. Doing Social Research. Boston: McGraw-Hill   Campos, R., M. Raffaelli, W. Ude, M. Greco, A. Ruff, J. Rolf, C. Antunes, N. Halsey, and D. Greco, (1994. "Social Networks and Daily Activities of Street Youth in Belo Horizonte, Brazil." Child Development 65(2: 319-330.   Connolly, M. (1990. "Adrift in the City: A Comparative Study of Street Children in Bogotd, Colombia and Guatemala City." In N. Boxhill (Ed., Homeless children: The watchers and the waiters (pp. 129-149. New York: Haworth Press.   Consortium for Street Children (2011 "Street Children: A Mapping and Gapping Review of the Literature from 2000 to 2010," Online available at: http://www.streetchildren.org.uk /_ uploads/publications/ Street_Children _Mapping__Gapping_Literature_Review_-_FINAL_VERSION_-_February_2011.pdf .   de Pineda, V, E. de Munoz, P. de Pineda, Y. Echeverry, and J. Arias, (1978. El Gamin su alberque socialy su familia (Vol. 1 [The gamins’ social home and family] Bogota: Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar.   Donald, D. and J. Swart (1994. "The South African Street Child: Developmental Implications." South African Journal of Psychology 24(4: 169-174.   Eghlima, M. (2007. "Homeless Children in Tehran", Political & Economic Ettela'at 21(239-240: 142-147.   . Felsman, K. (1979. Invulnerability: On Risk, Resiliency and Adaptation in Childhood

  5. Exploring anterograde associative memory in London taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2012-10-24

    London taxi drivers are renowned for their navigation ability, spending a number of years acquiring 'The Knowledge' of London's complex layout and having to pass stringent examinations to obtain an operating licence. In several studies, this navigation skill has been associated with increased posterior but also decreased anterior hippocampal grey matter volume. Neuropsychologically, gain and loss has also been documented in taxi drivers; while very skilled at navigation in London, they are significantly poorer than controls at learning and recalling new object-location associations. Here we tested a group of London taxi drivers and matched control participants on this object-location associations task, while also subjecting them to a battery of challenging anterograde associative memory tests involving verbal, visual and auditory material both within and across modalities. Our aim was to assess whether their difficulty in previous studies reflected a general problem with associative memory, or was restricted to the spatial domain. We replicated previous findings of poor learning and memory of object-location associations. By contrast, their performance on the other anterograde associative memory tasks was comparable with controls. This resolves an outstanding question in the memory profile of London taxi drivers following hippocampal plasticity, and underlines the close relationship between space and the hippocampus.

  6. Three Component Velocity and Acceleration Measurement Using FLEET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Calvert, Nathan; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) method has been used to measure three components of velocity and acceleration for the first time. A jet of pure N2 issuing into atmospheric pressure air was probed by the FLEET system. The femtosecond laser was focused down to a point to create a small measurement volume in the flow. The long-lived lifetime of this fluorescence was used to measure the location of the tagged particles at different times. Simultaneous images of the flow were taken from two orthogonal views using a mirror assembly and a single intensified CCD camera, allowing two components of velocity to be measured in each view. These different velocity components were combined to determine three orthogonal velocity components. The differences between subsequent velocity components could be used to measure the acceleration. Velocity accuracy and precision were roughly estimated to be +/-4 m/s and +/-10 m/s respectively. These errors were small compared to the approx. 100 m/s velocity of the subsonic jet studied.

  7. IMPROVING LOGISTICS SERVICES THROUGH THE TECHNOLOGY USED IN FLEET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vivaldini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing logistics has established itself in the area of the LSP (Logistics Service Provider, which offers a range of services to its customers. In this line, transportation is characterized as one of the most important services, and therefore efficient fleet management is essential for establishing a high level of customer service. With advances in technology and vehicle tracking systems, this approach of management has gained new possibilities for the improvement of logistics services. By studying the specific case of an LSP, this paper investigates the use of these technologies in the management of their business and services. The results indicate that the LSP seeks to increase its services and to streamline information in order to respond to customer needs in real time. It is also evident in this case under study that the combination of the technology available together with the fleet management system has become a distinguishing feature for this LSP, one which increases their skills and important information for both customers and business.

  8. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, T. [Bellona Foundation, Oslo (Norway); Kudrik, I. [Bellona Foundation Branch Office, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A. [Scientific Production Association ``Typhoon``, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs.

  9. Vehicle Fleet Information, County fleet refueling locations., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Vehicle Fleet Information dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It...

  10. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  11. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  12. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta......A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings...... small, and this suggests that most of the velocity fluctuations were fairly local and not caused by unsteady street vortices. The observed velocities scaled with the ambient wind speed except under low-wind conditions....

  13. Street canyon ventilation and atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salizzoni, P.; Soulhac, L.; Mejean, P.

    Operational models for pollutant dispersion in urban areas require an estimate of the turbulent transfer between the street canyons and the overlying atmospheric flow. To date, the mechanisms that govern this process remain poorly understood. We have studied the mass exchange between a street canyon and the atmospheric flow above it by means of wind tunnel experiments. Fluid velocities were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry system and passive scalar concentrations were measured using a Flame Ionisation Detector. The mass-transfer velocity between the canyon and the external flow has been estimated by measuring the cavity wash-out time. A two-box model, used to estimate the transfer velocity for varying dynamical conditions of the external flow, has been used to interpret the experimental data. This study sheds new light on the mechanisms which drive the ventilation of a street canyon and illustrates the influence of the external turbulence on the transfer process.

  14. 76 FR 31351 - Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Safety Requirements and Manning Exemption Eligibility on Distant Water Tuna Fleet... availability of Office of Vessel Activities Policy Letter 11-05 regarding Distant Water Tuna Fleet vessels manning exemption eligibility and safety requirements. This final policy clarifies the requirements...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guard District § 165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165.1121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  16. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Davies

    Full Text Available Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures.

  17. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66... aerial spectator events associated with the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival. Entry into, transit... indicated under the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section of this notice. Background and Purpose The U.S...

  18. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the...

  20. 33 CFR 165.163 - Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Wednesday following Memorial Day. (c) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.23.../New Jersey Fleet Week. 165.163 Section 165.163 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.163 Safety Zones; Port of New York/New Jersey Fleet Week. (a) The following areas are...

  1. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tim K; Mees, Chris C; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures).

  2. Rebalancing Pacific Fleet: Operationalize U.S. Third Fleet and Move It into the Indo-Asia-Pacific in Support of the Defense Strategic Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    the Japanese earthquake recovery], RIMPAC 2010, Terminal Fury, and Talisman Saber.” 11 The last four on that list occurred forward, clearly...C7F C3F/C7F Fleets TALISMAN SABER: A biennial Australia/United bilateral exercise merging Exercises TANDEM THRUST, KINGFISHER and CROCODILE... TALISMAN SABER is the primary training venue for Commander Seventh Fleet as a Combined Task Force (CTF) in a short warning, power projection, forcible

  3. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by London Academy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    London Academy is a multicultural academy in Edgware, outer London. Within an extremely caring and supportive environment, students, including those in the sixth form, many pupils, flourish and achieve well. The Principal`s clear vision of a learning community that develops in its students the skills and values that will enable them to live their lives as respectful, caring and responsible citizens is both shared and realised. The event was organised from London Academy by the Physics Teacher, Ms Pamela Chabba; the older science students, especially those who are studying pure physics, are very excited about the event linking them to CERN. They range between 14-18 years old and many plan to go on to study sciences at university.

  4. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  5. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  6. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  7. Street Cries and the urban refrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Street cries, though rarely heard in North European cities today, testify to ways in which audible practices shape and structure urban space. As paradigmatic for what Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari call the refrain, the ritualized and stylized practice of street cries may point at the dynamics...... the different methods employed in the two studies and presenting Deleuze and Guattaris theory about the refrain as a framework for further studies in the field, this article seeks to outline a fertile area of study for sound studies: the investigation of everyday refrains and the environmental relations...

  8. Street art, spaces and visual rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mondino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Street-art is a widespread urban phenomenon characterised by several different styles and concepts. This essay will introduce few artistic works, analysing the rhetoric strategies used. Artists create unpredictable narratives catching the audiences’ attention through various regimes of visibility and some figures of speech, such as hyperbole, apostrophe, and camouflage. Therefore, the relationship between street artworks and the audience can trigger a discourse of challenge, conflict or complicity showed by the practice of rewriting or deleting of urban art that we will study.

  9. Street-Level Bureaucrats as Individual Policymakers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Winter, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized by chronic......Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized...... and local political inefficacy, and their conceptual modification of job contents are all related to their use of coping....

  10. A multi-agent based intelligent configuration method for aircraft fleet maintenance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-agent based fleet maintenance personnel configuration method is proposed to solve the mission oriented aircraft fleet maintenance personnel configuration problem. The maintenance process of an aircraft fleet is analyzed first. In the process each aircraft contains multiple parts, and different parts are repaired by personnel with different majors and levels. The factors and their relationship involved in the process of maintenance are analyzed and discussed. Then the whole maintenance process is described as a 3-layer multi-agent system (MAS model. A communication and reasoning strategy among the agents is put forward. A fleet maintenance personnel configuration algorithm is proposed based on contract net protocol (CNP. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircraft is studied for verification purposes. A mission type with 3 waves of continuous dispatch is imaged. Compared with the traditional methods that can just provide configuration results, the proposed method can provide optimal maintenance strategies as well.

  11. Developing Integrated Care Teams Across the North West London System

    OpenAIRE

    O'Halloran, Katherine Anne

    2016-01-01

    The health needs of the North West London population are changing. People are generally living longer and as a result a growing number are suffering from complex, long-term health conditions. This inevitably creates pressure on available services, to the point where there is a need to look at how these can be better provided. In North West London, the way hospitals and community health services are provided is being transformed to deliver a more co-ordinated and person centred service, achiev...

  12. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belling Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1 To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2 To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3 To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10, lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13 representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8 and non-London network professionals (n = 2. Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed

  13. Algebra of the Visual: The London Underground Map and the Art It Has Inspired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ashton-Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "Algebra of the Visual: The London Underground Map and the Art It Has Inspired" by Alan Ashton-Smith. The London Underground symbolizes London, and the London Underground map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, symbolizes the London Underground. Accordingly, Beck’s map has in itself come to be a recognizable signifier of London. Its impact resonates beyond this city though: it is also the prototype for metro maps worldwide, with its basic topological structure having been adopted for use on the subways of many other cities. (NANO: New American Notes Online

  14. 40 CFR 80.62 - Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. 80.62 Section 80.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Gasoline § 80.62 Vehicle test procedures to place vehicles in emitter group sub-fleets. One of the two... them within the emitter group sub-fleets in accordance with the requirements of § 80.60. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 37.185 - Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed....185 Fleet accessibility requirement for OTRB fixed-route systems of large operators. Each large... percent of the buses in its fleet with which it provides fixed-route service are readily accessible to...

  16. 75 FR 34927 - Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Parade of Ships, Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week... with the Parade of Ships for the annual Seattle SeaFair Fleet Week. This action is intended to restrict... action is necessary to ensure the safety of spectators and participants attending Fleet Week...

  17. 77 FR 59749 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue Angels Demonstration, San Francisco Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... sponsored Fleet Week Parade of Navy Ships, Blue Angels Flight Demonstrations, Ship Tours, and America's Cup... special local regulation for the annual San Francisco Bay Navy Fleet Week Parade of Ships and Blue...

  18. 77 FR 23118 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Blessing of the Fleet; Bayou La Batre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... the Fleet; Bayou La Batre; Bayou La Batre, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement... the Fleet in Bayou La Batre, AL from 2 p.m. until 4 p.m. on May 6, 2012. This action is necessary for... waters during the Blessing of the Fleet, Bayou La Batre. During the enforcement period, entry...

  19. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment naïve HIV-infected persons in London in 2011 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie McFaul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previously published UK data on HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR shows that it ranges between 3 and 9.4% [1,2]. However, there are no recent data from populations where HIV transmission rates are increasing. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDR in untreated HIV-infected individuals attending three HIV specialist clinics under the HIV Directorate, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and based throughout London – the Kobler Clinic, 56 Dean Street and West London Centre for Sexual Health. Methods: We included all patients with a HIV diagnosis, no history of antiretroviral therapy (ART intake, attending one of the three clinics (Kobler (K, 56 Dean Street (DS and West London (WL, between 2011 and 2013 who started antiretrovirals. Reverse transcriptase (RT and protease region sequencing was performed using Vircotype virtual phenotype resistance analysis. Drug resistance mutations were identified according to Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database (http://hivdb.stanford.edu/. Results: Among 1705 HIV-1-infected patients enrolled in the study, 1252 were males (919 were MSM, 107 were females and 346 had no gender recorded. Ethnicity was 51.1% white British/Irish/other, 6.1% African, 2.1% Caribbean, 2.8% Asian, 1.3% Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, 4.2%, other, 3.2% not stated, and 29.2% unknown. 547 were from K (84.3% males, 48.3% MSM, 826 were from DS (84.3% males, 71.9% MSM, and 109 from WL (87.2% males, 56.0% MSM, 223 from other sites not specified. 77.5% (1321 of 1705 of patients had baseline viral resistance testing performed. Prevalence of primary resistance in those with a baseline viral resistance test was 13.5% overall: 19.3% in K, 14.9% in DS, and 14.7% in WL. The most common mutations detected were: NRTI: 184V, 215F, 41L; NNRTI 103N, 179D, 90I; PI 90M, 46I, and 82A. Among patients who tested with TDR, 79.1% had one single mutation, 18.7% and 2.2% exhibited dual or triple class-resistant viruses

  20. Physical Experiments to Investigate the Effects of Street Bottom Heating and Inflow Turbulence on Urban Street-Canyon Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Jin KIM; Jong-Jin BAIK

    2005-01-01

    The effects of street bottom heating and inflow turbulence on urban street-canyon flow are experimentally investigated using a circulating water channel. Three experiments are carried out for a street canyon with a street aspect ratio of 1. Results from each experiment with bottom heating or inflow turbulence are compared with those without bottom heating and appreciable inflow turbulence. It is demonstrated that street bottom heating or inflow turbulence increases the intensity of the canyon vortex. A possible explanation on how street bottom heating or inflow turbulence intensifies the canyon vortex is given from a fluid dynamical viewpoint.

  1. Reducing urban diffuse pollution and surface water flooding using retrofit street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, James; Stringer, Pete; Causer, Katherine; Ryan, Matt; Mangan, Steve; Appleton, Ian; Savage, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Nature-based solutions for the management of urban stormwater have been growing in popularity, but there is a lack of empirical performance data for field-scale installations, especially in a UK context. To address this deficiency, a novel retrofit street tree demonstration project was commissioned in the City of Salford, near Manchester (UK). Three fifteen year-old London Plane trees were planted within a large roadside tree trench on an urban residential street. The DeepRoot Silvia Cell modular suspended pavement system was used to maximise soil volume, avoid compaction and support large tree growth. Road runoff is directed to the tree trench via AKO Slot Kerbs. Water is then distributed evenly throughout the whole system via a perforated pipe. Excess water is conveyed out of the system via an underdrain, which is subsequently connected to the sewer network. The tree trench is lined with an impermeable membrane. Access chambers are positioned on the inflow and outflow of the tree trench to facilitate hydrological and water quality monitoring. Installation was completed in autumn 2015 and monitoring will be conducted over a three year period. This paper will provide an overview of the installation process and present initial results on the pollutant removal performance and hydrological functioning of the system.

  2. Implementation Regimes and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; T. Dinesen, Peter; J. May, Peter

    -government regimes foster greater policy commitment, attention to rules, and adherence among frontline workers than is the case for a local-government implementation regime. These lead to actions of street-level bureaucrats in central-government regimes that are more in line with national policies than those...

  3. Strolling Along Barkor Street(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Barkor Street has witnessed enormous changes over the past few decades.But the Monument to theTang-Tubo Alliance,willow trees of the Tang Dynasty and large sutra pole, existing in front of JokhangMonastery, retains their original demeanor.

  4. [Agnosia for streets and defective root finding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information.

  5. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…

  6. Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...

  7. The Earl Lee Street Art Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a catchy phrase with more to its meaning than first view. A slogan "All the girls love Earl Lee," appears in street art around the world. Earl Lee is a lovable, handsome man who owns the fictitious Earl Lube industries. Originally intended to bring a smile to people's faces at a time when there wasn't much to smile…

  8. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage ...

  9. Sesame Street Viewing Volunteer Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Robert T.; And Others

    This guide was prepared to aid volunteers working with preschool children who view the television program, "Sesame Street". The suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the "Sesame Mother Pilot Project," conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational Development. This guide is divided into nine main parts:…

  10. Study on Fleet Assignment Problem Model and Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohua Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fleet Assignment Problem (FAP of aircraft scheduling in airlines is studied, and the optimization model of FAP is proposed. The objective function of this model is revenue maximization, and it considers comprehensively the difference of scheduled flights and aircraft models in flight areas and mean passenger flows. In order to solve the model, a self-adapting genetic algorithm is supposed to solve the model, which uses natural number coding, adjusts dynamically crossover and mutation operator probability, and adopts intelligent heuristic adjusting to quicken optimization pace. The simulation with production data of an airline shows that the model and algorithms suggested in this paper are feasible and have a good application value.

  11. First Battleships of the Coast Defense of Russian Emperor Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is told about design and building in Russia of the first tower armored ships, are given their characteristics, are described design features, and also basic stages of service in the composition of Baltic fleet, the advantages and disadvantages in the projects are analyzed. The authors come to the conclusion that the first navigation of tower armored vehicles revealed many design flaws. Low-built monitors and two-turret armored boat had very poor seakeeping. However, for advertising purposes the ten monitors in 1865 have been sent to the coast of Sweden. During the operation it was determined the necessity of combining the reliable protection with sufficient seaworthiness. The solution to this problem is reflected in the subsequent types of armored ships – the tower frigates.

  12. A shamanistic fessure to catch a fleeting truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kunze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Architectural schools extend ideology unknowingly. We have lost the primary sources essential to architectural thinking and making, that is a means of grasping, intellectually ad imaginatively, the small, evanescent details that reveal a fleeting truth. Architecture educators have allowed architecture and design to develop separately. The ideological construct of a scale through which we distinguish a building from its landscape, sublets the fractal nature of cities, which is a conversion of outer to inner — a matter of “emergence” rather than causal chains. The city embodies the human essence, the will to exist not just in the face of, but also through self-destruction. Architecture’s origins are in the shamanistic construction of fissures that allow us to make shadows to be measured with a precise musical geometry and sung to create the Real of the world.

  13. The spacecraft 'fleet' to comet Halley - An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B. T.

    1985-01-01

    Questions related to the formation and the characteristics of comets are discussed, and it is suggested that an evolutionary link exists between comets, prebiotic organic synthesis, and the origin of life as it is known. Fundamental questions about the solar wind interaction with comets, are considered, giving attention to the ionization mechanisms in the different cometary regions, the presence of field-aligned currents, and the cometary plasma tail. It is pointed out that some of the questions will soon be answered when the NASA-ESA International Cometary Explorer (ICE) goes through the tail of Giacobini-Zinner in September 1985, and when a five spacecraft 'fleet' arrives at comet Halley in March 1986.

  14. County Government Fleet Purchasing Practices: Financial Efficiency vs. Need Assertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Modlin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An abundant amount of local government services are implemented through the use of automobiles each year. These costs include initial purchase, use, repair, and replacement. Traditional budgeting research is broad and does not isolate fleet costs or the influential actors in the process. This study examines the finance practices and need assertion associated with vehicle purchases and acquisition. Findings indicate most county governments in North and South Carolina choose to purchase vehicles on a cash basis, especially if there is a low resale value for surplus automobiles. In addition, county staff are very influential in additional vehicle purchases, especially if the sheriff can convince the county manager that additional automobiles of a particular make can enhance service delivery.

  15. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  16. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP, where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this problem, we design three guiding mechanisms in which the search history is used to guide the search. The three mechanisms are experimentally demonstrated to be more efficient than the ones which only apply the known distance information. Armed with the guiding mechanisms and the well-known reactive mechanism, the RGTS can produce remarkable solutions in a reasonable computation time.

  17. [Health status of female soldiers serving in the Northern Fleet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Askerko, N V; Ustimenko, L I; Miloshevich, Iu R; Volkova, L V; Sadchenko, S N; Matochkina, A A

    2013-09-01

    Authors analyzed the health status and morbidity among female soldiers serving under the contract in the Northern Fleet, age peculiarities, results of medical in-patient examination and expert assessment, put in medical records in accordance with prophylactic medical examination service and medical examination. Annual data about military troops, morbidity and medical examination among female soldiers in the period 2002-2010 (n-14,5 thousand of people) are included into analysis. 502 medical records of female soldiers approved by military physician board were analyzed. Authors presented statistic data about primary diseases and chronic pathology and considered causes of changing of the category of fitness for military service and its gender peculiarities. Authors suggest changing the recruiting concept for female soldiers and the system of medical in-patient examination.

  18. Taking health promotion on to the streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, A

    1992-06-01

    In Brazil, until 1990, the authorities could legally arrest a child found alone in the streets, and put them in prison-like institutions. Their crime? To be poor, usually black and living on the streets. The Brazilian Center for the Defense of the Rights of Children and Adolescents (SOS Crianca) was set up a few years ago with the aim of changing this legislation. Together with other nongovernment organizations, SOS Crianca drew up new legislation, lobbied politicians and policymakers, and publicized the issue at a new Child and Adolescent Statute, based on the International Declaration of Children's Rights, was made law. Lawyers volunteered their services to SOS Crianca, making sure that young people had access to legal support, so that the new law could be put into practiced. AIDS has added to the difficulties of young people living on the streets. In 1988, using a strategy similar to the one above, SOS Crianca started to work with key organizations and the children themselves, to draw up an HIV prevention strategy for street children. As well as being threatened with violence and police arrest, these children lack a basic human right--access to health care. Public health services in Brazil do not reach the 40% of the population who live in absolute poverty, which includes young people on the streets. Preventing AIDS is seen by SOS Crianca to be just a part of promoting better health and providing overall healthcare. Educational activities will not work if children do not have access to treatment, or to basic needs like food and shelter. SOS Crianca does not employ doctors because it is not the role of nongovernment organizations to take over the state's responsibility to provide basic health care. But how can the public clinics, staffed with underpaid professionals and lacking basic equipment meet the needs of street children? Meetings were organized with different health professionals, involving those most sensitive to the problem in setting up a referral

  19. Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara City (Naher Elneel State Sudan) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors ...

  20. Microbiological assessment of ethnic street foods of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Kharel

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The risks associated with street foods may be controlled by educating vendors about hygienic conditions. In conclusion, street foods are important ethnic foods sold in popular tourist spots in India for marginal local vendors.

  1. Microbiological Safety of Street Vended Foods in Jigjiga City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    RESULTS: The majority of the street food vendors were women, 120(90.9%), with the average age group of ... street food and fast foods are commonly consumed .... from each tube was seeded on appropriate media ... Time (h) Temperat ure.

  2. Street Littering in Nigerian Towns: towards a Framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    riders, and all those practicing their trades along the streets. Respondents ... indicators (contents of our questionnaire) which helped to assess patterns of behaviour ... Litter levels were very high along the streets contiguous to very big markets.

  3. A dynamic management of a public transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Celiński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present paper deals with the problems of a public transportation fleet management in public transportation operators. A management concept is proposed based on a real-time acquisition of parameters of public transportation passenger exchange. Methods: The relevant research utilised video materials documenting the processes of passenger exchange in public transportation. The proposed methodology is based on a dynamic real-time measurement of passenger streams. A characteristic feature of the measurement methodology applied is that the data is collected outside the vehicles, with a CCTV camera used per access point. Demand for the public transportation service are calculated using the image processing. Results: The derived demand characteristics allow not only an estimation of the magnitude of traffic streams in public transportation but also their qualitative description. Such an approach permits a flexible design of the transportation offer to adapt to the demand. This allows matching the timetables to the density functions describing the demand for public transportation within the space of transportation networks. In addition, based on the results of this type of research, a public transportation operator may despatch the vehicle base in a flexible way. For each run of a bus or tram fleet, basing on the registered passenger traffic streams, it is possible to rationally despatch the vehicles with suitable capacity. Conclusions: A system of this type is capable of determining the quality of work of the public transportation. With the ITS systems being introduced still more widely, the proposed methodology allows the design and implementation of dynamic timetables.

  4. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  5. The University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Davis, Stephen; Bartrip, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research note gives details of 2 releases of audio recordings available from speakers who stutter that can be accessed on the Web. Method: Most of the recordings are from school-age children. These are available on the University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS) Web site, and information is provided about how to…

  6. Jack London and "the Call of the Wild"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晶

    2002-01-01

    The article vividly analyzes the characteristics of Jack London's writing theme that is the description of the con-flicts between nature and human. Based on the "call of the wild" and its hero Buck, It points out the author' s writingthoughts, that is strong will human show in their fight against nature.

  7. A fatal case of Lassa fever in London, January 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, A; Addiman, S; Cathcart, S; Bischop, L; Krahé, D; Nicholas, M; Coakley, J; Lloyd, G; Brooks, T; Morgan, D; Turbitt, D

    2009-02-12

    In January 2009, the eleventh [corrected] case of Lassa fever imported to the United Kingdom was diagnosed in London. Risk assessment of 328 healthcare contacts with potential direct exposure to Lassa virus - through contact with the case or exposure to bodily fluids - was undertaken. No contacts were assessed to be at high risk of infection and no secondary clinical cases identified.

  8. JACK LONDON ETNÓLOGO AMATEUR DEL PUGILISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available De los relatos que Jack London ha consagrado al boxeo, A Piece of Steak es sin dudas aquel que merece hoy nuestra mayor atención, e incluso un lugar en el panteón de los textos literarios sobre el Noble Arte, y junto a él otros tres títulos...

  9. London tõukas New Yorgi troonilt / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma finantskeskuste indeksi järgi on London tõuganud New Yorgi teisele kohale, neile järgnevad Hongkong, Singapur ja Zürich. Vt. samas: IPOd on USAs kokku kuivanud. Tabel: Londoni börsile tuli mullu rohkem firmasid

  10. The Maintenance of The London Underground Tube Tunnel Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gleig Frazer

    2004-01-01

    It is helpful to have a brief history of London Underground when considering any aspect of its maintenance or future development. The system has developed over more than 100 years and only comparatively recently come under the control of a single organisation. This partly explains the complexity that has resulted from differences in construction between lines. A brief History is accordingly appended to this presentation as Appendix B. The recent History outlines how Tube Lines have come to be involved with London Underground and explains a little of the reason for our existence. We are required to maintain and improve London Underground assets. Our performance has to be measurable and it follows that we need to know the current condition "value" of those assets. A large part of London Underground's infrastructure is tube tunnels some of which have not been fully assessed since they were first constructed in the 19th Century. They used materials whose physical and durability properties were not, at the time, fully understood; and they were designed on a very empirical basis if they were "designed" at all. Some shafts and other elements of the Tunnel Asset appeared to have been forgotten or lost when the Public Private Partnership (PPP) instigation procedures began in earnest in 1998. A major part of our current maintenance programme is thus to ascertain and agree the current condition and extent of approximately 178kilometres of tube tunnel asset that we are required to maintain and improve.

  11. Space in Pentecostal healing practices among Ghanaian migrants in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article I analyse different spatial practices related to Pentecostal healing, drawing on fieldwork with Pentecostal believers who have migrated from Ghana to London, UK. I explore the relationship between space and the manifestation of the Holy Spirit by looking at how points of contact with

  12. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of 2012 London Olympic Emblem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞雪

    2012-01-01

    At present,communication is developing from mono-modality to multi-modality.The related study on multimodal discourse is becoming a hot issue.This paper will adopt the theory of Kress and van Leeuwen's visual grammar as the theoretical framework to analyze the 2012 London Olympic emblem,exploring the meanings hidden behind the visual images.

  13. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573), addresse

  14. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  15. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox - Boulton, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573), addresse

  16. Middling migration: contradictory mobility experiences of Indian youth in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.; Verstappen, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the contradictory migration experiences of Indian youngsters who recently moved to Britain on a student or temporary work visa. All of them lived in London at the time of the interview, and are from middle class families in Gujarat. Like many of their peers in developing

  17. Participation and Performance at the London 2012 Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer

    2012-01-01

    The current paper predicts the medal tally for the London 2012 Olympic Games. The forecast procedure consists of analyzing participation and success at the country level of the three most recent editions of the Olympic Summer Games. Potential explanatory variables for medal winnings are income per c

  18. Vulnerability to violence of girls of the street in Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    Ballet, Jérôme; Sirven, N.; Bhukuth, A.; Rousseau, S.

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with an empirical study of girls of the street in Mauritania. This study is original for three main reasons. First, it investigates Mauritania, a country where there have been very few studies of the phenomenon of children of the street. Secondly, it seems to us that though the academic literature on street children sometimes provides comparisons between girls and boys, very few studies focus specifically on girls of the street. Thirdly, the literature focusing on ch...

  19. Off-street commercial sex : an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Doherty, Tamara Carrine

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores women’s experiences working in off-street prostitution venues in Vancouver, BC. The victimization experienced by street-based sex workers has led many people to conclude that prostitution is inherently dangerous. However, street-based workers form the minority of sex workers in Canada. The question remains, can their experiences be generalized to other types of prostitution? Consequently, this thesis examines whether female off-street sex workers face the same degree of v...

  20. An optimization method for condition based maintenance of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiang; Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

    2014-01-01

    An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success.

  1. Sébastien Lechevalier (editor), The Great Transformation of Japanese Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2014. 240 pp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Sébastien Lechevalier (editor), The Great Transformation of Japanese Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2014.......Book review of: Sébastien Lechevalier (editor), The Great Transformation of Japanese Capitalism. London: Routledge, 2014....

  2. POLICY EVALUATION OF RESTRUCTURING STREET VENDORS IN SURAKARTA CITY (Study of Street Vendors in Monument Park Banjarsari and Street Vendors in Manahan Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frahlevi Prajasari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the policy evaluation of restructuring street vendors in Surakarta city. Street vendors represent the economic actors in the informal sector of urban economic activity. The government of City/District usually removes these street vendors by disguising this activity behind the reason of structuring, . The study used descriptive research with a qualitative approach. The relocation of street vendors in Surakarta City is orderly and smooth without violence which may impact badly on physic and material because the government of Surakarta City, especially Surakarta Mayor, uses persuasive approach. Notoharjo Market is a relocation place for street vendors at Banjarsari Monument Park. In the beginning, Notoharjo Market is crowded with buyers but current days, street vendors who occupy Notoharjo Market complain about lack of buyers. The lack of buyers at Notoharjo Market is because the facilities previously provided by the government of Surakarta City are not well maintained. The government of Surakarta City must listening all complains of street vendors for the smoothness and orderliness of trading activity of street vendors. Not only listening, but the government of Surakarta City also gives appropriate and best solution to street vendors such that street vendors feel comfort in selling and their income is better than before.

  3. An Art of Resistance: From the Street to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Rooted in graffiti culture and its attitude toward the world, street art is regarded as a postgraffiti movement. Street art encompasses a wide array of media and techniques, such as traditional spray-painted tags, stickers, stencils, posters, photocopies, murals, paper cutouts, mosaics, street installations, performances, and video projections…

  4. Street language. A multilingual youth register in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Appel, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical study of street language, a multilingual youth register in the Netherlands. Nearly 300 secondary school students completed a questionnaire on their acquaintance with and use of street language. A subsample of students was also interviewed. Use of street language wi

  5. What Research Indicates about the Educational Effects of "Sesame Street."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This paper reviews the results of several studies that examined the educational effects of Sesame Street. Three studies by the Educational Testing Service on Sesame Street's first two seasons determined that among children who watched Sesame Street, those who watched the most scored highest on an achievement measure; frequent viewers made more…

  6. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21. 146 deaths (60% were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7 other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43% of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%. The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03. Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found.

  7. Modelling component evaporation and composition change of traffic-induced ultrafine particles during travel from street canyon to urban background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Irina; MacKenzie, A Rob; Cai, Xiaoming; Alam, Mohammed S; Harrison, Roy M

    2016-07-18

    We developed a model (CiTTy-Street-UFP) of traffic-related particle behaviour in a street canyon and in the nearby downwind urban background that accounts for aerosol dynamics and the variable vapour pressure of component organics. The model simulates the evolution and fate of traffic generated multicomponent ultrafine particles (UFP) composed of a non-volatile core and 17 Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC, modelled as n-alkane proxies). A two-stage modelling approach is adopted: (1) a steady state simulation inside the street canyon is achieved, in which there exists a balance between traffic emissions, condensation/evaporation, deposition, coagulation and exchange with the air above roof-level; and (2) a continuing simulation of the above-roof air parcel advected to the nearby urban park during which evaporation is dominant. We evaluate the component evaporation and associated composition changes of multicomponent organic particles in realistic atmospheric conditions and compare our results with observations from London (UK) in a street canyon and an urban park. With plausible input conditions and parameter settings, the model can reproduce, with reasonable fidelity, size distributions in central London in 2007. The modelled nucleation-mode peak diameter, which is 23 nm in the steady-state street canyon, decreases to 9 nm in a travel time of just 120 s. All modelled SVOC in the sub-10 nm particle size range have evaporated leaving behind only non-volatile material, whereas modelled particle composition in the Aitken mode contains SVOC between C26H54 and C32H66. No data on particle composition are available in the study used for validation, or elsewhere. Measurements addressing in detail the size resolved composition of the traffic emitted UFP in the atmosphere are a high priority for future research. Such data would improve the representation of these particles in dispersion models and provide the data essential for model validation. Enhanced knowledge of the

  8. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  9. Particle number emissions of motor traffic derived from street canyon measurements in a Central European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, S.; Birmili, W.; Voigtländer, J.; Tuch, T.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Ketzel, M.

    2009-02-01

    A biennial dataset of ambient particle number size distributions (diameter range 4-800 nm) collected in urban air in Leipzig, Germany, was analysed with respect to the influence of traffic emissions. Size distributions were sampled continuously in 2005 and 2006 inside a street canyon trafficked by ca. 10 000 motor vehicles per day, and at a background reference site distant at 1.5 km. Auto-correlation analysis showed that the impact of fresh traffic emissions could be seen most intensely below particle sizes of 60 nm. The traffic-induced concentration increment at roadside was estimated by subtracting the urban background values from the street canyon measurement. To describe the variable dispersion conditions inside the street canyon, micro-meteorological dilution factors were calculated using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), driven by above-roof wind speed and wind direction observations. The roadside increment concentrations, dilution factor, and real-time traffic counts were used to calculate vehicle emission factors (aerosol source rates) that are representative of the prevailing driving conditions, i.e. stop-and-go traffic including episodes of fluent traffic flow at speeds up to 40 km h-1. The size spectrum of traffic-derived particles was essentially bimodal - with mode diameters around 12 and 100 nm, while statistical analysis suggested that the emitted number concentration varied with time of day, wind direction, particle size and fleet properties. Significantly, the particle number emissions depended on ambient temperature, ranging between 4.8 (±1.8) and 7.8 (±2.9).1014 p. veh-1 km-1 in summer and winter, respectively. A separation of vehicle types according to vehicle length suggested that lorry-like vehicles emit about 80 times more particle number than passenger car-like vehicles. Using nitrogen oxide (NOx) measurements, specific total particle number emissions of 338 p. (pg NOx)-1 were inferred. The calculated traffic emission factors

  10. Pioneers in infection control: John Snow, Henry Whitehead, the Broad Street pump, and the beginnings of geographical epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, S W B

    2006-11-01

    John Snow was one of the founders of epidemiology. Already convinced of the value of pure water, he analysed the distribution of cholera cases in the 1848 epidemic in relation to the purity of the water supply in London. His hypothesis that cholera was spread by contaminated water was tested by the 'Broad Street' epidemic of 1854. Snow quickly traced the water used in the houses affected by cholera to the pump in Broad Street, and persuaded the parish council to remove the handle. The epidemic subsided. The council did not really believe Snow, so the curate, Henry Whitehead, set out to repeat Snow's work, albeit at a more leisurely pace as the epidemic had subsided. He located 700 deaths within a 250-yard radius and showed that use of water from the Broad Street pump was strongly correlated with death from cholera. This surprised him as he had drunk water from the pump himself during the outbreak. Thus 'geographical epidemiology' began, although it was some years before Snow's observations were generally accepted.

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts... forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? Use the following forms to report a domestic fleet crash. The forms should be carried in any domestic fleet motor vehicle....

  12. Composition of Façon de Venise glass from early 17th century London in comparison with luxury glass of the same age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagno, S.; De Raedt, I.; Jeffries, T.; Janssens, K.

    SEM-EDX and LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed on a set of early 17th century London glass fragments. The samples originate from two archaeological sites (Aldgate and Old Broad Street) where glass workshops were active in this period. The great majority of the samples are made of soda glass. Two distinct compositional groups are observed, each typical of one site of provenance. The samples originating from the Old Broad Street excavation feature a silica-soda-lime composition, with a moderate amount of potash. The samples from Aldgate are richer in potassium and feature higher amounts of trace elements such as Rb, Zr and Cu. The distinction between the two groups stems from different flux and silica sources used for glassmaking. A comparison with different European glass compositions of that time reveals no resemblance with genuine Venetian production, yet the composition of the Old Broad Street glass shows a close similarity to that of fragments produced `à la façon de Venise' in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. This coincides with historical sources attesting the arrival of glassworkers from the Low Countries in England and suggests that a transfer of technology took place near the turn of the century.

  13. Strategies to ensure the welfare of street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Street children refer to a vulnerable section of children who lives on the street in the absence of any guidance of a responsible person, to ensure their own or their family′s survival. Multiple determinants have been ascertained in the causation of the menace of street children. In order to address the challenges faced by street children, there is an indispensable need to develop a comprehensive strategy by involving all the concerned stakeholders. To conclude, to counter the menace of street children, there is a definite need to understand the role of heterogeneous determinants that push children towards street life, so that the welfare needs of street children can be safeguarded and the problem can be addressed at the grass root level.

  14. Self-Localization at Street Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M

    2014-05-01

    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach.

  15. Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post

  16. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  17. 78 FR 28625 - American Airlines, a Subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration American Airlines, a Subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa... workers of American Airlines, a subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Service Clerks, Tulsa, Oklahoma. American Airlines supplies air transportation services. The subject worker group...

  18. Studies in Interactive Techniques and Systems for Reconstruction of Fleet Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    general performance, design, development and test requirements study for the Fleet Analysis and Reconstruction of Exercise Facility (FAREF); and research and testing of interactive techniques and computer algorithms . (Author)

  19. A multi-species multi-fleet bioeconomic simulation model for the English Channel artisanal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Le Gallic, B.; Dunn, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    -scale bioeconomic model has been constructed. It does not take into account biological interactions, but focuses on competition among fleets. A large amount of biological and economic data have been preliminarily gathered, leading to a substantial increase of the quantitative knowledge available. The main purpose...... of the model is to study the long-term consequences of various management alternatives on the economic situation of the English and French fleets fishing in the area and on exploited resources. The model describes this feature through the links between three entities on the one hand (stocks, fleets...... and "metiers", i.e. gear x target species x fishing area), and three modules on the other hand (activity, biological production and economics). The model is described and some simulation results are presented. An example simulating a decrease of one fleet segment effort illustrates these technical interactions...

  20. On the road to fossil-free public transport : The case of Swedish bus fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2016-01-01

    Public transport is important for Sweden to acquire a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030. The aim of this paper is to assess the status of Swedish public bus fleets towards decarbonization, and explore factors affecting regional performance variations and fuel choices. Environmental performance indicators such as renewable fuel shares, CO2 emissions, and energy efficiency are analyzed nationally and regionally. Fuel preferences and best practices are investigated through a survey a...

  1. Navy Working Capital Fund: Budgeting for Carryover at Fleet Readiness Centers Could Be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    NAVY WORKING CAPITAL FUND Budgeting for Carryover at Fleet Readiness Centers Could Be Improved Report to...00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Navy Working Capital Fund: Budgeting for Carryover at Fleet Readiness Centers Could Be Improved 5a. CONTRACT...Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-15-462, a report to congressional requesters June 2015 NAVY WORKING CAPITAL FUND Budgeting for Carryover at

  2. Rock and mineral physics at University College London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Paul; Meredith, Philip; Price, David

    The Department of Geological Sciences at University College London (UCL), has undergone a period of major expansion and growth as a result of the restructuring of geology departments within the University of London that was carried out in 1982. This exercise produced the amalgamation of selected parts of the Department of Geological Sciences of Queen Mary College and the Department of Geology, UCL, on the UCL site. The creation of this strengthened grouping has been successful in attracting a significant number of active researchers in the field of rock and mineral physics (RMP) to the new UCL department. As a result, the academic staff has more than douhled since 1982 and now stands at 31.

  3. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Toby P; Fry, Hannah M; Wilson, Alan G; Bishop, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area.

  4. Intussusception and the great smog of London, December 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J

    2003-12-01

    To discuss the possible significance of the increased incidence of intussusception in children in relation to the "Great Smog" of London in December 1952. Cases of intussusception were recorded in two hospitals in East London for the years 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954. For 1952 the actual dates of admission were recorded. During the year 1952 the total number of cases of intussusception greatly exceeded that in the previous and succeeding years. Immediately during and after the fog there was a clustering of cases, which only occurred during this period. The increased incidence of cases during 1952 is thought to reflect the annual variation in incidence resulting from changes in the prevalence of viruses capable of causing intussusception. The clustering of cases in relation to the fog may reflect a facilitated entry of virus through the wall of the terminal ileum due to the effect of swallowed irritants such as sulphurous acid and smoke particles.

  5. "Mothering through Islam": Narratives of Religious Identity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgroundsin London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations ofIslamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particularthe paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of andgive meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest thatthe women use Islam in four key ways: (i as a framework for teaching theirchildren right and wrong, (ii as a means of protecting children from the ‘moral’dangers of British society, (iii as an authoritative voice that reinforces parentingand (iv as a means of critiquing specific aspects of both the traditional andBritish culture in which they live and daily negotiate their different cultural andreligious belonging. In attempting to instil religious values in their London-basedchildren, these mothers have to negotiate the hostility that Islam increasinglyprovokes in British society’s public arenas.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH DISORDER FLEET OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams, parking difficulties, noise horns, especially stress and the increment of air pollution by greenhouse gas emissions by the growing fleet of motor vehicles in Brazilian capitals, then, the question is: what are the possible impacts that the growing fleet of motor vehicles of the State of Ceará may cause to the environment? With the general aim of this study: to analyze the growing fleet of vehicles in the State of Ceará and its possible environmental impacts. And yet with the following specific objectives: to analyze the determinants of growth in vehicle fleet of the state of Ceará, by applying the statistical technique of Multiple Regression; discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental mitigation measures related to the growth fleet of automotive vehicles. This is a literature review, using secondary data that was applied multiple regression analysis. It was made a data analysis about the period between 1980 to 2009. Thiswork serves asawarningas theuncontrolled growthof the fleet ofvehiclesleads to anincrease in pollutionby the emission oftoxic gases, whosedirect consequence isthe destructionof the ozone layerthat protectsthe earth’s atmosphere from the exposure of UV irradiation.

  7. 民办高校车队管理思考%Private Fleet Management Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮琪

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of private colleges and universities, private colleges and universities are increasingly multi-school, vehicle fleet growing. Therefore, the steps of how to further Quicken the development of private fleet management, use of information technology in fleet management and dispatching, institutionalization of rationalization of fleet management information, and, on the premise of ensuring safe operation to enhance fleet management is important. Present situation and development direction of thinking based on private vehicle use, clear thinking on fleet management reforms.%随着民办高校的快速发展,民办高校日渐呈现多校区办学,车辆队伍日趋壮大。因此,如何进一步加快民办高校车队管理发展步伐,利用信息化技术进一步做好车辆管理和调度工作,实现车队管理的信息化、合理化和制度化,在确保安全运行的前提下,加强车队管理具有重要意义。本文从民办高校车辆使用现状和发展方向思考,对车队管理改革提出明确思路。

  8. Software Application for Remote Monitoring of Fleets Based on Geographic Information Systems Using Open Source Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlling a fleet usually implies to establish means of control of vehicles, to collect the data associated with the routes taken by these vehicles, to interpret and evaluate the meaning of the collected data and to make the appropriate decisions to improve the efficiency in the use of vehicles in an organization. The implementation of this process of fleet management is mainly performed manually and the solutions available on the market are costly because of the payments for licenses, it is also necessary that the people monitoring the fleets are geographically close to them. This paper aims to answer the following questions: How to reduce errors in the management of information resulting from the fleet management process? How to reduce the cost of remote fleet monitoring? To obtain the solution, we propose the use of GPS devices in each vehicle, the GPS device’s information is captured and consistently stored in a data base, then the information is consulted, analyzed and represented on a map. The result is a software application that allows users have fast and reliable information that will enable them to take the necessary decisions in the vehicle fleet they are trying to control at a low cost.

  9. A London shop window for PPARC industry partnership successes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neale, R

    2002-01-01

    The UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council recently held a seminar in London to reveal the results of the impressive work they are doing in fostering partnerships between science and industry. They have many different types of funded programmes, the purpose of all of them is to encourage industry and entrepreneurs to both benefit from and service the requirements of particle physics science and technology (1 page).

  10. Intergenerational learning between children and grandparents in East London

    OpenAIRE

    Kenner, Charmian; Gregory, Eve E.; Jessel, John; Ruby, Mahera; Arju, Tahera

    2004-01-01

    The study set out to investigate learning events taking place between young children and grandparents in London's East End, both in activities where older people have traditionally provided support (such as storytelling) and in the newer areas of information and communication technology where children have competences which their grandparents would like to access. This area of family learning is growing in significance as grandparents are increasingly taking on a childcare role in different e...

  11. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASAs Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as a few hours ago, GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development. data visualization, web services, open access

  12. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of International Tuna Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We developed an iterative sequential random utility model to investigate the social and environmental determinants of the spatiotemporal decision process of tuna purse-seine fishery fishing effort in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Operations of the fishing gear mark checkpoints in a continuous complex decision-making process. Individual fisher behavior is modeled by identifying diversified choices over decision-space for an entire fishing trip, which allows inclusion of prior and current vessel locations and conditions among the explanatory variables. Among these factors are vessel capacity; departure and arrival port; duration of the fishing trip; daily and cumulative distance travelled, which provides a proxy for operation costs; expected revenue; oceanographic conditions; and tons of fish on board. The model uses a two-step decision process to capture the probability of a vessel choosing a specific fishing region for the first set and the probability of switching to (or staying in) a specific region to fish before returning to its landing port. The model provides a means to anticipate the success of marine resource management, and it can be used to evaluate fleet diversity in fisher behavior, the impact of climate variability, and the stability and resilience of complex coupled human and natural systems. PMID:27537545

  13. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

    2006-06-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

  14. Mixed fleet assessment for on-orbit consumables resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Dominick, Sam M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant increases in the cost effectiveness and operational flexibility of in-space systems can be realized when the capability to replenish consumable fluids and propellants is incorporated into the designs of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and laboratories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellants to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the Space Station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks have been depleted. This paper documents the impacts of a mixed fleet approach to consumables logistics to orbit. Both storable fluids and propellants, and superfluid helium, are considered. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants and water for Space Station propulsion are discussed. Trade-offs in superfluid helium tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6 months) space-basing, are addressed.

  15. Cooperation is fleeting in the world of transposable elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wagner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite transposons are key vehicles for the worldwide spreading of genes that allow bacteria to survive toxic compounds. Composite transposons consist of two smaller transposable elements called insertion sequences (ISs, which flank the genes that permit such survival. Each IS in a composite transposon can either transpose alone, selfishly, or it can transpose cooperatively, jointly with the other IS. Cooperative transposition can enhance an IS's chance of survival, but it also carries the risk of transposon destruction. I use game theory to show that the conditions under which cooperative transposition is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS are not biologically realistic. I then analyze the distribution of thousands of ISs in more than 200 bacterial genomes to test the following prediction of the game-theoretical model: if cooperative transposition was an ESS, then the closely spaced ISs that characterize composite transposons should be more abundant in genomes than expected by chance. The data show that this is not the case. Cooperativity can only be maintained in a transitional, far-from-equilibrium state shortly after a selection pressure first arises. This is the case in the spreading of antibiotic resistance, where we are witnessing a fleeting moment in evolution, a moment in which cooperation among selfish DNA molecules has provided a means of survival. Because such cooperation does not pay in the long run, the vehicles of such survival will eventually disappear again. My analysis demonstrates that game theory can help explain behavioral strategies even for mobile DNA.

  16. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N. N.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M. M.; King, B. A.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J.; De Luca, A. P.; King, J.

    2016-12-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASA's Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as "a few hours ago", GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development.

  17. Fleet matching performance for multiple registration measurement tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, D.; Bläsing, C.; Boehm, K.; Heisig, S.; Seidel, D.

    2013-09-01

    Currently semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimisation and inverse lithography. These requirements trend to full in-die measurement capability of photomask metrology for registration. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE which is already well established in the market. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. A key component for registration tool users is the cross site manufacturing flexibility given by the matching capability of all its metrology tools. Therefore all PROVE tools offer a tool matching procedure based on 2D Golden Grid references. In this paper we first review the optimal length standard and golden grid matching procedures of modern registration metrology tools. Systematic errors in fleet matching based on illumination differences, thermal expansionbased issues or line width roughness are addressed. The tool matching performance of PROVE tools is demonstrated by comparing up to 7 different tools. All tools are well within accuracy and long-term repeatability specification which considerably reduces the statistical error contribution of the tool matching performance. For grid matched tools the final cross tool registration error is shown to be below 1nm.

  18. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  19. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  20. Enhancing Resilience of London by Learning from Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Atun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience was introduced at the beginning of the 70s to indicate the capability of natural systems to absorb perturbations, preserving their structure and keeping the system functioning. The paper considers London as an example to a resilient city by focusing on some remarkable disasters in the history of London, such as the Great Fire of 1666, the air raids during the World War 2, 18 December 1987 Kings Cross Fire, terrorist attack to tube network on the 7th of July 2005, 1928 flooding and 1953 storm surge. The paper starts by giving short descriptions of these disasters and continues by discussing the lessons learned. In this paper, the concept of resilience has been studied in three phases: prepare for, respond to and recover from a disaster. Besides, actions that have to be taken according to these three phases are going to be explored in detail. In conclusion, the notable effects of the mentioned disasters on the structural and non-structural tools for disaster prevention have been revealed by considering resilience of London.

  1. London 2012: espacio de excepción London 2012: espaço de exceção;London 2012: space of exception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Marrero-Guillamón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La teoría del estado de excepción de Giorgio Agamben, según la cual, lejos de ser una medida provisional y extraordinaria, éste habría devenido una técnica de gobierno, puede ayudar a entender la configuración legal y espacial de los Juegos Olímpicos. Este texto analiza los documentos fundamentales de la arquitectura legal de London 2012 con el fin de mostrar su impacto en la regulación y vigilancia del espacio económico y político de la ciudad. Tras presentar los pilares fundamentales de la gobernanza olímpica, el texto se centra en la configuración jurídica de la excepcionalidad. A través de un sistema de legitimación basado en la necesidad y la amenaza, la normativa asociada a los Juegos aprobada por el Gobierno Británico logra efectivamente materializar un estado de excepción: una suerte de paraíso capitalista, en el que la actividad económica está regulada por contratos exclusivos, toda actividad política está criminalizada, y los privilegios son protegidos policial y militarmente. De aquí que London 2012 pueda ser calificado como un “espacio de excepción”.

  2. The use of street-level bureaucracy theory in health policy analysis in low- and middle-income countries: a meta-ethnographic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Ermin

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a synthesis of studies that explicitly use the theory of street-level bureaucracy to illuminate health policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries. Street-level bureaucrats are frontline workers in bureaucracies, e.g. nurses, who regularly interact directly with citizens in discharging their policy implementation duties and who have some discretion over which services are offered, how services are offered and the benefits and sanctions allocated to citizens. This synthesis seeks to achieve the dual objectives of, first, reflecting on how street-level bureaucracy theory has been used in the literature and, second, providing an example of the application of the synthesis methodology of meta-ethnography to the health policy analysis literature. The article begins by outlining meta-ethnography and providing more information on the papers on which the synthesis is based. This is followed by a detailed account of how the synthesis was achieved and by an articulation of the synthesis. It then concludes with thoughts and questions on the value and relevance of the synthesis, the experience of conducting the synthesis and the partial way in which street-level bureaucracy theory has been used in the literature examined. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  3. Household and family characteristics of street children in Aracaju, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgalil, S; Gurgel, R G; Theobald, S; Cuevas, L E

    2004-09-01

    To describe the family background of street children in Aracaju, Brazil, their parents' perception of street life, and the reasons for the high prevalence of males observed among street children. Cross sectional study using semi-structured interviews and qualitative focus group discussions with parents of purposively selected index street children. Fifty eight families were enrolled. Most participants were single parent, female headed families living in slums or low cost housing, with high levels of illiteracy, drug use, unemployment, and a history of migration. Most parents reported receiving financial support from their children and were aware of the dangers of the street. Many parents had lived in the street, worked from an early age, and had been adolescent parents themselves. Parents perceived that the street was more dangerous for girls than for boys. Besides economic reasons, parents highlighted the role of peers and drug use in pulling their children to the street. A total of 187 siblings were identified. Siblings had poor school performance with high school drop out rates. Twenty per cent of the adolescent girl siblings were not living at home. Gender determined the type of work undertaken by children and adolescents. Males worked in the streets and females worked as housemaids, shop assistants, and in restaurants and bars. Family disintegration, poverty, drug use, adolescent pregnancy, peer pressure, and socially constructed gender roles determine the characteristics of children in the street. There is an urgent need for increased social support in this area.

  4. Modelling Aerosol Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, B. K.; Jones, D. P.; Gallagher, M. W.; McFiggans, G. B.; Watkins, A. P.

    2009-04-01

    Flow patterns within an urban street canyon are influenced by various micrometeorological factors. It also represents an environment where pollutants such as aerosols accumulate to high levels due to high volumes of traffic. As adverse health effects are being attributed to exposure to aerosols, an investigation of the dispersion of aerosols within such environments is of growing importance. In particular, one is concerned with the vertical structure of the aerosol concentration, the ventilation characteristics of the street canyon and the influence of aerosol microphysical processes. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of the aerosol concentrations within the street canyon and the lack of spatial resolution of measurement campaigns, these issues are an on-going debate. Therefore, a modelling tool is required to represent aerosol dispersion patterns to provide insights to results of past measurement campaigns. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are able to predict detailed airflow patterns within urban geometries. This capability may be further extended to include aerosol dispersion, by an Euler-Euler multiphase approach. To facilitate the investigation, a two-dimensional, multiphase CFD tool coupled with the k-epsilon turbulence model and with the capability of modelling mixed convection flow regimes arising from both wind driven flows and buoyancy effects from heated walls was developed. Assuming wind blowing perpendicularly to the canyon axis and treating aerosols as a passive scalar, an attempt will be made to assess the sensitivities of aerosol vertical structure and ventilation characteristics to the various flow conditions. Numerical studies were performed using an idealized 10m by 10m canyon to represent a regular canyon and 10m by 5m to represent a deep one. An aerosol emission source was assigned on the centerline of the canyon to represent exhaust emissions. The vertical structure of the aerosols would inform future directives regarding the

  5. Determinants of fine particle (PM{sub 2.5}) personal exposure levels in transport microenvironments, London, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, H.S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Colville, R.N. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, TH Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    A series of field studies were carried out in London, UK, during 1999-2000 in which over 400 fine particle (PM{sub 2.5}) personal exposure level measurements were taken for journeys in bicycle, bus, car and underground rail transport microenvironments. This was the first comprehensive PM{sub 2.5} personal exposure study of transport users. Both a fixed-route multi-transport mode study and a study of cyclists' commuter journeys were undertaken. Subsequent to these field studies regression modelling of possible influencing factors of these exposure levels was carried out. Meteorological variables, traffic density, mode and route were considered; the relationships of personal exposure levels with fixed site monitor (FSM) concentrations, and of the FSM concentrations with the potential predictor variables, were also investigated. This analysis of the determinants of transport user exposure to PM{sub 2.5} in London, UK, showed that wind speed had a significant influence on personal exposure levels, though explained only up to 20% of the variability of road transport user exposure levels. The occurrence of higher wind speeds was strongly associated with a decrease in personal exposure levels; a 1.5-2.0 fold difference in exposure level concentrations was estimated between the 10th and 90th percentiles of wind speed. Route was a significant factor, whilst mode was not a significant factor in the street microenvironment (between bicycle, bus and car modes); models incorporating route and mode, as well as wind speed, explained approximately 35% of the variability in PM{sub 2.5} exposure levels. Personal exposure levels were reasonably correlated with urban background FSM concentrations, for fixed-route road mode (bicycle, bus and car) exposure level concentrations, r=0.27 (p<0.01) and for commuter cyclists' exposure level concentrations r=0.58 (p<0.01). (Author)

  6. Reducing Long-Term Costs While Preserving a Robust Strategic Airlift Fleet: Options for the Current Fleet and Next-Generation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    available to the general public; and Michael Kennedy, Laura H. Bald - win, Michael Boito, Katherine M. Calef, James S. Chow, Joan Cornuet, Mel Eisman...pro- cure the C-767 first than to buy a pure fleet of either. To understand the sensitivity of these results, we examined the cost at which the C

  7. DNA profiling from heroin street dose packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Ashira; Cohen, Yaron; Azoury, Myriam

    2007-03-01

    A large amount of heroin street doses are seized and examined for drug content by the Israel police. These are generally wrapped in heat-sealed plastic. Occasionally it is possible to visualize latent fingerprints on the plastic wrap itself, but the small size of the plastic item and the sealing process makes the success rate very low. In this study, the possibility of extracting and profiling DNA from the burnt edge of the plastic wrap was investigated. The idea was based on the assumption that epithelial cells might be trapped during the sealing process. The results show that there are sufficient quantities of DNA deposited at the "amorphic" burnt edges of sealed street doses for DNA profiling to be carried out. A controlled experiment using a known donor was performed. This subject carried out sealing of "street drug" packages and consequent DNA extractions were performed to show that known DNA profiles could be recovered from such packages, as a result of handling by the "packer." "Square-like" burnt edges did not yield DNA profiles, probably because of differences in the sealing process. It was also shown that DNA could be recovered from the plastic wrap itself and not only from the amorphic burnt edges. As heroin dealers and drug users are often involved in other crimes and run-ins with the law, the effective extraction and addition of their DNA profiles from such items of evidence to the newly established DNA database in Israel provides new avenues in the continued fight against crime and drug traffickers.

  8. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  9. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  10. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with thenational employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  11. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  12. Graffiti e street art em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Marta Correia

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Arte, Património e Teoria do Restauro, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, 2014 O seguinte trabalho tem como principal objectivo introduzir o estudo do graffiti e da street art no seio da história da arte em Portugal, como uma forma de arte contemporânea. O graffiti tem vindo a acompanhar a humanidade ao longo da história. De uma forma inconstante, este teve as mais diversas utilizações e é hoje considerado como um movimento artístico. Partindo de um estudo da...

  13. A social work study on family patterns and street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.

  14. [Street social education: historical, political and pedagogical bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walter Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    This work is about street social education as a pedagogical system that started in Latin America in the late 1970s, as the street population formed mostly by children and adolescents called for attention. The first street social educators were 'pastoral' agents working at the praça da Sé a place with large numbers of street children in São Paulo. Based on the Liberation Theology and on the pedagogies developed by Paulo Freire, Celestine Freinet, Anton Makarenko, and Emília Ferreiro, the street educators developed a conceptual field and participated in the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Constitution, particularly by writing and introducing the 'Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente' (the 'Child and Adolescent Statute'). Street social education is currently latent and suffering the consequences of program discontinuity caused by successive changes of government. It is, therefore important to know the conceptual proposals.

  15. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S

    2009-04-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in qualitative interviews. Almost all HY had participated in the street (81%) and formal economies (69%). Five main factors simultaneously influenced initiation into the street economy: social control/bonds, barriers to the formal economy (e.g., homelessness, educational deficits, mental health problems, incarceration, stigma), tangible and social/emotional benefits of the street economy, severe economic need, and the active recruitment of HY into the street economy by others. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were congruent. Intervention efforts are needed at multiple levels of influence to promote HY's success in the formal economy.

  16. A comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators for fishery management in SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasalla, Maria A.; Rodrigues, Amanda R.; Duarte, Luis F. A.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2010-10-01

    One of the problems in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is the lack of economic analyses which clearly define the performance of different fishing fleets within the system. We describe a comparative multi-fleet analysis of socio-economic indicators applicable for inclusion into ecosystem modeling and management. Based on a survey of different industrial fishing fleets in São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, an inter-fleet comparison of economic attributes such as investment, fixed costs, effort, labour, sailing-related costs and profits, as well as a set of performance indicators, was conducted. Costs varied between fleets with fuel being the largest component on average, representing almost 37% of total costs. Similarities between fleets were driven by fuel costs, gross incomes and profits. In general, the best economic performance was associated with indicators of profitability and economic efficiency. Bottom-longliners and both surface and bottom-gillnet fleets showed the best economic performance per fishing trip due to their low percentage of variable costs. Purse-seiners and pink-shrimp trawlers had the lowest average rate of return and economic efficiency because of their high variable costs and relatively low catch values, and were considered economically net losers. However, in terms of jobs generated, purse-seiners had the greatest value creating about 49% of total jobs by all fleets. The sea-bob-shrimp fleet had the lowest crew size per vessel but generated the second highest total number of direct jobs (23%), with high economic viability as a whole. The inter-fleet cost and socio-economic performance analysis revealed that additional attention should be given to the poor profitability and overcapacity of fleets, fishing impacts, and open-access related issues, while social indicators may also be considered. This study provides information useful for evaluating different fisheries management scenarios and fleet size optimization in the South

  17. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  18. [Addictive behavior of street children: interculturation and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommegne, T; Denoux, P; Bernoussi, A; Njiengwe, E F

    2014-09-01

    This research belongs to a more comprehensive study on the care of street children in Cameroon. The idea is to develop an analysis of the street pathology where symptoms such as addictive behavior and drug addiction can be found. Beside HIV AIDS, addictive behaviors are the main risk factors that many professionals have to face with while dealing with the street problems today. Through an intercultural approach, we examined the practices of addictive typology, their initiatory role and their function in the integration of the street system. We also analysed their importance in the survival strategies. After an overview of theoretical controversies that feed the debate on addictions, we questioned the impact of these practices on the street career through the prism of general theory of addictions, particularly the hedonic management model. Addiction helps to resist adversity, it helps to desist and then to begin a harmonious neo development despite the horrors of the street experience. We undertook a quantitative and qualitative study on a sample of 148 street children. We proposed to 128 of them a questionnaire focused on addictive behaviors and survival strategies in the street context. We notably evaluated the street career of 24 of them, using interviews and standardized tests to assess self-esteem (Coopersmith's SEI) frustration tolerance (Rosenweig's P-F) and self-efficacy (Sherer's SE Scale) in order to measure the impact of addictive behaviors on the resilience process. We found that the street career is essentially traumatic, and that addictive behaviors involving various integration strategies are strongly linked to the interculturation process through the identity strategies and the intercultural competences. Addiction itself is not significantly related to self-esteem issues but strongly impacts on self-efficacy and the ability to tolerate frustration. They allow the street children to withstand the street adversity but are a real obstacle to their

  19. Urban road design according to NACTO Urban Street Design Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Velkavrh, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Urban road design according to NACTO follows the vision of traffic calming with visual elements. Gradual restoration of urban traffic areas will be presented according to american guidelines of NACTO Association, which published a book in 2013 called Urban Street Design Guide. Each type of existing roads in the urban area (the main street, the road in the neighborhood, residential shared street) can be, step by step, reconstructed with individual structural elements to ensure greater safety f...

  20. "Hitting the Streets": Youth Street Involvement as Adaptive Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tara A.

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in illegal street activities such as drug trafficking and violence are at high risk for school failure and other negative outcomes. Research often seeks to identify what is "wrong" with them, what makes them different from "normal" youth, but relatively few studies focus on variations in how youth engage in and…

  1. The Ballet of the Streets: Teaching about Cities at Street Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick A.; Spates, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The urban scholar Jane Jacobs once described city life as "the ballet of the streets." In more than a quarter century of joint teaching, the authors have used Jacobs' metaphor to help their students understand that cities are living organisms created and maintained, for good or ill, by the people who live and work in them. At heart their…

  2. "Hitting the Streets": Youth Street Involvement as Adaptive Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tara A.

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in illegal street activities such as drug trafficking and violence are at high risk for school failure and other negative outcomes. Research often seeks to identify what is "wrong" with them, what makes them different from "normal" youth, but relatively few studies focus on variations in how youth engage in and…

  3. Different Ways of Thinking about Street Networks and Spatial Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Street networks, as one of the oldest infrastructures of transport in the world, play a significant role in modernization, sustainable development, and human daily activities in both ancient and modern times. Although street networks have been well studied in a variety of engineering and scientific disciplines, including for instance transport, geography, urban planning, economics, and even physics, our understanding of street networks in terms of their structure and dynamics remains limited, especially when dealing with such real-world problems as traffic jams, pollution, and human evacuations for disaster management. One goal of this special issue is to promote different ways of thinking about understanding street networks, and of conducting spatial analysis.

  4. Into a Mapping of Copenhagen Street Lighting 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Asp, Claus; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    LED lighting is a new lighting component in urban Spaces. How does LED lighting change the visual experience of a street, how did it use to be and how will it become? The book presents a mapping method in which an overview map of light sources in the Copenhagen streets is combined with a video...... recording and a series of photos from a route, whick goes through different city parts and types of streets. The mapping is done in the crucial changing fase, in which the street lighting in Copenhagen is a mix of previously used light sources and LED....

  5. Multicity HIV seroprevalence in street youth, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C L; Zapata, L; Kissin, D M; Shevchenko, N; Yorick, R; Skipalska, H; Finnerty, E; Ornstein, T; Marchbanks, P A; Jamieson, D J; Hillis, S D

    2010-07-01

    We conducted the first systematic, community-based, multicity assessment outside the USA of HIV seroprevalence, risk factors and linkage into clinical services among 929 street youth. After city-wide mapping, we used time-location sampling and randomly selected 74 venues in Odesa, Kyiv and Donetsk, Ukraine. Rapid HIV testing with post-test counselling was offered to all eligible youths aged 15-24 years. Overall, 18.4% (95% confidence interval 16.2-20.2) were HIV positive and 85% had previously unknown status. Rates were identical by sex. Subgroups with highest rates included orphans (26%), youths with histories of exchanging sex (35%), sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (37%), injection drug use (IDU) (42%) and needle sharing (49%). Independent predictors, similar across age groups and city, included being orphaned, time on the street, history of anal sex, STIs, exchanging sex, any drug use, IDU and needle sharing. Two-thirds (68%) of HIV-positive youths were linked to services. This high-risk population has many immediate needs.

  6. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara

    2017-07-13

    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.

  7. Data and life on the street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S Taylor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available What does the abundance of data and proliferation of data-making methods mean for the ordinary person, the person on the street? And, what could they come to mean? In this paper, we present an overview of a year-long project to examine just such questions and complicate, in some ways, what it is to ask them. The project is a collective exercise in which we – a mixture of social scientists, designers and makers – and those living and working on one street in Cambridge (UK, Tenison Road, are working to think through how data might be materialised and come to matter. The project aims to better understand the specificities and contingencies that arise when data is produced and used in place. Mid-way through the project, we use this commentary to give some background to the work and detail one or two of the troubles we have encountered in putting locally relevant data to work. We also touch on a methodological standpoint we are working our way into and through, one that we hope complicates the separations between subject and object in data-making and opens up possibilities for a generative refiguring of the manifold relations.

  8. Determining adjustment variables for rationalising a design for fleet operation in public passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fabián Flórez Valero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at establishing aspects leading to adjusting the operational design of public transport fleet operation to make it more profitable for private investors. Data obtained from more than a year’s operation by the Alianza Sat S.A. was used (this being a bus- company alliance grouping about 100 buses from some of Bogotá’s collective transport companies for carrying out the present investigation regarding fleet administration and operation. Simply implementing conventionally-designed routing plans is not enough for rationalising fleet operation, as most public collective transport is not directly operated by companies The Alianza Sat S.A. bus fleet was used for testing hypotheses demonstrating that current operational design for the company’s routes (in Bogotá’s current public transport market conditions leads to reducing the company’s income. The investigation revealed that public pas-senger transport bus fleet revenue can be increased if aspects different to those considered in standard route design methodology are controlled. The investigation has determined alternative rationalisation for operational collective public passenger transport company design regarding adjusting aspects such as the demand pattern, operating scheme, route variability, etc. This will provide an innovative and useful tool for rationalising the operational design of bus routes operating in cities having weak public transport control and excess bus supply.

  9. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  10. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    This study presents Tug Fleet and Ground Operations Schedules and Controls plan. This plan was developed and optimized out of a combination of individual Tug program phased subplans, special emphasis studies, contingency analyses and sensitivity analyses. The subplans cover the Tug program phases: (1) Tug operational, (2) Interim Upper Stage (IUS)/Tug fleet utilization, (3) and IUS/Tug payload integration, (4) Tug site activation, (5) IUS/Tug transition, (6) Tug acquisition. Resource requirements (facility, GSE, TSE, software, manpower, logistics) are provided in each subplan, as are appropriate Tug processing flows, active and total IUS and Tug fleet requirements, fleet management and Tug payload integration concepts, facility selection recommendations, site activation and IUS to Tug transition requirements. The impact of operational concepts on Tug acquisition is assessed and the impact of operating Tugs out of KSC and WTR is analyzed and presented showing WTR as a delta. Finally, cost estimates for fleet management and ground operations of the DDT&E and operational phases of the Tug program are given.

  11. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negotiation and independent negotiation is established, and the heuristic rules applied to global and local maintenance decision making is proposed. Based on Contract Net Protocol and the heuristic rules, the maintenance decision making algorithm is put forward. Finally, a fleet consisting of 10 aircrafts on a 3-wave continuous mission is illustrated to verify this method. Simulation results indicate that this method can improve the availability of the fleet, meet mission demands, rationalize the utilization of support resources and provide support for online maintenance decision making among a mission oriented fleet.

  12. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  13. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  14. Reform of the London Stock Exchange: the prudential issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.B. HALL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In October 1986 the London Stock Exchange underwent what was termed the Big Bang. This consisted of the removal of fixed commissions on UK securities transactions, the abolition of the single capacity system, and the removal of barriers to entry to UK securities markets. The author considers five prudential issues raised by this event: monopoly power and foreign dominance, international supervisory harmonisation, capital adequacy and managerial competence, the management of 'fall out' (exit from the industry, and conflicts of interest. Three further factors are considered in detail; the regulator's approach to conflicts of interest, the regulation of financial conglomerates, and the implications of the Financial Services Act.

  15. The psychological and psychiatric effects of terrorism: lessons from London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G James; Wessely, Simon

    2013-09-01

    The 7 July 2005 bombings in London caused heightened levels of distress among some in the general community. This distress was most notable in Muslims and members of ethnic minority groups. These effects were transient for most. An estimated 30% of those who were more affected by the attacks, including victims and witnesses, developed psychiatric disorders as a result. An outreach program was set up to screen those who were exposed to potentially traumatic events and to offer them evidence-based treatment. This article discusses what lessons might be learned from studies of the general community and the screen-and-treat approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Space in Pentecostal healing practices among Ghanaian migrants in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    In this article I analyze different spatial practices related to Pentecostal healing, drawing on fieldwork with Pentecostal believers who have migrated from Ghana to London, UK. I explore the relationship between space and the manifestation of the Holy Spirit by looking at how points of contact with the divine are created in the personal life of people and at the sites where the casting out of demons takes place. Unlike in other spirit-centered healing traditions, the Christian Holy Spirit is not conceived of as embodied in specific places, but rather is spatially unbound. To manifest, however, the Holy Spirit requires specific spatial qualities and esthetics.

  17. Stylistic Analysis of William Blake’s Poem London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杨波

    2014-01-01

    William Blake utilized ingenious language in his creation of the poem London. Foregrounding and deviation are well practised in this poem. In rhyme pattern, the poem takes end rhyme, consonance, alliteration and internal rhyme. In rhythm pat-tern, the poem mainly uses iambic tetrameter along with the variation of three troches and one single stress at the end of lines which produces a shocking atmosphere. Among syntax features, emphatic pattern and anticipatory structure are used. Among lexi-cal features, the reiteration of specific words makes neat euphonious parallelism while the subtle pun word create a far-reaching artistry.

  18. Regeneralized London free energy for high-Tc vortex lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shahzamanian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The London free-energy is regeneralized by the Ginsburg-Landau free-energy density in the presence of both d and s order parameters. We have shown that the strength of the s-d coupling, makes an important rule to determine the form of the lattice vortex. Appearance of the ratios of the coherence length to penetration depth in the higher order corrections of the free-energy density will truncate these corrections for even large values of .

  19. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  20. Violence and the code of the street: a study of social dynamics among street children in Makeevka, East Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naterer, Andrej

    2015-05-01

    This article explores violence among street children in Makeevka, Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data gathered during longitudinal field research, extra-, intra-, and inter-group violence is analyzed with an emphasis on the child's situational interpretation and adoption of the code of the street through subsequent code/identity switching and subcultural reactions. The main findings suggest that street children subculture has developed a unique code based on the need to survive and on solidarity and reciprocity; violent acts emerging among them must be understood within this context. The influence of violence on the children's lives and street careers is considered, and alternative explanations of violence are discussed.

  1. 75 FR 71744 - Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... COMMISSION Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application November 18, 2010. AGENCY: Securities... Finance Corp. (``Fifth Street''), Fifth Street Management LLC, Fifth Street Mezzanine Partners IV, L.P... regulated as a business development company (``BDC'') under the Act. Fifth Street is a specialty finance...

  2. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  3. Analysis on Jack London's Feminist Point of View in Martin Eden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊汀

    2016-01-01

    Martin Eden is one of the famous novels of Jack London, who is a distinguished writer in America, and now it still wins great popularity in the whole world. In this novel, the author Jack London depicts the protagonist Martin Eden's striving for success incisively. This thesis, based on the theory of feminism, will give a detailed analysis of the character traits of female characters in Martin Eden and Jack London's attitudes towards women.

  4. ""Thames Valley cotton pickers"": Race and youth in London blues culture

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the reception of African American blues music and the ensuing production of English blues in London from 1955 to 1966. It concentrates on London adolescents' unexpected fascination with a musical style that they virtually had no contact with prior to 1955, while analyzing how this immersion in African American culture shaped their cultural identity. Analysis of the influence of African American blues music in London during this period highlights the BBC's weakened influen...

  5. A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei

    In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market

  6. Liquidity, price impact and trade informativeness: Evidence from the London stock exchange

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teodorovic, Natasa

    2011-01-01

    ...) market microstructure time series analysis to examine adverse selection and information asymmetry issues on diverse liquidity leveled stocks listed on the London Stock Exchange, which is a market...

  7. Selection and implementation of a flagship fleet in a locally undervalued region of high endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Armesto, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Flagships are one conservation education tool. We present a proposed flagship species fleet for environmental education in central Chile. Our methods followed recent flagship guidelines. We present our selection process and a detailed justification for the fleet of flagship species that we selected. Our results are a list of eight flagship species forming a flagship fleet, including two small- and medium-sized mammals, the degu (Octodon degus) and the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpeaus), two birds, the turca (Pteroptochos megapoidius) and the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), the Chilean iguana (Calopistes palluma), the tarantula (Grammostola mollicoma), and two trees, the litre (Lithrea caustica) and the espino (Acacia caven). We then describe how these flagships can be deployed most effectively, describing their audience, effective narrative frames, and modes of presentation. We conclude that general selection rules paired with social science background data allow for an efficient selection process.

  8. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  9. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  10. Space-Time Analysis of Crime Patterns in Central London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T.; Williams, D.

    2012-07-01

    Crime continues to cast a shadow over citizen well-being in big cities today, while also imposing huge economic and social costs. Timely understanding of how criminality emerges and how crime patterns evolve is crucial to anticipating crime, dealing with it when it occurs and developing public confidence in the police service. Every day, about 10,000 crime incidents are reported by citizens, recorded and geo-referenced in the London Metropolitan Police Service Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) database. The unique nature of this dataset allows the patterns to be explored at particularly fine temporal granularity and at multiple spatial resolutions. This study provides a framework for the exploratory spatio-temporal analysis of crime patterns that combines visual inquiry tools (interactive animations, space-time cubes and map matrices) with cluster analysis (spatial-temporal scan statistics and the self-organizing map). This framework is tested on the CAD dataset for the London Borough of Camden in March 2010. Patterns of crime through space and time are discovered and the clustering methods were evaluated on their ability to facilitate the discovery and interpretation of these patterns.

  11. Carbon Capture and Storage and the London Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects will be required by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to contribute fully to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. For CCS to reach its emissions reduction potential, the 2009 IEA publication Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage recommends that international legal obstacles associated with global CCS deployment be removed by 2012 -- including the prohibition on transboundary CO2 transfer under the London Protocol. The London Protocol was amended by contracting parties in 2009 to allow for cross-border transportation of CO2 for sub-seabed storage, but the amendment must be ratified by two-thirds of contracting parties to enter into force. It is unlikely that this will occur in the near term; this working paper therefore outlines options that may be available to contracting parties under international law to address the barrier to deployment presented by Article 6, pending formal entry into force of the 2009 amendment.

  12. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-06-01

    This study explored ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults and assessed the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in explaining those inequalities. We analysed data on 2013 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults and children living in East London in 2009-10. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries at home. Dental caries was measured using the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or DMFT index. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (sex and age groups) and SEP measures (education and socioeconomic classification). White Eastern European and White Other had higher DMFT, whereas all Asian (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Other) and all Black (African, Caribbean and Other) ethnic groups had lower DMFT than White British. Similar inequalities were found for the number of filled and missing teeth, but there were no differences in the number of decayed teeth between ethnic groups. This study showed considerable disparities in dental caries between and within the major ethnic categories, which were independent of demographics and SEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    by the homeless adults on the street is most preferred (μ=3.26) while the government .... Researchers over the years have explored how the problem of street children .... crisis you will be the first target because they will think that you have so.

  14. Formation of Periodic Vortex Streets Driven by the Lorents Force

    OpenAIRE

    池端, 義人; 本地, 弘之; 杉原, 裕司

    1996-01-01

    Quasi-2D periodic vortex streets, driven by the Lorentz force due to the interaction of a localized magnetic field with an electrolytic current, have been investigated experimentally using a shallow water tank with a movable bottom floor. The vortex street formation has also been investigated numerically and some simulated flow patterns are presented.

  15. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  16. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  17. Politely Disregarded: Street Fiction, Mass Incarceration, and Critical Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orman, Karin; Lyiscott, Jamila

    2013-01-01

    Due to prevailing attitudes about the prison industrial complex and African American and Latino/Latina communities, the literary production of urban street fiction has been politely disregarded by our society. Through the use of critical praxis, utilizing urban street fiction in the classroom is a necessary and urgent act of social justice. Street…

  18. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  19. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  20. Political Education--Occupy Wall Street's First Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie DiSalvo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While Occupy Wall Street (OWS is easily identified with direct action in the streets, equal recognition should be given to the vast amount of political education that took place. This article will give an overview of that and briefly assess its emphases and absences.