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Sample records for fleet phosphate enema

  1. A prospective randomized single blind trial of Fleet phosphate enema versus glycerin suppositories as preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, D; Makar, R R; Gidwani, A L; Najfi, S M; Neilly, P; Gilliland, R

    2010-03-01

    This study compared the efficacy and patient acceptability of two methods of bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy. Patients attending for outpatient flexible sigmoidoscopy were prospectively randomized to receive one Fleet ready-to-use enema or 2 x 4 g glycerin suppositories, 2 h preprocedure. Patient and endoscopist questionnaires were used to compare the outcomes. From November 2000 to August 2001, 203 (male = 95; female = 108) patients were randomized. Patient data available for 163 patients (enema = 93; suppository = 70) revealed: ease of use (enema = 52; suppository = 25; P suppositories.

  2. Extreme hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic coma associated with phosphate enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Heng Jung; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2008-01-01

    Fleet enema (sodium phosphate, C.B. Fleet Co., Inc., Lynchburg, Virginia) is widely used for bowel preparation or constipation relief in the hospital and over the counter. The potential risks, including hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic coma should be kept in mind of primary care physician. The patients with older age, bowel obstruction, small intestinal disorders, poor gut motility, and renal disease are contraindicated or should be administered with caution. We present a patient with old age and chronic renal failure who developed severe hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemic tetany with coma after sodium phosphate enema. We recommend the use of alternative enema preparations, such as simple tap water or saline solution enemas, which can prevent fatal complications in high risk patients.

  3. [Tetany secondary to phosphate enema toxicity, case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Sánchez, María José; Leighton Swaneck, Sofía; Díaz, Franco

    2017-06-01

    Phosphate enemas are frequently used in the treatment of constipation. Errors in dosage and administration can lead to severe complications. To report a case of severe toxicity of phosphate enemas in a child with no risk factors. 2 years old female, with functional constipation, was brought to emergency department because abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with fecal impaction and received half a bottle of Fleet Adult® (Laboratorio Synthon, Chile) two times, with no clinical resolution, deciding to start proctoclisis in pediatric ward. Soon after admission, she presented painful tetany, but alert and oriented. Patient was transferred to PICU where severe hyperphosphatemia and secondary hypocalcemia were confirmed. Her treatment included electrolyte correction; removal of residual phosphate enema and hyperhydration. Tetany resolved over 2 hours after admission and no other complications. Proctoclisis was performed and patient was discharged three days after admission with pharmacological management of constipation. Phosphate enemas may cause serious complications in children with no risk factors. Errors in dosage, administration and removal of the enema are causes of toxicity in this group. Pediatricians and health personnel must be aware of risks and signs of toxicity of phosphate enema.

  4. Hemodialysis for near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity in a child receiving sodium phosphate enemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Smoyer, William E; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of considering hemodialysis as a treatment option in the management of sodium phosphate toxicity. This is a case report of a 4-year-old who presented to the emergency department with shock, decreased mental status, seizures, and tetany due to sodium phosphate toxicity from sodium phosphate enemas. Traditional management of hyperphosphatemia with aggressive hydration and diuretics was insufficient to reverse the hemodynamic and neurological abnormalities in this child. This is the first report of the use of hemodialysis in a child without preexisting renal failure for the successful management of near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity. Hemodialysis can safely be used as an adjunctive therapy in sodium phosphate toxicity to rapidly reduce serum phosphate levels and increase serum calcium levels in children not responding to conventional management.

  5. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters [it

  6. Uranium in phosphate rocks and future nuclear power fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2014-01-01

    phosphoric acid. Uranium recovery as a by-product of phosphate rocks could be competitive for the moment, but limited at the most to 10 kt U per year, i.e. less than 20% of current world demand. The only way to lift the constraint of capacity production is to produce uranium as a primary product of phosphates. Unfortunately, this solution is very unlikely due to its high unit cost. In line with these considerations, the correspondence between the estimated resources and the forecast energy scenarios is examined, first with the current type of light water reactors which burn uranium, and secondly with a mixed fleet with both light water reactors and fast reactors which use plutonium. (author)

  7. Barium enema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... series; Colorectal cancer - lower GI series; Colorectal cancer - barium enema; Crohn disease - lower GI series; Crohn disease - barium enema; Intestinal blockage - lower GI series; Intestinal blockage - ...

  8. A randomized prospective triaI comparing oral sodium phosphate with magnesium citrate in preparing of patients for double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Yang, Chang Hun; Kim, Soon; Oh, Yoen Hee; Kim, Seung Hyeon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two bowel preparation agents, sodium phosphate solution with magnesium citrate solution. A total of 94 subjects that underwent a double-contrast barium enema were included in this study. Bowel preparation before performing the barium study was done by using a sodium phosphate solution in 47 subjects and by using a magnesium citrate solution in the other 47 subjects. We evaluated the presence or absence of side effects when using these bowel preparation agents. Two radiologist who were blinded to the type of bowel preparation evaluated the quality of bowel preparation at the colonic segments (ascending, descending, and sigmoid colon) on the radiographs obtained by double-contrast barium enema, with regard to stool cleansing, water retention, barium coating and bubble formation. The side effects, such as abdominal clamping pain, nausea, hunger pain and chill occurred more frequently in the sodium phosphate group than in the magnesium citrate group (p< 0.001). Stool retention was more frequently found in the magnesium citrate group (p< 0.001). However, no statistical difference was noted on the status of water retention and barium coating between two groups. Gas bubble formation was more commonly seen in the sodium phosphate group (p< 0.001). The sodium phosphate solution appeared to be more effective in cleansing the right colon (p=0.001). Sodium phosphate solution appears to be more effective for colonic cleansing, with a lower incidence of side effects, than when using magnesium citrate solution

  9. Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Galia Niv,1 Tamar Grinberg,2 Ram Dickman,3 Nir Wasserberg,4 Yaron Niv1,3 1Risk Management and Quality Assurance, 2Emergency Department, 3Department of Gastroenterology, 4Department of Surgery B, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Objectives: Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy. Methods: We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase. Results: There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate. There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001. Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4% versus 0 (P = 0.0001 and 8 (3.9% versus 2 (0.7% (P = 0.0001, for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively. Conclusion: Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema, and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed. Keywords

  10. Barium enema (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  11. Isoosmolar enemas demonstrate preferential gastrointestinal distribution, safety, and acceptability compared with hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar enemas as a potential delivery vehicle for rectal microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Francisco J; Bakshi, Rahul P; Fuchs, Edward J; Li, Liye; Caffo, Brian S; Goldsmith, Arthur J; Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Du, Yong; Leal, Jeffrey P; Lee, Linda A; Torbenson, Michael S; Hendrix, Craig W

    2013-11-01

    Rectally applied antiretroviral microbicides for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection are currently in development. Since enemas (rectal douches) are commonly used by men who have sex with men prior to receptive anal intercourse, a microbicide enema could enhance PrEP adherence by fitting seamlessly within the usual sexual practices. We assessed the distribution, safety, and acceptability of three enema types-hyperosmolar (Fleet), hypoosmolar (distilled water), and isoosmolar (Normosol-R)-in a crossover design. Nine men received each enema type in random order. Enemas were radiolabeled [(99m)Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)] to assess enema distribution in the colon using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Plasma (99m)Tc-DTPA indicated mucosal permeability. Sigmoidoscopic colon tissue biopsies were taken to assess injury as well as tissue penetration of the (99m)Tc-DTPA. Acceptability was assessed after each product use and at the end of the study. SPECT/CT imaging showed that the isoosmolar enema had greater proximal colonic distribution (up to the splenic flexure) and greater luminal and colon tissue concentrations of (99m)Tc-DTPA when compared to the other enemas (pgood with no clear preferences among the three enema types. The isoosmolar enema was superior or similar to the other enemas in all categories and is a good candidate for further development as a rectal microbicide vehicle.

  12. Perforations during contrast enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Steinkamp, U.; Grabbe, E.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Ochsenzoll, Hamburg

    1983-01-01

    During contrast enema, perforation into the retroperitoneal space can be differentiated from perforation into the peritoneum and perforation into the intestinal wall associated with formation of barium granulomas or submucosal spreading of the contrast medium. Other special forms are perforation with contrast medium embolism of diverticula; of the processus vermiformis; penetration of contrast medium into fistulous systems and from the operated areas. Risk factors are: balloon catheter, intestinal tubes with a hard tip, preternatural anus, excessive enema pressure, contrast medium additions, preceding manipulations, intestinal diseases, advanced age and delegation of manipulations to assistants and unskilled staff. Children are particularly at risk. (orig.) [de

  13. Colonic motility and enema spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.G.; Wood, E.; Clark, A.G.; Reynolds, J.R.; Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabelled enema solution was administered to eight healthy subjects, both in fasted and fed states. Enema spreading was monitored over a 4-h period using gamma scintigraphy and colonic motility was recorded simultaneously using a pressure sensitive radiotelemetry capsule. The rate and extent of enema dispersion were unaffected by eating. Spreading could be correlated with colonic motility and was inhibited by aboral propulsion of the colonic contents. (orig.)

  14. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Menu Overview Procedure Details Risks / Benefits What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade ... Accepted Insurance Make a Donation Refer a Patient Phone Directory Blog, News & Mobile Apps Consult QD Health Essentials Newsroom Mobile Apps ...

  15. A new double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul

    1987-01-01

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients

  16. Enema abuse by mothers of children presenting to the emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enema is largely used and widely abused in our community for various ailments including fever, constipation; abdominal pains vomiting and even diarrhoea. Objectives: To describe the abuse of enema at home in the Calabar area, and the associated findings among children who received enema. Method: Children ...

  17. Blood pressure changes during barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, S.C.; Martin, O.J.D.; Owen, A.; Martin, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To document blood pressure changes during barium enema examination and to determine at what point in the examination changes are likely to occur. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressure measurements were taken at seven points during the course of barium enema examination in 107 consecutive patients. We found that patients over the age of 60 years had statistically significant decreases in blood pressure when they were stood up during the course of the examination. Many of these patients were asymptomatic. Patients who had symptoms (15/107, 14%) when standing up had a degree of hypotension. The duration of barium enema examination is longer in those patients who experience symptoms. CONCLUSION: During a barium enema examination hypotension occurs at the point of standing up more frequently in patients over 60 years and in those who suffer symptoms at this time. Patients who fall into one of these groups should be considered at risk of fainting at this point in the examination. A modified technique to avoid standing should be considered in at-risk patients. Roach, S.C. et al. (2001)

  18. Improving fleet performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjist, S.

    2015-01-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  19. Stalin's Big Fleet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauner, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Although Dr. Milan Hauner's study 'Stalin's Big Fleet program' has focused primarily on the formation of Big Fleets during the Tsarist and Soviet periods of Russia's naval history, there are important lessons...

  20. Improving fleet performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramjist, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  1. FleetDASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    FleetDASH helps federal fleet managers maximize their use of alternative fuel. This presentation explains how the dashboard works and demonstrates the newest capabilities added to the tool. It also reviews complementary online tools available to fleet managers on the Alternative Fuel Data Center.

  2. Outcome of barium enema in patients with colorectal symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: For many years, double contrast barium enema has been an effective way to evaluate the large bowel. With the development of the colonoscope, the role of barium enema has been questioned. However it is still useful in investigating patients with colorectal symptoms especially in the developing world where ...

  3. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  4. Cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lorraine; Desai, Sharad

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers compared to those performed by consultant radiologists. METHOD: Prospective study of 200 barium enemas carried out by a senior radiographer and a consultant radiologist. The sample was a consecutive sample of adult out-patients over a 3-month period, with no exclusion. The length of time of the enema and the numbers and grades of staff involved in the procedure were recorded. This was translated into staffing costs using the appropriate pay scales. RESULTS: The barium enemas performed by the superintendent radiographer were more cost-effective than those performed by the consultant radiologist (1406 pounds for 100 radiographer-performed barium enemas compared to 1787 pounds for 100 carried out by the consultant radiologist). CONCLUSION: In terms of staffing costs, radiographers performing barium enemas not only liberates radiologist time, it is also a cost-effective method of providing an out-patient barium enema service. Brown, L. and Desai, S. (2002)

  5. Maximizing your fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J. [GE Capital Rail Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A series of viewgraphs were presented to illustrate this discussion which focused on the economics of the railroad environment in 2001 and beyond. Fleet productivity and customer relations were described. The viewgraphs were entitled: new car builds; fleet demographics for North American LPG/AA fleet; and, issues and trends of North American LPG/AA fleet. It was noted that there is a continued demand for North American LPG/AA fleet as cars are phased out. GE Capital Rail Services is addressing the future by focusing on the following four initiatives: service, globalization, building a six sigma company, and transforming into an e-business. The company's six sigma approach is based on customer orientation, safety and compliance, quality and reliability, productivity and planning, cost, and people and culture. The actions taken thus far have been a planned maintenance program, the relocation of safety valves, and the elimination of early failures. figs.

  6. Enterogastroesophageal reflux during barium enema: Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyoun Ja; Rhee, Hak Song

    1972-01-01

    Enterogastric reflux during barium enema examination has been ascribed to various causes including incompetence of the ilepcecal valve, shunt, fistula, excessive barium etc. Recently we have encountered a case of complete enterogastroesphageal regurgitation during barium enema examination performed for the reduction of the ileocolic intuosusception in 6 months old baby. The regurgitation occurred only in the first of two barium enema examinations conducted at one month interval for recurring intussusception. The barium-saline solution used in the present study was not more than 350 ml in quantity. No organic or physical causes of such a complete regurgitation could be determined

  7. Fleet Feedback and Fleet Efficiency Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Marine Corps have 10 years of experience implementing a telematics program and several lessons to share with partner agencies. This presentation details results of a Marine Corps survey as well as methods of using telematics to promote fleet efficiency and optimize the vehicle acquisition process.

  8. Indications for repeated enema reduction of intussusception in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intussusception is a common abdominal emergency in early childhood. It is idiopathic in more than 90% of cases with incidence of 1.5-4 per 1,000 live births. The treatment of choice is nonoperative hydrostatic or air enema reduction. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of clinical presentation and symptom duration in non-operative treatment, considering the indications for delayed enema reduction and its efficacy. Methods. From the total number of 107 patients with intusussception, aged from 2 months to 14 years (median 9 months, 102 (95% patients with ileo-colic intussusceptions were treated initially by ultrasound guided saline enema. Records were reviewed for patients with failed initial treatment and delayed repeated enemas or operative procedure. The predictor variable included duration of presenting symptoms. Results. Successful treatment by hydrostatic saline enemas had 58/102 (57% patients. Success in reduction was greater if symptom duration was 24 hours, (4/45 cases; 9%. Despite failed initial attempts, enema reduction was reattempted in 12 patients, with success in 7/12 (60% patients. Children with symptom duration >24 hours had a greater risk of requiring surgery (41/45 cases; 91%, p<0.001, including 5 (5% patients with ileo-ileal intussusceptions. Conclusion. The accuracy of ultrasound guided saline enema in intussusception reduction is high. Delay in presentation decreases success of non-operative treatment. Delayed enema reduction is important therapeutic option for intussusceptions. Surgical treatment is indicated in cases of complications.

  9. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  10. Fleet management performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The principle goal of this project was to enhance and expand the analytical modeling methodology previously developed as part of the Fleet Management Criteria: Disposal Points and Utilization Rates project completed in 2010. The enhanced and ex...

  11. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  12. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  13. Barium enema in frail elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R; Khahil, A; Leibovitz, A; Gil, I; Annuar, M; Habot, B

    2000-01-01

    Barium enema (BE) examinations for the investigation of suspected colonic disease are often unsuccessful in elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success rate of BE in hospitalized frail elderly patients. Four hundred and seventy-two elderly patients hospitalized for different reasons underwent BE examinations. The medical charts and radiological reports were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred and ninety-two (41%) BE examinations were considered inadequate; mostly (32%) because of inappropriate preparation. Sixty-seven patients (14%) were not cooperative and could not retain the contrast material, and in 25 patients (5%), the examination failed due to both these reasons. The characteristics associated with unsuccessful BE examination were the mean number of medical problems (p < 0.001), the mean number of scheduled medications (p < 0.05) and in particular the long-term use of laxatives (p < 0.01) or antiparkinsonian drugs (p < 0.01). Of great significance in predicting an inadequate BE were the patient's functional status (p < 0.001) and the presence of dementia (p < 0.001). The high percentage of unsuccessful BEs in the frail elderly suggests that clinicians should carefully consider the need for that examination in these patients. We suggest that only in patients where there is a clear suspicion of a bleeding or obstructing tumor should a BE examination be performed, and even in these cases, colonoscopy or CT may be preferable as the initial examination in the frail elderly. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Multidetector computerized tomography enema versus magnetic resonance enema in the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaldi, Ennio, E-mail: ennio.biscaldi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Galliera Hospital, via Mura delle Capuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Ferrero, Simone, E-mail: simone.ferrero@unige.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto, E-mail: ulrm@libero.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Remorgida, Valentino, E-mail: vremorgida@yahoo.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Venturini, Pier Luigi, E-mail: venturini@unige.it [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, San Martino Hospital and National Institute for Cancer Research, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Rollandi, Gian Andrea, E-mail: rollandi@galliera.it [Department of Radiology, Galliera Hospital, via Mura delle Capuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of multidetector computerized tomography enema (MDCT-e) and magnetic resonance enema (MRI-e) in determining the presence of sigmoid and rectal endometriotic nodules. Materials and methods: 260 women (32.6 ± 4.3 years) with symptoms suggestive of rectosigmoid endometriosis underwent MDCT-e and MRI-e prior to laparoscopy. After retrograde colonic distention and injection of intravenous contrast medium, patients were scanned on a 64-row MDCT scanner. MRI-e was performed on a 1.5 T magnet using an 8 channels phased array coil; intestinal distention was achieved by introducing in the rectum 250–300 ml of ultrasonographic gel diluted with saline solution. Radiological findings were compared with surgical and histological results. Results: 176 women had rectosigmoid endometriosis at surgery. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of MDCT-e (98.5%) and MRI-e (96.9%) in the diagnosis of sigmoid and rectal endometriosis (p = 0.248). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of MDCT-e and MRI-e were respectively 98.3%, 98.8%, 99.4%, 96.5%, 81.59, 0.02 and 97.2%, 96.4%, 98.3%, 94.1%, 26.89, 0.03. Conclusions: Both MDCT-e and MRI-e are accurate in the diagnosis of rectal and sigmoid endometriosis.

  15. Multidetector computerized tomography enema versus magnetic resonance enema in the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaldi, Ennio; Ferrero, Simone; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Remorgida, Valentino; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of multidetector computerized tomography enema (MDCT-e) and magnetic resonance enema (MRI-e) in determining the presence of sigmoid and rectal endometriotic nodules. Materials and methods: 260 women (32.6 ± 4.3 years) with symptoms suggestive of rectosigmoid endometriosis underwent MDCT-e and MRI-e prior to laparoscopy. After retrograde colonic distention and injection of intravenous contrast medium, patients were scanned on a 64-row MDCT scanner. MRI-e was performed on a 1.5 T magnet using an 8 channels phased array coil; intestinal distention was achieved by introducing in the rectum 250–300 ml of ultrasonographic gel diluted with saline solution. Radiological findings were compared with surgical and histological results. Results: 176 women had rectosigmoid endometriosis at surgery. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of MDCT-e (98.5%) and MRI-e (96.9%) in the diagnosis of sigmoid and rectal endometriosis (p = 0.248). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of MDCT-e and MRI-e were respectively 98.3%, 98.8%, 99.4%, 96.5%, 81.59, 0.02 and 97.2%, 96.4%, 98.3%, 94.1%, 26.89, 0.03. Conclusions: Both MDCT-e and MRI-e are accurate in the diagnosis of rectal and sigmoid endometriosis

  16. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  17. Barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hee Jung

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants. Retrospective evaluation of the plain abdominal radiography and barium enema findings was performed in fifteen young infants suffering with milk allergy. The presence of gaseous distension, rectal gas, paralytic ileus and mechanical obstruction was evaluated on the plain radiography. The presence of spasm, a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index and mucosal irregularity was analyzed on the barium enema; the presence of barium retention was also evaluated on 24-hour-delayed plain radiography. Paralytic ileus was the most common finding on the plain radiography (93%). On the barium enema, continuous spasm of the colon, ranging from the rectum to the descending colon, was revealed in ten infants (67%). A transitional zone was observed in one infant and a reversed rectosigmoid index was revealed in four. Mucosal irregularity was observed in two infants. Barium retention was demonstrated in 11 of fifteen cases: throughout the entire colon (n = 3), from the rectum to the descending colon (n = 7), and up to the transverse colon (n = 1). The most common barium enema finding of milk allergy in infants was spasm of the distal colon. The other findings were a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index, mucosal irregularity and barium retention

  18. Experimental antegrade enema: effects on water, electrolyte and acid-base balances with different solutions Enema anterógrado experimental: equilíbrio hídrico eletrolítico e ácido-base em coelhos submetidos a enema com diferentes soluções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects on the water, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in rabbits submitted to antegrade enema with different solutions through appendicostomy. METHODS: Forty male New Zealand rabbits were submitted to appendicostomy, and distributed in 4 groups, according to the antegrade enema solution: PEG group, polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (n=10; ISS group, isotonic saline solution (n=10; GS group, glycerin solution (n=10; SPS group, sodium phosphate solution (n=10. After being weighed, arterial blood gas analysis, red blood count, creatinine and electrolytes were measured at 4 times: preoperatively (T1; day 6 postop, before enema (T2; 4h after enema (T3; and 24h after T3 (T4. RESULTS: In PEG group occurred Na retention after 4h, causing alkalemia, sustained for 24h with HCO3 retention. In ISS group occurred isotonic water retention and hyperchloremic acidosis after 4h, which was partially compensated in 24h. GS group showed metabolic acidosis after 4h, compensated in 24h. In SPS group occurred hypernatremic dehydration, metabolic acidosis in 4h, and hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and metabolic alkalosis with partially compensated dehydration in 24h. CONCLUSIONS: All solutions used in this study caused minor alterations on water, electrolyte or acid-base balances. The most intense ones were caused by hypertonic sodium phosphate solution (SPS and isotonic saline solution (ISS and the least by polyethyleneglycol electrolyte solution (PEG and glycerin solution 12% (GS.OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos no equilíbrio hídrico, eletrolítico e ácido-base, do enema anterógrado com diferentes soluções em coelhos através de apendicostomia. MÉTODOS: 40 coelhos Nova Zelândia, machos, submetidos a apendicostomia, distribuídos em quatro grupos segundo a solução de enema: grupo PEG (n = 10 solução de polietilenoglicol com eletrólitos; grupo SF (n = 10 solução fisiológica; grupo SG (n = 10 solução glicerinada

  19. Diagnostic role of barium enema in carcinoma rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this barium enema study was to evaluate its role in patients suspected to have rectal pathologies with complaints of change in bowel habit, anorexia/weight loss, bleeding per rectum and acute/sub-acute colonic obstruction. Results: barium enema study as screening test for colo-rectal carcinoma was undertaken. Contrast outlined the colonic growth in 35 cases, out of which the cases of carcinoma colon were 24 including 13 patients suffering from carcinoma rectum. The percentage of carcinoma colon to total colonic growth was 68% while, carcinoma rectum to total carcinoma colon was 54%. Conclusion: On the basis of these investigations, it is concluded that patient's compliance is important factor in the early detection of colonic neoplasia. Though results of colonoscopy are more reliable but in practice, barium enema (double contrast) is performed initially to outline the lesion and then colonoscopy for biopsy purpose. (author)

  20. The diagnostic value of barium enema in acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ga; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong

    1986-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common acute surgical condition of the abdomen. When the clinical presentation is atypical, barium enema has proven to be safe and useful in confirming the diagnosis and reducing the negative surgical exploration. However, the performance of barium enema in acute appendicitis has known contraindication primarily because of fear of leakage by perforation of the inflamed appendix. This study using barium enema as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation was performed to further support the previously noted efficacy and safety of this procedure. The results were as followings: 1. In case of acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation, the use of barium enema as a diagnostic aid increased the accuracy of diagnosis and decreased the negative surgical exploration. In women between 11 to 50 years old age, especially, it played important role differentiating appendicitis from nonsurgical acute abdomen. 2. The results of the study were 92.31% in sensitivity, 7.69% in false positive, 6.9% in false negative, and 10.26% in negative appendectomy. 3. None of case of leakage of barium by perforation of the inflamed appendix was noted, therefore, barium enema was thought to be safe as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis. 4. A simple partial or non filling of appendix without other associated positive finding could not exclude appendicitis, therefore, close clinical observation was necessary. 5. The positive findings of barium enema and their sensitivity were as followings: 1. Non filling of appendix: 90% 2. Partial filling of appendix: 91.7% 3. Displacement or a local impression on terminal ileum: 100%

  1. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished liver...

  2. Carcinoma of the colon: Diagnosis by ultrasound and enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremin, B.J.; Brown, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinoma of the colon presenting before puberty is rare and few cases have been recorded in radiological literature. The symptomatology is usually vague but may be similar to the classical presentation of adults. The barium enema will also show the same constricting lesions. Two cases are reported, in one of which the initial diagnosis was made by ultrasound. (orig.)

  3. Carcinoma of the colon: Diagnosis by ultrasound and enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremin, B.J.; Brown, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    Carcinoma of the colon presenting before puberty is rare and few cases have been recorded in radiological literature. The symptomatology is usually vague but may be similar to the classical presentation of adults. The barium enema will also show the same constricting lesions. Two cases are reported, in one of which the initial diagnosis was made by ultrasound.

  4. Lower rectal cancer. Preoperative staging with CT air enema technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Amane; Fujii, Shouichi; Iwata, Seiichirou

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative assessment of rectal cancer wall invasion is an important indication of the need for lateral side wall dissection. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy rates and clinical usefulness of air-enema CT in preoperative staging of lower rectal cancer. A total of 88 patients diagnosed with lower rectal cancer were examined with an air-enema CT preoperatively and had surgical resection performed. One group was T1-T2 while the other was T3-T4. Forty-two patients were T1-T2, and 46 patients were T3-T4. In univariate and multivariate analysis, irregularities of the rectal wall and spiculated appearance of the rectal wall were significant predictive factors in T3-T4. In patients with air-enema CT findings of rectal wall irregularities and speculated appearance, the accuracy rate for detecting T3-T4 was 85.2-86.45 percent. These results show that air-enema CT is useful for determining the preoperative staging of lower rectal cancer and indication of the need for lateral side wall dissection. (author)

  5. Iatrogen perforation of the rectum following barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, R.; Kressner, U.; Haffner, J.

    1998-01-01

    Perforation of the rectum following barium enema is relatively rare, occurring in 1 of 3,000 procedures. Colorectal perforation is a serious condition and early diagnosis is of paramount importance in order to avoid any delay in treating the patient. Direct suture of the perforation, lavage, presacral drainage and stomia are the preferred methods of primary surgical treatment. 10 refs., 1 fig

  6. Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour – The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal María

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial. Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogotá, Colombia that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998 and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogotá during follow up; gestational age ≥ 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ≤7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66, and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without

  7. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-05-14

    To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient's position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy.

  8. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R De La Rosa, NREL 34672 The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial vehicle operations data features Odyne-have tapped into Fleet DNA." The data-driven insight and decision-making capabilities

  9. Barium enema and CT findings of Douglas pouch metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kunihisa; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Iinuma, Hajime; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    1999-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed barium enema and CT findings of Douglas pouch metastasis in 170 patients. The findings were divided into three types: Anterior compression type, anterior fixed folds type, and stenosis type. Patients with gastric cancer usually showed a stenosis type, especially in those with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Patients with colon and ovary cancer usually showed an anterior compression type. In patients with gastric cancer, those who showed a stenosis type had the most favorable prognosis among these three types. (author)

  10. Early colon cancer : findings on double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Soon Jin; Lim, Hyo Keun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the radiologic findings of early colon cancer on double-contrast barium enema. We retrospectively reviewed the double-contrast barium enemas of eight patients (M:F = 6:2; mean age : 67 yrs; range : 48-77 yrs) who were pathologically proven to be early colon cancer. The location, size and gross morphology of lesions was evaluated using double-contrast barium enema, while depth of invasion, degree of differentiation, precancerous lesions and lymph node metastasis were evaluated histopathologically. Early colon cancer was found in the rectum (n=4), sigmoid colon (n=3) and ascending colon (n=1). The size of mass ranged from 2.3 ∼ 8.3 (mean, 4.6) cm. And the polypoid type was most common (n=7); this was subdivided into sessile (Is, n=5), semipedunculated (Isp, n=1) and pedunculated type (Ip, n=1). Another mass was a sessile polypoid combined with a flat depressed lesion. In eight cases, four cancers were confined to the mucosa, while the remaining four had infiltrated the submucosa. Most cancers arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. All cases were well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and no metastasis to lymph nodes had occurred. In early colon cancer, lesions were mainly polypoid and large. Most arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  11. Complications from radiographer-performed double contrast barium enemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, P.; Chapman, A. E-mail: anthony.chapman@leedsth.nhs.uk

    2004-04-01

    AIM: To determine the types and rates of complications encountered by radiographers when performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-one questionnaires were posted to radiographers who had in the last 5 years attended one of the biannual barium enema training courses. RESULTS: Of 741 questionnaires posted 407 (54.9%) were returned completed. Approximately 348,000 barium enema examinations had been performed. Fifty-nine radiographers reported 89 complications, including 13 intra-peritoneal and 11 extra-peritoneal perforations. There were five deaths (mortality 1 in 70,000). Deaths resulted from two of 24 (10%) perforations, two of 45 (5%) cardiac events and one cerebrovascular accident that occurred during an examination. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographers have been regularly performing DCBEs for almost a decade. The mortality for radiographer-performed DCBE is similar to that previously reported for radiologists, although a slightly higher rate of perforation is noted and so this is an area where radiographer training should be targeted.

  12. Complications from radiographer-performed double contrast barium enemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, P.; Chapman, A.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the types and rates of complications encountered by radiographers when performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-one questionnaires were posted to radiographers who had in the last 5 years attended one of the biannual barium enema training courses. RESULTS: Of 741 questionnaires posted 407 (54.9%) were returned completed. Approximately 348,000 barium enema examinations had been performed. Fifty-nine radiographers reported 89 complications, including 13 intra-peritoneal and 11 extra-peritoneal perforations. There were five deaths (mortality 1 in 70,000). Deaths resulted from two of 24 (10%) perforations, two of 45 (5%) cardiac events and one cerebrovascular accident that occurred during an examination. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographers have been regularly performing DCBEs for almost a decade. The mortality for radiographer-performed DCBE is similar to that previously reported for radiologists, although a slightly higher rate of perforation is noted and so this is an area where radiographer training should be targeted

  13. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient’s position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. RESULTS: Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). CONCLUSION: Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy. PMID:25987779

  14. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF BARIUM ENEMA FINDINGS IN HIRSCHSPRUNG'S DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvasteh, Mehran; Askarpour, Shahnam; Ostadian, Nasrollah; Moghimi, Mohammad-Reza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    Hirschsprung's disease is the most common cause of pediatric intestinal obstruction. Contrast enema is used for evaluation of the patients with its diagnosis. To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiologic findings for diagnosis of Hirschsprung in patients underwent barium enema. This cross sectional study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital for one year starting from 2012, April. Sixty patients were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: neonates with failure to pass meconium, abdominal distention, and refractory constipation who failed to respond with medical treatment. Transitional zone, delay in barium evacuation after 24 h, rectosigmoid index (maximum with of the rectum divided by maximum with of the sigmoid; abnormal if de Hirschsprung é a causa mais comum de obstrução intestinal pediátrica. Enema baritado é usado para a avaliação dos pacientes com o diagnóstico . Avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo de achados radiológicos para diagnóstico de Hirschsprung em pacientes submetidos ao enema opaco. Este estudo transversal foi realizado em Imam Khomeini Hospital por um ano a partir de abril de 2012. Sessenta pacientes foram incluídos. Os critérios de inclusão foram: recém-nascidos com insuficiência de passagem de mecônio, distensão abdominal, e constipação refratária sem resposta ao tratamento médico. Foram avaliadas no enema zona de transição, atraso na evacuação de bário após 24 h, índice retossigmoide (máximo do diâmetro do reto dividido pelo máximo do sigmóide; anormal se casos com a doença de Hirschsprung e sem foi 17,90±18,29 meses e 17,8±18,34 meses, respectivamente (p=0,983). Confirmou-se em 30 (M=20, F=10) dos casos. Falha no mecônio foi encontrada em 21 (70%) casos. Sensibilidade, especificidade, VPP e VPN foram de 90%, 80%, 81,8% e 88,8%, respectivamente, para a zona de transição no enema

  15. Cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system

  16. Fleet retrofit report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests are evaluated of an avionics system which aids the pilot in making two-segment approaches for noise abatement. The implications are discussed of equipping United's fleet of Boeing 727-200 aircraft with two-segment avionics for use down to Category 2 weather operating minima. The experience is reported of incorporating two-segment approach avionics systems on two different aircraft. The cost of installing dual two-segment approach systems is estimated to be $37,015 per aircraft, including parts, labor, and spares. This is based on the assumption that incremental out-of-service and training costs could be minimized by incorporating the system at airframe overhaul cycle and including training in regular recurrent training. Accelerating the modification schedule could add up to 50 percent to the modification costs. Recurring costs of maintenance of the installation are estimated to be of about the same magnitude as the potential recurrent financial benefits due to fuel savings.

  17. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Science and Technology Highlights Highlights in Research & Development Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Key Research Results Achievement Built on over 11.5 million miles of vehicle operations data, Fleet DNA helps users

  18. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  19. Rectal Fecal Impaction Treatment in Childhood Constipation: Enemas Versus High Doses Oral PEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkali, Noor-L.-Houda; van den Berg, Maartje-Maria; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Bongers, Marloes E. J.; Liem, Olivia; Benninga, Marc A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that enemas and polyethylene glycol (PEG) would be equally effective in treating rectal fecal impaction (RFI) but enemas would be less well tolerated and colonic transit time (CTT) would improve during disimpaction. METHODS: Children (4-16 years) with functional

  20. Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-01-01

    Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

  1. Fleet management for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bsaybes, Sahar; Quilliot, Alain; Wagler, Annegret K.

    2016-01-01

    The VIPAFLEET project consists in developing models and algorithms for man- aging a fleet of Individual Public Autonomous Vehicles (VIPA). Hereby, we consider a fleet of cars distributed at specified stations in an industrial area to supply internal transportation, where the cars can be used in different modes of circulation (tram mode, elevator mode, taxi mode). One goal is to develop and implement suitable algorithms for each mode in order to satisfy all the requests under an economic point...

  2. Prospective comparison of double contrast barium enema plus flexible sigmoidoscopy v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding: barium enema v colonoscopy in rectal bleeding.

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, E J; O'Connor, J; Frost, R A; Shorvon, P; Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Hunt, R H

    1988-01-01

    Rectal bleeding often heralds serious colonic disease. The literature suggests that colonoscopy is superior to barium enema plus sigmoidoscopy, although no good comparative studies exist. Seventy one patients with overt rectal bleeding had prospectively flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema and colonoscopy completed independently. Against the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of colonoscopy were 0.69 and 0.78 respectively for a spectrum of colonic lesions, while fo...

  3. Patient dose variation investigated in four Irish hospitals for barium meal and barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, E.; Brennan, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Four hospitals have been studied, intra- and inter-hospital variations examined and the mean DAP values recorded for barium enemas and barium meals. Mean DAP values for barium meals and barium enemas at 11.4 Gy.cm 2 and 20.1 Gy.cm 2 respectively have been shown. Differences between individual examinations for barium meals varied by up to a factor of 185 and for barium enemas, up to a factor of 19, with hospital means for barium meal and enema examinations each differing by up to a factor of 3. The data provided by this study have suggested that large variations in patient dose do exist in Ireland for barium meal and barium enema examinations. Fluoroscopy time was shown to be a major contributor to the variations reported, with number of images playing a minor role. Results have demonstrated the need for standardisation of technique throughout the country for these examinations. (author)

  4. Evaluation of sucralfate enema in experimental diversion colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aires Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diversion colitis (DC is an inflammatory disease that develops in segments with fecal di- version. Sucralfate (SCF complex, which consists of sucrose octasulfate and polyaluminum hydroxide, has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of different forms of colitis. However, until now, the effects of SCF have not been evaluated in DC. Objective: to evaluate whether the use of enemas containing SFC improves histological find- ings in experimental DC. Methods: Thirty-six rats underwent right colon bypass procedure through the creation of a proximal colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into two groups according to the euthanization procedure to be performed two to four weeks after sur- gery. Each experimental group was divided into three subgroups of six animals, which were submitted to daily application of enemas containing saline solution 0.9% or SCF at con- centrations of 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day, respectively. The diagnosis of DC in segments with fecal diversion was established by histopathological study considering the following variables: epithelial loss, formation of crypt abscesses, the population of goblet cells, in- flammatory infiltrate and presence of fibrosis. For statistical analysis, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used, with a significance level of 5% (p <0.05. Results: It was observed that the daily application of SCF enemas decreased epithelial loss, formation of colon crypt abscesses, inflammatory infiltrate and tissue fibrosis (p <0.05, un- related to time of intervention. The intervention with SCF preserves the goblet cell popula- tion. The effects of the substance on the preservation of colonic epithelium; the decrease in the inflammatory process and subsequent abscess formation in the colon crypts are associated with the concentration used, whereas tissue fibrosis decrease is associated with the concentration and time of intervention. Conclusion

  5. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  6. The Malone antegrade continence enema for neurogenic and structural fecal incontinence and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, M A; Kaji, D M; Duque, M; Wild, J; Galansky, S H

    1995-08-01

    Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor and tap water appears to be a safe solution for the antegrade continence enema. A nonrefluxing, imbricated appendicocecostomy is preferable to prevent cutaneous fecal or gas leaks.

  7. Assessment of patient exposure for barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, D.R.; Rudin, S.; Wong, R.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described for the assessment of patient exposure during clinical fluoroscopic procedures. Values of the roentgen-area-product (RAP) and their distribution throughout the examination are presented for both single-contrast and double-contrast barium enema studies. The double-contrast procedure was measured to give 50% more radiation to the patient than the single-contrast procedure when the same size optical aperture is used between the intensifier and TV pick-up tube. However, it was possible to decrease the fluoroscopic RAP value by over a factor of two for the double-contrast procedure without an adverse clinical effect by increasing the area of the aperture diaphragm

  8. Rectosigmoid endometriosis: comparison between CT water enema and video laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile Ianora, A A; Moschetta, M; Lorusso, F; Lattarulo, S; Telegrafo, M; Rella, L; Scardapane, A

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of water enema computed tomography (CT) for predicting the location of endometriosis in patients with contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), focusing on rectosigmoid lesions and having laparoscopic and histological data as the reference standard. Thirty-three women (mean age 33.4 ± 3.1 years) suspected of having deep pelvic endometriosis underwent 64-row CT and video laparoscopy within 4 weeks. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical data evaluated the CT images obtained after colonic retrograde distension using water as the contrast medium, and a comparison with laparoscopic and histological findings was performed. CT sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The radiation dose to patients was estimated. Cohen's weighted kappa (κ) test was used to evaluate the interobserver agreement. In 23 out of 33 patients (69%) intestinal implants were found at surgery and pathological examinations. CT confirmed the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis in 20 out of 23 implants. Three nodules located on the proximal sigmoid colon (two serosal lesions and one infiltrating the muscularis layer) with a diameter of less than 1 cm were not diagnosed. CT sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy values were 87, 100, 100, 77, and 91%, respectively. The mean effective dose estimate was 6.30 ± 1.7 mSv. Almost perfect agreement between the two readers was found (k = 0.84). Water enema CT can play a role in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis and represents another accurate potential tool for video laparoscopic approaches, especially in patients for whom MRI is contraindicated. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rectosigmoid endometriosis: Comparison between CT water enema and video laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabile Ianora, A.A.; Moschetta, M.; Lorusso, F.; Lattarulo, S.; Telegrafo, M.; Rella, L.; Scardapane, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of water enema computed tomography (CT) for predicting the location of endometriosis in patients with contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), focusing on rectosigmoid lesions and having laparoscopic and histological data as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Thirty-three women (mean age 33.4 ± 3.1 years) suspected of having deep pelvic endometriosis underwent 64-row CT and video laparoscopy within 4 weeks. Two radiologists blinded to the clinical data evaluated the CT images obtained after colonic retrograde distension using water as the contrast medium, and a comparison with laparoscopic and histological findings was performed. CT sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The radiation dose to patients was estimated. Cohen's weighted kappa (κ) test was used to evaluate the interobserver agreement. Results: In 23 out of 33 patients (69%) intestinal implants were found at surgery and pathological examinations. CT confirmed the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis in 20 out of 23 implants. Three nodules located on the proximal sigmoid colon (two serosal lesions and one infiltrating the muscularis layer) with a diameter of less than 1 cm were not diagnosed. CT sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy values were 87, 100, 100, 77, and 91%, respectively. The mean effective dose estimate was 6.30 ± 1.7 mSv. Almost perfect agreement between the two readers was found (k = 0.84). Conclusion: Water enema CT can play a role in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis and represents another accurate potential tool for video laparoscopic approaches, especially in patients for whom MRI is contraindicated

  10. Anomaly Detection in a Fleet of Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fleet is a group of systems (e.g., cars, aircraft) that are designed and manufactured the same way and are intended to be used the same way. For example, a fleet...

  11. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  12. Time to retire : Indicators for aircraft fleets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aircraft fleets are aging alongside rising operations and support costs. Logisticians and fleet managers who better understand the milestones and timeline of an aging fleet can recognise potential savings. This paper outlines generalised milestones germane to military aircraft

  13. Nuclear fleet: Today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.M.; Kovalenko, V.K.; Sinyaev, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Many years of operational experience have shown advantages of nuclear liner icebreakers over those burning fossil fuels primarily in ensuring reliable and stable shipping along the North Sea Route with an extended navigation season being realized. The advantages of the nuclear fleet are described

  14. A controlled trial of colostomy management by natural evacuation, irrigation and foam enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, J; Hardcastle, J D

    1981-10-01

    Twenty patients entered a prospective controlled trial of colostomy management by three techniques--natural evacuation, colostomy irrigation and foam enema. Every patient spent 2 months using each technique. The mean number of colostomy actions weekly was 17 during natural evacuation, 6 during irrigation and 10 with the enema. There was no significant difference in the time taken to manage the colostomy by each technique. Eighteen patients considered that both irrigation and the foam enema improved the quality of their life, and opted to continue with irrigation on completion of the study. There were no major complications during the trial but leakage of foam and an increase in flatus were problems with the foam enema. It is concluded that patients should be made aware of the alternative methods available for colostomy management and be encouraged to use the method of their choice.

  15. Computed tomography of the colo-rectal cancer using the olive oil enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Hori, Shinichi; Ohkawa, Motoomi; Fujikawa, Koichi; Mori, Masaki; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1983-01-01

    The recent widespread use of the double contrast Ba enema method has allowed considerable progress to be made in the diagnosis of colo-rectal cancer. However, the double contrast Ba enema technique has been found to be inadequate in the detection of the extra-luminal extensions of cancer in its early stage. CT can be utilized as an accurate non-invasive technique for evaluating colon tumors, particularly in the rectum and sigmoid colon which are adjacent to many organs. It is possible to apply CT for evaluating whether the cancer's extra-luminal extensions are at a preoperative stage or not. Due to the many limitations inherent in the Ba enema study. We developed a new olive oil enema technique to make it possible to more accurately differentiate the intra-luminal lesion, the intestinal wall and the extra-luminal extension. (author)

  16. Sensitivity of single contrast barium enema with regard to colorectal disease as diagnosed by colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaude, J.V.; Harty, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The results of single contrast barium enema were retrospectively correlated with colonoscopically diagnosed colorectal disease in 54 patients (75 lesions). Altogether 66 lesions (88%) were correctly diagnosed. The sensitivity of barium enema for polyps was 81% (26/32). There were three perceptive errors and three polyps 5 mm or less in size were not demonstrated by barium enema. Twenty-nine cases of inflammatory disorders were all correctly diagnosed. One of 12 malignancies was missed by perceptive error. In two cases with vascular malformations the barium enema was normal. 4/9 (44%) of missed lesions were perceptive errors and could have been probably avoided by a second independent reading of films. (orig.)

  17. How changes in a radiologist's technique can reduce patient dose in barium enema studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in a radiologist's technique, especially utilising digital technology, can lead to substantial dose savings in barium enema examinations. Data will be provided showing a 20% saving with only minimal change in technique. (author)

  18. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  19. A cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs

  20. Colorectal carcinoma: preoperative staging with water enema spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Sheng; Gao Jianbo; Li Yintai; Chen Xuejun; Yang Xuehua; Yang Xiaopeng; Cheng Jingliang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value and limitation of water enema spiral CT (WESCT) in staging of colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Forty-eight patients with histologically proven rectum or colon carcinoma were included in this study. All of them were examined by SCT, and the preoperative staging of TNM and Duke were used based on the findings of SCT. The results of WESCT were compared with those of surgical and pathological examination in all cases. Results: All lesions in the 47 cases were demonstrated clearly by WESCT and the sensitivity was 97.9%; 39 cases of 48 patients were correctly staged with TNM and 42 cases with Duke, the accuracy was 81.3% and 87.5% respectively, which were higher than the overall 50 % accuracy reported by references; (3) The accuracy of WESCT was 89.6% (43/48) in T stage and 81.3% (39/48) in N stage. Three cases in M stage were all diagnosed correctly; Conclusion: WESCT scan is a better method of depicting the colorectal carcinoma. It allows for accurate depiction and staging of colorectal carcinoma, especially detecting the invasion of adjacent tissues and distant metastasis. It is the best imaging method for staging the colorectal carcinoma . However the value of WESCT for early T staging in colorectal carcinoma and minute metastasis of lymph nodes or liver is limited

  1. Colonic diverticulosis: evaluation with double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jae Kook; Lee, Jong Koo; Yun, Eun Joo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the pattern of colonic diverticulosis according to age and sex, and recent trend. The authors retrospectively reviewed 120 cases of colonic diverticulosis in 1,020 patients who had undergone a double contrast barium enema examination between January 1st, 1993, and December 31st, 1995, and analyzed the frequency, size, multiplicity and anatomical site, according to age and sex. Diverticulum size was classified into one of three groups : less than 5mm, 5-10mm, over 10mm in diameter. The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 120 cases among 1,020 patients(11.8%) with an incidence 5.3 times higher in males than in females. Peak incidence was in the fifth decade, with 19 cases (15.8%) among males, and after the sixth decade, with four cases(3.3%) among females. Mean age was 57.7 years. Diverticulum size of 5-10mm in diameter was predominant (2% of cases); average diameter was 5-6mm. The incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 5.1 times more frequent in the right colon (101 cases) than in the left (20 cases). The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis has continually increased; in addition it has also recently increased slightly in left-sided colon. This is thought to be due to various factors, both congenital and acquired, including longer life with good health care, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, stress and the tendency of eating patterns to more closely resemble those of the west

  2. Colonic diverticulosis: evaluation with double contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jae Kook; Lee, Jong Koo; Yun, Eun Joo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the pattern of colonic diverticulosis according to age and sex, and recent trend. The authors retrospectively reviewed 120 cases of colonic diverticulosis in 1,020 patients who had undergone a double contrast barium enema examination between January 1st, 1993, and December 31st, 1995, and analyzed the frequency, size, multiplicity and anatomical site, according to age and sex. Diverticulum size was classified into one of three groups : less than 5mm, 5-10mm, over 10mm in diameter. The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 120 cases among 1,020 patients(11.8%) with an incidence 5.3 times higher in males than in females. Peak incidence was in the fifth decade, with 19 cases (15.8%) among males, and after the sixth decade, with four cases(3.3%) among females. Mean age was 57.7 years. Diverticulum size of 5-10mm in diameter was predominant (2% of cases); average diameter was 5-6mm. The incidence of colonic diverticulosis was 5.1 times more frequent in the right colon (101 cases) than in the left (20 cases). The overall incidence of colonic diverticulosis has continually increased; in addition it has also recently increased slightly in left-sided colon. This is thought to be due to various factors, both congenital and acquired, including longer life with good health care, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, stress and the tendency of eating patterns to more closely resemble those of the west.

  3. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  4. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 3 : ITS fleet management technology resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In todays increasingly competitive economic environment, effective management of commercial vehicle fleets is important for all types of carriers and for the trucking industry as a whole. To meet fleet management needs, carriers increasingly are t...

  5. Left-colon antegrade continence enema (LACE) procedure for fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Bernard M; De Ugarte, Daniel A; Atkinson, James B

    2003-12-01

    Antegrade continence enemas (ACE) are an efficacious therapeutic option for patients with fecal incontinence. The authors review their institution's experience with a variation of the Monti-Malone ACE procedure using the left colon as a source of an intestinal conduit and enema reservoir. From 2000 to 2002, 18 patients with fecal incontinence or intractable constipation underwent left-colon ACE (LACE) procedure. Concomitant Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy was performed in 15 patients and bladder augmentation in 9. The majority of patients had neural tube defects. A segment of left colon was tubularized, tunneled into the muscular wall of the distal colon, and exteriorized through the left upper quadrant or midabdomen. Stomal catherization and enema installation were started one month postoperatively. Fifteen patients (83%) achieved fecal continence, 2 remain incontinent of stool, and 1 experienced stomal closure (mean follow-up was 24 +/- 9 months). Two patients had stomal stenosis that required revision. The mean enema volume in patient's achieving continence was 360 +/- 216 mL, and the mean transit time was 18 +/- 12 minutes. LACE is an efficacious procedure for fecal incontinence that can be performed safely at the time of major urologic reconstruction. Administration of enemas into the left colon has several physiologic advantages that result in predictable bowel evacuation.

  6. Benefits of Barium Enema in Patients with Incomplete Colonoscopy. Prospective Study of 45 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gispert, S.; Mayolas, N.; Hidalgo, A.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of barium enema in patients with incomplete colonoscopy. There was carried out a prospective 10-month study of 45 patients with incomplete colonoscopy (27 men and 18 women), who were later examined by means of barium enema (33 conventional, 12 double-contrast) in order to check for additional pathology in portions of the colon not visualized by colonoscopy. Barium enema diagnosed six possible additional lesions (13.3%) in portions of the colon not visualized by incomplete colonoscopy (four neoplasia and two non-neoplasia). Regarding the neoplasia two were true positives and two false positives. Both true positives were adenocarcinomas (one synchronous caecum, and another in splenic angle). The two false positives corresponded to fecal matter stuck to the intestinal wall. Regarding the non-neoplasia, multiple stenosis was detected in a patient with Crohn's disease and an enterocolic fistula was found in a patient with sigmoid colon neoplasia. The diagnostic yield of barium enema in the detection of additional pathology in colon portions not visualized by colonoscopy was of 9%. Barium enema following incomplete colonoscopy permits a complete colon evaluation in most cases, and it offers additional diagnostic information. (Author) 21 refs

  7. Virtual colonoscopy with electron beam CT: correlation with barium enema, colonoscopy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hye Suk; Kim, Min Jung; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik

    1998-01-01

    To perform virtual colonoscopy using electron beam tomography(EBT) in patients in whom a colonic mass was present, and to compare the results with those obtained using barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. Materials and Methods : Ten patients in whom colonic masses were diagnosed by either barium enema or colonoscopy were involved in this study. There were nine cases of adenocarcinoma and one of tubulovillous adenoma. Using EBT preoperative abdominopelvic CT scans were performed. Axial scans were then three-dimensionally reconstructed to produce virtual colonoscopic images and were compared with barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. Virtual colonoscopic images of the masses were classified as either 1)polyploid, 2)sessile,3)fungating, or 4)annular constrictive. We also determined whether ulcers were present within the lesions and whether there was obstruction. Results : After virtual colonoscopy, two lesions were classified as polyploid, one as sessile, five as fungating and two as annular constrictive. Virtual colonoscopic images showed good correlation with the findings of barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. Three of six ulcerative lesions were observed on colonoscopy; in seven adenocarcinomas with partial or total luminal obstruction, virtual colonoscopy visualized the colon beyond the obstructed sites. In one case, barium contrast failed to pass through the obstructed portion and in six cases, the colonoscope similarly failed. Conclusion : Virtual colonoscopies correlated well with barium enema, colonoscopy and gross pathologic specimens. They provide three dimensional images of colonic masses and are helpful for the evaluation of obstructive lesions

  8. Colonoscopy can miss diverticula of the left colon identified by barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Ryota; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-04-21

    To identify the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticulosis as determined by barium enema. A total of 65 patients with hematochezia who underwent colonoscopy and barium enema were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticula was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was compared in relation to age (barium enema. Colonoscopy had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%. No significant differences were found in the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) for age group or sex. The ROC-AUC of the left colon was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.81 vs 0.96, P = 0.02). Colonoscopy identified 486 colonic diverticula, while barium enema identified 1186. The detection ratio for the entire colon was therefore 0.41 (486/1186). The detection ratio in the left colon (0.32, 189/588) was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.50, 297/598) (P barium enema, only half the number of colonic diverticula can be detected by colonoscopy in the entire colon and even less in the left colon.

  9. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  10. Dose optimisation of double-contrast barium enema examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, K; Båth, M; Jonasson, P; Cappelen-Smith, J; Fogelstam, P; Söderberg, J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to optimise the filtration and dose setting for double-contrast barium enema examinations using a Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD system. A phantom study was performed prior to a patient study. A CDRAD phantom was used in a study where copper and aluminium filtration, different detector doses and tube potentials were examined. The image quality was evaluated using the software CDRAD Analyser and the phantom dose was determined using the Monte Carlo-based software PCXMC. The original setting [100 % detector dose (660 nGy air kerma) and a total filtration of 3.5 mm Al, at 81 kVp] and two other settings identified by the phantom study (100 % detector dose and additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu as well as 80 % detector dose and added filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu) were included in the patient study. The patient study included 60 patients and up to 8 images from each patient. Six radiologists performed a visual grading characteristics study to evaluate the image quality. A four-step scale was used to judge the fulfillment of three image quality criteria. No overall statistical significant difference in image quality was found between the three settings (P > 0.05). The decrease in the effective dose for the settings in the patient study was 15 % when filtration was added and 34 % when both filtrations was added and detector dose was reduced. The study indicates that additional filtration of 1 mm Al and 0.2 mm Cu and a decrease in detector dose by 20 % from the original setting can be used in colon examinations with Philips MultiDiagnost Eleva FD to reduce the patient dose by 30 % without significantly affecting the image quality. For 20 exposures, this corresponds to a decrease in the effective dose from 1.6 to 1.1 mSv.

  11. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  12. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  13. Epidermal growth factor enemas for induction of remission in left-sided ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nodarse-Cuní

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ulcerative colitis is a little known chronic inflammatory disease in colonic mucosa. The positive effect of epidermal growth factor was shown in a previous report, with enema use for treatment of mild to moderate left-sided manifestation of the disease. This evidence provided the basis for evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of a viscous solution of this product. Methods: thirty-one patients were randomized to three groups for daily medications during 14 days. Twelve received one 10 mg enema of epidermal growth factor dissolved in 100 mL of viscous solution whereas nine were treated with placebo enema; both groups also received 1.2 g of oral mesalamine per day. The other group included ten patients with 3 g / 100 mL of mesalamine enema. Primary end point was clinical responses after two weeks of treatment, defined as a decreased of, at least three points from baseline, the Disease Activity Index and endoscopic or histological evidences of improvement. Results: remission of disease was observed in all patients in the epidermal growth factor group, and six in both, mesalamine enema and placebo group. All the comparisons between groups showed statistically significant superiority for epidermal growth factor, the only product with significant reduction in disease activity index as well as the presence and intensity of digestive symptoms in patients after treatment. None adverse event was reported. Conclusions: the results agree with previous molecular and clinical evidences, indicating that the epidermal growth factor is effective to reduce disease activity and to induce remission. A new study involving more patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor enemas.

  14. Intussusception reduction: Effect of air vs. liquid enema on radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Edgar, J.C.; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Zhu, Xiaowei [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A. [University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health and Radiation Safety, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Both air and radiopaque liquid contrast are used to reduce ileocolic intussusception under fluoroscopy. Some suggest air lowers radiation dose due to shorter procedure times. However, air enema likely lowers radiation dose regardless of fluoroscopy time due to less density over the automatic exposure control cells. We test the hypothesis that air enema reduction of ileocolic intussusception results in lower radiation dose than liquid contrast enema independent of fluoroscopy time. We describe a role for automatic exposure control in this dose difference. We retrospectively evaluated air and liquid intussusception reductions performed on a single digital fluoroscopic unit during a 26-month period. We compared patient age, weight, gender, exam time of day and year, performing radiologist(s), radiographic image acquisitions, grid and magnification use, fluoroscopy time and dose area product. We compared categorical and continuous variables statistically using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively. The mean dose area product was 2.7-fold lower for air enema, 1.3 ± 0.9 dGy.cm{sup 2}, than for liquid, 3.5 ± 2.5 dGy.cm{sup 2} (P<0.005). The mean fluoroscopy time was similar between techniques. The mean dose area product/min was 2.3-fold lower for air, 0.6 ± 0.2 dGy.cm{sup 2}/min, than for liquid, 1.4 ± 0.5 dGy.cm{sup 2}/min (P<0.001). No group differences were identified in other measured dose parameters. Fluoroscopic intussusception reduction using air enema uses less than half the radiation dose of liquid contrast enema. Dose savings are independent of fluoroscopy time and are likely due to automatic exposure control interaction. (orig.)

  15. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  16. NATIONAL FLEET DEVELOPMENT IN THE INNOVATIVE ECONOMY. CASE STUDY OF THE GREEK FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Grzybowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the development of the Greek fleet in the period of last ten years was discussed. The Greek fleet is an example of accommodating itself to the requirements of the global and innovative economy. Greek shipowners are developing their fleets through the consolidation and replacing older ships with new generation vessels. They are invest-ing into ships adapted for new markets, including LNG maritime transport market. As a result of it Greece became a market leader in maritime transport sector and their fleet a biggest and youngest fleet of world in 2016.

  17. Small bowel volvulus in children. Its appearance on the barium enema examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.J.; Shackelford, G.D.; McAlister, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two children with small bowel volvulus diagnosed on barium enema examination are reported. In one patient the volvulus was associated with malrotation and in the other patient there was a post-operative peritoneal adhesion. In both cases the diagnosis was based on beaking of the head of the barium column at the site of volvulus. Radiographic demonstration of a beak sign in the small bowel on barium enema examination should suggest a diagnosis of small bowel volvulus, and indicates the need for immediate surgery.

  18. BioFleet case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    These six case studies examined the use of different biodiesel blends as fuel supply sources for businesses in British Columbia (BC). In the first case study, 6 municipalities participated in a pilot program designed to compare the performance of biodiesel and diesel fuels. Each municipality operated 2 base vehicles running on conventional diesel along with 2 similar vehicles which used biodiesel. Real time emissions tests and analyses of the vehicles using biodiesel were also conducted by 2 of the participating municipalities. All municipalities participating in the study agreed to purchase significant volumes of biodiesel. The second case study described a pilot study conducted by the City of Vancouver's equipment services branch in 2004. As a result of the study, the city now has over 530 types of equipment that use biodiesel. The third case study described a program designed by TSI Terminals in Vancouver to assess the emission reduction impact of using biodiesel at its port facility. Six different pieces of equipment were used to confirm that biodiesel could be used throughout the terminal. Test results confirmed that biodiesel blends could be used to reduce emissions. Overall emissions were reduced by 30 per cent. The fourth case study described a waste renderer that used a fleet of 36 trucks to deliver raw products to its plants. The company made the decision to use only biodiesel for its entire fleet of trucks. Since July 2005, the company has logged over 1.7 million km using biodiesel blends. The fifth case study described a salmon hatchery that switched from diesel to biodiesel in order to reduce emissions. The biodiesel blends are used to fuel the hatchery's 2 diesel generators. The hatchery has reduced emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by an estimated 1800 tonnes annually. The sixth case study described how the Township of Langley has started using biodiesel for its entire fleet of of approximately 250 pieces of equipment. The township has not

  19. Prospective comparison of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy in patients with fecal occult blood: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockey, Don C; Koch, Johannes; Yee, Judy; McQuaid, Kenneth R; Halvorsen, Robert A

    2004-12-01

    The utility of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for evaluation of the colon has been debated. Air-contrast barium enema is less expensive and invasive than colonoscopy, but it also is less sensitive and specific. Further, although air-contrast barium enema may be less painful than colonoscopy, it often is poorly tolerated by patients. Thus, this study compared the sensitivity and the specificity of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for detection of colonic lesions in patients with fecal occult blood. Over a 30-month period, patients with fecal occult blood were recruited. Patients underwent standard air-contrast barium enema, followed by colonoscopy 7 to 14 days later. Colonoscopists were blinded to the results of air-contrast barium enema until the colonoscopy was completed, after which the results were disclosed. If the findings were discrepant, colonoscopy was repeated. A total of 100 patients were evaluated. Nine air-contrast barium enemas were reported to be inadequate, and the cecum was not intubated at colonoscopy in two patients. In the remaining patients, 5 cancers were identified (1 each cecum, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum) by both studies. Sixty-six polypoid lesions were identified in 30 patients. Diverticula were identified in 42 patients by air-contrast barium enema and in 18 patients by colonoscopy. Air-contrast barium enema detected 3 of 36 polypoid lesions 5 mm or less in diameter, 5 of 15 adenomas 6 to 9 mm in size, and 4 of 15 adenomas 10 mm or greater in diameter (sensitivity 8%, 33%, and 27%, respectively). After excluding patients with diverticula, air-contrast barium enema detected 3 of 7 adenomas 10 mm or greater in size. Overall, 12 polypoid lesions or filling defects were identified by air-contrast barium enema that could not be verified by colonoscopy. The specificity of air-contrast barium enema for lesions 1.0 cm or greater in size was 100%; for those 6 mm or greater, it was 97%. Air

  20. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A.; Cooper, Jennifer N.; Minneci, Peter C.; Deans, Katherine J.; Bates, D. Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy

  1. Compensation filtration for decubitus radiography during double-contrast barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feczko, P.J.; Haggar, A.M.; Rauch, P.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Simms, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Lateral decubitus images obtained during double-contrast barium enema examinations may be difficult to interpret because of the large difference in density between the various parts of the radiographs. Several types of filters are described which can be used to rectify this problem, thus improving the quality of the decubitus radiographs and achieving a slight reduction in radiation exposure

  2. Barium enema and endoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasia: Sensitivity, specificity, complications and its determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwart, Ingrid M. de; Griffioen, Gerrit; Shaw, M. Pertaap Chandie; Lamers, Cornelis B.H.W.; Roos, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To analyse sensitivity, specificity and complication rate of endoscopy, and barium enema for the detection of colorectal neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search was performed (1980-2000) directed at the endoscopic and radiologic literature on barium enema. Articles were selected based on the type of study, availability of sensitivity and specificity values in sizeable patient groups, and reports on complications. Sixty articles were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Endoscopy proved to have superior sensitivity for polyps in patients at high-risk for colorectal neoplasia. The role of endoscopy and radiology in average-risk screening populations is not known. Sensitivity and specificity rates ranged widely, probably due to bias. For the detection of small polyps endoscopy has superior performance, whereas sensitivity is similar for endoscopy and barium enema for the detection of larger (>1 cm) polyps and tumours. Overall, endoscopy is associated with a higher complication rate. CONCLUSION: Endoscopy is the preferred detection method in high-risk patients. The role of endoscopy and radiology in a screening setting requires evaluation. This review provides the test characteristics of endoscopy and radiology which are relevant for a cost-effectiveness analysis. Double-contrast barium enema may play an important role for screening purposes, owing to its good sensitivity for detecting larger (>1 cm) polyps and its lack of major complications. Zwart, I.M. de et al. (2001)

  3. Sensitivity of single and double contrast barium enema in the detection of colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, V.; Paeivansalo, M.; Laitinen, S.; Oulu Univ.

    1984-01-01

    The preoperative barium enema of the 188 colorectal carcinoma patients operated at the Oulu University Central Hospital (Finland) during 1977-1982 were examined retrospectively. Altogether 112 single contrast studies and 87 double contrast studies had been made on these patients. The single contrast barium enemas had resulted in a correct diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma in 93 cases (sensitivity 83%). The correct diagnosis in the double contrast studies numbered 71 (sensitivity 82%). Most of the overlooked carcinomas were located in the caecum, in the sigmoid or the rectum. Most of the errors made in the single contrast studies were due to detection errors and poor evacuation. The most common failures in double contrast enemas were detection errors and nonvisualisation of the sigmoid. The authors recommend use of the double contrast technique and suggest that the two methods of barium enema be used to complement each other. A false negative diagnosis delayed the operation of the colorectal carcinoma patients by 2.2 months (median). (orig.) [de

  4. An assessment of the accuracy of contrast enema for the diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic accuracy levels were calculated by comparing radiological results with histology results, which is the gold standard. Results: Diagnostic accuracy of contrast enema was 78%, sensitivity was 94.4% and the negative predictive value was 95.7%. Specificity (68.8%) and positive predictive values (63%) were ...

  5. Sucralfate paste enema: a new method of topical treatment for haemorrhagic radiation proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvanna, K; Wilson, A; Irwin, T

    2014-04-01

    Rectal sucralfate has been reported to deliver clinical improvement in haemorrhagic radiation proctitis, but patients with active proctitis find the enema suspension difficult to retain thus reducing compliance and effectiveness. We describe a novel method of rectal administration via a low-volume sucralfate paste and report its results in a series of 23 patients. Patients with rectal bleeding occurring more than 6 months after radiotherapy were shown how to prepare and self-administer sucralfate paste enemas (SPEs) twice daily for 6 weeks. The SPE was prepared using two sucralfate 1-g tablets mixed with 4.5 ml of water in an enema applicator producing a low-volume paste. The clinical response was evaluated by comparison of pre- and posttreatment clinical proctitis scores (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer). Eighteen male (postprostatic radiotherapy) and five female (postcervical radiotherapy) patients with a median age of 67 (32-75) years were included. The median interval between pelvic irradiation and SPE treatment was 24 (7-69) months. Twenty-two patients had full clinical scoring, of whom 16 (73%) demonstrated clinical improvement. Six (27%) had neither clinical improvement nor deterioration. Seven (32%) had resolution of all symptoms. Most patients demonstrated clinical improvement. This initial experience of the sucralfate paste enema may provide the basis for a prospective study of its effectiveness in the treatment of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Iatrogen perforation of the rectum following barium enema; Iatrogen perforasjon av rectum ved roentgen colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggum, R.; Kressner, U.; Haffner, J. [Buskerud Central Hospital, Drammen (Norway)

    1998-05-01

    Perforation of the rectum following barium enema is relatively rare, occurring in 1 of 3,000 procedures. Colorectal perforation is a serious condition and early diagnosis is of paramount importance in order to avoid any delay in treating the patient. Direct suture of the perforation, lavage, presacral drainage and stomia are the preferred methods of primary surgical treatment. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Effect of rectal enema on intrafraction prostate movement during image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngmin; Kwak, Dong-Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Joo; Cho, Won-Yeol; Sung, Gyung Tak; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Kim, Soo-Dong; Yun, Seong-Guk

    2015-04-01

    Rectal volume and movement are major factors that influence prostate location. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a rectal enema on intrafraction prostate motion. The data from 12 patients with localised prostate cancer were analysed. Each patient underwent image-guided radiotherapy (RT), receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Rectal enemas were administered to all of the patients before each RT fraction. The location of the prostate was determined by implanting three fiducial markers under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound. Each patient underwent preparation for IGRT twice before an RT fraction and in the middle of the fraction. The intrafraction displacement of the prostate was calculated by comparing fiducial marker locations before and in the middle of an RT fraction. The rectal enemas were well tolerated by patients. The mean intrafraction prostate movement in 336 RT fractions was 1.11 ± 0.77 mm (range 0.08-7.20 mm). Intrafraction motions of 1, 2 and 3 mm were observed in 56.0%, 89.0% and 97.6% of all RT fractions, respectively. The intrafraction movements on supero-inferior and anteroposterior axes were larger than on the right-to-left axes (P movement, calculated using the van Herk formula (2.5Σ + 0.7σ), was 1.50 mm. A daily rectal enema before each RT fraction was tolerable and yielded little intrafraction prostate displacement. We think the use of rectal enemas is a feasible method to reduce prostate movement during RT. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  8. Granulomatous colitis: findings on double contrast barium enema and follow-up studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jong Gi; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Seung Hoon; Choo, Sung Wook; Kim, Seung Cheol; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of granulomatous colitis on double contrast barium enema and changes on follow-up studies. Serial double contrast barium enema of six patients with granulomatous colitis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy were reviewed. We analyzed the radiologic findings and their follow-up changes, including aphthous ulcers, lymphoid hyperplasia, deep ulcers, cobble stone appearance, geographic ulcers, asymmetric involvement of ulcers, skip lesions, sinus tract, fistula formation, pseudosacculation, focal stricture, and small bowel involvement. Pretreatment double contrast barium enema findings were aphthous ulcers in five patients, deep ulcer in six, cobble stone appearance in five, longitudinal geographic ulcers in two, fistulas in one, pseudosacculations in two, focal stricture in one, and pseudopolyps in six. Also, anal ulcers were observed in two patients, asymmetric involvement of ulcers in three, skip lesions in four, and small bowel involvement in five in five patients proved to have inactive disease after treatment, aphthous ulcers and deep ulcers disappeared. Geographic ulcers of two patients and anal ulcer of one patients decreased in size or depth. Pseudosacculation in one patient disappeared. Pseudopolyps decreased in two patients, increased in one, and decreased after increase in two. One patient whose disease remained active after treatment showed maintenance or increase of ulcers or fistula. And their pseudosacculation or focal stricture unchanged and pseudopolyps decreased. The major radiologic findings of chronic granulomatous colitis on double contrast barium enema are aphthous ulcer, deep ulcer, cobble stone appearance, discontinuity of the lesion and coexistence of ulcers and pseudopolyps. And, double contrast barium enema is good follow-up modality because its findings correlate with clinical course of the granulomatous colitis after treatment

  9. Glycerin enemas and suppositories in premature infants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael H; Shawyer, Anna C; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Williams, Connie; Jones, Sarah A; Walton, J Mark

    2015-06-01

    Premature infants are often given glycerin enemas or suppositories to facilitate meconium evacuation and transition to enteral feeding. The purpose of this study was to assess the available evidence for this treatment strategy. We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Central, and trial registries for randomized controlled trials of premature infants treated with glycerin enemas or suppositories. Data were extracted in duplicate and meta-analyzed using a random effects model. We identified 185 premature infants treated prophylactically with glycerin enemas in one trial (n = 81) and suppositories in two other trials (n = 104). All infants were less than 32 weeks gestation and had no congenital malformations. Treatment was associated with earlier initiation of stooling in one trial (2 vs 4 days, P = .02) and a trend towards earlier meconium evacuation in another (6.5 vs 9 days, P = .11). Meta-analysis demonstrated no effect on transition to enteral feeding (0.7 days faster, P = .43) or mortality (P = 0.50). There were no reports of rectal bleeding or perforation but there was a trend towards increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with glycerin enemas or suppositories (risk ratio = 2.72, P = .13). These three trials are underpowered and affected by one or more major methodological issues. As a result, the quality of evidence is low to very low. Three other trials are underway. The evidence for the use glycerin enemas or suppositories in premature infants in inconclusive. Meta-analyzed data suggest that treatment may be associated with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Careful monitoring of ongoing trials is required. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Effect of rectal enema on intrafraction prostate movement during image-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngmin; Kwak, Dong-Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Jooh; Cho, Won-Yeol; Sung, Gyung Tak; Kim, Tae-Hyo; Kim, Soo-Dong; Yun, Seong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Rectal volume and movement are major factors that influence prostate location. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a rectal enema on intrafraction prostate motion. The data from 12 patients with localised prostate cancer were analysed. Each patient underwent image-guided radiotherapy (RT), receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in 28 fractions. Rectal enemas were administered to all of the patients before each RT fraction. The location of the prostate was determined by implanting three fiducial markers under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound. Each patient underwent preparation for IGRT twice before an RT fraction and in the middle of the fraction. The intrafraction displacement of the prostate was calculated by comparing fiducial marker locations before and in the middle of an RT fraction. The rectal enemas were well tolerated by patients. The mean intrafraction prostate movement in 336 RT fractions was 1.11 ± 0.77 mm (range 0.08–7.20 mm). Intrafraction motions of 1, 2 and 3 mm were observed in 56.0%, 89.0% and 97.6% of all RT fractions, respectively. The intrafraction movements on supero-inferior and anteroposterior axes were larger than on the right-to-left axes (P < 0.05). The CTV-to-PTV margin necessary to allow for movement, calculated using the van Herk formula (2.5Σ + 0.7σ), was 1.50 mm. A daily rectal enema before each RT fraction was tolerable and yielded little intrafraction prostate displacement. We think the use of rectal enemas is a feasible method to reduce prostate movement during RT.

  11. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  12. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  13. Temporal Optimization Planning for Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state-of-the-art pla......Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state......-of-the-art planning and scheduling techniques do not offer cost models that are rich enough to represent essential objectives of these problems. To this end, we introduce a novel framework called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). TOP uses partial order planning to build optimization models associated...

  14. Future Fleet Project. What Can We Afford

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    available to maintain the readiness of the fleet. The reduction in readiness spending coupled with continuing demands from COCOMs for assets eroded... coupled with continuing demands from COCOMs for assets eroded the number of ships in ready‑to‑deploy status. CBO’s estimate of $20.2 billion per...less-expensive aircraft carriers, and additional SSNs. Our intent in designing this fleet is to use the money saved in buying less-expensive

  15. CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

  16. Revaluation on detection of metastatic cancer of the colorectum with barium enema. Comparison with computed tomography and colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Jiro; Mizukami, Yusuke; Tanabe, Hirotaka

    1996-01-01

    The findings with barium enema were analyzed and compared to those with computed tomography and colonoscopy in 15 patients with metastatic cancer of the colorectum, which were from 8 gastric, 2 colonic, 2 ovarian, 1 pancreatic, 1 prostatic carcinomas and 1 unknown origin. Primary cancers of intra-abdominal cavity origin tended to make multiple colorectal metastases (91.7%). With barium enema colonic and rectal involvement was mostly expressed as the tethered type and the diffuse type by Ishikawa's classification, respectively. Computed tomography detected direct tumor invasion to the colorectum in 4 cases. Of the other 11 cases, 8 patients (72.3%) showed abnormally thickened colorectal wall. Colonoscopy detected only 3 (37.5%) out of 8 lesions seen in 4 patients who had undergone colonoscopy before barium enema. Many of the lesions missed were the tethered type involvement. Barium enema is the most sensitive method to detect metastatic cancer of the colorectum. (author)

  17. What is behind fleet evolution: a framework for flow analysis and application to the French Atlantic fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Guyader, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The study of fishery dynamics considers national-level fleet evolution. It has, however, failed to consider the flows behind fleet evolution as well as the impact of the dynamics of owners of invested capital on fleet evolution. This paper establishes a general conceptual framework which identifies different vessel and owner flows behind fleet evolution and some relationships between these flows. This descriptive conceptual framework aims to change the current focus on drivers of fleet evolut...

  18. A randomized trial of enema versus polyethylene glycol 3350 for fecal disimpaction in children presenting to an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa K; Dowd, Mary Denise; Friesen, Craig A; Walsh-Kelly, Christine M

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to compare efficacy of enema versus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 for pediatric fecal impaction treatment. We conducted a prospective, randomized comparison of treatments of fecal impaction in children in a pediatric emergency department (ED). Treatment arms were a single milk and molasses enema in the ED or PEG 3350 for 3 days outpatient. Telephone follow-up was done on days 1, 3, and 5. The primary outcome was main symptom improvement. Additional outcomes were stool frequency, consistency, and ease of stool passage. Treatment failures (home enema, ED return, or hospital admission) were tracked. Seventy-nine subjects participated (39 PEG; 40 enema). At day 1, PEG subjects were less likely to have improved main symptom (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.8) but no difference in other outcomes. Half (54%) in enema arm were reported as upset by ED therapy, whereas no children in PEG arm were upset (P PEG arm (83%; P = 0.08). This pilot study suggests that disimpaction by enema may be superior to PEG for immediate relief of symptoms. Larger trials are needed to assess any advantage.

  19. Intra-individual comparison of patient acceptability of multidetector-row CT colonography and double-contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.A. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: csytaylor@yahoo.co.uk; Halligan, S. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Burling, D. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Bassett, P. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Bartram, C.I. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St Mark' s and Northwick Park Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    AIMS: To compare the subjective acceptability of CT colonography in comparison with barium enema in older symptomatic patients, and to ascertain preferences for future colonic investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 78 persons aged 60 years or over with symptoms suggestive of colorectal neoplasia, who underwent CT colonography followed the same day by barium enema. A 25-point questionnaire was administered after each procedure and an additional follow-up questionnaire a week later. Responses were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs testing, Mann-Whitney test statistics and binomial exact testing. RESULTS: Participants suffered less physical discomfort during CT colonography (p=0.03) and overall satisfaction was greater compared with barium enema (p=0.03). On follow-up, respondents reported significantly better tolerance of CT colonography (p=0.002), and were less prepared to undergo barium enema again (p<0.001). Of 52 subjects expressing an opinion, all preferred CT to barium enema. CONCLUSION: Patient satisfaction was higher with CT colonography than barium enema. CT colonography caused significantly less physical discomfort and was overwhelmingly preferred by patients.

  20. Intra-individual comparison of patient acceptability of multidetector-row CT colonography and double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.A.; Halligan, S.; Burling, D.; Bassett, P.; Bartram, C.I.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the subjective acceptability of CT colonography in comparison with barium enema in older symptomatic patients, and to ascertain preferences for future colonic investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 78 persons aged 60 years or over with symptoms suggestive of colorectal neoplasia, who underwent CT colonography followed the same day by barium enema. A 25-point questionnaire was administered after each procedure and an additional follow-up questionnaire a week later. Responses were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs testing, Mann-Whitney test statistics and binomial exact testing. RESULTS: Participants suffered less physical discomfort during CT colonography (p=0.03) and overall satisfaction was greater compared with barium enema (p=0.03). On follow-up, respondents reported significantly better tolerance of CT colonography (p=0.002), and were less prepared to undergo barium enema again (p<0.001). Of 52 subjects expressing an opinion, all preferred CT to barium enema. CONCLUSION: Patient satisfaction was higher with CT colonography than barium enema. CT colonography caused significantly less physical discomfort and was overwhelmingly preferred by patients

  1. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. They are involved in cell structure, energy transport and storage, vitamin function, and numerous other processes ... Phosphate-containing foods and beverages include cola, wine, beer, whole grain cereals, nuts, dairy products and some ...

  2. Fleet management tools for the utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caywood, J. [Terex Telelect, Watertown, SD (United States)

    2002-08-01

    In order to enable fleet managers to make the appropriate decisions concerning buying, selling, renting, leasing or repairing vehicles, information about ownership and operating cost and utilization are important. Fleet management tools are now available in the heavy construction industry. The author describes one such fleet management services customized for the utility industry: FleetEdge. This system utilizes current and future technologies to enable the managers to take proactive or predictive approaches to fleet management. An example of a company that has opted for this system was reviewed: Reliant Energy-Houston Metro. The data collection process was explained. A mini-computer processor is fitted on the equipment, and the requested monitoring parameters in turn determine the variety of sensors and alarms to be selected. Location can also be monitored through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment. The parameters normally include low engine oil pressure, high engine operating temperature, high transmission operating temperature, high hydraulic oil temperature, engine hours. Wireless data transfer is effected via cellular or satellite networks. The data is then collected and checked for errors and format at a hub before going to the computer server through the Internet. Information is transmitted from the accounting system to fleet management service through a secure interface. The data is then configured to meet the client's needs. It results in up to date, understandable information to the client. Equipment utilization, downtime and cost by machine or category is easily accessible and printed if required. Fleet equipment status is provided, as well as hourly cost analysis. Other reports are also available. 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis

  4. Detection of colonic polyps in the elderly: Optimization of the single-contrast barium enema examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, D.W.; Chen, Y.M.; Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Single-contrast studies account for 75% of barium enema examinations and are often performed in the elderly. By optimizing all factors, the following results were obtained: for polyps of less than 1 cm, 40 of 57 were detected (sensitivity, 70.2%); for polyps of 1 cm or larger, 33 of 35 were detected (sensitivity, 94%). Overall, 73 of 92 polyps were detected (sensitivity, 79.3%). These sensitivities result from meticulous preparation and the use of compression filming, low-density barium, moderate kilovoltages, high-resolution screens, remote control apparatus, and high-bandpass TV fluoroscopy. The authors conclude that an optimal single-contrast barium enema examination detects colonic polyps with a sensitivity approaching that of the double-contrast study and may be employed in elderly patients who cannot undergo the double-contrast study

  5. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Oscar M.; Daneman, Alan; Miller, Stephen F. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

  6. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Oscar M.; Daneman, Alan; Miller, Stephen F.

    2004-01-01

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

  7. Randomized clinical trial on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema: impact on radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goei, Reginald; Kessels, Alphons H.; Nix, Maarten; Knipschild, Paul G.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the willingness of radiologists to change their practice when the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) on the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema are presented. Materials and Methods: During the years 1994 and 1995 two postal questionnaires were sent to 481 practicing radiologists who were all members of the Netherlands Society of Radiology. In the first questionnaire the respondents were asked to give the characteristics of their practices in performing daily barium enema. The data from this questionnaire was used as a reference. The second questionnaire was sent to the respondents together with an abstract on the randomized clinical trial supporting the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema. We also indicated a preference for Buscopan over Glucagon as the antispasmodic drug. The willingness to change prescription habits was measured by comparing the data of the two questionnaires. Results: Of 481 practicing radiologists, 312 responded to the first questionnaire and gave information of their prescription habits (response rate 64%). These 312 responders were sent an abstract of the RCT and were asked to fill out a second questionnaire to determine their willingness to change their practice. Two hundred and sixty-seven radiologists responded (response rate 86%). A significant number of 119 (51%) were willing to increase the use of antispasmodic drugs. A significant number of 128 (55%) chose to increase the use of Buscopan, while a significant number of 81 (32%) were willing to decrease the use of Glucagon. Conclusion: Direct exposure to the results of an RCT recommending the use of antispasmodic drugs in barium enema, especially Buscopan, is likely to increase its use by practicing radiologists

  8. Radiographer and radiologist perception error in reporting double contrast barium enemas: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Alison M.; Mannion, Richard A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The practice of radiographers performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE) is now widespread and in many centres the radiographer's opinion is, at least, contributing to a dual reporting system [Bewell J, Chapman AH. Radiographer performed barium enemas - results of a survey to assess progress. Radiography 1996;2:199-205; Leslie A, Virjee JP. Detection of colorectal carcinoma on double contrast barium enema when double reporting is routinely performed: an audit of current practice. Clin Radiol 2001;57:184-7; Culpan DG, Mitchell AJ, Hughes S, Nutman M, Chapman AH. Double contrast barium enema sensitivity: a comparison of studies by radiographers and radiologists. Clin Radiol 2002;57:604-7]. To ensure this change in practice does not lead to an increase in reporting errors, this study aimed to compare the perception abilities of radiographers with those of radiologists. Methods: Three gastro-intestinal (GI) radiographers and three consultant radiologists independently reported on a selection of 50 DCBE examinations, including the level of certainty in their comments for each examination. A blinded comparison of the results with an independent 'standard report' was recorded. Results: The results demonstrate there was no significant difference in perception error for any of the levels of certainty, for single reporting, for double reading by a radiographer/radiologist or by two radiologists. Conclusions: The study shows that radiographers can perceive abnormalities on DCBE at similar sensitivities and specificities as radiologists. While the participants in the study may be typical of a district general hospital, the nature of the study gives it limited external validity. As a pilot, the results demonstrate that, with slight modification, the methodology could be used for a larger study

  9. Barium enema and CT volumetry for predicting pathologic response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murono, Koji; Kawai, Kazushige; Tsuno, Nelson H; Ishihara, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy has been widely used for the prevention of local recurrence of locally advanced rectal cancer, and the effect of chemoradiotherapy is known to be associated with overall survival. We aimed to evaluate the association of the pathologic response grade with tumor recurrence rate after chemoradiotherapy, using radiographic analysis and the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors as the parameters. This study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution in Japan. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy. A total of 101 low rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy from July 2004 to August 2012 were enrolled. The tumor reduction rate was measured with the use of traditional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, barium enema, and CT volumetry, and the correlation between the reduction rate and the pathologic response grade was examined. The tumor reduction rate assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors showed no association with the pathologic response grade (p =0.61). In contrast, the radiographic response rate by both barium enema and CT volumetry strongly correlated with the pathologic response grade (p volumetry had a lower recurrence rate (p =0.03, p =0.03, p =0.0002, and p =0.001). The difference between high responders and low responders was especially prominent by barium enema and CT volumetry. The study is limited by its retrospective nature. Double-contrast barium enema and CT volumetry were superior to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors in evaluating the effect of chemoradiotherapy and predicting the likelihood of tumor recurrence.

  10. Contrast enema findings in patients presenting with poor functional outcome after primary repair for Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Kevin M; Levitt, Marc A; Peña, Alberto; Kraus, Steven J

    2012-09-01

    The radiologic evaluation of Hirschsprung disease is well described in the literature. However, there is a paucity of literature describing the appearance of the neo-rectum and colon after repair, specifically describing findings in patients with poor functional outcome, which would suggest the need for reoperation. We describe findings on contrast enema and correlate them with surgical findings at reoperation in children with poor functional outcome after primary repair for Hirschsprung disease who suffer from bowel dysfunction that can manifest with either soiling or obstructive symptoms such as enterocolitis. Children were identified from our colorectal surgery database. At the time of abstract submission, 35 children had contrast enemas prior to reoperation. Additional children continue to present for evaluation. The majority of children included in the study had their primary repair performed elsewhere. The initial procedures included: Duhamel (n = 11), Soave (n = 20) or Swenson (n = 3). One child had undergone a primary Soave repair and subsequently had a Swenson-type reoperation but continued to have a poor outcome. One child's initial surgical repair could not be determined. Images were reviewed by a staff pediatric radiologist and a pediatric radiology fellow. Findings encountered on contrast enema in these children include a distal narrowed segment due to stricture or aganglionic/transitional zone segment (8), dilated/hypomotile distal segment (7), thickened presacral space due to compressing Soave cuff (11), dilated Duhamel pouch (8), active enterocolitis (3) and partially obstructing twist of the pull-through segment (1). Multiple anatomical and pathological complications exist that can lead to bowel dysfunction in children after repair of Hirschsprung disease. Little recent literature exists regarding the radiographic findings in children. We had the opportunity to review a substantial series of these children, describe the contrast enema

  11. Water enema CT examination of rectum cancer by reduced amount of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.; Gyulai, Cs.; Fedinecz, N.; Balogh, A.; Nagy, F.

    2000-01-01

    To define whether volume of water, administered during water enema CT (WE-CT) for local staging of rectal cancer, may be reduced without compromising the diagnostic value of the examination. Materials and Methods: 29 patients with rectum cancer underwent preoperative WE-CT. Contrast-enhanced CT (equilibrium phase) measurements were performed after i.v. injection of smooth muscle relaxant and rectal administration of 400 - 500 ml lukewarm tap water. Quality of the obtained scans was evaluated and the images were analyzed for depth of tumor invasion. Results of the CT examinations were compared to findings at surgery. Results: Despite reduced dose of water enema, 19/29 examinations were of excellent quality, 6/29 good, and 4/29 poor, but still diagnostic. We achieved sensitivity (90.1), specificity (70.1) and accuracy (86.2) in differentiating tumors confined to the bowel wall from those extending beyond it. Conclusion: Large volume of water enema administered during CT examination of the rectum may cause complaints and increases the risk of complications. Our results prove that using lower amount of water does not impair the quality of examination and accuracy of local staging of rectum carcinomas. (orig.) [de

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats.

  13. Routine filtration for decubitus radiography during double contrast barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camellini, V.; Abelli, P.; Marconi, G.

    1987-01-01

    A wedge-shaped plexiglass compensation filter for use in lateral decubitus radiographs of double contrast barium enema examinations has been designed. This filter, which has been used since February 1985, was compared with a second plexiglass filter, made by E-Z-EM. Voltage and amperage were kept contrast. Two different experiments were conducted in order to demonstrate the benefits of routine use of this compensation filter. First, the changes in skin dose were assessed using an ionization chamber on phantom. Secondly, three radiologists examined a series of 80 consecutive barium enemas without knowing which had been performed using the new filter. Out of the 70 examinations they considered excellent, as many as 45 had been performed with the new filter. Personal experience and the studies described show that the use of a compensation filter improves the accuracy and thus the diagnostic quality of the examinations as it enhances the detail of the anatomic structure of the colon; moreover the filter reduces skin exposure by up to 73.1% (EZ-E-EM filter 47.3%) and, at the same time, less radiographic films are needed. Routine use of a plexiglass compensation filter in lateral decubitus radiographs while performing a double contrast barium enema examination, is strongly recommended especially in obese patients

  14. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  15. Renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media after enema in the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Je, Bo-Kyung; Cha, Sang Hoon; Choi, Byung Min; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hwa

    2014-08-01

    When abdominal distention occurs or bowel obstruction is suspected in the neonatal period, a water-soluble contrast enema is helpful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The water-soluble contrast medium is evacuated through the anus as well as excreted via the kidneys in some babies. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of renal excretion after enemas using water-soluble contrast media and presume the causes. Contrast enemas using diluted water-soluble contrast media were performed in 23 patients under 2 months of age. After the enema, patients were followed with simple abdominal radiographs to assess the improvement in bowel distention, and we could also detect the presence of renal excretion of contrast media on the radiographs. Reviewing the medical records and imaging studies, including enemas and consecutive abdominal radiographs, we evaluated the incidence of renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media and counted the stay duration of contrast media in urinary tract, bladder, and colon. Among 23 patients, 12 patients (52%) experienced the renal excretion of water-soluble contrast media. In these patients, stay-in-bladder durations of contrast media were 1-3 days and stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-10 days, while stay-in-colon durations of contrast media were 1-3 days in the patients not showing renal excretion of contrast media. The Mann-Whitney test for stay-in-colon durations demonstrated the later evacuation of contrast media in the patients with renal excretion of contrast media (p = 0.07). The review of the medical records showed that 19 patients were finally diagnosed as intestinal diseases, including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileum, meconium plug syndrome, and small bowel atresia or stenosis. Fisher's exact test between the presence of urinary excretion and intestinal diseases indicated a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). The intestinal diseases causing bowel obstruction may increase the

  16. Fleet wide motor asset management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemeier, R.G.; Moxie, J.J.; Mendez, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performed several studies concerning the effects of motor failures on US power production. Problems with aging and the lack of preventative maintenance were noted as major contributors to this production loss. Westinghouse has developed, and successfully utilized, a computer program to assist plants in the decision making process for maximizing the operational availability of their motor fleet. The program considers motors of a fleet as a single, critical to production asset, and aids the operator in decisions regarding the following: 1.) Purchase of spares. 2.) Rewind and refurbishment prioritization. 3.) Long-term budget forecasting. (author)

  17. A Brief Review of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications of Enema in Iranian Traditional Medicine and Other Complementary Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh khorrampazouh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enema or ‘hoqne’ is a therapeutic approach used for a wide range of diseases in the Iranian traditional medicine. The use of this method dates back to thousands of years to Hippocrates and Galen. The aim of this study was to review the history of enema and its methods and indices in the Iranian medicine and other complementary medicine.Methods: This review study was conducted on the Iranian medicine textbooks and articles published in the international databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus, as well as the Iranian databases, such as SID and Magiran. The searching process was performed using the following keywords: ‘Hoqne’, ‘Enema’, ‘Vasta’, ‘Basta’, and ‘Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM’. There was no limitation regarding the publication data of the included studies.Result: In the Iranian medicine, the term “hoqne” is equivalent to enema. Enema is used in various diseases of the brain, respiratory system, digestive system, urogenital system, and musculoskeletal system, as well as systemic diseases. Enema is one of the five main therapies in the Indian medicine or Ayurveda. In other types of complementary medicine, including Chinese medicine, this procedure has therapeutic applications. Although enema has been recognized as a diagnostic method in modern medicine, it has been considered as a therapeutic approach in the recent years.Conclusion: According to the findings of the reviewed studies, enema is a major therapeutic focus in complementary medicine, part of which has been confirmed in the recent studies. Given the low side effects and high success rate of this treatment, it can be used as a supplemental therapy for the management of poisoning, febrile seizures, prolonged functional constipation, and chronic kidney disease, as well as the prevention of swelling. However, this theory requires further investigation and targeted clinical trials. This method has been

  18. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  19. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  20. Benefits of Barium Enema in Patients with Incomplete Colonoscopy. Prospective Study of 45 Cases; Valor del enema de bario en pacientes con colonoscopia incompleta. Estudio prospectivo de 45 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gispert, S.; Mayolas, N.; Hidalgo, A. [Hospital General Universitario Vall de Hebron. Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of barium enema in patients with incomplete colonoscopy. There was carried out a prospective 10-month study of 45 patients with incomplete colonoscopy (27 men and 18 women), who were later examined by means of barium enema (33 conventional, 12 double-contrast) in order to check for additional pathology in portions of the colon not visualized by colonoscopy. Barium enema diagnosed six possible additional lesions (13.3%) in portions of the colon not visualized by incomplete colonoscopy (four neoplasia and two non-neoplasia). Regarding the neoplasia two were true positives and two false positives. Both true positives were adenocarcinomas (one synchronous caecum, and another in splenic angle). The two false positives corresponded to fecal matter stuck to the intestinal wall. Regarding the non-neoplasia, multiple stenosis was detected in a patient with Crohn's disease and an enterocolic fistula was found in a patient with sigmoid colon neoplasia. The diagnostic yield of barium enema in the detection of additional pathology in colon portions not visualized by colonoscopy was of 9%. Barium enema following incomplete colonoscopy permits a complete colon evaluation in most cases, and it offers additional diagnostic information. (Author) 21 refs.

  1. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the...

  2. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Strategic fleet planning for city logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschetti, Anna; Honhon, Dorothee; Laporte, G.; van Woensel, T.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    We study the strategic problem of a logistics service provider managing a (possibly heterogeneous) fleet of vehicles to serve a city in the presence of access restrictions. We model the problem as an area partitioning problem in which a rectangular service area has to be divided into sectors, each

  4. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  5. Formation of optimal construction fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuskaeva, Zalina

    2017-10-01

    Machinery supply and its rational use in construction processes considerably determine the final product of construction organizations. Therefore, the problem of defining the type size composition of the construction fleet as one of the lowest material-intensive productions, is of a particular importance.

  6. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  7. TEMAS: fleet-based bio-economic simulation software to evaluate management strategies accounting for fleet behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Sparre, Per Johan

    2007-01-01

    TEMAS (technical management measures) is a fleet-based bio-economic software for evaluating management strategies accounting for technical measures and fleet behaviour. It focuses on mixed fisheries in which several fleets can choose among several fishing activities to target different stocks...

  8. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  9. Limitations of combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and double contrast barium enema in patients with rectal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hixson, L.J.; Sampliner, R.E.; Chernin, M.; Amberg, J.; Kogan, F.; Veterans Administration Medical Center, Tucson, AZ

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-seven outpatients with non-massive rectal bleeding or asymptomatic positive fecal occult blood were evaluated with 35 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema (DBCE) and colonoscopy. 82% had hemorrhoids and 35% harbored colorectal neoplasia. The combination of flexible sigmoidoscopy and DCBE missed none of 7 malignant lesions. However, 35% of benign polyps ≥ 1 cm and 60.5% of those < 1 cm were not detected by this combination. The presence of hemorrhoids should not prevent a search for colon neoplasia and colonoscopy is the preferred method. (orig.)

  10. Double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of intestinal deeply infiltrating endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Helizabet Salomão Abdalla Ayroza; Ribeiro, Paulo Augusto Ayroza Galvão; Rodrigues, Francisco César; Donadio, Nilson; Auge, Antônio Pedro Flores; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo do enema de bário com duplo contraste (EBDC) para o diagnóstico da endometriose do reto e sigmóide. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal prospectivo que incluiu 37 pacientes com quadro clínico suspeito de endometriose profunda. As pacientes foram submetidas ao EBDC de acordo com a técnica padrão descrita na literatura. Em seguida, foram submetidas à laparoscopia. Os exames foram realizados e seus res...

  11. Double contrast barium enema combined with non-invasive imaging in peritoneal mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, G.; Bellomi, M.; Frigerio, L.F.; Ostinelli, C.; Marchiano, A.; Petrillo, R.; Severini, A.; Milan Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Mesotheliomas are rare tumors arising from serosal linings of the major serous cavities. Five patients with peritoneal mesothelioma underwent a double contrast barium enema (DCBE) and ultrasonography (US) (2 patients), computed tomography (CT) (3 patients) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3 patients). The diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy. The radiologic pattern at DCBE is unspecific and consists of compression and dislocation of bowel loops by extrinsic masses. Mesenteric retraction and segmental stenosis may be present. In one patient DCBE was normal. US, CT and MRI findings are also unspecific but when combined with information obtained from DCBE the site and abdominal extension of the disease are well defined. (orig.)

  12. Early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-11-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious.

  13. The early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-01-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious. (orig.) [de

  14. Imaging assessment of the modified double contrast barium enema using carboxymethylcellulose on radiography and ultrasonography in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Kim, Junyoung; Yi, Kangjae; Jung, Joohyun; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2011-01-01

    A modified double contrast barium enema using carboxymethylcellulose was evaluated in beagle dogs and compared with dogs receiving a conventional barium enema. The experimental group was divided into three groups (1, 2, and 3) and given 30 ml/kg of different volume ratios of a barium vs. carboxymethylcellulose mixture. Each group underwent sonography following radiography. The volume ratio of one part barium to three parts carboxymethylcellulose was judged to be the optimal mixture, resulting in a general distribution of contrast and bowel radiolucency on radiographs and adequate postradiography sonography. The modified barium enema using carboxymethylcellulose is useful for assessing the general morphology and mucosal layers of the colon simultaneously on radiographs and ultrasonographs.

  15. Effect of rectal enemas on rectal dosimetric parameters during high-dose-rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A prospective trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Sevillano, Marimar; Berenguer, Roberto; Aguayo, Manuel; Villas, Maria Victoria; Gascon, Marina; Arenas, Meritxell; Rovirosa, Angeles; Camacho-Lopez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). This prospective trial included 59 patients. Two rectal cleansing enemas were self-administered before the second fraction, and fraction 1 was considered the basal status. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) values were generated for the rectum and correlated with rectal volume variation. Statistical analyses used paired and unpaired t-tests. Despite a significant 15 % reduction in mean rectal volume (44.07 vs. 52.15 cc, p = 0.0018), 35.6 % of patients had larger rectums after rectal enemas. No significant rectal enema-related DVH differences were observed compared to the basal data. Although not statistically significant, rectal cleansing-associated increases in mean rectal DVH values were observed: D 0.1 cc : 6.6 vs. 7.21 Gy; D 1 cc : 5.35 vs. 5.52 Gy; D 2 cc : 4.67 vs. 4.72 Gy, before and after rectal cleaning, respectively (where D x cc is the dose to the most exposed x cm 3 ). No differences were observed in DVH parameters according to rectal volume increase or decrease after the enema. Patients whose rectal volume increased also had significantly larger DVH parameters, except for D 5 % , D 25 % , and D 50 % . In contrast, in patients whose rectal volume decreased, significance was only seen for D 25 % and D 50 % (D x % dose covering x % of the volume). In the latter patients, nonsignificant reductions in D 2 cc , D 5 cc and V 5 Gy (volume receiving at least 5 Gy) were observed. The current rectal enemas protocol was ineffective in significantly modifying rectal DVH parameters for HDR-VCB. (orig.) [de

  16. Fleet operator risks for using fleets for V2G regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Davion M.; Agarwal, Arun S.; Ayello, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Future fleets of vehicles may include electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) because of potential fuel savings. Recent demonstration of diesel parallel hybrids in a delivery fleet led to fuel economy improvements, and hybrid bus demonstrations exhibited twice the fuel economy of the conventional bus. Fleet ownership may include management of a fleet of vehicles as small as 10 units and as large as hundreds or thousands. In addition to fuel savings, the newer extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) and pure EVs permit vehicle to grid (V2G) opportunities. These V2G opportunities may present additional revenue for fleets by providing ancillary services to local grid independent system operators (ISOs), provided that the burden of driving and V2G services do not accelerate the degradation of the battery systems in these vehicles. The subject of this study is to determine the financial risks associated with accelerated battery degradation in a V2G-enabled EREV fleet expected to perform ancillary service duty while charging in addition to the normal loads of drive cycle duty. We determine that battery cycle life during V2G duty is a critical parameter, which can determine whether or not the business model is viable. - Highlights: ► V2G regulation cycle life of EREV batteries must be >50,000 cycles to be profitable. ► Present knowledge and test data about the impact of V2G cycles on battery life are limited. ► Replacement of batteries and energy throughput are major factors in the cost–benefit analysis. ► V2G fleet is not viable with present data but can be viable with some technical advancement.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Combined Oral and Enema Therapy Using Polyethylene Glycol 3350-Electrolyte for Disimpaction in Pediatric Constipation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Taeyeon; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined oral and enema therapy using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 with electrolyte solution for disimpaction in hospitalized children. Methods We retrospectively studied 28 children having functional constipation who received inpatient treatment between 2008 and 2016. The amount of oral PEG 3350 electrolyte solution administered was 50–70 mL/kg/d (PEG 3350, 3–4.1 g/kg/d), and an enema solution was administered 1–2 times a day as a single dose...

  18. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Svante

    2009-01-01

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO 2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  19. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  20. Improving Quality and Efficiency for Intussusception Management After Successful Enema Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Mehul V; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J; Kurtovic, Kelli J; Dietrich, Ann; Bates, D Gregory; Rangel, Shawn J; Moss, R Lawrence; Kenney, Brian D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to implement a protocol facilitating discharge from the emergency department (ED) after successful radiologic ileocolic intussusception reduction in a pediatric referral center. A multidisciplinary team identified drivers for successful quality improvement including educational brochures, a standardized radiologic report, an observation period in the ER with oral hydration challenges, and follow-up phone calls the day after discharge. Patient outcomes were tracked, and quarterly feedback was provided. Of 80 patients identified over a 24-month period, 34 (42.5%) did not qualify for discharge home due to need for surgical intervention (n = 9), specific radiologic findings (n = 11), need for additional intravenous hydration (n = 4), or other reasons (n = 7). Of 46 patients who qualified for discharge, 30 (65.2%) were successfully sent home from the ED. One patient returned with recurrent symptoms that required repeat enema reduction. Sixteen patients were observed and discharged within 23 hours. Adherence with discharge from the ED improved over time. Discharge from the ED was associated with cost savings and improved net margins at the hospital level for each encounter. A sustainable multidisciplinary quality improvement project to discharge intussusception patients from the ED after air-contrast enema reduction was successfully integrated in a high-volume referral center through education, standardized radiologic reporting, and protocoled follow-up. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Double contrast barium enema sensitivity: A comparison of studies by radiographers and radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culpan, D.G.; Mitchell, A.J.; Hughes, S.; Nutman, M.; Chapman, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: A retrospective study of histologically proven cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) was performed to assess whether the sensitivity of the radiographer-performed double contrast barium enema (DCBE) differed from that of the radiologist-performed study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histologically proven cases of CRC were reviewed over a 3-year period to ascertain whether: the diagnosis had been made by DCBE in the 3 years before histological diagnosis; the lesion had been correctly diagnosed; the examination had been performed by a radiologist or radiographer. RESULTS: In the 3-year period there were 478 cases with histologically proven CRC. Of these, 239 (50%) had undergone DCBE as the initial radiological investigation of the colon. Sixty-four examinations had been performed by radiographers. A correct diagnosis was made in 58 cases (90.6%), the report was equivocal in one case (1.6%), there were four false-negatives (6.25%), and one case was abandoned (1.6%). One hundred and seventy-five examinations were performed by radiologists. A correct diagnosis was made in 157 cases (89.7%), the report was equivocal in one case (0.6%), there were 16 false-negatives (9.1%), and one case was abandoned (0.6%). CONCLUSION: A sensitivity of 90.6% for radiographer-performed studies compared favourably with 89.7% for radiologist-performed studies and supports the practice of radiographers undertaking barium enemas. Culpan, D.G. et al. (2002)

  2. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  3. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J.; Peny, M.O.; Gossum, A. van

    1998-01-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.)

  4. A randomized controlled trial of enemas in combination with oral laxative therapy for children with chronic constipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Marloes E. J.; van den Berg, Maartje M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Voskuijl, Wieger P.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2009-01-01

    After 5 years of intensive oral laxative use, up to 30% of constipated children still have an unsuccessful outcome. Children refractory to oral laxatives might benefit from regular rectal evacuation by enemas. This randomized controlled trial compared the effects of additional treatment with rectal

  5. Is CT effective in diagnosing the acute appendicitis?: Focus on comparison of unenhanced CT with barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong Hee; Hahm, So Hee; Kang Jin Hwa; Moon, Jeong Hwa

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the role of unenhanced CT in diagnosing the acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed conventional contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scans of 197 normal patients and barium enemas of 26 out of the 197 patients. Additional unenhanced CT scans of right lower abdomen were performed on 30 patients who were suspected of having acute appendicitis; barium enema was performed in 26 patients. In the analysis of the conventional CT scans, we could detect 132 (67%) normal appendices. On barium enema of 26 out of 197 patients, abruptly narrowed appendix was visualized in 5 cases and luminal irregularity in 4 cases but all 26 cases showed normal appendix on CT. In the 30 cases of unenhanced CT, all appendices were visualized. Among 12 cases which were proved as acute appendicitis, barium enema was done in 10 cases; abruptly narrowed appendix was shown in 3 and luminal irregularity in 1. Among 18 cases which were diagnosed as normal appendix, nonvisualization of appendix was in 1 case, abruptly narrowed lumen in 3, and luminal irregularity in 9. Unenhanced CT in the area of the cecum may be an effective and safe diagnostic tool acute appendicitis

  6. Excellence in fleet combat replacement squadrons: predicting carrier qualification success

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Martin P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-part analysis of excellence criteria for fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part one focuses on the qualitative issues and management techniques identified in outstanding fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part two develops and presents a regression model for predicting a fleet replacement squadron pilot's carrier qualification grade. The model was derived using standard linear regression techniques and the SPSSx software package of the Naval Postgraduate School. ...

  7. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing US cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This study investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. In addition, it assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.330 What is the Federal Fleet Report? The Federal Fleet Report (FFR..., in evaluating the effectiveness of the operation and management of individual fleets to determine...

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Combined Oral and Enema Therapy Using Polyethylene Glycol 3350-Electrolyte for Disimpaction in Pediatric Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Taeyeon; Bae, Sun Hwan

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined oral and enema therapy using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 with electrolyte solution for disimpaction in hospitalized children. We retrospectively studied 28 children having functional constipation who received inpatient treatment between 2008 and 2016. The amount of oral PEG 3350 electrolyte solution administered was 50-70 mL/kg/d (PEG 3350, 3-4.1 g/kg/d), and an enema solution was administered 1-2 times a day as a single dose of 15-25 mL/kg (PEG 3350, 0.975-1.625 g/kg/d). A colon transit time (CTT) test based on the Metcalf protocol was performed in some patients. Administration of oral and enema doses of PEG 3350 electrolyte solution showed 2.1±0.3 times and 2.9±0.4 times, respectively. After disimpaction, the frequency of defecation increased from 2.2±0.3 per week to once a day (1.1±0.1 per day). The number of patients who complained of abdominal pain was reduced from 15 (53.6%) to 4 (14.3%). Before hospitalization, nine patients underwent a CTT test, and 5 of 9 patients (55.6%) were classified as belonging to a group showing abnormalities. And in some patients, mild adverse effects were noted. We examined electrolytes and osmolality before and after disimpaction in 16 of 28 patients, and no abnormalities were noted. In terms of therapeutic efficacy and safety, combined oral and enema therapy using high-dose PEG 3350 with electrolytes is considered superior to conventional oral monotherapy or combined oral and enema therapy on an outpatient basis.

  10. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  11. Research on Operational Aspects of Large Autonomous Underwater Glider Fleets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fratantoni, David M

    2007-01-01

    This program supported research on the operational and management issues stemming from application of large fleets of autonomous underwater gliders to oceanographic research and rapid environmental...

  12. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  13. Enemas, suppositories and rectal stimulation are not effective in accelerating enteral feeding or meconium evacuation in low-birthweight infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Kim; Sietsma, Ydelette; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Rood, Paul J T; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    Early full enteral feeding in preterm infants decreases morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review covered the effectiveness of rectal stimulation, suppositories and enemas on stooling patterns and feeding tolerance in low-birthweight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It comprised seven studies published between 2007 and 2014 and covered 495 infants. Suppositories were ineffective in shortening the time to reach full enteral feeding, and the evidence on enemas was contradictory. Enemas and rectal stimulation did not shorten the time until complete meconium evacuation was reached. Further research into safe, effective interventions to accelerate meconium excretion is needed. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  15. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  16. Radiation doses to patients undergoing barium meal and barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delichas, M. G.; Hatziioannou, K.; Papanastassiou, E.; Albanopoulou, P.; Chatzi, E.; Sioundas, A.; Psarrakos, K.

    2004-01-01

    The radiation doses received by patients during 41 barium meal (BM) and 42 barium enema (BE) examinations in two Greek hospitals are presented. Radiation dose was measured in terms of the dose area product (DAP). The effective dose and doses to certain organs were estimated using the ODS-60 software. Mean total DAP values were found to be 25 ± 11 Gy cm 2 for BM and 60 ± 35 Gy cm 2 for BE examinations, whereas the estimated mean values of effective dose were 8.6 ± 4.0 and 24 ± 16 mSv respectively. DAP to effective dose conversion coefficients were estimated to be 0.34 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BM and 0.41 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BE. (authors)

  17. Choice of double contrast barium enema (DCBE) method based on patient exposure dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartal, G; Ben Hasid, I [Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera (Israel)

    1997-11-16

    Morbidity of colon cancer continues to increase, taking second and third places in malignant tumors. The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) increases exponentially with age; those over 50 years of age represent 37% of general population, yet account for 95% of the cases, and more than 96% of the deaths from colon malignancies For a long time radiologic examinations were considered as a main pre-operative diagnostic method for cancer of the colon. The sensitivity of the barium enema with regard to diagnosis of the carcinoma and polyps ranges from 92-98.5%. Sigmoidoscopy for detection and removal of polyps has been shown to decrease the incidence of subsequent CRC`s by 70-80% in distal colon. However, the sigmoid colon is often difficult to examine because of associated diverticular disease, and about 15% of tumors in the sigmoid colon are overlooked. (Authors)

  18. Choice of double contrast barium enema (DCBE) method based on patient exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartal, G.; Ben Hasid, I.

    1997-01-01

    Morbidity of colon cancer continues to increase, taking second and third places in malignant tumors. The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) increases exponentially with age; those over 50 years of age represent 37% of general population, yet account for 95% of the cases, and more than 96% of the deaths from colon malignancies For a long time radiologic examinations were considered as a main pre-operative diagnostic method for cancer of the colon. The sensitivity of the barium enema with regard to diagnosis of the carcinoma and polyps ranges from 92-98.5%. Sigmoidoscopy for detection and removal of polyps has been shown to decrease the incidence of subsequent CRC's by 70-80% in distal colon. However, the sigmoid colon is often difficult to examine because of associated diverticular disease, and about 15% of tumors in the sigmoid colon are overlooked. Authors)

  19. An evaluation of a radiographer-led barium enema service in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, R.L.; Slack, N.F.; Harvey, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess the sensitivity and efficacy of a radiographer-led double contrast barium enema (DCBE) service in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: All patients on the CRC database from its inception in 1997 until the end of 2004 were cross-referenced with the radiology database. Details were recorded of any patient who had undergone a DCBE examination at any time prior to histological confirmation of colorectal cancer. All the DCBE in this review were performed and reported by radiographers as part of a protocol of double reporting with a consultant radiologist. The radiographers and radiologists reports were reviewed for each patient. Notes and X-rays were also reviewed when necessary. Reporting sensitivity was compared with the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) barium enema examination targets for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma. Results: 362 of the 1005 patients on the CRC database had undergone a DCBE. Combined radiographer and radiologist reporting demonstrated a diagnostic sensitivity of 98% for CRC and were cancer specific in 93% of cases. These results compared favourably with the referenced RCR sensitivity targets for colorectal cancer. Reporting discord only occurred with the terminology of reporting 13 equivocal polyps. None of these polyps were neoplastic and thus did not affect CRC sensitivity. Conclusion: Radiographer reporting compares favourably with published CRC sensitivity data of more expensive techniques such as CT colonography. A protocol of radiographer/radiographer double reporting is now used at this hospital with radiological second opinion being acquired for more complex abnormal DCBE examination appearances. This service is a safe, cost-effective option that should not be overlooked with the increasing demand for CRC screening

  20. 78 FR 23935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles, by any of the...

  1. 78 FR 64499 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY: Department... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management...

  2. Economics of symbiotic nuclear fleets at equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidaud, Adrien; Guillemin, P.; Lecarpentier, David

    2008-01-01

    Many decades of industrial experience have proven that thermal reactors are able to provide a safe, reliable and competitive source of electricity. The higher construction costs of fast reactors compared to thermal reactors could be compensated by their better use of fissile material during the probable fast development of nuclear energy in the first half of the century. Thus, despite the over-cost of their cores, on the longer term, fast reactors are expected to take the lead in the nuclear reactor race. In the mean term, multi-strata symbiotic parks, using high conversion-rate thermal reactors, may delay fast reactor start up. We compare projected fuel cycle costs and cost of electricity of various symbiotic nuclear fleets, on the basis of a simple economic model and elementary costs estimated on publicly available data. These parameters and their evolution over reactor-life time scale can hardly be estimated. That is why we look at the sensitivities of our results to large modifications of the input parameters. The aim of our simple economic model is to understand which reactor characteristics should be optimized to enhance their economic performance when working as a single symbiotic fleet. (authors)

  3. Condition Monitoring of the SSE Generation Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiddle, J.; Muthuraman, S.; Connolly, N.

    2012-05-01

    SSE (previously known as Scottish and Southern Energy) operates a diverse portfolio of generation plant, including coal, gas and renewable plant with a total generation capacity of 11,375MW (Sept 2011). In recent years a group of specialists dedicated to providing condition monitoring services has been established at the Equipment Performance Centre (EPC) based at Knottingley, West Yorkshire. We aim to illustrate the role of the EPC and the methods used for monitoring the generation fleet with the objective of maintaining asset integrity, reducing risk of plant failure and unplanned outages and describe the challenges which have been overcome in establishing the EPC. This paper describes methods including vibration and process data analysis, model-based techniques and on-site testing used for monitoring of generation plant, including gas turbines, steam turbines, generators and steam raising plant. These condition monitoring processes utilise available data, adding value to the business, by bringing services in-house and capturing knowledge of plant operation for the benefit of the whole fleet.

  4. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  5. Uncertainty in Fleet Renewal: A Case from Maritime Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantuso, Giovanni; Fagerholt, Kjetil; Wallace, Stein W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the fleet renewal problem and particularly the treatment of uncertainty in the maritime case. A stochastic programming model for the maritime fleet renewal problem is presented. The main contribution is that of assessing whether or not better decisions can be achieved by using...

  6. Application of a greedy algorithm to military aircraft fleet retirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Udluft, H.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a retirement analysis model for aircraft fleets. By employing a greedy algorithm, the presented solution is capable of identifying individually weak assets in a fleet of aircraft with inhomogeneous historical utilization. The model forecasts future retirement scenarios

  7. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  8. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the make or buy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the first one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Methods: The paper discusses ways of fulfilling company's transportation needs (MAKE-or-BUY problem. It means the choice between using company's own and outside fleet (buying transportation services in a market. The essence of the MAKE-or-BUY problem lies in a time dependency, a seasonal nature of transportation needs. It leads to the MAKE-and-BUY solutions including utilization of both in-house and outside fleets. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the MAKE-and-BUY analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows a low economic justification for using the MAKE option in practice. Especially when a fleet composed of brand new vehicles is considered. Conclusions: The paper will be continued in two further papers dedicated to strategic vehicle fleet management problems including fleet sizing / composition and fleet replacement.

  9. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  10. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  11. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) - Naval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC

  12. Comparison of Sucralfate and Hydrocortisone Enemas in Treatment of Active Ulcerative Proctitis; A Double-Blind Randomized ClinicalL Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Javadi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Sucralfate enema has been proposed and investigated in treatment of ulcerative proctitis, but its efficacy is still a matter of debate. Hydrocortisone enema is still an established drug in treatment of ulcerative proctitis. This study was designed to compare the effect of sucralfate enema with hydrocortisone enema. Patients with active sigmoidoscopic and histologic features of ulcerative proctitis were included. All patients had clinical manifestations of proctitis for at least four weeks prior to the study and had negative parasitic stool culture. The total of 25 patients entered the study. They were randomly divided in two groups; group I (n =14 and group II (n = 11 who received sucralfate and hydrocortisone enemas respectively for 4 weeks. Both groups had a significant improvement in clinical features, histologic activity and sigmoidoscopic evaluation in comparison with the baseline. Furthermore there was no significant differences between the two groups concerning mean changes of clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histologic grading, after treatment. Considering the low cost and minimal adverse effects of sucralfate, and almost equal efficacy in comparison with hydrocortisone enema, its usage can be recommended.

  13. Epidermal growth factor enemas for induction of remission in left-sided ulcerative colitis Enemas de factor de crecimiento epidérmico para inducir la remisión de la colitis ulcerosa izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nodarse-Cuní

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ulcerative colitis is a little known chronic inflammatory disease in colonic mucosa. The positive effect of epidermal growth factor was shown in a previous report, with enema use for treatment of mild to moderate left-sided manifestation of the disease. This evidence provided the basis for evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of a viscous solution of this product. Methods: thirty-one patients were randomized to three groups for daily medications during 14 days. Twelve received one 10 mg enema of epidermal growth factor dissolved in 100 mL of viscous solution whereas nine were treated with placebo enema; both groups also received 1.2 g of oral mesalamine per day. The other group included ten patients with 3 g / 100 mL of mesalamine enema. Primary end point was clinical responses after two weeks of treatment, defined as a decreased of, at least three points from baseline, the Disease Activity Index and endoscopic or histological evidences of improvement. Results: remission of disease was observed in all patients in the epidermal growth factor group, and six in both, mesalamine enema and placebo group. All the comparisons between groups showed statistically significant superiority for epidermal growth factor, the only product with significant reduction in disease activity index as well as the presence and intensity of digestive symptoms in patients after treatment. None adverse event was reported. Conclusions: the results agree with previous molecular and clinical evidences, indicating that the epidermal growth factor is effective to reduce disease activity and to induce remission. A new study involving more patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of the epidermal growth factor enemas.Introducción: la colitis ulcerosa es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de etiología poco conocida, que afecta la mucosa del colon. El efecto positivo del factor de crecimiento epidérmico fue reportado en estudio previo con uso de

  14. Is a Double Contrast Barium Enema Necessary in Patients who Undergo a CT Colonography as a Preoperative Work-up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Won; Lee, Soon Jin; Choi, Dong Il; Kim, Hee Jung; Chun, Ho Kyung; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Park, Seung Bae; Kim, Min Ju

    2009-01-01

    To determine the efficiency of CT colonography (CTC), as compared with the double contrast barium enema (DCBE) for the preoperative work-up of colorectal neoplasms. A total of 39 patients underwent both a CTC and DCBE before surgery. Three abdominal radiologists and three colorectal surgeons retrospectively reviewed virtual double contrast (VDC) and DCBE images, regarding each examination for localization, conspicuity, extent and morphology of neoplasms. We reviewed the radiological reports of the CTC and DCBE for the polyps. In the case of both VDC and DCBE, 40 cancers were detected in 39 patients. According to abdominal radiologists, VDC showed the same ability to identify DCBE for localization of neoplasms (p 0.05). The performance of the CTC is comparable to the DCBE for the localization of main mass and polyps in patients with colorectal neoplasm. Barium enema don't seem to be necessary for patients who undergo a CTC as preoperative work-up

  15. An oral modified-release nifedipine tablet (Adalat LA) and its appearance on double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    Adalat LA 30 mg and 60 mg tablets are widely prescribed oral modified release nifedipine preparations with a porous, non-digestible plastic tablet coating which is required in order to effect the osmotically driven slow release mechanism. These tablets may therefore be seen anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract and are passed apparently whole in the faeces. An example of the appearance within the rectum of Adalat LA 30 (Bayer) on double contrast barium enema is shown and the main features described. A review of the literature is given. Recognition of the appearances during the barium enema examination will prompt those performing the procedure to question the drug history where relevant and will reduce the incidence of false-positive reporting. Bleehen, R.E. (2000)

  16. Saildrone fleet could help replace aging buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voosen, Paul

    2018-03-01

    In April, two semiautonomous drones, developed by Saildrone, a marine tech startup based in Alameda, California, in close collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Washington, D.C., are set to return from an 8-month tour of the Pacific Ocean. This the first scientific test for the drones, which are powered only by the wind and sun, in the Pacific Ocean. The voyage is an important step in showing that such drones, carrying 15 different sensors, could help replace an aging and expensive array of buoys that are the main way scientists sniff out signs of climate-disrupting El Niño events. If successful, scientists envision fleets of similar drones spreading across the ocean, inviting thoughts of what it could be like to do oceanography without a ship.

  17. The value of sonography, CT and air enema for detection of complicated Meckel diverticulum in children with nonspecific clinical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneman, A.; Lobo, E.; Alton, D.J.; Shuckett, B.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Complicated Meckel diverticulum (MD) in children does not always present with painless rectal bleeding and its presentation can then produce a difficult diagnostic dilemma. In this clinical setting, sonography (US), CT or even air enema may be the first modality chosen to evaluate these children rather than the radionuclide Meckel scan (RNMS). Purpose. To assess the value of US, CT and air enema for detection of complicated MD. Materials and methods. Review of clinical, imaging, surgical and pathological findings in 64 children (55 males, 9 females) aged 4 days -14 years (mean = 3.7 years) with MD seen during an 8-year period, 1990-1997. Results. (a) In 33 patients with rectal bleeding, MD was detected on RNMS in 32. Ten of these 32 had other imaging studies, all of which were negative. (b) The other 31 patients, with varied clinical presentations, did not undergo RNMS. In these 31 and the 1 with a negative RNMS, 14 (44 %) had imaging features highly suggestive for the diagnosis of MD on US in all 14, on CT in 1, and on air enema in 3. The radiological spectrum of the inflamed, hemorrhagic MD is illustrated. Conclusion. The inflamed, hemorrhagic and the inverted, intussuscepted MD have a spectrum of features recognizable on US, CT and air enema. Some of these appearances are specific, others are not. Knowledge of and recognition of these features will facilitate detection of complicated MD in larger numbers of children presenting with symptoms other than the classic history of painless rectal bleeding and also in those with normal RNMS. (orig.)

  18. Rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound versus double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jipeng; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xixiang; Tang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of study was to compare the accuracy between rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound (RWC-TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in evaluating the bowel endometriosis presence as well as its extent. Design and setting 198 patients at reproductive age with suspicious bowel endometriosis were included. Physicians in two groups specialised at endometriosis performed RWC-TVS as well as DCBE before laparoscopy and both groups were blinded to other groups’ results. Fi...

  19. EVALUATION OF ENEMAS CONTAINING SUCRALFATE IN TISSUE CONTENT OF MUC-2 PROTEIN IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF DIVERSION COLITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Oscar Orlando Araya; Pereira, José Aires; Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Araya, Carolina Mardegan; Marinho, Gabriele Escocia; Novo, Rafaela de Souza; Oliveira, Thais Silva de; Franceschi, Yara Tinoco; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2017-01-01

    The effects of topical application of sucralfate (SCF) on the tissue content of MUC-2 protein have not yet been evaluated in experimental models of diversion colitis. To measure the tissue content of MUC-2 protein in the colonic mucosa diverted from fecal stream submitted to the SCF intervention. Thirty-six rats underwent derivation of intestinal transit through proximal colostomy and distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into three groups which were submitted application of enemas with saline, SCF 1 g/kg/day and SCF 2 g/kg/day. Each group was divided into two subgroups, according to euthanasia was done after two or four weeks. The colitis diagnosis was established by histopathological study and the inflammatory intensity was evaluated by previously validated scale. The MUC-2 protein was identified by immunohistochemistry and the tissue content was measured computerized morphometry). The application of enemas with SCF in the concentration of 2 g/kg/day reduced inflammatory score of the segments that were diverted from fecal stream. The content of MUC-2 in diverted colon of the animals submitted to the intervention with SCF, independently of intervention period and the used concentration, was significantly greater than animals submitted to the application of enemas containing saline (p< 0.01). The content of MUC-2 after the intervention with SCF in the concentration of 2 g/kg/day was significantly higher when compared to the animals submitted to the application containing SCF at concentration of 1.0 g/kg/day (p<0.01). The tissue content of MUC-2 reached the highest values after intervention with SCF in the concentration of 2 g/kg/day for four weeks (p<0.01). Conclusion: The preventive application of enemas containing SCF reduces the inflammatory score and avoids the reduction of tissue content of MUC-2, suggesting that the substance is a valid therapeutic strategy to preserve the mucus layer that covers the intestinal epithelium.

  20. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, University of Brussels (Belgium); Peny, M.O. [Department of Pathology, University of Brussels (Belgium); Gossum, A. van [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.) With 6 figs., 20 refs.

  1. Assessing colonic anatomy normal values based on air contrast enemas in children younger than 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Ilan J N; Yacob, Desale; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Saps, Miguel; Benninga, Marc A; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J; Bates, D Gregory; Thompson, Benjamin P

    2017-03-01

    Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy in children. To describe characteristics of colonic anatomy on air contrast enemas in children without constipation to provide normal values for colonic size ratios in children. We performed a retrospective chart review of children aged 0-5 years who had undergone air contrast enemas for intussusception. The primary outcome measures were the ratios of the diameters and lengths of predetermined colonic segments (lengths of rectosigmoid and descending colon; diameters of rectum, sigmoid, descending colon, transverse colon and ascending colon) in relation to the L2 vertebral body width. We included 119 children (median age 2.0 years, range 0-5 years, 68% boys). Colonic segment length ratios did not change significantly with age, although the differences for the rectosigmoid/L2 ratio were borderline significant (P = 0.05). The ratios that involved the rectal and ascending colon diameters increased significantly with age, while diameter ratios involving the other colonic segments did not. Differences by gender and race were not significant. These data can be used for reference purposes in young children undergoing contrast studies of the colon.

  2. Double contrast barium enema: technique, indications, results and limitations of a conventional imaging methodology in the MDCT virtual endoscopy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Biscaldi, Ennio; DeCicco, Enzo

    2007-03-01

    The double contrast barium enema of the colon continues to be a diffused conventional radiological technique and allows for the diagnosis of neoplastic and inflammatory pathology. After the '70s, a massive initiative is undertaken to simplify, perfect and encode the method of the double contrast barium enema: Altaras from Germany, Miller from USA and Cittadini from Italy are responsible for the perfection of this technique in the last 30 years. The tailored patient preparation, a perfect technique of execution and a precise radiological documentation are essentials steps to obtain a reliable examination. The main limit of double contrast enema is that it considers the pathology only from the mucosal surface. In neoplastic pathology evaluation the main limit is the "T" parameter staging, but more limited are the "N" and "M" parameters evaluation. Today the double contrast technique continues to be a refined, sensitive and specific diagnostic method, moreover, diagnostic results cannot compete with the new CT multislice techniques (CT-enteroclysis and virtual colonoscopy) which can examine both the lumen and the wall of the colon. The double contrast is a cheap and simple examination but in the next future is predictably a progressive substitution of conventional radiology from new multislice techniques, because the cross sectional imaging is more frequently able to detect causes of the symptoms whether resulting both from colonic or non colonic origin.

  3. Double contrast barium enema: Technique, indications, results and limitations of a conventional imaging methodology in the MDCT virtual endoscopy era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Biscaldi, Ennio; DeCicco, Enzo

    2007-01-01

    The double contrast barium enema of the colon continues to be a diffused conventional radiological technique and allows for the diagnosis of neoplastic and inflammatory pathology. After the '70s, a massive initiative is undertaken to simplify, perfect and encode the method of the double contrast barium enema: Altaras from Germany, Miller from USA and Cittadini from Italy are responsible for the perfection of this technique in the last 30 years. The tailored patient preparation, a perfect technique of execution and a precise radiological documentation are essentials steps to obtain a reliable examination. The main limit of double contrast enema is that it considers the pathology only from the mucosal surface. In neoplastic pathology evaluation the main limit is the 'T' parameter staging, but more limited are the 'N' and 'M' parameters evaluation. Today the double contrast technique continues to be a refined, sensitive and specific diagnostic method, moreover, diagnostic results cannot compete with the new CT multislice techniques (CT-enteroclysis and virtual colonoscopy) which can examine both the lumen and the wall of the colon. The double contrast is a cheap and simple examination but in the next future is predictably a progressive substitution of conventional radiology from new multislice techniques, because the cross sectional imaging is more frequently able to detect causes of the symptoms whether resulting both from colonic or non colonic origin

  4. Castor oil, bath and/or enema for cervical priming and induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anthony J; Kavanagh, Josephine; Thomas, Jane

    2013-07-24

    Castor oil, a potent cathartic, is derived from the bean of the castor plant. Anecdotal reports, which date back to ancient Egypt have suggested the use of castor oil to stimulate labour. Castor oil has been widely used as a traditional method of initiating labour in midwifery practice. Its role in the initiation of labour is poorly understood and data examining its efficacy within a clinical trial are limited. This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of castor oil or enemas for third trimester cervical ripening or induction of labour in comparison with other methods of cervical ripening or induction of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013) and bibliographies of relevant papers. Clinical trials comparing castor oil, bath or enemas used for third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction with placebo/no treatment or other methods listed above it on a predefined list of labour induction methods. A strategy was developed to deal with the large volume and complexity of trial data relating to labour induction. This involved a two-stage method of data extraction. Three trials, involving 233 women, are included. There was no evidence of differences in caesarean section rates between the two interventions in the two trials reporting this outcome (risk ratio (RR) 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 4.55). There were no data presented on neonatal or maternal mortality or morbidity.There was no evidence of a difference between castor oil and placebo/no treatment for the rate of instrumental delivery, meconium-stained liquor, or Apgar score less than seven at five minutes. The number of participants was too small to detect all but large differences in outcome. All women who ingested castor oil felt nauseous (RR 59.92, 95% CI 8.46 to 424.52). The three trials included in the review contain small numbers

  5. How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumesnil, J.; Malvache, P.; Hugon, F.C.; Sollacaro, M.

    2006-01-01

    CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

  6. Municipal green fleet management in Ontario: best practices manual 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, M.

    2008-07-01

    When households, institutional and commercial buildings, industry, and especially auto transportation use fossil fuel based energy, they generate carbon dioxide emissions. Considering the environmental concerns and the soaring fuel prices, this could be the opportunity for the municipal fleet operator to assume a leadership position regarding environmental issues and look for new cost efficiencies. To begin, a meticulous examination of the fuel expenditures, a good management approach of fleet operations and a clearly defined system or guidance for lowering fleet fuel costs would be helpful for municipal fleet managers. This document is involved in a pilot program aimed at helping Ontario municipalities understand and promote fleet efficiencies and obtain related environmental benefits. Existing and cost-effective automotive fleet management policies and practices that can mitigate pollution causing global warming are given in this guide. These policies and practices also allow money savings and contribute to a better workplace health and livability of the community. This document is based on the experience of fleet management experts and local governments in Ontario. 54 refs.

  7. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  9. Colorectal cancer: screening double-contrast barium enema examination in average-risk adults older than 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Justin W; Levine, Marc S; Glick, Seth N; Lakhani, Paras; Rubesin, Stephen E; Laufer, Igor

    2006-09-01

    To retrospectively determine the diagnostic yield of double-contrast barium enema examinations performed for colorectal cancer screening of neoplasms 1 cm or larger or advanced neoplastic lesions of any size in average-risk adults older than 50 years. The Institutional Review Board at the affiliated Veterans Affairs Medical Center approved this HIPAA-compliant study protocol and did not require informed consent from patients. Computerized databases revealed 276 double-contrast barium enema examinations performed for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk adults older than 50 years. Radiographic and pathologic reports were reviewed to determine the number of patients who had polypoid lesions 1 cm or larger, polyps smaller than 1 cm, or advanced neoplastic lesions of any size. Forty-five (16.3%) of the 276 patients underwent follow-up sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Medical, endoscopic, and pathologic records were reviewed and compared with radiographic findings. The results of double-contrast barium enema examination revealed 74 (26.8%) of 276 patients with 104 polypoid lesions in the colon, including 32 patients (11.6%) with 41 polypoid lesions 1 cm or larger, 15 patients (5.4%) with 19 polyps 6-9 mm, and 27 patients (9.8%) with 44 polyps 5 mm or smaller. Endoscopy was performed in 24 (75%) of 32 patients, the results of which confirmed 23 (72%) of 32 radiographically diagnosed lesions 1 cm or larger in 16 (67%) of 24 patients. In two of these individuals, the polyps were hyperplastic. The remaining 14 patients had a total of 21 neoplastic lesions 1 cm or larger, including 11 tubular adenomas, seven tubulovillous adenomas, one villous adenoma with marked dysplasia, and two cancers. The diagnostic yield of screening double-contrast barium enema examination was 5.1% (14 of 276 patients) for neoplastic lesions 1 cm or larger and 6.2% (17 of 276 patients) for advanced neoplastic lesions of any size. Double-contrast barium enema examinations performed in average

  10. Diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. A comparison of CT, colonic enema and laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, T.; Univ. Hospital, Uppsala; Nyman, R.; Nilsson, S.; Ekbom, A.; Univ. Hospital, Uppsala; Paahlman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of laparoscopy, CT, colonic enema (CE), and laboratory tests (white blood cell count (WBC), sedimentation rate (SR), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. Material and Methods: The diagnostic methods were prospectively evaluated in 88 patients, 30 of whom were referred for laparoscopy. Results: Fity-two patients were found to have sigmoid diverticulitis: 20 patients by lanparoscopy, 21 by CT, and 11 by CE combined with one positive laboratory test. Laparoscopy proved to be superior to the other diagnostic methods in diagnosing diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. CT had a high specificity (1.0; 95% CI: 0.92-1.0) but low sensitivity (0.69; 95% CI: 0.56-0.79) in detecting diverticulitis. CE had a higher sensitivity (0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.90) but a lower specificity (0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.91) than CT. Conclusion: CT was the best method for diagnosing abdominal pathology outside the colon. CT can be recommended as the first examination in seriously ill patients where abscesses and other causes of the symptoms than diverticulitis must first be rule out. Laparoscopy is probably the most accurate method in diagnosing diverticulitis. (orig.)

  11. Soap Suds Enemas Are Efficacious and Safe for Treating Fecal Impaction in Children With Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Corrie E; Henkel, Erin B; Valdez, Karina L; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2016-07-01

    Constipation is a common cause of pediatric abdominal pain and emergency department (ED) presentation. Despite the high prevalence, there is a dearth of clinical information and wide practice variation in childhood constipation management in the ED. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of soap suds enema (SSE) in the therapy for fecal impaction in children with abdominal pain within the pediatric ED setting. The primary outcome was stool output following SSE. Secondary outcomes were adverse events, admissions, and return visits within 72 hours. The present study is a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in the ED at a quaternary care children's hospital of patients seen during a 12-month period who received an SSE for fecal impaction. Five hundred twelve patients (53% girls, median age 7.8 years, range: 8 months-23 years) received SSE therapy during a 1-year period. Successful therapy (bowel movement) following SSE occurred in 419 (82%). Adverse events included abdominal pain in 24 (5%) and nausea/vomiting in 18 (4%). No SSE-related serious adverse events were identified. Following SSE, 405 (79%) were subsequently discharged, of which 15 (3.7%) returned to the ED for re-evaluation within 72 hours. SSE is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option for the acute treatment of childhood fecal impaction in the ED setting.

  12. [Perineal colostomy with antegrade continence enemas as an alternative after abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, F; D'Hoore, A; Vanden Bosch, A

    2005-06-01

    Some young and active patients requiring abdominoperineal resection for rectum cancer ask for an alternative of an abdominal colostomy. We analysed the results after a combination of a perineal colostomy and antegrade continence enemas (ACE). Fifteen patients have been operated between 1999 and 2004. Follow-up was >six months in 12 patients with a mean of two years and with a maximum of 55 months. The QLQ-C30 (version 3) and CR 38 questionnaires of the EORTC have been used to evaluate quality of life aspects. Five out of 15 patients presented complications: infection of the caecal conduit (2), small bowel obstruction (1), prolapse of the perineal colostomy (1), eventration (1), urologic complications (2). ACE are still used by all patients. The volume needed was 400 ml and duration of irrigation was 30 minutes (15-45 minutes). The median score for faecal incontinence was 0 ; faecal pseudocontinence was obtained by 7/12 patients. The scores for all aspects of functioning were excellent, as well as the score for body image. The general health status and quality of life were estimated at 75% from normal value. The procedure is simple and can be performed in one operative session. A perineal colostomy with ACE seems to be a valuable and less expensive alternative for an abdominal colostomy, and certainly for total anorectal reconstruction.

  13. Evaluation of colonic involvement in endometriosis: double-contrast barium enema vs. magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, N; Foti, G; Manfredi, R; Mainardi, P; Spoto, E; Ruffo, G; Minelli, L; Mucelli, R Pozzi

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis using the histological examination on resected specimen as comparative standard. Eighty-three consecutive patients with suspected intestinal endometriosis, resected between 2005 and 2007, were prospectively evaluated. All of the women underwent preoperative DCBE and MRI on the same day. We evaluated number, site (rectum, sigmoid, cecum), and size of the lesions. The imaging findings were correlated with those resulting at pathology. Among the 65 women who underwent surgery, 50/65 (76.9%) were found to have bowel endometriosis, with 9/50 (18%) patients presenting two lesions; DCBE allowed to detect 50/59 (84.7%) lesions. MRI allowed to detect 42/59 (71.1%) lesions. DCBE showed sensibility, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of respectively 84.7, 93.7, 98.0, 62.5, and 86.6%, MRI of 71.1, 83.3, 93.3, 46.8, and 74.6%. DCBE is more accurate than unenhanced MRI in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis, and should be preferred in the preoperative management of this disease, since it usually enables a proper surgical planning.

  14. The utility of the contrast enema in neonates with suspected Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Luke R; John, Susan D; Greenfield, Susan A; Kellagher, Caroline M; Austin, Mary T; Lally, Kevin P; Tsao, Kuojen

    2015-06-01

    The contrast enema (CE) is commonly utilized for suspected Hirschsprung disease (HD) patients. We set out to determine the utility of the CE in the newborn for clinically suspicious HD. All CEs performed for suspicion of HD in neonates from January 2004 to December 2013 were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the original interpretations and final diagnoses. A standardized scoring sheet was utilized to document essential radiographic findings. Definitive diagnoses were determined by pathology. Descriptive statistics, likelihood ratios, and interrater agreement were determined. 158 CEs were reviewed. Interrater agreement was 89% with kappa (95% CI) of 0.63 (0.47-0.76). Common indications for CE were similar between non-HD and HD groups. The positive, inconclusive, and negative likelihood ratios (95% CI) were 38 (10-172), 3.2 (1.3-9.1), and 0.15 (0.06-0.47), respectively, leading to posttest probabilities for positive, inconclusive, and negative tests of 83%, 32%, and 2.5%, respectively. Although radiographic positive CE for HD portends a high probability of HD, inconclusive studies still represent a significant increased risk. In clinically suspicious infants for HD, those with inconclusive studies may benefit from a lower threshold to perform follow-up rectal biopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antegrade continence enemas improve quality of life in patients with medically-refractory encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Joseph T; Simha, Sidd; Wild, Laurie C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Ehrlich, Peter F

    2017-05-01

    Fecal incontinence is a socially debilitating problem for many children. We hypothesized that in selected patients with medically-refractory encopresis, placement of an appendicostomy or cecostomy tube for administration of antegrade continence enemas (ACE) would improve quality of life (QOL). We reviewed all patients with encopresis who underwent appendicostomy or cecostomy placement from 2003 to 2014 at our institution. We contacted subjects' parents by phone and administered 3 surveys: a survey reflecting current stooling habits, a disease-specific QOL survey, and the PedsQL™ QOL survey. QOL surveys were completed twice by parents, once reflecting pre-operative QOL, then again reflecting current QOL. Pre-procedure and post-procedure scores were compared by paired t-test. Ten patients underwent appendicostomy/cecostomy for encopresis. Eight completed phone surveys. All procedures were performed laparoscopically. All patients experienced fecal soiling pre-operatively, whereas 5/8 surveyed patients (63%) noted complete resolution of soiling post-procedure (pencopresis, likely related to resolution of soiling. 4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. After the honeymoon comes divorce: long-term use of the antegrade continence enema procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Iain E; Pauniaho, Satu-Liisa; Baillie, Colin T; Turnock, Rick R; Coldicutt, Pat; Lamont, Graham L; Kenny, Simon E

    2009-06-01

    Having reported that 18% of children discontinue use of the antegrade continence enema (ACE) after 5 years, we aimed to determine long-term use after an ACE procedure. A postal/telephone questionnaire was conducted. Subjects were consecutive children undergoing an ACE between 1993 and 1999. Outcome measures were use of ACE, reasons for nonuse, complications, and overall satisfaction. Of 84 eligible subjects, data were available on 61 (73%) aged 22.4 years (15.5-35.1 years). Underlying diagnoses included spina bifida (n = 27), anorectal malformations (n = 18), constipation (n = 11), Hirschsprung's disease (n = 1), sacral agenesis (n = 2), and trauma/tumor (n = 2). Follow-up was 11.02 years (8.34-14.39 years). Thirty-six (59%) of 61 patients were still using their ACE. Reasons for nonuse were lack of effectiveness (n = 14), complications (n = 5), psychologic issues (n = 2), and poor compliance (n = 2). There was no association between diagnosis and nonuse (chi(2), P = .63). In those still using ACE, the overall satisfaction score was 4.1 (1-5). Several individuals reported feeling abandoned on becoming adults and losing the support they had in childhood. There is a late "failure" rate for the ACE procedure. However, satisfaction was high among those still using the ACE. This study further emphasizes the need for robust transitional care arrangements.

  17. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1 Consolidations into a fleet management...

  18. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency fleet...

  19. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104 Notice of establishment of a fleet management...

  20. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  1. Wireless GPS fleet tracking system at the University of Albany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the project undertaken at the University at Albany to make alternative transportation a more : viable option by implementing a GPS Tracking System on the University bus fleet and broadcasting the bus locations to c...

  2. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  3. Risk Management of an Aging KC-130 Fleet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    .... For the aging USMC KC-130 F/R fleet, a damage-tolerant approach ensured that safety would be maintained but it presented a problem in forecasting readiness, aircraft remaining in the inventory...

  4. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalile "Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja" (Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel), režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  5. DVD. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Egle Loo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loo, Egle

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalist "Sweeney Todd : The Demon Barber of Fleet Street" Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel : režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  6. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  7. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  8. US Tune Purse Seine Fleet History & Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS SWR has collected historical vessel information on the U.S. tuna cannery baitboat and purse seine fleets for many years. The database's first record of a...

  9. Business fleet refueling assessment. Final report, March 1992-November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudier, A.

    1993-01-01

    The report investigates refueling characteristics and capabilities for the light-duty market sector, particularly business automobile fleets. It develops a profile of the characteristics of light-duty and automobile business fleets in 22 designated non-attainment areas, as well as Pittsburgh and Salt Lake City. Reliable data on these subjects will enable better analysis of the market potential for natural gas in the surveyed areas

  10. TQL in the Fleet: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    distribution is unlimited. BEST-AVAILABLE Copy 94-04214 Total Quality Leadership , TQL, Total Quality Kanaginent, 191, i lo of pilo quality management ...703-602-8942). LINDA M. DOHERTY Director Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office TOL In the Fleet: From Theory to Practice...the Fleet: From Theory to Practice ix OVERVIEW ) ver the past year, the Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office (DON TQL Office) has

  11. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

    2013-02-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Detecting and Categorizing Fleeting Emotions in Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d′ analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PMID:22866885

  13. FLEET Velocimetry Measurements on a Transonic Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used to study the flowfield around a symmetric, transonic airfoil in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT facility. A nominal Mach number of 0.85 was investigated with a total pressure of 125 kPa and total temperature of 280 K. Two-components of velocity were measured along vertical profiles at different locations above, below, and aft of the airfoil at angles of attack of 0 deg, 3.5 deg, and 7deg. Measurements were assessed for their accuracy, precision, dynamic range, spatial resolution, and overall measurement uncertainty in the context of the applied flowfield. Measurement precisions as low as 1 m/s were observed, while overall uncertainties ranged from 4 to 5 percent. Velocity profiles within the wake showed sufficient accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to resolve both the mean and fluctuating velocities and general flow physics such as shear layer growth. Evidence of flow separation is found at high angles of attack.

  14. The novel appearance of low rectal anastomosis on contrast enema following laparoscopic anterior resection: discriminating anastomotic leaks from "dog-ears" on water-soluble contrast enema and flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katory, Mark; McLean, Ross; Osman, Khalid; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hughes, Tracey; Newby, Mike; Dennison, Christopher; O'Loughlin, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Interpretation of water-soluble contrast enema following laparoscopic low anterior resection can be very challenging for both radiologists and colorectal surgeons. Discriminating the radiological appearances secondary to anastomotic configuration from those caused by actual anastomotic dehiscence is a common problem and may be made worse with the advent of laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study is to identify potential novel appearances of the water-soluble contrast enema (WSCE) images of rectal anastomosis following laparoscopic low anterior resection to radiologists and surgeons. We enrolled 45 patients who underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection with proximal de-functioning loop ileostomy within a specialized colorectal unit. The water-soluble contrast enema reports were reviewed. Two blinded colorectal radiologists independently reviewed the images of patients suspected of anastomotic leak. All of these patients also underwent a flexible sigmoidoscopy to confirm or exclude anastomotic leak before reversal of loop ileostomy. Inter-observer concordance was calculated. Seven out of eighteen patients (38.9%) were found to have true anastomotic leaks on flexible sigmoidoscopy (15% overall leak rate). In the remaining eleven patients the image appearances were attributed to the appearance of the anastomotic 'dog-ear effect', created by the anastomotic configuration due to multiple firing of the intra-corporeal laparoscopic stapling device. Radiologist inter-observer concordance was 83%. Sensitivity was 100%, specificity 71%, positive-predictive value (38.9%) and negative-predictive value (100%). The novel appearances of laparoscopic-stapled rectal anastomoses in WSCE can be mistaken for anastomotic leak. To avoid delay in reversal of ileostomy, a flexible sigmoidoscopy can be used to confirm or exclude a leak.

  15. Long-term follow-up of patients after antegrade continence enema procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Anees A; Fishman, Steven J; Bauer, Stuart B; Nurko, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Antegrade continence enema (ACE) has become an important therapeutic modality in the treatment of intractable constipation and fecal incontinence. There are little data available on the long-term performance of the ACE procedure in children. A retrospective review of patients who underwent the ACE procedure was conducted. Irrigation characteristics and complications were noted. Outcome was assessed for individual encounters based on frequency of bowel movements, incontinence, pain, and predictability. One hundred seventeen patients underwent an ACE. One hundred five patients had at least 6 months of follow-up, and were included in the analysis. Diagnoses included myelodysplasia (39%), functional intractable constipation (26%), anorectal malformations (21%), nonrelaxing internal anal sphincter (7%), cerebral palsy (3%), and other diagnoses (4%). The average follow-up was 68 months (range 7-178 months). At the last follow-up, 69% of patients had successful bowel management. Of the 31% of patients who did not have successful bowel management, 20% were using the ACE despite suboptimal results, 10% required surgical removal, and 2% were not using the ACE because of behavioral opposition to it. Patients were started on normal saline, but were switched to GoLYTELY (PEG-3350 and electrolyte solution) if there was an inadequate response (61% at final encounter). Additives were needed in 34% of patients. The average irrigation dose was 23 ± 0.7 mL/kg. The average toilet sitting time was 51.7 ± 3.5 minutes, with infusions running for 12.1 ± 1.2 minutes. Stomal complications occurred in 63% (infection, leakage, and stenosis) of patients, 33% required surgical revision and 6% eventually required diverting ostomies. Long-term use of the ACE gives successful results in 69% of patients, whereas 63% had a stoma-related complication and 33% required surgical revision of the stoma.

  16. Enema reduction of intussusception: the success rate of hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wakhanrittee, Junsujee; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2015-01-01

    Intussusception is a common surgical emergency in infants and children. The incidence of intussusception is from one to four per 2,000 infants and children. If there is no peritonitis, perforation sign on abdominal radiographic studies, and nonresponsive shock, nonoperative reduction by pneumatic or hydrostatic enema can be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates of both the methods. Two institutional retrospective cohort studies were performed. All intussusception patients (ICD-10 code K56.1) who had visited Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012 were included in the study. The data were obtained by chart reviews and electronic databases, which included demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The patients were grouped according to the method of reduction followed into pneumatic reduction and hydrostatic reduction groups with the outcome being the success of the reduction technique. One hundred and seventy episodes of intussusception occurring in the patients of Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital were included in this study. The success rate of pneumatic reduction was 61% and that of hydrostatic reduction was 44% (P=0.036). Multivariable analysis and adjusting of the factors by propensity scores were performed; the success rate of pneumatic reduction was 1.48 times more than that of hydrostatic reduction (P=0.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.03-2.13). Both pneumatic and hydrostatic reduction can be performed safely according to the experience of the radiologist or pediatric surgeon and hospital setting. This study showed that pneumatic reduction had a higher success rate than hydrostatic reduction.

  17. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Lembucherra, Tripura 799 ... vated in soil like red and lateritic or acid, with low soluble phosphate content. ..... activation of genes involved in the adaptation of Arabidopsis to.

  18. Water soluble contrast enema examination of the integrity of the rectal anastomosis prior to loop ileostomy reversal may be superfluous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anna; Lindmark, Gudrun; Syk, Ingvar; Buchwald, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    Defunctioning loop ileostomy in low anterior resection (LAR) is routinely used to reduce consequences of anastomotic leakage. The purpose of this study was to analyze which examination technique is optimal for evaluating the integrity of the anastomosis prior to loop ileostomy reversal. Retrospective analysis of 95 patients who had been subjected to LAR at Helsingborg Hospital and Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, was undertaken between January 2007 and June 2009. The examination techniques of the rectal anastomosis prior to reversal and the clinical outcome after reversal were studied. Radiologic anastomosis control using water soluble contrast enema, digital rectal examination (DRE), and rectoscopy were performed in 53 % (50/95), 98 % (93/95), and 69 % (66/95), respectively. In two patients, no control of the anastomosis was performed before reversal. Fifty-two percent (49/95) of the patients were examined using all techniques. Six patients demonstrated leakage detected before reversal of which two were only radiological leakages. These two patients underwent loop ileostomy reversal after delay without complications. They were the only ones where the three examination techniques did not prove coherence. Four patients had symptomatic leakage; these were detected with rectoscopy and DRE and verified with enema. Three patients developed anastomotic leakage after loop ileostomy reversal despite normal preoperative examinations. Two of these patients had rectovaginal fistulas (AVFs). This retrospective study indicates that contrast enema does not provide additional information if rectoscopy and DRE are normal. Despite negative examinations, three of nine leakages were diagnosed after loop ileostomy reversal. Especially, AVFs seem difficult to diagnose.

  19. Interfacing the existing cask fleet with the MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, J.W.; Hahn, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possibility of using the existing fleet of casks to achieve spent fuel receipt at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The existing cask fleet includes the NLI-1/2, the NAC-LWT, the TN-8 (and TN-8L), the TN-9, and the IF-300 casks. Other casks may be available, but their status is not certain. Use of the existing cask fleet at the MRS places additional design requirements on the system, and specifically affects the cask-to-MRS interface. The decision to use the existing cask fleet also places additional demands on training needs and operator certification, and the configuration management system. Some existing cask designs may not be able to mate with a bottom opening hot cell MRS. Use of the existing cask fleet also greatly increases the number of shipments that must be received, to the point that a facility larger than originally envisioned may be required

  20. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  1. Correlation of double-contrast high-density barium enema, colonoscopy, and histology in children with special attention to disparities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, D.A.; Sherman, P.M.; Jakowenko, N.

    1986-01-01

    Colonscopic and double-contrast high-density barium enema (DCBE) findings were correlated in 68 patients (39 boys and 29 girls) aged 6 months to 18 years (mean 11.6 years) evaluated over a 24-month period. There was excellent correlation in 53 patients (78.0%) and good correlation in another 3 (4.4%) who had identical diagnoses and only slightly differing extent of disease reported. In 2 of these, DCBE showed more extensive disease, confirmed histologically in 1. Distal colitis seen on colonoscopy as reddening and neovascularity was missed on DCBE in 6 patients. Colonoscopy and DEBE failed to show a polyp in 1 patient each. One patient who had a normal DCBE and colonoscopy demonstrated a histological abnormality, and 1 patient with an abnormality on histology and DCBE was normal on colonscopy. A disparity resulted from the time between procedures in 1 patient and observer error in another. This high correlation is far better than any previously reported in children, supporting the use of high-density barium sulfate and double-contrast barium enemas in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  2. Barium sulfate aspiration: Severe chemical pneumonia induced by a massive reflux of contrast medium during small bowel barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Zhou, Xiaowei; Dong, Hongmei; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-08-01

    Barium contrast radiography is a conventional procedure aimed at revealing lesions of the alimentary tract using barium sulfate on X-ray irradiation. Although it is widely used in clinics, adverse effects and complications are observed, such as anaphylaxis, granuloma, fecalithes, abdomen-leaking, embolism, bacterial contamination, and aspiration. We report a case of death due to a massive barium sulfate aspiration resulted from an air-barium double contrast enema radiography. A 25-year-old female patient was hospitalized with symptoms of abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for three days. A progressive respiratory distress presented only 1h after a small bowel air-barium double contrast enema. The patient died 11h later. The result of autopsy revealed the cause of death to be severe chemical pneumonitis induced by gastric fluid which was aspirated into her lungs. Barium sulfate is generally recognized to be chemically inert for the respiratory system, but a mixture of barium sulfate with gastric contents is fatal. Here we intend to suggest that, when determining the potential cause of death, medical examiners should consider a patient's status quo as well as the possible adverse effects and complications caused by the barium sulfate preparation during gastrointestinal radiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Free fatty acid suppositories are as effective as docusate sodium and sorbitol enemas in treating constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Stefansson, Einar; Lund, Sigrun Helga; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A well-documented, clinically proven per rectum treatment for childhood constipation is needed. This phase two clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of suppositories containing free fatty acids (FFA) compared with Klyx docusate sodium and sorbitol enemas. A randomised, controlled, single-blind study was undertaken on 77 children aged between one and 17 who presented to an emergency department in Iceland and were diagnosed with constipation. In stage one, 23 patients were randomised to receive lower dose FFA suppositories or Klyx (n = 33). In stage two, 21 different patients were randomised to receive higher dose suppositories and compared with the same Klyx control subjects. The suppositories were effective at bowel emptying in 39% of the group who received the lower FFA doses and 81% of the group receiving higher doses, compared with 88% in the Klyx control group. Symptom relief was obtained in 30% of the group receiving the lower doses and 71% of the group receiving the higher doses, compared with 73% in the control group. The higher dose FFA suppositories were as effective as the Klyx enemas with regard to bowel emptying and symptom relief and might provide an important and less invasive alternative for childhood constipation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines the imp...... of vessel decommissioning. The Danish fishing fleet case serves as an empirical example in this regard. Comments on the future capacity management regime and the role of subsidies in EU fisheries are offered.......Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines...

  5. Fleet Sizing of Automated Material Handling Using Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Radinal; Ai, The Jin; Ratna Yuniartha, Deny

    2018-03-01

    Automated material handling tends to be chosen rather than using human power in material handling activity for production floor in manufacturing company. One critical issue in implementing automated material handling is designing phase to ensure that material handling activity more efficient in term of cost spending. Fleet sizing become one of the topic in designing phase. In this research, simulation approach is being used to solve fleet sizing problem in flow shop production to ensure optimum situation. Optimum situation in this research means minimum flow time and maximum capacity in production floor. Simulation approach is being used because flow shop can be modelled into queuing network and inter-arrival time is not following exponential distribution. Therefore, contribution of this research is solving fleet sizing problem with multi objectives in flow shop production using simulation approach with ARENA Software

  6. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  7. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  9. The Potential Impact of Collaborative and Three-Dimensional Imaging Technology on SHIPMAIN Fleet Modernization Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seaman, Nathan L; Housel, Thomas; Mun, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance and modernization of the US Navy fleet is big business. The Navy has invested substantial fiscal and human resources to standardize the processes used to accomplish maintenance modernization and repair for its fleet of ships...

  10. A Qualitative Examination of the Administrative Process of Fleet Enlisted Personnel in Various Medical Categories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weatherford, Lenora

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the medical management process of placing and monitoring active duty fleet enlisted personnel in a temporary medical duty status and its impact on fleet readiness...

  11. Risk Assessment and Analysis of the M109 Family of Vehicles Fleet Management Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitz, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    ...) Fleet Management Pilot Program. The objective of this program is to reengineer the fleet's logistical support system by outsourcing those functions which make sense and that can be performed more efficiently by private industry...

  12. The Fleet Support Community: Meeting Its Mission in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murdy, Deanna

    1999-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of the Fleet Support community's management practices in meeting the dynamic changes in the complex fleet support arena, while increasing its value to the Navy in the future...

  13. The Retrofit Puzzle Extended: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior over Multiple Time Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-04

    In "The Retrofit Puzzle: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior in the Context of Diesel Retrofit Incentive Programs" (1) an integer program was developed to model profit-maximizing diesel fleet owner behavior when selecting pollution reduction retrofits. Flee...

  14. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 2 : summary of case study interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The FHWA has commissioned the Commercial Vehicle Fleet Management and Information Systems study to determine if there are fleet management needs that the public sector can address through the development of ITS for commercial vehicle operations. As p...

  15. The Fleet-Management as an Element of the Modern Development in the Ukrainian Leasing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Garafonova Olga I.; Svynarchuk Anastasiia V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at researching practical aspects of the fleet-management development in Ukraine; relationships that arise in this process; elements that interact in the market. The preconditions of the companies’ transition to the use of this concept in the management of fleet, as well as the opportunities that arise in the enterprises using the principles of fleet-management were considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of fleet-management in companies wit...

  16. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  17. Técnicas y procedimientos: Sondaje rectal. Administración de un enema de limpieza. Extracción de fecalomas

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rodrigo, María Teresa; Giménez Maroto, Ana Ma

    2001-01-01

    Sondaje rectal. Definición: Introducción de una sonda flexible a través de los esfínteres anales externo e interno. Objetivo: Administrar un enema o ayudar a reducir la flatulencia. Material: Sonda rectal, lubricante, empapador, guantes limpios, esparadrapo antialérgico y bolsa colectora (opcional)...

  18. Enemas, suppositories and rectal stimulation are not effective in accelerating enteral feeding or meconium evacuation in low-birthweight infants : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, Kim; Sietsma, Ydelette; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Rood, Paul J T; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Early full enteral feeding in preterm infants decreases morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review covered the effectiveness of rectal stimulation, suppositories and enemas on stooling patterns and feeding tolerance in low-birthweight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It comprised seven studies

  19. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast... during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010. The security zone... is a need to provide a security zone for the 2010 Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, and there is...

  20. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105-1 Transfers from...

  1. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel..., insert the following clause in contracts providing for Contractor management of the motor vehicle fleet... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle fleet...

  2. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  3. 76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ...-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Diego, CA. The existing security zone is around the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier. The security zone encompasses all navigable waters within 100 feet of the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center...

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that — (a...

  5. Evolution of the deep-sea fleet that supports Canada's international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This study identifies the flag-related trends of fleets used in Canada's international sea-borne trade relative to the world fleet during the 15-year period from 1985 to 1999. The goal is to determine if there is any indication that fleets that serve...

  6. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Fleet Week Maritime Festival. This safety zone is necessary as these events have historically resulted... the safety of life and property on navigable waters during the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  8. Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 - Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-02

    Document contains guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade and helps federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions.

  9. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  10. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  11. Scenario tree airline fleet planning for demand uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repko, M.G.J.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative multi-period modeling approach to solve the airline fleet planning problem under demand uncertainty. The problem is modeled using a scenario tree approach. The tree is composed of nodes, which represent points of decision in multiple time stages of the planning

  12. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  13. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  14. Report: EPA’s Fleet Management Program Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0001, October 6, 2014. If oversight of the EPA’s fleet is not improved, the $6 million-per-year program could be ineffective and inefficient in supporting the agency’s mission and reporting data to the federal system.

  15. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  16. Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the results of the cod monitoring program 2016. The research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs within the EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek. Cod catches of the vessels in the fleet segments BT2 (beam trawl and pulse trawl) and TR (otter trawls

  17. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...

  18. Applying Column Generation to the Discrete Fleet Planning Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation that describes the problem of planning the use of domestic distributed generators, under individual as well as fleet constraints. The planning problem comprises the assignment of time intervals during which the local generator must

  19. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  20. Optimal fleet conversion policy from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyung Chul Kim; Ross, M.H.; Keoleian, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicles typically deteriorate with accumulating mileage and emit more tailpipe air pollutants per mile. Although incentive programs for scrapping old, high-emitting vehicles have been implemented to reduce urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases, these policies may create additional sales of new vehicles as well. From a life cycle perspective, the emissions from both the additional vehicle production and scrapping need to be addressed when evaluating the benefits of scrapping older vehicles. This study explores an optimal fleet conversion policy based on mid-sized internal combustion engine vehicles in the US, defined as one that minimizes total life cycle emissions from the entire fleet of new and used vehicles. To describe vehicles' lifetime emission profiles as functions of accumulated mileage, a series of life cycle inventories characterizing environmental performance for vehicle production, use, and retirement was developed for each model year between 1981 and 2020. A simulation program is developed to investigate ideal and practical fleet conversion policies separately for three regulated pollutants (CO, NMHC, and NO x ) and for CO 2 . According to the simulation results, accelerated scrapping policies are generally recommended to reduce regulated emissions, but they may increase greenhouse gases. Multi- objective analysis based on economic valuation methods was used to investigate trade-offs among emissions of different pollutants for optimal fleet conversion policies. (author)

  1. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  2. Planning and forecasting demand for aircraft engines airline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Кучер

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available  The questions of air-engines supply system processes analysis on the basis of order planning and air-engine demand forecasting of airline’s air fleet with the use of imitating simulation methods are considered.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fleet Application for School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propane Buses Jan. 26, 2016 Video thumbnail for Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets Biodiesel thumbnail for Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama May 1, 2012 Video School Transportation Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for New Hampshire Cleans up with Biodiesel Buses

  4. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  5. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF RUSSIAN INNOVATIVE AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kryazhkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of tractors park and its perspective development are carried out on the basis of realization and improvement of the scientifically based types range constructed on a traction classification sign which conforms to requirements of agricultural production when performing two main conditions: full meeting the requirements for various standard sizes of tractors applicable to conditions of the corresponding zones of Russia and continuous reproduction and development of tractor fleet, both by quantity of efficient machinery and its structure. The developed types range practically runs the gamut of organizational and economic and climatic conditions, and also all range of forms of the organizations using machinery, beginning from individual consumers, small and large rent and contract collectives and finishing large-scale enterprises and their associations. Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat information about a steady tendency of fleet reduction was used for studying of regularities of development of tractor fleet. This information was added by analytical synthesis of data about the annual brand purchases in the Russian market of agricultural tractors. The developed database shows a share of the tractors in fleets of agricultural organizations, which are used over depreciation term, and also minimum necessary number of new machines introduction for formation of volume of tractors with limit age and the total quantity of tractors necessary for minimization of set of expenses. It was established that it is possible to estimate visually the developed quantitative and age structure of tractors fleet and to predict its development on prospect by worked out database representing set of annual tractors brand lines purchasing.

  6. Path Planning Algorithms for the Adaptive Sensor Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric; Hosler, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The Adaptive Sensor Fleet (ASF) is a general purpose fleet management and planning system being developed by NASA in coordination with NOAA. The current mission of ASF is to provide the capability for autonomous cooperative survey and sampling of dynamic oceanographic phenomena such as current systems and algae blooms. Each ASF vessel is a software model that represents a real world platform that carries a variety of sensors. The OASIS platform will provide the first physical vessel, outfitted with the systems and payloads necessary to execute the oceanographic observations described in this paper. The ASF architecture is being designed for extensibility to accommodate heterogenous fleet elements, and is not limited to using the OASIS platform to acquire data. This paper describes the path planning algorithms developed for the acquisition phase of a typical ASF task. Given a polygonal target region to be surveyed, the region is subdivided according to the number of vessels in the fleet. The subdivision algorithm seeks a solution in which all subregions have equal area and minimum mean radius. Once the subregions are defined, a dynamic programming method is used to find a minimum-time path for each vessel from its initial position to its assigned region. This path plan includes the effects of water currents as well as avoidance of known obstacles. A fleet-level planning algorithm then shuffles the individual vessel assignments to find the overall solution which puts all vessels in their assigned regions in the minimum time. This shuffle algorithm may be described as a process of elimination on the sorted list of permutations of a cost matrix. All these path planning algorithms are facilitated by discretizing the region of interest onto a hexagonal tiling.

  7. Selective use of the biphasic-contrast barium enema study for evaluation of colonic lesions: Results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lange, E.E.; Shaffer, H.A. Jr.; Riddervold, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed a prospective study to determine the value of selective use of the biphasic contrast technique for a variety of indications. In a series of 571 double-contrast barium enema examinations, the examination was immediately followed by a single-contrast study in 85 cases. The biphasic procedure was performed to reexamine a colonic segment that was poorly evaluated initially because of diverticulosis (eta = 35), incomplete filling (eta = 28), or poor mucosal coating (eta = 26); or to verify or exclude a possible lesion identified during the double-contrast examination (eta = 22). The single-contrast study confirmed five polyps and excluded lesions in 17 cases with suspected polyps (eta = 5), strictures (eta = 4), and spasm (eta = 8). Six polyps not visualized on the double-contrast examination were detected with the single-contrast procedure

  8. [Practical usage of a quality management system according to ISO 9001 : 2000 focusing on the double contrast (barium) enema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzle, G; Hergan, K; Fleisch, M; Hubmann, M; Oser, W

    2001-12-01

    We describe the implementation of quality improvement measures in a quality management system. With questionnaires for radiologists and patients, we investigated the relations between patient preparation and diagnostic quality serving the main purpose, to improve diagnostic quality with the help of more detailed patient information (e.g., changing preparation sheets and handling out "peri-med" information sheets to the patients). Furthermore, a comparative data ascertainment at other institutes was integrated. For the group of outpatients, increasing process quality (patient information) and outcome (diagnostic quality) could be achieved. Taking aspects of quality costs into consideration, a decrease in costs due to failures was achieved. More detailed patient information has positive effects on diagnostic quality of the double contrast (barium) enema.

  9. Effect of rectal enemas on rectal dosimetric parameters during high-dose-rate vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A prospective trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Sevillano, Marimar; Berenguer, Roberto; Aguayo, Manuel; Villas, Maria Victoria [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA), Department of Radiation Oncology, Albacete (Spain); Gascon, Marina; Arenas, Meritxell [Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Reus (Spain); Rovirosa, Angeles; Camacho-Lopez, Cristina [University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Gynecological Cancer Unit, Radiation Oncology Department, ICMHO, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of rectal enemas on rectal doses during postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). This prospective trial included 59 patients. Two rectal cleansing enemas were self-administered before the second fraction, and fraction 1 was considered the basal status. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) values were generated for the rectum and correlated with rectal volume variation. Statistical analyses used paired and unpaired t-tests. Despite a significant 15 % reduction in mean rectal volume (44.07 vs. 52.15 cc, p = 0.0018), 35.6 % of patients had larger rectums after rectal enemas. No significant rectal enema-related DVH differences were observed compared to the basal data. Although not statistically significant, rectal cleansing-associated increases in mean rectal DVH values were observed: D{sub 0.1} {sub cc}: 6.6 vs. 7.21 Gy; D{sub 1} {sub cc}: 5.35 vs. 5.52 Gy; D{sub 2} {sub cc}: 4.67 vs. 4.72 Gy, before and after rectal cleaning, respectively (where D{sub x} {sub cc} is the dose to the most exposed x cm {sup 3}). No differences were observed in DVH parameters according to rectal volume increase or decrease after the enema. Patients whose rectal volume increased also had significantly larger DVH parameters, except for D{sub 5} {sub %}, D{sub 25} {sub %}, and D{sub 50} {sub %}. In contrast, in patients whose rectal volume decreased, significance was only seen for D{sub 25} {sub %} and D{sub 50} {sub %} (D{sub x} {sub %} dose covering x % of the volume). In the latter patients, nonsignificant reductions in D{sub 2} {sub cc}, D{sub 5} {sub cc} and V{sub 5} {sub Gy} (volume receiving at least 5 Gy) were observed. The current rectal enemas protocol was ineffective in significantly modifying rectal DVH parameters for HDR-VCB. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung der Auswirkungen von rektalen Dosen waehrend postoperativer High-Dose-Rate-(HDR-)Brachytherapie an der Scheidenmanschette (''vaginal cuff brachytherapy'', VCB). An

  10. An approach to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Fesenko, Herman; Doukas, Nikos

    2017-09-01

    An approach and the algorithm to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model are proposed. The input data are the number of the drones, the drone fleet redundancy coefficient, the drone stability and restoration rate, the limit deviation from the norms of the drone fleet recovery, the drone fleet operational availability coefficient, the probability of the drone failure-free operation, time needed for performing the required tasks by the drone fleet. The ways for improving the recoverable drone fleet survivability taking into account amazing factors of system accident are suggested. Dependencies of the drone fleet survivability rate both on the drone stability and the number of the drones are analysed.

  11. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  12. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  13. Renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2012-01-01

    While supposing the lifetime of all present PWR reactors would be extended to sixty years, the author compares two scenarios regarding the renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors: the first one over 40 years and the second one over 20 years. This renewal is based on the construction of EPR reactors at different rhythms. The author compares the associated production costs and assesses the exploitation costs. A renewal scenario over 40 years seems to give better results

  14. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  15. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Ji, Qingkai; Chiu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS) to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP), where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this proble...

  16. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  17. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ahdieh, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bentley, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  18. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  19. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  20. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  1. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.

  2. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  3. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  4. Effects of budesonide and probiotics enemas on the systemic inflammatory response of rats with experimental colitis Efeito de enemas contendo budesonida e probióticos na resposta inflamatória sistêmica de ratos com colite experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardem Machado de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enemas containing probiotics and budesonide on the systemic inflammatory response in experimental colitis. METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats with experimental colitis induced by 10% acetic acid enema were randomized to five groups (10 rats each according to the treatment: group 1 - saline solution, group 2 - budesonide (0.75 mg/kg/day, group 3 - probiotics (1mg/day, group 4 - probiotics plus budesonide, and group 5 - control, with not-treated rats. The following variables were studied: body weight, serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein and interleucine-6 (IL-6. RESULTS: All animals lost weight between the beginning and the end of the experiment (280+ 16 mg versus 249+21 mg, p0.05. Only probiotic rats presented a significant decrease of IL-6 than controls (0,30±0,08 mg/dL vs. 0,19±0,03 mg/dL; pOBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da administração retal de probióticos e budesonida na resposta inflamatória de ratos com colite experimental. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta ratos Wistar com colite experimental induzida pelo acido acético à 10% foram randomizados em 5 grupos (n=10 por grupo para diferentes tratamentos: grupo 1 - solução fisiológica; grupo 2 budesonida (0,75mg/kg/dia; grupo 3 - probióticos (1 g/dia; grupo 4 - probióticos associados a budesonida; e finalmente grupo 5 - controle, composto por ratos sem tratamento. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: peso corporal, dosagens séricas de albumina, proteína C reativa (PCR e interleucina-6 (IL-6. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais perderam peso entre o inicio e o fim do experimento (280±16 vs 249±21g; p0.05. As comparações entre o grupo controle (0,30±0,08 mg/dL e outros mostraram que houve uma queda significante nos níveis de IL-6 apenas no grupo probiótico (0,19±0,03 mg/dL; p<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: Probióticos são efetivos na diminuição do estado inflamatório mediado pela IL-6 na colite experimental.

  5. Evaluation of the application of enemas containing sucralfate in tissue content of neutral and acid mucins in experimental model of diversion colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Felipe Mendonça; Sato, Daniela Tiemi; Rodrigues, Murilo Rocha; Dias, Alice Moreira; Silveira Júnior, Paulo Pedroso; Pereira, José Aires; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of sucralfate on tissue content of neutral and acids mucins in rats with diversion colitis. Thirty-six rats were submitted to a proximal right colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to sacrifice to be performed two or four weeks after intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline, sucralfate at 1.0 g/kg/day or 2.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis and neutral and acid mucins by Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian Blue techniques, respectively. The contents of mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Student's t paired and ANOVA test were used to compare the contents of both types of mucins among groups, and to verify the variance with time, establishing level of signification of 5% for both (p<0.05). Enemas containing sucralfate improves the inflammation and increases the tissue contents of neutral and acid mucins. The content of neutral mucins does not change with the time or concentration of sucralfate used, while acid mucins increases with concentration and time of intervention. Sucralfate enemas improve the inflammatory process and increase the tissue content of neutral and acid mucins in colon without fecal stream.

  6. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the concept of equilibrium optimum to design heuristic algorithm for solving the model. Through case study and comparison, the heuristic algorithm is proved to be effective. By using the algorithm presented in this paper, the fleet operational profit is significantly increased compared with the use of the existing route-based model. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the fleet size and structure are more sensitive to the increase of fare price than to the increase of passenger demand.

  7. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing U.S. cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. It assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  8. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A concise guide to effective management of the public works equipment fleet

    OpenAIRE

    De Armas, Vicente.

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of today's trends in fleet management, including, organization, privatization, effects of environmental regulations and a discussion on info...

  10. Telematics Framework for Federal Agencies: Lessons from the Marine Corps Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Executive Order 13693 requires federal agencies to acquire telematics for their light- and medium-duty vehicles as appropriate. This report is intended to help agencies that are deploying telematics systems and seeking to integrate them into their fleet management process. It provides an overview of telematics capabilities, lessons learned from the deployment of telematics in the Marine Corps fleet, and recommendations for federal fleet managers to maximize value from telematics.

  11. A multi-agent based intelligent configuration method for aircraft fleet maintenance personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Qiang; Li, Songjie; Sun, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A multi-agent based fleet maintenance personnel configuration method is proposed to solve the mission oriented aircraft fleet maintenance personnel configuration problem. The maintenance process of an aircraft fleet is analyzed first. In the process each aircraft contains multiple parts, and different parts are repaired by personnel with different majors and levels. The factors and their relationship involved in the process of maintenance are analyzed and discussed. Then the whole maintenance...

  12. Fleet Purchase Behavior: Decision Processes and Implications for New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, Kevin; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle fleets are a poorly understood part of the economy. They are important, though, in that they purchase a large share of light-duty vehicles and are often targeted by governments as agents of change. We investigate fleet purchase behavior, using focus groups, interviews, and mail and telephone surveys. We categorize fleets into four different decision-making structures (autocratic, bureaucratic, hierarchic, and democratic), determine what share of the market sector each represents, d...

  13. Recovering uranium from phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, M [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney-Ugine Kuhlmann, 75 - Paris (France)

    1981-06-01

    Processes for the recovery of the uranium contained in phosphates have today become competitive with traditional methods of working uranium sources. These new possibilities will make it possible to meet more rapidly any increases in the demand for uranium: it takes ten years to start working a new uranium deposit, but only two years to build a recovery plant.

  14. A Framework for Creating Value from Fleet Data at Ecosystem Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Sini-Kaisu; Hanski, Jyri; Marttonen-Arola, Salla; Kärri, Timo

    2017-09-01

    As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambition of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal - to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possible, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  15. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  16. A FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING VALUE FROM FLEET DATA AT ECOSYSTEM LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini-Kaisu KINNUNEN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambi-tion of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal – to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possi-ble, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  17. Analysis of Fleet Readiness Center Southwest Concept Integration: New-Employee Orientation and Communication Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clemmons, Francini R; Falconieri, Holly M

    2007-01-01

    Fleet Readiness Center Southwest has embraced integration of personnel and processes from Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Departments and Naval Aviation Depots supporting Naval Aviation Maintenance...

  18. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    A full spatio-temporal four-dimensional characterization of the microphysics and dynamics of cloud formation including the onset of precipitation has never been reached. Such a characterization would yield a better understanding of clouds, e.g. to assess the dominant mixing mechanism and the main source of cloudy updraft dilution. It is the sampling strategy that matters: fully characterizing the evolution over time of the various parameters (P, T, 3D wind, liquid water content, aerosols...) within a cloud volume requires dense spatial sampling for durations of the order of one hour. A fleet of autonomous lightweight UAVs that coordinate themselves in real-time as an intelligent network can fulfill this purpose. The SkyScanner project targets the development of a fleet of autonomous UAVs to adaptively sample cumuli, so as to provide relevant data to address long standing questions in atmospheric science. It mixes basic researches and experimental developments, and gathers scientists in UAV conception, in optimal flight control, in intelligent cooperative behaviors, and of course atmospheric scientists. Two directions of researches are explored: optimal UAV conception and control, and optimal control of a fleet of UAVs. The design of UAVs for atmospheric science involves the satisfaction of trade-offs between payload, endurance, ease of deployment... A rational conception scheme that integrates the constraints to optimize a series of criteria, in particular energy consumption, would yield the definition of efficient UAVs. This requires a fine modeling of each involved sub-system and phenomenon, from the motor/propeller efficiency to the aerodynamics at small scale, including the flight control algorithms. The definition of mission profiles is also essential, considering the aerodynamics of clouds, to allow energy harvesting schemes that exploit thermals or gusts. The conception also integrates specific sensors, in particular wind sensor, for which classic

  19. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: not just a barium enema{exclamation_point} Radiographic manifestations and screening tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.; Jeon, P. [Health Sciences Center, Diagnostic Imaging, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)]. E-mail: u43dlb@mun.ca; Green, J. [Health Sciences Center, Discipline of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by presentation of colorectal cancer (CRC) at an early age and by an increased risk of other primary malignancies, including those of the endometrium. ovaries, stomach, small bowel, upper biliary tract, skin, and brain, as well as by transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that especially involves the renal pelvis and ureter. Because specific genetic mutations causing HNPCC have been recently discovered, genetic screening options have been developed for some families. Subsequently, radiology has an increasing role in surveillance for and management of these HNPCC-associated tumours. Although colonoscopy is the mainstay of a screening regimen for colon cancer, the barium enema has been a standard radiologic investigation. Further, computed tomography (CT) colonography (now practised in various centres) will, with further refinement, prove to be of increasing value. Ultrasonography is a standard investigation for endometrial and ovarian cancer, with CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging often playing a central role. As for TCC, intravenous urography (IVU) had been a standard investigation tool. However, with continued evolution of multidetector row CT with postprocessing manipulation (CT urography [CTU]), the role of IVU is diminishing in most centres. Newfoundland has a high prevalence of HNPCC exhibiting a broad range of manifestations. In this article, radiologic images of various tumours from individuals with HNPCC demonstrate a radiologic spectrum of this fascinating hereditary disease. Screening implications and specific screening methods are reviewed. (author)

  20. CT colonography versus double-contrast barium enema for screening of colorectal cancer: comparison of radiation burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Emanuele; Faggioni, Lorenzo; Cerri, Francesca; Turini, Francesca; Angeli, Simone; Cini, Lorenzo; Perrone, Franco; Paolicchi, Fabio; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    Our aim is to compare the radiation dose associated with a low-dose CT colonography (CTC) protocol for colorectal cancer screening with that delivered by double-contrast barium enema (DCBE). CTC of twenty asymptomatic individuals (M:F = 10:10) participating to a colorectal cancer screening program and DCBE of fifteen patients (M:F = 6:9) were evaluated. For CTC, absorbed dose was determined by calculating the dose-length product for each CTC examination from measurements on a CT dose phantom equipped with a CT ion chamber. For DCBE, the free-in-air Kerma at the patient's X-ray entry surface and the Kerma-area product during fluoroscopy and fluorography were measured with a Barracuda system, with fluoroscopy times being recorded blinded to the performing operator. Effective dose at CTC was 2.17 ± 0.12 mSv, with good and excellent image quality in 14/20 (70%) and 6/20 cases (30%), respectively. With DCBE, effective patient dose was 4.12 ± 0.17 mSv, 1.9 times greater than CTC (P < 0.0001). Our results show that effective dose from screening CTC is substantially lower than that from DCBE, suggesting that CTC is the radiological imaging technique of the large bowel with the lowest risk of stochastic radiation effects.

  1. Degree of mucosal coating on double contrast barium enema : comparison of distilled water and normal saline as a suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Han, Tae Il; Kim, Hyoung Jung

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the degree of mucosal coating on double contrast barium enema (DCBE), using barium suspension made with distilled water or normal saline Between June 1 and July 30, 1996, fifty-four patients prospectively underwent DCBE using 83% w/v(weight-to-volume) of barium suspension (room temperature, 24 deg C), which was made with 1,200mL of distilled water (Group 1;29cases) and normal saline (Group 2;25cases) per 1Kg of Solotop (Taejoon Pharmacy, Seoul, Korea). Bowel preparation and examination methods were the same in both groups, and four projections(erect view, supine view, both decubitus views) were taken. The mucosal coating was graded as excellent, good, ordinary, or poor by three radiologists working independently, and scored from 3 to 0. Significance was analyzed by t-test. Mean grading scores were 2.33±0.70 in group 1 and 1.56±0.99 in group 2 (P<0.003). When barium suspension made with distilled water was used, the degree of mucosal coating on DCBE was better than when the suspension was made with normal saline

  2. Preliminary evaluation of helical CT colonography in detection of colonic diseases compared with double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Xiaoli; Zhang Lei; Zhai Renyou; Li Jie; Wang Yajie; Ding Yi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate helical CT colonography in regard to technology principles, limitations, and clinical applications. Methods: Fifty-six patients underwent volume scanning using helical CT. The diseases included adenocarcinoma 39, adenomatous polyp 3, multiple diverticular 7, mucocele of appendix 1, and normal colon 6. All cases had been compared with double contrast barium enema (DCBE), proved by histology except the 6 normal colon and the 7 multiple diverticular. All CTC images were reconstructed using shaded surface display (SSD) on workstation. Then, perspective images such as the ones from DCBE were generated via ray sum. The images could clearly demonstrate the extent and detail of the disorder by using 'CUT' software, 'revolve' function, and zoom. Results: CTC correctly demonstrated 3-5 mm diverticulum, 3 mm ulcer, and 6 mm polyps. Not only show colon straitness clearly, CTC is also very sensitive to demonstrate the stenotic end of masses. In these cases, discovery rate of CTC is 100.0%, the rate of DCBE is 88.6%; CTC is more sensitive than DCBE in cases of tumor nodules. Ray sum can show the boundary of colonic mass extending to both proximal and distal ends, its discovery rate is 62.6%. Accuracy of localization for CTC is 100.0%. Conclusion: CTC is a novel technique for detecting colonic diseases. It is a safe, accurate, and non-invasive means for detection of lesions and is an efficient complement for DCBE. Further development in CTC technique is expected in the future

  3. The effect of timing of intravenous muscle relaxant on the quality of double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, E.M.; Elson, E.M.; Campbell, D.M.; Halligan, S.; Shaikh, I.; Davitt, S.; Bartram, C.I.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the timing of buscopan administration during double-contrast barium enema examination (DCBE) affects diagnostic quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective setting, 100 consecutive adult out-patients referred for DCBE received 20 mg buscopan (hyoscine-N-butylbromide) intravenously, either before infusion of barium suspension (Group A) or after barium infusion and gas insufflation (Group B). A subjective assessment of ease of contrast medium infusion was made at the time of examination and the films subsequently analysed by two radiologists unaware of the mode of relaxant administration, who noted the quality of mucosal coating and made subjective and objective measurements of segmental distension. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in screening times, infusion difficulty or colonic contrast medium coating between the two groups. Subjective assessment of distension of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon and rectum were not significantly different. Patients receiving intravenous relaxant after barium and gas infusion had less subjective descending (P = 0.05) and sigmoid (P = 0.04) colon distension, but there was no significant difference with respect to maximal bowel diameter in any of the segments measured. CONCLUSION: The timing of intravenous administration during DCBE is likely to have no significant effect on the diagnostic quality of the study. Elson, E.M. (2000)

  4. Rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound versus double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jipeng; Liu, Ying; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xixiang; Tang, Ying

    2017-09-07

    The aim of study was to compare the accuracy between rectal water contrast transvaginal ultrasound (RWC-TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in evaluating the bowel endometriosis presence as well as its extent. 198 patients at reproductive age with suspicious bowel endometriosis were included. Physicians in two groups specialised at endometriosis performed RWC-TVS as well as DCBE before laparoscopy and both groups were blinded to other groups' results. Findings from RWC-TVS or DCBE were compared with histological results. The severity of experienced pain severity through RWC-TVS or DCBE was assessed by an analogue scale of 10 cm. In total, 110 in 198 women were confirmed to have endometriosis nodules in the bowel by laparoscopy as well as histopathology. For bowel endometriosis diagnosis, DCBE and RWC-TVS demonstrated sensitivities of 96.4% and 88.2%, specificities of 100% and 97.3%, positive prediction values of 100% and 98.0%, negative prediction values of 98.0% and 88.0%, accuracies of 98.0% and 92.4%, respectively. DCBE was related to more tolerance than RWC-TVS. RWC-TVS and DCBE demonstrated similar accuracies in the bowel endometriosis diagnosis; however, patients showed more tolerance for RWC-TVS than those with DCBE. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Multiobjective optimization for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios using COSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freynet David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of various fleet evolution options on material inventories and flux in fuel cycle and waste can be analysed by means of transition scenario studies. The COSI code is currently simulating chronologically scenarios whose parameters are fully defined by the user and is coupled with the CESAR depletion code. As the interactions among reactors and fuel cycle facilities can be complex, and the ways in which they may be configured are many, the development of optimization methodology could improve scenario studies. The optimization problem definition needs to list: (i criteria (e.g. saving natural resources and minimizing waste production; (ii variables (scenario parameters related to reprocessing, reactor operation, installed power distribution, etc.; (iii constraints making scenarios industrially feasible. The large number of scenario calculations needed to solve an optimization problem can be time-consuming and hardly achievable; therefore, it requires the shortening of the COSI computation time. Given that CESAR depletion calculations represent about 95% of this computation time, CESAR surrogate models have been developed and coupled with COSI. Different regression models are compared to estimate CESAR outputs: first- and second-order polynomial regressions, Gaussian process and artificial neural network. This paper is about a first optimization study of a transition scenario from the current French nuclear fleet to a Sodium Fast Reactors fleet as defined in the frame of the 2006 French Act for waste management. The present article deals with obtaining the optimal scenarios and validating the methodology implemented, i.e. the coupling between the simulation software COSI, depletion surrogate models and a genetic algorithm optimization method.

  6. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 which are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  7. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; McCreery, P.N.; Shappert, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  8. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...... location problem which are known for their tightness. The demand is considered to be elastic in the sense that the service provider can accept any fraction of the origin-destination demand. We then propose a primal decomposition method to solve instances of the problem to optimality. Numerical results...... confirm superiority of our approach in comparison with a general-purpose mixed integer programming solver....

  9. Valor do enema de bário com duplo contraste no diagnóstico da endometriose do reto e sigmóide Double-contrast barium enema in the diagnosis of intestinal deeply infiltrating endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helizabet Salomão Abdalla Ayroza Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo do enema de bário com duplo contraste (EBDC para o diagnóstico da endometriose do reto e sigmóide. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal prospectivo que incluiu 37 pacientes com quadro clínico suspeito de endometriose profunda. As pacientes foram submetidas ao EBDC de acordo com a técnica padrão descrita na literatura. Em seguida, foram submetidas à laparoscopia. Os exames foram realizados e seus resultados e imagens foram interpretados e comparados com base na avaliação histológica. A análise estatística foi realizada pela análise de associação (teste do χ2 e análise de concordância (teste de Kappa. RESULTADOS: a média de idade das pacientes estudadas foi de 35,8±4,4 anos (faixa de 28 a 48 anos, sendo 85,6% brancas e 14,4% negras. A endometriose profunda foi confirmada por laparoscopia e pelo exame histológico em todas as pacientes estudadas. A endometriose intestinal foi confirmada histologicamente em 27 mulheres (72,9%. O EBDC demonstrou sinais radiológicos sugestivos de infiltração intestinal por endometriose em 24 mulheres (64,9% e ausência de sinais em 13 mulheres (35,1%. A sensibilidade do método foi de 87,5%, especificidade de 53,8%, valor preditivo positivo de 77,8% e valor preditivo negativo de 70%. Dentre os 24 exames anormais, 16 (43,2% apresentaram imagem radiológica do tipo espícula, 16 (43,2% apresentavam imagem compatível com estenose e quatro (10,8% o duplo contorno. CONCLUSÕES: o EBDC apresenta elevada sensibilidade e elevado valor preditivo positivo no diagnóstico da endometriose do reto e sigmóide. As imagens radiológicas do tipo espícula e estenose apresentam elevada sensibilidade e valor preditivo positivo para a infiltração intestinal por endometriose.PURPOSE: to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of double contrast barium enema (DCBE for the diagnoses

  10. Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

    2009-09-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

  11. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, T [Bellona Foundation, Oslo (Norway); Kudrik, I [Bellona Foundation Branch Office, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A [Scientific Production Association ` ` Typhoon` ` , Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs.

  12. IMPROVING LOGISTICS SERVICES THROUGH THE TECHNOLOGY USED IN FLEET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vivaldini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing logistics has established itself in the area of the LSP (Logistics Service Provider, which offers a range of services to its customers. In this line, transportation is characterized as one of the most important services, and therefore efficient fleet management is essential for establishing a high level of customer service. With advances in technology and vehicle tracking systems, this approach of management has gained new possibilities for the improvement of logistics services. By studying the specific case of an LSP, this paper investigates the use of these technologies in the management of their business and services. The results indicate that the LSP seeks to increase its services and to streamline information in order to respond to customer needs in real time. It is also evident in this case under study that the combination of the technology available together with the fleet management system has become a distinguishing feature for this LSP, one which increases their skills and important information for both customers and business.

  13. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, T.; Kudrik, I.; Nikitin, A.

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs

  14. Process Approach for Modeling of Machine and Tractor Fleet Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokin, B. D.; Aletdinova, A. A.; Kravchenko, M. S.; Tsybina, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    The existing software complexes on modelling of the machine and tractor fleet structure are mostly aimed at solving the task of optimization. However, the creators, choosing only one optimization criterion and incorporating it in their software, provide grounds on why it is the best without giving a decision maker the opportunity to choose it for their enterprise. To analyze “bottlenecks” of machine and tractor fleet modelling, the authors of this article created a process model, in which they included adjustment to the plan of using machinery based on searching through alternative technologies. As a result, the following recommendations for software complex development have been worked out: the introduction of a database of alternative technologies; the possibility for a user to change the timing of the operations even beyond the allowable limits and in that case the calculation of the incurred loss; the possibility to rule out the solution of an optimization task, and if there is a necessity in it - the possibility to choose an optimization criterion; introducing graphical display of an annual complex of works, which could be enough for the development and adjustment of a business strategy.

  15. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  16. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  17. The Fleet-Management as an Element of the Modern Development in the Ukrainian Leasing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garafonova Olga I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching practical aspects of the fleet-management development in Ukraine; relationships that arise in this process; elements that interact in the market. The preconditions of the companies’ transition to the use of this concept in the management of fleet, as well as the opportunities that arise in the enterprises using the principles of fleet-management were considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of fleet-management in companies with the available fleet of various sizes were researched. The main features, current tendencies of the fleet-management development have been indicated, ways of attraction of automobile enterprises to the use of leasing have been suggested. Prospects for further researches in this direction will be consideration of possibility of attraction of more enterprises to the use of principles of fleet-management in their management routine. Further development of fleet management will provide enterprises with significant opportunities and the reserve funds that can be used for development.

  18. New heuristics for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, W.; Janssens, Gerrit K.; Sirensen, K.; Vernimmen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    In the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (FSMVRPTW) customers need to be serviced in their time windows at minimal costs by a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper new heuristics for the FSMVRPTW are developed. The performance of the heuristics is shown to be significantly

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guard District § 165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165.1121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  1. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  2. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0062] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime...

  3. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of...-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets... regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel...

  4. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Davies

    Full Text Available Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures.

  5. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...

  6. A multi-agent based intelligent configuration method for aircraft fleet maintenance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-agent based fleet maintenance personnel configuration method is proposed to solve the mission oriented aircraft fleet maintenance personnel configuration problem. The maintenance process of an aircraft fleet is analyzed first. In the process each aircraft contains multiple parts, and different parts are repaired by personnel with different majors and levels. The factors and their relationship involved in the process of maintenance are analyzed and discussed. Then the whole maintenance process is described as a 3-layer multi-agent system (MAS model. A communication and reasoning strategy among the agents is put forward. A fleet maintenance personnel configuration algorithm is proposed based on contract net protocol (CNP. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircraft is studied for verification purposes. A mission type with 3 waves of continuous dispatch is imaged. Compared with the traditional methods that can just provide configuration results, the proposed method can provide optimal maintenance strategies as well.

  7. Comparison between CT Colonography and Double-Contrast Barium Enema for Colonic Evaluation in Patients with Renal Insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun Young; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Ah Young; Park, Su Ki; Han, Duck Jong; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2012-01-01

    To compare the CT colonography (CTC) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) for colonic evaluation in patients with renal insufficiency. Two sequential groups of consecutive patients with renal insufficiency who had a similar risk for colorectal cancer, were examined by DCBE (n = 182; mean ± SD in age, 51 ± 6.4 years) and CTC (n = 176; 50 ± 6.7 years), respectively. CTC was performed after colon cleansing with 250-mL magnesium citrate (n = 87) or 4-L polyethylene glycol (n = 89) and fecal tagging. DCBE was performed after preparation with 250-mL magnesium citrate. Patients with colonic polyps/masses of ≥ 6 mm were subsequently recommended to undergo a colonoscopy. Diagnostic yield and positive predictive value (PPV) for colonic polyps/masses, examination quality, and examination-related serum electrolyte change were retrospectively compared between the two groups. Both the CTC and DCBE were positive for colonic polyps/masses in 28 (16%) of 176 and 11 (6%) of 182 patients, respectively (p = 0.004). Among patients with positive findings, 17 CTC and six DCBE patients subsequently underwent a colonoscopy and yielded a PPV of 88% (15 of 17 patients) and 50% (3 of 6 patients), respectively (p = 0.089). Thirteen patients with adenomatous lesions were detected in the CTC group (adenocarcinoma [n = 1], advanced adenoma [n = 6], and non-advanced adenoma [n = 6]), as compared with two patients (each with adenocarcinoma and advanced adenoma) in the DCBE group (p = 0.003). Six (3%) of 176 CTC and 16 (9%) of 182 DCBE examinations deemed to be inadequate (p 0.046). Electrolyte changes were similar in the two groups. In patients with renal insufficiency, CTC has a higher diagnostic yield and a marginally higher PPV for detecting colorectal neoplasia, despite a similar diagnostic yield for adenocarcinoma, and a lower rate of inadequate examinations as compared with DCBE.

  8. Comparison between CT colonography and double-contrast barium enema for colonic evaluation in patients with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun-Young; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Ah Young; Park, Su-Kil; Han, Duck Jong; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2012-01-01

    To compare the CT colonography (CTC) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) for colonic evaluation in patients with renal insufficiency. Two sequential groups of consecutive patients with renal insufficiency who had a similar risk for colorectal cancer, were examined by DCBE (n = 182; mean ± SD in age, 51 ± 6.4 years) and CTC (n = 176; 50 ± 6.7 years), respectively. CTC was performed after colon cleansing with 250-mL magnesium citrate (n = 87) or 4-L polyethylene glycol (n = 89) and fecal tagging. DCBE was performed after preparation with 250-mL magnesium citrate. Patients with colonic polyps/masses of ≥ 6 mm were subsequently recommended to undergo a colonoscopy. Diagnostic yield and positive predictive value (PPV) for colonic polyps/masses, examination quality, and examination-related serum electrolyte change were retrospectively compared between the two groups. Both the CTC and DCBE were positive for colonic polyps/masses in 28 (16%) of 176 and 11 (6%) of 182 patients, respectively (p = 0.004). Among patients with positive findings, 17 CTC and six DCBE patients subsequently underwent a colonoscopy and yielded a PPV of 88% (15 of 17 patients) and 50% (3 of 6 patients), respectively (p = 0.089). Thirteen patients with adenomatous lesions were detected in the CTC group (adenocarcinoma [n = 1], advanced adenoma [n = 6], and non-advanced adenoma [n = 6]), as compared with two patients (each with adenocarcinoma and advanced adenoma) in the DCBE group (p = 0.003). Six (3%) of 176 CTC and 16 (9%) of 182 DCBE examinations deemed to be inadequate (p = 0.046). Electrolyte changes were similar in the two groups. In patients with renal insufficiency, CTC has a higher diagnostic yield and a marginally higher PPV for detecting colorectal neoplasia, despite a similar diagnostic yield for adenocarcinoma, and a lower rate of inadequate examinations as compared with DCBE.

  9. Comparison of transvaginal sonography and double-contrast barium enema for diagnosing deep infiltrating endometriosis of the posterior compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelli, L; Manuzzi, L; Coe, M; Mabrouk, M; Di Donato, N; Venturoli, S; Seracchioli, R

    2011-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS) and double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) in the preoperative detection of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) of the posterior compartment. This was a prospective study of 69 consecutive patients with results of pelvic examination or symptoms suggestive of DIE of the posterior compartment. TVS and DCBE were performed before surgery by two groups of physicians specialized in endometriosis, each blinded to the results of the other technique. Imaging data were compared with histopathologic analysis of the resected specimen (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and test accuracies were calculated for both imaging modalities. Sixty seven of the 69 women had a nodule of DIE confirmed at laparoscopy and histopathologic examination. TVS diagnosed DIE in 57 (85%) of these patients, while DCBE revealed the presence of the lesion in 24 (36%) women. For the diagnosis of posterior DIE, TVS and DCBE had, respectively, a sensitivity of 85% and 36%, specificity of 100% and 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and 100%, negative predictive value of 17% and 4% and accuracy of 85.5% and 38%. In patients with pure bowel DIE the sensitivity was 91% and 43%, specificity was 100% and 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and 100%, negative predictive value was 29% and 6% and accuracy was 91% and 45%, respectively. TVS has a much higher sensitivity than does DCBE in detecting the presence of posterior DIE and should thus be regarded as the imaging modality of choice when there is clinical suspicion of the disease. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Outcomes of asymptomatic anastomotic leaks found on routine postoperative water-soluble enema following anterior resection for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, S; Souroullas, P; Ho Tin, H; Hunter, I A; O'Grady, H; Gunn, J; Hartley, J E

    2013-11-01

    The incidence and consequence of an anastomotic leak associated with low anterior resection for cancer mandates covering stoma in most cases. A water-soluble enema is often performed to assess anastomotic integrity prior to stoma reversal. The functional outcome following reversal in patients with occult radiologically detected leaks is poorly defined. The goal of the present study was to determine the functional outcome in patients with a radiologically detected anastomotic leak who subsequently underwent stoma reversal. This case control study used patients with and without radiologically detected occult anastomotic leak having undergone reversal of covering stomata. The study group was matched with controls for age, gender, procedure, tumor stage, and adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy. Validated fecal incontinence quality of life (FIQL), Cleveland Clinic Fecal Incontinence Score (CCFIS), and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Bowel Function Index (BFI) were used. Patient satisfaction, medication use, and ancillary procedures prior to closure were also recorded. Thirteen patients with radiologically detected occult anastomotic leaks and 13 matched controls were identified from a prospectively maintained database. The FIQL, CCFIS, and MSKCC BFI scores were significantly reduced in those with occult leaks. The mean number of radiological and surgical interventions was significantly greater in the patients with occult leaks. Antidiarrheal and bulking agent use, as well as patient satisfaction, were the same for both groups. Only one patient in the occult leak group would not undergo stoma reversal again. Reversal of a defunctioning ileostomy in the presence of an occult radiological leak can be associated with poorer functional outcomes, but patient satisfaction is undiminished.

  11. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  12. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet...

  13. Design of a multicentre randomized trial to evaluate CT colonography versus colonoscopy or barium enema for diagnosis of colonic cancer in older symptomatic patients: The SIGGAR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Rob

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims The standard whole-colon tests used to investigate patients with symptoms of colorectal cancer are barium enema and colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is the reference test but is technically difficult, resource intensive, and associated with adverse events, especially in the elderly. Barium enema is safer but has reduced sensitivity for cancer. CT colonography ("virtual colonoscopy" is a newer alternative that may combine high sensitivity for cancer with safety and patient acceptability. The SIGGAR trial aims to determine the diagnostic efficacy, acceptability, and economic costs associated with this new technology. Methods The SIGGAR trial is a multi-centre randomised comparison of CT colonography versus standard investigation (barium enema or colonoscopy, the latter determined by individual clinician preference. Diagnostic efficacy for colorectal cancer and colonic polyps measuring 1 cm or larger will be determined, as will the physical and psychological morbidity associated with each diagnostic test, the latter via questionnaires developed from qualitative interviews. The economic costs of making or excluding a diagnosis will be determined for each diagnostic test and information from the trial and other data from the literature will be used to populate models framed to summarise the health effects and costs of alternative approaches to detection of significant colonic neoplasia in patients of different ages, prior risks and preferences. This analysis will focus particularly on the frequency, clinical relevance, costs, and psychological and physical morbidity associated with detection of extracolonic lesions by CT colonography. Results Recruitment commenced in March 2004 and at the time of writing (July 2007 5025 patients have been randomised. A lower than expected prevalence of end-points in the barium enema sub-trial has caused an increase in sample size. In addition to the study protocol, we describe our approach to

  14. Polysorbate 80 and low-osmolality water-soluble contrast medium enema in diagnosis and treatment of faecal obstruction in malignant phaeochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Stercoral obstruction in a young woman with disseminated phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed and treated successfully using an enema of isosmolar iohexol (Omnipaque) and 1% polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) without complication. Surgical intervention was thus avoided. A low osmolality water-soluble contrast medium (iohexol 150 mg I/ml) with a wetting agent (1% Tween 80) was used because a barium suspension would have inspissated, exacerbating the constipation and a hyperosmolar contrast medium might have precipitated a hypertensive crisis and destablished her critical salt and water balance. (orig.)

  15. Better prospects for phosphate production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The extraction of uranium as a by product of phosphate production is discussed. Techniques being commercially developed are described. The trend towards the wet process, in which sulphuric acid is used to dissolve the phosphate, producing phosphoric acid, is also the preferred method for uranium recovery. Recovery from a wet process phosphoric acid stream, integrated with phosphate fertilizer manufacture, is becoming increasingly commercially viable for the production of yellow-cake.

  16. on association of trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovic, D.M.; Maksimovic, Z.B.

    1976-01-01

    The association constants of tri-n-butyl (TBP), tri-n-propyl (TPP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) with chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and benzene were determined by dielectric constant, proton magnetic resonance and vapor pressure measurements. Correlation of the trialkyl phosphate-chloroform association constants, using the Hammett equation, showed their increase with the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic radicals. The change of trialkyl phosphate reactivity with temperature was used to determine the thermodynamic quantities. (author)

  17. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP, where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this problem, we design three guiding mechanisms in which the search history is used to guide the search. The three mechanisms are experimentally demonstrated to be more efficient than the ones which only apply the known distance information. Armed with the guiding mechanisms and the well-known reactive mechanism, the RGTS can produce remarkable solutions in a reasonable computation time.

  18. First Battleships of the Coast Defense of Russian Emperor Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is told about design and building in Russia of the first tower armored ships, are given their characteristics, are described design features, and also basic stages of service in the composition of Baltic fleet, the advantages and disadvantages in the projects are analyzed. The authors come to the conclusion that the first navigation of tower armored vehicles revealed many design flaws. Low-built monitors and two-turret armored boat had very poor seakeeping. However, for advertising purposes the ten monitors in 1865 have been sent to the coast of Sweden. During the operation it was determined the necessity of combining the reliable protection with sufficient seaworthiness. The solution to this problem is reflected in the subsequent types of armored ships – the tower frigates.

  19. A dynamic management of a public transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Celiński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present paper deals with the problems of a public transportation fleet management in public transportation operators. A management concept is proposed based on a real-time acquisition of parameters of public transportation passenger exchange. Methods: The relevant research utilised video materials documenting the processes of passenger exchange in public transportation. The proposed methodology is based on a dynamic real-time measurement of passenger streams. A characteristic feature of the measurement methodology applied is that the data is collected outside the vehicles, with a CCTV camera used per access point. Demand for the public transportation service are calculated using the image processing. Results: The derived demand characteristics allow not only an estimation of the magnitude of traffic streams in public transportation but also their qualitative description. Such an approach permits a flexible design of the transportation offer to adapt to the demand. This allows matching the timetables to the density functions describing the demand for public transportation within the space of transportation networks. In addition, based on the results of this type of research, a public transportation operator may despatch the vehicle base in a flexible way. For each run of a bus or tram fleet, basing on the registered passenger traffic streams, it is possible to rationally despatch the vehicles with suitable capacity. Conclusions: A system of this type is capable of determining the quality of work of the public transportation. With the ITS systems being introduced still more widely, the proposed methodology allows the design and implementation of dynamic timetables.

  20. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, J.; Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NO x emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  1. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  2. CCS Retrofit: Analysis of the Global Installed Power Plant Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity generation from coal is still growing rapidly and energy scenarios from the IEA expect a possible increase from today’s 1 600 GW of coal-fired power plants to over 2 600 GW until 2035. This trend will increase the lock-in of carbon intensive electricity sources, while IEA assessments show that two-thirds of total abatement from all sectors should come from the power sector alone to support a least-cost abatement strategy. Since coal-fired power plants have a fairly long lifetime, and in order to meet climate constraints, there is a need either to apply CCS retrofit to some of today’s installed coal-fired power plants once the technology becomes available. Another option would be to retire some plants before the end of their lifetime. This working paper discusses criteria relevant to differentiating between the technical, cost-effective and realistic potential for CCS retrofit. The paper then discusses today’s coal-fired power plant fleet from a statistical perspective, by looking at age, size and the expected performance of today’s plant across several countries. The working paper also highlights the growing demand for applying CCS retrofitting to the coal-fired power plant fleet of the future. In doing so this paper aims at emphasising the need for policy makers, innovators and power plant operators to quickly complete the development of the CCS technology and to identify key countries where retrofit applications will have the biggest extent and impact.

  3. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  4. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success.

  5. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...

  6. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  7. Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post

  8. Real and alleged hazard of radioactive contamination of seas caused by activities of Russian nuclear fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavkovsky, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The current paper addresses the assessment results of the degree of danger caused by radioactive contamination of seas by wastes from activities of nuclear fleets compared to the results obtained in other works, specifically, in the IASAP program

  9. Maritime Security Fleet: Factors to Consider before Deciding to Select Participants Competitively

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The Maritime Security Act established the Maritime Security Fleet (MSF) program, authorizing MARAD to enter into agreements with maritime shipping companies to provide DOD access to commercial vessels operating under U.S...

  10. Vehicle attributes constraining present electric car applicability in the fleet market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J R

    1979-12-01

    One strategy for reducing petroleum imports is to use electric cars in place of conventional vehicles. This paper examines obstacles which electric cars are likely to encounter in attempting to penetrate a key segment of the passenger car market, namely, the fleet market. A fleet is here defined as a group of cars operated by a corporation or a government agency. The primary data source is a questionnaire that was distributed to fleet operators by the Bobit Publishing Company in the summer of 1977. Six sectors of the fleet market were sampled: police, state and local government, utilities, taxi, rental, and business. The questionnaire was specifically designed to uncover factors limiting market penetration of unconventional vehicles, although no attempt was made to determine price elasticities. Emphasis is on vehicle attributes that are readily quantifiable and relatively projectable, including seating capacity, range, battery recharging characteristics, availability of power options, and ability to use interstate highways.

  11. Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator: CPEN user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, R.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to assist prospective users in the understanding and execution of Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator (CPEN). CPEN is an interactive FORTRAN program whose purpose is to produce estimates of fleet-market-penetration rates of alternative passenger cars that can be described in terms of specific physical and economic attributes. The data were derived from questionnaires distributed to fleet operators affiliated with National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA). Besides the NAFA data, CPEN uses 48 variables that are interactively inserted. Complete data-input descriptions are included in the manual along with algorithm and application flowcharts. Examples of complete successful simulator runs are included for alternative program paths. A listing of the computer program and a glossary for CPEN are included.

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  13. Optimal Scheduling and Operating Target (OPTAR) Cost Model for Aircraft Carriers in the Fleet Response Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    York, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    .... This capability is developed through the Fleet Readiness Training Plan (FRTP) where the Navy's carriers are scheduled in staggered 32-month cycles consisting of four phases of progressive readiness levels...

  14. A Study of Fleet Surgical Teams Readiness Posture in Amphibious Readiness Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tennyson, Ruby

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes and evaluates Fleet Surgical Teams (FSTs). It examines how Navy Medicine adapted FSTs to changing support requirements associated with the Total Health Care Support Readiness Requirement (THCSRR...

  15. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  16. PROBLEMS OF ROUTE NETWORK AND AIRCRAFT FLEET OPTIMIZATION AS A SPECIFIC TASK OF AIRLINE STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Karakuts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic problems of route network and aircraft fleet optimization and its role in airline strategic planning are considered. Measures to improve the methods of its implementation are proposed.

  17. The design of a comprehensive microsimulator of household vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The report describes a comprehensive vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution : simulator that can be used to forecast household vehicle ownership and mileage by type of : vehicle over time. The components of the simulator are developed ...

  18. Idle reduction assessment for the New York State Department of Transportation region 4 fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Energetics Incorporated conducted a study to evaluate the operational, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reduce idling in : the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Region 4 fleet without compromising fun...

  19. Decision support with respect to facility location and fleet composition for FoodBank Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lanz, EJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fleet Composition Current & Future Work FoodBank Cape Town First in South Africa Launched on 2 March 2009 Warehouse located in Philippi East [1] Majority of food sourced from DCs and retail sector Distributing to approximately 200 agencies... & Future Work Figure: Sourcing & distributing ow diagram EJ Lanz 40th Annual ORSSA Conference 11 of 36 Background Project Focus Demand & Candidate Sites Facility Location Problems Vehicle Fleet Composition Current & Future Work Data Demand Site...

  20. A New Formulation for the Combined Maritime Fleet Deployment and Inventory Management Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bo; Bektas, Tolga; Chandra, Saurabh; Christiansen, Marielle; Fagerholt, Kjetil

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the fleet deployment problem and in particular the treatment of inventory in the maritime case. A new model based on time-continuous formulation for the combined maritime fleet deployment and inventory management problem in Roll-on Roll-off shipping is presented. Tests based on realistic data from the Ro-Ro business show that the model yields good solutions to the combined problem within reasonable time.

  1. An evaluation and implementation study of the Zenith 120 microcomputer in West Coast Fleet Commands

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Austere funding and the increased administrative burdens being placed on fleet units will ultimately take their toll on performance, morale and combat readiness. Applying low cost microcomputer technology presents one method to alleviate many of these burdens. However, the current implementation process being used is not sufficient to meet the needs of the Fleet. Empirical evidence indicates that expenditures on computers are not ac...

  2. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Sun; Qiang Feng; Songjie Li

    2012-01-01

    According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules) based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negoti...

  3. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  4. A double-blind randomised, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the influence of oral long-acting muscle relaxant (Mebeverine MR), and insufflation with CO{sub 2} on pain associated with barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A.S.; Chapman, A.H.; Wilson, D.; Culpan, A.G. [Department of Radiology, St. James' s University Hospital, Beckett Street, LS9 7TF, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Previous investigators have shown significant benefit using CO{sub 2} for bowel insufflation. Others have suggested that the long-acting smooth muscle relaxant, Mebeverine, may be of benefit. We subjected this to a randomised double-blind trial. A total of 181 outpatients were randomised to receive either Mebeverine or placebo as pre-medication, and either air or CO{sub 2} for bowel insufflation, thus creating four treatment groups. Visual-analogue lines were used to record pain scores before, during, and up to 8 h following the enema. All groups showed increased pain scores during the enema, with peak pain scores at the end of the examination, falling to baseline scores by 8 h. Patients receiving the combination of C0{sub 2} and placebo had significantly lower pain scores at 1 and 4 h (P=0.00 and P=0.014, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test) compared with all other groups. Having Mebeverine as a pre-medication did not significantly lower pain scores compared with placebo, and decreased the amount of benefit received from the CO{sub 2}. We confirm that CO{sub 2} is of benefit in decreasing pain during barium enema, and we recommend its routine use to improve the comfort of patients. Mebeverine is not of benefit, and its use as a pre-medication for enemas is not recommended. (orig.)

  5. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  6. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  7. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  8. Cooperation is fleeting in the world of transposable elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wagner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite transposons are key vehicles for the worldwide spreading of genes that allow bacteria to survive toxic compounds. Composite transposons consist of two smaller transposable elements called insertion sequences (ISs, which flank the genes that permit such survival. Each IS in a composite transposon can either transpose alone, selfishly, or it can transpose cooperatively, jointly with the other IS. Cooperative transposition can enhance an IS's chance of survival, but it also carries the risk of transposon destruction. I use game theory to show that the conditions under which cooperative transposition is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS are not biologically realistic. I then analyze the distribution of thousands of ISs in more than 200 bacterial genomes to test the following prediction of the game-theoretical model: if cooperative transposition was an ESS, then the closely spaced ISs that characterize composite transposons should be more abundant in genomes than expected by chance. The data show that this is not the case. Cooperativity can only be maintained in a transitional, far-from-equilibrium state shortly after a selection pressure first arises. This is the case in the spreading of antibiotic resistance, where we are witnessing a fleeting moment in evolution, a moment in which cooperation among selfish DNA molecules has provided a means of survival. Because such cooperation does not pay in the long run, the vehicles of such survival will eventually disappear again. My analysis demonstrates that game theory can help explain behavioral strategies even for mobile DNA.

  9. More fleet adjustments seen needed for drilling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian oil and gas industry has been in a mode of restructuring since the late 1980s as it became increasingly apparent that the natural gas boom which was to replace activity previously generated by high oil process was not going to materialize. This paper reports that the production companies operating in Canada are concentrating on rationalization of land holdings and corporate downsizing and realignment rather than exploration and development of petroleum resources. Not surprisingly, this has resulted in a substantial downturn of the contract drilling and well servicing sectors in both western Canada, where the majority (95%) of the industry activity takes place, and in the frontier and East Coast offshore arenas. The persistently low levels of utilization throughout this period and prior to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries price shocks in the '70s illustrate that the high levels achieved in the late '70s and early '80s were an aberration. The rig fleet, which was expanded to meet this abnormally high demand, must continue to rationalize if profitability is to return on an on an industrywide basis

  10. Implications of energy use for fishing fleet-Taiwan example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jian; Wu Yihusan

    2011-01-01

    Commercial fisheries rely heavily on fossil fuel combustion and contribute heavily to the emission of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases. Propulsion output of fishing vessels has continually increased from 30 kW in 1959 to nearly 320 kW in 2000, indicating that the Taiwanese fishing fleet tended to voyage farther and faster, and to adjust for the heavier loads demanded by more powerful fishing gear. Daily emissions from Taiwanese fishing vessels were estimated using output method. The marine fishery is unlikely to grow in the future as the government is implementing measures to ensure the development of sustainable fishing practices. There has been a rising trend in pollution to production ratios during the study period between 1959 and 2008. The ratio increased by 47% in the first decade, followed by fluctuations within the range of 50%-58% for the remainder of the statistical period. There is a need to investigate the possibility of reductions in all categories of fishing with regard to energy use and emissions through the subsidization of fishing vessels to encourage operators to switch to more energy efficient equipment and cleaner fuels. - Highlights: → Daily emissions from Taiwanese fishing vessels were estimated using output method. → We reported a steady increase in pollution to production ratio in Taiwan fishing industry. → We urged government and industry work together to ensure a transition to low carbon fishing.

  11. The Insufficient Issues In Development Of Vietnamese Ship Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Nam Chu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Vietnam Maritime Administration in 2015 the total volume of transport carried was about 118.7 million tons an increase of 9.5 compared to 2014 - the biggest increase in recent years. However the fleet of Vietnam has taken only 27.8 of total cargo through the port more than 70 of the market share of foreign shipping. By the end of April 2017 the Seal of Memorandum of Understanding PSC of the Asia-Pacific Region Tokyo-MOU comprising 20 members Australia Canada Chile China Fiji Hong Kong China Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Marshall Islands New Zealand Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Russian Federation Singapore Thailand Vanuatu and Vietnam presented the results of this organization in 2016. Accordingly in 2016 members of Tokyo-MOU conducted 31678 PSC inspections of 17503 flag-nautical vessels of 101 countries to regional ports. In 31678 PSC inspections 18943 defect detection ships affected safety security maritime labor conditions environmental pollution prevention and 1090 of flagged vessels from 69 countries. Kept due to serious defects the average retention of the entire region was 3.44 down from 3.67 in 2015 and 3.96 in 2014.

  12. B612 plans asteroid hunt with fleet of small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Adam

    2018-05-01

    Last week, an asteroid the size of Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza whizzed by Earth, missing it by half the distance to the moon. The concern that we may one day not be so lucky has long preoccupied the B612 Foundation, a private organization in Mill Valley, California, dedicated to finding asteroids that cross Earth's orbit and could devastate humanity. B612 itself had a near-death experience 3 years ago, when its bold plans for an asteroid-hunting space telescope fell apart. But now, its ambitions are rising again with a new technique for finding menacing objects. On 10 May, B612 announced a partnership with York Space Systems to investigate building a fleet of small asteroid hunters. For many years, B612 aimed to build and launch a much larger craft, Sentinel, a $450 million space telescope with a 50-centimeter mirror. But fundraising stalled and, in 2015, NASA ended an agreement to help B612 because it wasn't meeting mileposts, essentially killing the telescope. Now, B612 has developed a new technique, called synthetic tracking, that can produce similar results at a far lower cost with small space telescopes. Ed Lu, B612 co-founder and CEO, expects the first telescope to cost about $10 million and believes a full constellation "would be a factor of many, many cheaper" than Sentinel.

  13. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N.; Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-09-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  14. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASAs Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as a few hours ago, GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development. data visualization, web services, open access

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH DISORDER FLEET OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams, parking difficulties, noise horns, especially stress and the increment of air pollution by greenhouse gas emissions by the growing fleet of motor vehicles in Brazilian capitals, then, the question is: what are the possible impacts that the growing fleet of motor vehicles of the State of Ceará may cause to the environment? With the general aim of this study: to analyze the growing fleet of vehicles in the State of Ceará and its possible environmental impacts. And yet with the following specific objectives: to analyze the determinants of growth in vehicle fleet of the state of Ceará, by applying the statistical technique of Multiple Regression; discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental mitigation measures related to the growth fleet of automotive vehicles. This is a literature review, using secondary data that was applied multiple regression analysis. It was made a data analysis about the period between 1980 to 2009. Thiswork serves asawarningas theuncontrolled growthof the fleet ofvehiclesleads to anincrease in pollutionby the emission oftoxic gases, whosedirect consequence isthe destructionof the ozone layerthat protectsthe earth’s atmosphere from the exposure of UV irradiation.

  16. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Kristin S. [The George Washington University, 1776 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jefferson, Theresa [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1101 King St, Suite 610 Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  17. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Kristin S.; Jefferson, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  18. Software Application for Remote Monitoring of Fleets Based on Geographic Information Systems Using Open Source Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlling a fleet usually implies to establish means of control of vehicles, to collect the data associated with the routes taken by these vehicles, to interpret and evaluate the meaning of the collected data and to make the appropriate decisions to improve the efficiency in the use of vehicles in an organization. The implementation of this process of fleet management is mainly performed manually and the solutions available on the market are costly because of the payments for licenses, it is also necessary that the people monitoring the fleets are geographically close to them. This paper aims to answer the following questions: How to reduce errors in the management of information resulting from the fleet management process? How to reduce the cost of remote fleet monitoring? To obtain the solution, we propose the use of GPS devices in each vehicle, the GPS device’s information is captured and consistently stored in a data base, then the information is consulted, analyzed and represented on a map. The result is a software application that allows users have fast and reliable information that will enable them to take the necessary decisions in the vehicle fleet they are trying to control at a low cost.

  19. Evaluation and comparison of alternative fleet-level selective maintenance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Kellie; Richard Cassady, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fleet-level selective maintenance refers to the process of identifying the subset of maintenance actions to perform on a fleet of repairable systems when the maintenance resources allocated to the fleet are insufficient for performing all desirable maintenance actions. The original fleet-level selective maintenance model is designed to maximize the probability that all missions in a future set are completed successfully. We extend this model in several ways. First, we consider a cost-based optimization model and show that a special case of this model maximizes the expected value of the number of successful missions in the future set. We also consider the situation in which one or more of the future missions may be canceled. These models and the original fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models are nonlinear. Therefore, we also consider an alternative model in which the objective function can be linearized. We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models. - Highlights: • Investigate nonlinear fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models. • A cost based model is used to maximize the expected number of successful missions. • Another model is allowed to cancel missions if reliability is sufficiently low. • An alternative model has an objective function that can be linearized. • We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models

  20. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal wherein the metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface thereof. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 0 7 . (author)

  1. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal is described. The metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 . (author)

  2. Reduction in oxidative stress levels in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream after the application of enemas containing aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Fernando Lorenzetti da; Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves da; Almeida, Marcos Gonçalves de; Lameiro, Thais Miguel do Monte; Marques, Letícia Helena Souza; Margarido, Nelson Fontana; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant effects of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis, comparing segments with and without fecal stream and correlating the segments with the duration of intervention. Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to a diversion of the fecal stream in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosal fistula. The rats were distributed randomly into two experimental groups of 13 animals each based on the time of sacrifice after surgical procedure (two or four weeks). Each group was then divided into two experimental subgroups that received either second daily enemas containing 0.9% saline solution or aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis at 0.2g/100g. Colitis was diagnosed by histopathological analysis and the detection of oxidative tissue damage by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the tissue levels of malondialdehyde between colon segments with and without fecal stream in each experimental group, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the variance between the levels of oxidative stress according the duration of the irrigation; both tests determined significance at 5% (pirrigation were 0.05±0.006 and 0.06±0.006, and 0.05± 0.03 and 0.08 ±0.02, respectively. The malondialdehyde levels in the animals irrigated with Ilex paraguariensis with and without fecal stream after two and four weeks of irrigation were 0.010±0.002 and 0.02±0.004, and 0.03±0.007 and 0.04±0.01, respectively. After two and four weeks of intervention, the levels of malondialdehyde were lower in the animals irrigated with Ilex paraguariensis regardless of the time of irrigation (p=0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). The daily rectal application of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis decreases oxidative tissue damage in the colon without fecal stream regardless of the time of irrigation.

  3. Incidental physiological sliding hiatal hernia: a single center comparison study between CT with water enema and CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelli, Matteo; Furnari, Manuele; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Paparo, Francesco; Astengo, Davide; Savarino, Edoardo; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Hiatal hernia is a well-known factor impacting on most mechanisms underlying gastroesophageal reflux, related with the risk of developing complications such as erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus and ultimately, esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is our firm opinion that an erroneous reporting of hiatal hernia in CT exams performed with colonic distention may trigger a consecutive diagnostic process that is not only unnecessary, inducing a unmotivated anxiety in the patient, but also expensive and time-consuming for both the patient and the healthcare system. The purposes of our study were to determine whether colonic distention at CT with water enema and CT colonography can induce small sliding hiatal hernias and to detect whether hiatal hernias size modifications could be considered significant for both water and gas distention techniques. We retrospectively evaluated 400 consecutive patients, 200 undergoing CT-WE and 200 undergoing CTC, including 59 subjects who also underwent a routine abdominal CT evaluation on a different time, used as internal control, while a separate group of 200 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal CT evaluation was used as external control. Two abdominal radiologists assessed the CT exams for the presence of a sliding hiatal hernia, grading the size as small, moderate, or large; the internal control groups were directly compared with the corresponding CT-WE or CTC study looking for a change in hernia size. We used the Student's t test applying a size-specific correction factor, in order to account for the effect of colonic distention: these "corrected" values were then individually compared with the external control group. A sliding hiatal hernia was present in 51 % (102/200) of the CT-WE patients and in 48.5 % (97/200) of the CTC patients. Internal control CT of the 31 patients with a hernia at CT-WE showed resolution of the hernia in 58.1 % (18/31) of patients, including 76.5 % (13/17) and 45.5 % (5/11) of small and moderate

  4. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Canillas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies.

  5. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    Nitrate and phosphate are important elements of the biogeochemical system of an estuary. Observations carried out during the dry season April-May 2002, and March 2003 and wet season September 2002, show temporal and spatial variability of these two...

  6. Preparation of calcium phosphate paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Norzita Yaacob; Idris Besar; Che Seman Mahmood; Rusnah Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate paste were prepared by mixing between calcium sodium potassium phosphate, Ca 2 NaK (PO 4 ) 2 (CSPP) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O (MCPM). CSPP were obtained by reaction between calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO 4 ), potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ) and sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in solid state sintering process followed by quenching in air at 1000 degree Celsius. The paste was aging in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hrs, 3, 7 and 14 days. The morphological investigation indicated the formation of apatite crystal were first growth after 24 hours. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown at 3 days. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown in 7 and 14 days indicated the prediction of paste would have rapid reaction with bone after implantation. (author)

  7. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  8. Oral sodium phosphate solution: a review of its use as a colorectal cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Monique P; Plosker, Greg L

    2004-01-01

    Oral sodium phosphate solution (Fleet Phospho-soda, Casen-Fleet Fosfosoda is a low-volume, hyperosmotic agent used as part of a colorectal-cleansing preparation for surgery, x-ray or endoscopic examination. The efficacy and tolerability of oral sodium phosphate solution was generally similar to, or significantly better than, that of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or other colorectal cleansing regimens in patients preparing for colonoscopy, colorectal surgery or other colorectal-related procedures. Generally, oral sodium phosphate solution was significantly more acceptable to patients than PEG or other regimens. The use of this solution should be considered in most patients (with the exception of those with contraindications) requiring colorectal cleansing. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES: After the first and second 45 mL dose of oral sodium phosphate solution, the mean time to onset of bowel activity was 1.7 and 0.7 hours and the mean duration of activity was 4.6 and 2.9 hours. Bowel activity ceased within 4 hours of administration of the second dose in 83% of patients. Elevations in serum phosphorus and falls in serum total and ionised calcium from baseline occurred during the 24 hours after administration of oral sodium phosphate solution in seven healthy volunteers. These changes were not associated with significant changes in clinical assessments. The decrease in serum potassium levels after administration of oral sodium phosphate solution was negatively correlated with baseline intracellular potassium levels. A regimen that administered the first dose of sodium phosphate on the previous evening and a second dose on the morning of the procedure (10-12 hours apart) was significantly more effective than PEG-based regimens for colorectal cleansing in preparation for colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy or colorectal surgery. A regimen that administered both doses of oral sodium phosphate on the day prior to the procedure offered no colorectal cleansing advantage over PEG

  9. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate solubilizing efficiencies of the strains were analyzed using different insoluble phosphorus sources and the results show that most isolates released a substantial amount of soluble phosphate from tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Screening for multiple plant growth promoting attributes ...

  10. Electrical properties of phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogus-Milankovic, A; Santic, A; Reis, S T; Day, D E

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

  11. Selective blockade of leukotriene production by a single dose of the FPL 64170XX 0.5% enema in active ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, J; Laursen, L S; Hillingsø, Jens

    1995-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism are thought to play a central role in the secondary amplification of the inflammatory response of several inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis. FPL 64170XX is a selective inhibitor of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase. Concentrations...... containing 0.5% of FPL 64170XX. Repeated measures analysis of leukotriene B4, after adjusting for baseline, showed a significant treatment effect (P = 0.0014). The concentration of leukotriene B4 from rectal dialysates in patients receiving the active drug dropped to 15% (95% confidence interval 5......-40%) of the placebo level in the second dialysis following administration of FPL 64170XX 0.5%. By contrast, prostaglanding E2 concentrations doubled (P = 0.0068) in patients receiving FPL 64170XX 0.5% with no change in the placebo group. These findings demonstrate that a single dose of FPL 64170XX 0.5% enema...

  12. Layup practices at EDF PWR fleet and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Olga Alos; Pablo, Sergio De Maria; Wintergerst, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    A proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. The layup control practices are necessary to prevent corrosion damage during shutdown and are an important part of the life time extension of a nuclear power plant. EDF operational experience in this area confirms that damage to plant equipment from improper layup procedures is a cause of reduced plant reliability and availability and can increase the corrosion products ingress into the SG during start-up. The plant preservation strategy applied across the EDF fleet is based on the following principles: Anticipated time frame of the required layup: short-term outages can become long-term outages, and can necessitate the use of unplanned preservation techniques. Dry layup for a long-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: condenser vacuum assisted draining at high temperature, estimation of air requirements (flow rate, humidity...) to guarantee the optimum conditions inside the system. Wet lay up for a short-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: system filled with operating medium, avoiding air ingress into the system, injection of chemical agents if necessary. Dry lay-up or wet lay up for the steam generators depending on maintenance work or radiation protection needed. This article presents the EDF layup program and the improvements in layup practices. It provides information on the layup procedures, best practices and recommendations, operating experience, considerations for different durations of outages; the implementation of a preservation working group, the selection of the systems that will be included in the lay-up program. Finally, future developments will be presented, such as the development of a 'convective model' to determine air requirements (humidity, flow rate...) and the drying rate to dry a heat exchanger. (author)

  13. HVAC System Replacements for the Spanish Nuclear Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.; Gensollen, T.; Pérez, C.

    2015-07-01

    The European Union and its Member States have established regulations to phase out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The chiller systems installed at the Spanish nuclear fleet contained zone depleting refrigerants (such as R-11, R-12, and R-22), which are being phased out of service. Due to the different material and thermodynamic properties of the replacement refrigerant (e.g. R-134A), a complete chiller system replacement is needed to comply with the EU regulations for CFCs. Delivering state of the art HVAC and Chiller systems that comply with the Nuclear Plant design basis, licensing basis, system and component specifications as well as European Union (EU) and Spanish codes and standards can be challenging for products purchased from US based manufacturers. Procurement specifications and Request for Quotes (RFQs) issued today for the procurement of original Plant components and systems will contain references to numerous codes and standards that were not in effect at the time the original components were specified and procured. The reference to EU and Spanish codes and standards that are unfamiliar to the HVAC suppliers can lead to uncertainty and concern related to specification compliance. The unnecessary burden of ambiguous codes and standards complicates the proposal process and introduces pricing uncertainty and contract risk. A review of the EU and Spanish national codes and standards that are often referenced in HVAC system related RFQs need to be performed to determine what codes and standards are applicable to HVAC systems designed, manufactured and tested in the US for export to Spain for installation in Spanish NPPs. Lessons learned and best practices should be applied to help both the Supplier (HVAC OEM) and the Purchaser Plant Operator) to optimize the procurement process and improve the quality of offerings to comply with applicable codes and standards. (Author)

  14. Averaged emission factors for the Hungarian car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haszpra, L. [Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, I. [Central Research Inst. for Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    The vehicular emission of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of NMHC in Hungary and in most of the industrialized countries. Non-methane hydrocarbon plays key role in the formation of photo-chemical air pollution, usually characterized by the ozone concentration, which seriously endangers the environment and human health. The ozone forming potential of the different NMHCs differs from each other significantly, while the NMHC composition of the car exhaust is influenced by the fuel and engine type, technical condition of the vehicle, vehicle speed and several other factors. In Hungary the majority of the cars are still of Eastern European origin. They represent the technological standard of the 70`s, although there are changes recently. Due to the long-term economical decline in Hungary the average age of the cars was about 9 years in 1990 and reached 10 years by 1993. The condition of the majority of the cars is poor. In addition, almost one third (31.2 %) of the cars are equipped with two-stroke engines which emit less NO{sub x} but much more hydrocarbon. The number of cars equipped with catalytic converter was negligible in 1990 and is slowly increasing only recently. As a consequence of these facts the traffic emission in Hungary may differ from that measured in or estimated for the Western European countries and the differences should be taken into account in the air pollution models. For the estimation of the average emission of the Hungarian car fleet a one-day roadway tunnel experiment was performed in the downtown of Budapest in summer, 1991. (orig.)

  15. Heuristic hybrid game approach for fleet condition-based maintenance planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Qiang; Bi, Xiong; Zhao, Xiujie; Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The condition-based maintenance (CBM) method is commonly used to select appropriate maintenance opportunities according to equipment status over a period of time. The CBM of aircraft fleets is a fleet maintenance planning problem. In this problem, mission requirements, resource constraints, and aircraft statuses are considered to find an optimal strategy set. Given that the maintenance strategies for each aircraft are finite, fleet CBM can be treated as a combinatorial optimization problem. In this study, the process of making a decision on the CBM of military fleets is analyzed. The fleet CBM problem is treated as a two-stage dynamic decision-making problem. Aircraft are divided into dispatch and standby sets; thus, the problem scale is significantly reduced. A heuristic hybrid game (HHG) approach comprising a competition game and a cooperative game is proposed on the basis of heuristic rule. In the dispatch set, a competition game approach is proposed to search for a local optimal strategy matrix. A cooperative game method for the two sets is also proposed to ensure global optimization. Finally, a case study regarding a fleet comprising 20 aircraft is conducted, with the results proving that the approach efficiently generates outcomes that meet the mission risk-oriented schedule requirement. - Highlights: • A new heuristic hybrid game method for fleet condition-based maintenance is proposed. • The problem is simplified by hierarchical solving based on dispatch and standby set. • The local optimal solution is got by competition game algorithm for dispatch set. • The global optimal solution is got by cooperative game algorithm between two sets.

  16. Addressing the minimum fleet problem in on-demand urban mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazifeh, M M; Santi, P; Resta, G; Strogatz, S H; Ratti, C

    2018-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have opened the way to new solutions for urban mobility that provide better ways to match individuals with on-demand vehicles. However, a fundamental unsolved problem is how best to size and operate a fleet of vehicles, given a certain demand for personal mobility. Previous studies 1-5 either do not provide a scalable solution or require changes in human attitudes towards mobility. Here we provide a network-based solution to the following 'minimum fleet problem', given a collection of trips (specified by origin, destination and start time), of how to determine the minimum number of vehicles needed to serve all the trips without incurring any delay to the passengers. By introducing the notion of a 'vehicle-sharing network', we present an optimal computationally efficient solution to the problem, as well as a nearly optimal solution amenable to real-time implementation. We test both solutions on a dataset of 150 million taxi trips taken in the city of New York over one year 6 . The real-time implementation of the method with near-optimal service levels allows a 30 per cent reduction in fleet size compared to current taxi operation. Although constraints on driver availability and the existence of abnormal trip demands may lead to a relatively larger optimal value for the fleet size than that predicted here, the fleet size remains robust for a wide range of variations in historical trip demand. These predicted reductions in fleet size follow directly from a reorganization of taxi dispatching that could be implemented with a simple urban app; they do not assume ride sharing 7-9 , nor require changes to regulations, business models, or human attitudes towards mobility to become effective. Our results could become even more relevant in the years ahead as fleets of networked, self-driving cars become commonplace 10-14 .

  17. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  18. Ultrasound guided reduction of an ileocolic intussusception by a hydrostatic method by using normal saline enema in paediatric patients: a study of 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digant, Shastri Mona; Rucha, Seth; Eke, Dessai

    2012-12-01

    The conventional hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception with barium enema or the pneumatic reduction of an intussusception is associated with considerable ionizing radiations and a risk of perforation; while the hydrostatic reduction of an intussusception under ultrasound guidance is a very safe method because the whole procedure is visualized with real time ultrasound. Also, being a non-invasive method with a high success rate, this procedure has emerged as a useful alternative to a surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound and colour Doppler studies for the guidance of the hydrostatic reduction of a childhood intussusception by using normal saline. Among 41 children who were evaluated with ultrasonography for the confirmation of the presence of intussusceptions, hydrostatic reduction of intussusception were performed under a sonographic guidance in 30 patients, whereas 11 patients were excluded due to clinical contraindications. This disease was observed mostly at the ages of 6 months to 24 months. In 80% of the patients, there was a recent history of gastroenteritis and 40 % had a history of common cold. The most common site of the intussusception was the transverse colon near the hepatic flexor of the colon (90%), with a mean duration of 22.1±17.3 hours. The overall rate of a successful reduction was 87% and the mean reduction time was 14 minutes. None of the cases showed recurrence within 24 hrs. No complications were observed. We conclude that ultrasound with colour Doppler study is very useful for the diagnosis of intussusceptions, as well as for guided hydrostatic reductions by using normal saline enema. This is an optimal, simple, and a safe procedure for the treatment of intussusceptions in paediatric patients.

  19. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  20. The Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations and its Potential Impact on Neighboring Countries. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport

  1. Cost, Energy, and Environmental Impact of Automated Electric Taxi Fleets in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gordon S; Greenblatt, Jeffery B; Gerke, Brian F

    2018-04-17

    Shared automated electric vehicles (SAEVs) hold great promise for improving transportation access in urban centers while drastically reducing transportation-related energy consumption and air pollution. Using taxi-trip data from New York City, we develop an agent-based model to predict the battery range and charging infrastructure requirements of a fleet of SAEVs operating on Manhattan Island. We also develop a model to estimate the cost and environmental impact of providing service and perform extensive sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our predictions. We estimate that costs will be lowest with a battery range of 50-90 mi, with either 66 chargers per square mile, rated at 11 kW or 44 chargers per square mile, rated at 22 kW. We estimate that the cost of service provided by such an SAEV fleet will be $0.29-$0.61 per revenue mile, an order of magnitude lower than the cost of service of present-day Manhattan taxis and $0.05-$0.08/mi lower than that of an automated fleet composed of any currently available hybrid or internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). We estimate that such an SAEV fleet drawing power from the current NYC power grid would reduce GHG emissions by 73% and energy consumption by 58% compared to an automated fleet of ICEVs.

  2. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  3. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negotiation and independent negotiation is established, and the heuristic rules applied to global and local maintenance decision making is proposed. Based on Contract Net Protocol and the heuristic rules, the maintenance decision making algorithm is put forward. Finally, a fleet consisting of 10 aircrafts on a 3-wave continuous mission is illustrated to verify this method. Simulation results indicate that this method can improve the availability of the fleet, meet mission demands, rationalize the utilization of support resources and provide support for online maintenance decision making among a mission oriented fleet.

  4. Clinical and economic impact of using macrogol 3350 plus electrolytes in an outpatient setting compared to enemas and suppositories and manual evacuation to treat paediatric faecal impaction based on actual clinical practice in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Candy, David C A; Clegg, John P; Edwards, Di; Helter, Marianne T; Dale, Anne K; Fell, John; Cosgrove, Michael; Debelle, Geoffrey

    2007-09-01

    To estimate the clinical and economic impact of using macrogol 3350 plus electrolytes (macrogol 3350; Movicol; Movicol Paediatric Plain) in an outpatient setting compared to enemas and suppositories and manual evacuation to treat paediatric faecal impaction. A chart review was undertaken to extract clinical outcomes and resource use from the case notes of a cohort of children aged 2-11 years with faecal impaction who initially received either macrogol 3350 (in an outpatient setting) or enemas and suppositories or manual evacuation for initial disimpaction. Five centres across England and Wales participated in the study. These data were used to inform a decision model which depicted the management of children during the disimpaction phase and for a period of 12 weeks following initial disimpaction. Unit resource costs at 2005/2006 prices were applied to the resource utilisation estimates within the model, enabling the incremental costs and consequences of using macrogol 3350 in an outpatient setting, compared to the other treatments, to be estimated. 112 patients treated with macrogol 3350, 101 who received enemas and suppositories and 11 who underwent a manual evacuation were eligible for analysis. Ninety-seven per cent of children treated with macrogol 3350 were successfully disimpacted within 5 days, compared to 73% of those who received enemas and suppositories and 89% of those who underwent a manual evacuation (p suppositories and manual evacuation respectively; p suppositories or underwent a manual evacuation, respectively. Hence, using macrogol 3350 instead of enemas and suppositories and manual evacuation to disimpact the whole annual cohort of faecally impacted children aged 2-11 years in England could potentially reduce annual NHS expenditure on this condition by 59% (5 million pounds sterling) and reduce the annual number of paediatric hospital admissions for this condition by 92% (4330). Within the limitations of our model, macrogol 3350 affords the NHS

  5. A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei

    In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market

  6. New logistical issues in using electric vehicle fleets with battery exchange infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Adler, Jonathan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels that are more sustainable. The electric vehicle (EV) is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which "refuels" by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses some new logistical issues that must be addressed by such EV fleets, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each EV's set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges. In particular, the paper addresses (1......) the routing and scheduling of the fleet, (2) the locations of battery-exchange stations, and (3) the sizing of each facility. An overview of the literature on the topic is provided and some initial results are presented. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  7. Increased sharing of renewable energies in the electricity production system: what impact on the reactor fleet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cany, C.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Mansilla, C.; Mathonniere, G.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the flexibility of an individual reactor and of the complete fleet of reactors as a means to cope with the variability of renewable energies like solar or wind energies. Flexibility means the ability for load following and this ability is limited by both safety rules and limits on the release of radionuclides in the environment. The flexibility of the fleet depends on individual reactor flexibility but also on organisational and economic constraints. The participation of a reactor to load following depends on: its availability (not in maintenance or testing phase), its position in the cycle, the positioning of its scheduled shutdowns and the minimization of the volume of effluents. The study presents the future need of flexibility for the reactor fleet as the shares of wind and solar energies increase in the French energy mix. (A.C.)

  8. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  9. A multi-species multi-fleet bioeconomic simulation model for the English Channel artisanal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Le Gallic, B.; Dunn, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Considering the large number of technical interactions between various fishing activities, the English Channel (ICES divisions VIId and VIIe) fisheries may be regarded as one large and diverse multi-country, multi-gear and multi-species artisanal fishery, although rarely studied as such. A whole...... of the model is to study the long-term consequences of various management alternatives on the economic situation of the English and French fleets fishing in the area and on exploited resources. The model describes this feature through the links between three entities on the one hand (stocks, fleets...... and "metiers", i.e. gear x target species x fishing area), and three modules on the other hand (activity, biological production and economics). The model is described and some simulation results are presented. An example simulating a decrease of one fleet segment effort illustrates these technical interactions...

  10. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  11. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  12. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Andrea E.; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  13. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  14. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  15. Application of GPS data for benefits of air quality assessment and fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Song; Fat Lam, Yun; Cheong Ying, Chi; Chan, Ka Lok

    2017-04-01

    In the modern digitizedsociety, traffic data can be easily collected for use in roadway development, urban planning and vehicle emission. These data are then further parameterized to support traffic simulation and roadside emission calculations. With the commercialization of AGPS/GPS technology, GPS data are widely utilized to study habit and travelling behaviors. GPS on franchised buses can provide not only positioning information for fleet management but also raw data to analyze traffic situations. In HK, franchised buses account for 6% of RSP and 20% of NOx emissions among the whole vehicle fleet. Being the most heavily means of public transport, the setting up of bus travelling trajectories and service frequency always raise concern from citizens. On this basis, there is an increasing interest and as well as to design and realize an effective cost benefit fleet management strategy. In this study, data collection analysis is carried out on all bus routes (i.e. 112) in Shatin district, one of the 18 districts in Hong Kong. The GPS/AGPS data through Esri ArcGIS investigate the potential benefit of GPS data in different emission scenarios (such as engine type over whole bus fleet). Building on the emission factors from EMFC-HK model, we accounted for factors like travelling distance, idling time, occupancy rate, service frequency, tire and break emissions. Through the simple emission developed model we demonstrate how GPS are data are utilized to assess bus fleet emissions. Further amelioration on the results involve tuning the model with field measurement so as to assess district level emission change after fleet optimization.

  16. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF A FLEET OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND TRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Korotchenya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An indicator for an integral assessment of efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors is proposed. Its calculating consists in multiplying partial efficiencies together: technical and price efficiency of agricultural production, and eco-efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors. Using an axiomatic method, the concept of efficiency of fleet was studied within broader category of productivity and in wider scales - within agriculture. The most general and obvious statements according to which efficiency of machine and tractor fleet is considered as indirectly settlement size counted proceeding from efficiency of agricultural production, were accepted as axioms. In general, efficiency is a ratio between productivity of an object in question and that of the theoretical ideal or an object with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted equal to unity or 100%. Technical efficiency of agricultural production characterizes the ability of an agricultural sector to produce the technically maximum output of agricultural produce obtained from the available resources (land, labor, machines, etc.. Price efficiency evaluates the ability of an agricultural sector to produce output of agricultural produce with regard to employing the optimal mix of resources given their prices. Because the theoretical ideal does not exist, efficiency of an agricultural sector, e.g. in Russia and of its fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors, is measured against agriculture of another country with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted as equal to unity or 100 percent. The calculation can be made on the basis of the Data Envelopment Analysis method. It is possible to calculate price and economic efficiency of Russian agriculture (fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors due to use its domestic prices.

  17. CEMENT TRANSPORTATION LIMITED-FLEET MODELING AND ASSIGNING TO RATED DEMANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes MASHHADI BANDANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is an inseparable part of the supply chain, with a key role in product distribution. This role is highlighted when ratio of “the cost of transportation” to “the value of goods” such as cement is significant. Iran has recently become one of the main centers of cement production in the world. However, transportation is the most important challenge in cement distribution because of weak structure of the transportation fleet and its independent action. Independence of and lack of commitment on the part of transportation fleets to cement companies as well as lack of timely delivery due to shortage of transportation in some routes and seasons lead to customers` dissatisfaction and even market loss or lack of market development. One of the significant differences between the transportation system in Iran and that in developed countries is lack of complete productivity of the transportation fleet. It means that trucks are driver-based in Iran. This paper introduces a model considering some issues such as driver-based trucks, size of the transportation fleet based on the number of active trucks, and demand priorities in the cement company. Taking the relation between the number of active trucks and the cement company into account, this model assigns weekly demands to the transportation fleet. It also tries to minimize the delay to respond to demands and increases the efficiency of the transportation fleet. Finally, this current condition-based model is compared with two other models including “no constraints on different routes of trucks” as well as single-route model for trucks.

  18. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  19. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO 2 e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  20. MPC and A enhancements for the Murmansk shipping company icebreaker fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoch, O.; Bondarev, N.; Caskey, D.; Forehand, M.; Lambert, D.; Maltsev, V.; O'Brien, M.; Gardner, B.; Tittemore, G.

    1999-01-01

    The United States and the Russian Federation entered into a cooperative agreement in 1994 that resulted in a nuclear weapons non-proliferation program within the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) currently known as the Russia/Newly Independent States (NIS) Nuclear Material Security Task Force. In 1996, a project was initiated with the Murmansk Shipping Company to enhance material protection, control, and accounting of highly enriched nuclear fuel assemblies used for the Icebreaker Fleet. The commissioning ceremony for this project is scheduled for August 1999. This paper describes the physical protection, material control, and accounting measures implemented for the Icebreaker Fleet

  1. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  2. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J.

    2017-10-02

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  3. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonzales, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  4. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  5. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  6. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  7. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  8. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  9. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-01-01

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  10. CoalFleet for tomorrow. An industry initiative to accelerate the deployment of advanced coal-based generation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J. [Electric Power Research Institute (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The industry initiative 'CoalFleet for tomorrow' was launched in November 2004 to accelerate the deployment and commercialization of clean, efficient, advanced coal power systems. This paper discusses the structure of CoalFleet and its strategy for reducing the cost, leadtime and risk of deploying advanced coal technologies such as combined-cycle power plants. 6 figs.

  11. The change of radiation doses to the patient when switching from conventional technique to digital technique without films in barium enema and IVU examinations. Final report SSI research project P933

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöholm, B

    2003-01-01

    X-ray examinations of the colon (barium enema) and the kidneys (IVU) are combined with rather high radiation doses to the patients when using analogue technique with film-screen systems. It is therefore of great interest to see if the change from analogue to digital technique involves a reduction of doses. Barium enema and IVU examinations were monitored with DAP-meters before and after the X-ray department changed to digital techniques. For IVU also the change from storage phosphor plates to a Direct Digital detector is included. The study comprises between 53 and 87 patients for each modality of the two examinations. A considerable dose reduction was observed. In barium enema the overview images with large field sizes were omitted when using digital technique. On the other hand the number of spot images was increased from 6 to 22. The fluoroscopy time was increased from 4 minutes to 6 minutes. The DAP value was reduced from 54,3 Gy cm sup 2 to 21,9 Gy cm sup 2. For IVU a dose reduction from 44,5 Gy cm sup 2...

  12. Uranium abundance in some sudanese phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.A.; Eltayeb, M.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out mainly to analysis of some Sudanese phosphate ores, for their uranium abundance and total phosphorus content measured as P 2 O 5 %. For this purpose, 30 samples of two types of phosphate ore from Eastern Nuba Mountains, in Sudan namely, Kurun and Uro areas were examined. In addition, the relationship between uranium and major, and trace elements were obtained, also, the natural radioactivity of the phosphate samples was measured, in order to characterize and differentiate between the two types of phosphate ores. The uranium abundance in Uro phosphate with 20.3% P 2 O 5 is five time higher than in Kurun phosphate with 26.7% P 2 O 5 . The average of uranium content was found to be 56.6 and 310 mg/kg for Kurun and Uro phosphate ore, respectively. The main elements in Kurun and Uro phosphate ore are silicon, aluminum, and phosphorus, while the most abundant trace elements in these two ores are titanium, strontium and barium. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that uranium in Kurun phosphate shows strong positive correlation with P 2 O 5 , and its distribution is essentially controlled by the variations of P2O5 concentration, whereas uranium in Uro phosphate shows strong positive correlation with strontium, and its distribution is controlled by the variations of Sr concentration. Uranium behaves in different ways in Kurun phosphate and in Uro phosphate. Uro phosphate shows higher concentrations of all the estimated radionuclides than Kurun phosphate. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that Uro phosphate is consider as secondary uranium source, and is more suitable for uranium recovery, because it has high uranium abundance and low P 2 O 5 %, than Kurun phosphate. (authors) [es

  13. Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis ) rhizosphere in Cameroon. ... While the use of soluble mineral phosphate fertilizers is the obvious best means to combat phosphate ... in order to improve agricultural production, using low inputs technology. Isolates ...

  14. Using Discrete Event Simulation To Analyze Personnel Requirements For The Malaysian Armys New Utility Helicopter Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    HELICOPTER FLEET Hasnan bin Mohamad Rais Major, Malaysian Army B.S., University Technology of Malaysia , 2000 Submitted in partial...HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE POLICY B. The objective of MAA helicopter maintenance activities is to preserve helicopter safety and mission reliability to

  15. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion Dale [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  16. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ...-road or non-road vehicle. \\2\\ The definition of the term ``low-speed electric vehicle,'' as used... alternative fuel used in Federal fleet motor vehicles. This report also would include the alternative fuel...-- (1) a motor vehicle that operates solely on alternative fuel; or (2) a low-speed electric vehicle. (g...

  17. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  18. Something To Rely On : The Influence of Stable and Fleeting Drivers on Moral Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. van Houwelingen (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In virtually any situation we are bound to encounter short-lived influences that lure us to act in a certain way. The influence of such ‘fleeting drivers’ may or may not be in line our long-term goals and commitments (‘stable drivers’). Moral behaviour in particular

  19. Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

  20. Aging Military Aircraft Landscape : A Case for End-of-Life Fleet Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Military aircraft fleets are continuing to age despite increased structural integrity concerns and rising maintenance costs. Aircraft are not being replaced or retired in large numbers but are instead having their lives extended beyond their original design service lives. Because aging aircraft cost

  1. Towards the implementation of an integrated ecosystem fleet-based management of European fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascuel, D.; Merino, G.; Döring, R.D.; Druon, D.N.; Goti, L.; Guénette, S.; Macher, C.; Soma, K.; Travers-Trolet, M.; Mackinson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Celtic Sea and the North Sea as case studies, the fleet-based approach is shown to be the pathway to implement an effective ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in European seas. First, a diagnostic on the health of each ecosystem is proposed based on the reconstruction of

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  3. 75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... (NCSM 710) which include all waters within 100 yards from the vessels while underway in the Puget Sound... authorized by the COTP, Puget Sound or Designated Representative. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 a.m...

  4. 77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... temporary rule, call or email Lieutenant Junior Grade Anthony P. LaBoy, Sector Puget Sound, Waterways Management Division, U.S. Coast Guard; telephone 206-217-6323, email SectorPugetSound[email protected] . If you...

  5. Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

  6. Multi-objective decision-making model based on CBM for an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Lin, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Modern production management patterns, in which multi-unit (e.g., a fleet of aircrafts) are managed in a holistic manner, have brought new challenges for multi-unit maintenance decision making. To schedule a good maintenance plan, not only does the individual machine maintenance have to be considered, but also the maintenance of the other individuals have to be taken into account. Since most condition-based maintenance researches for aircraft focused on solely reducing maintenance cost or maximizing the availability of single aircraft, as well as considering that seldom researches concentrated on both the two objectives: minimizing cost and maximizing the availability of a fleet (total number of available aircraft in fleet), a multi-objective decision-making model based on condition-based maintenance concentrated both on the above two objectives is established. Furthermore, in consideration of the decision maker may prefer providing the final optimal result in the form of discrete intervals instead of a set of points (non-dominated solutions) in real decision-making problem, a novel multi-objective optimization method based on support vector regression is proposed to solve the above multi-objective decision-making model. Finally, a case study regarding a fleet is conducted, with the results proving that the approach efficiently generates outcomes that meet the schedule requirements.

  7. 77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children...-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...

  8. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Emmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  9. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  10. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  11. Fleet DNA Phase 1 Refinement & Phase 2 Implementation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Duran, Adam

    2015-06-11

    Fleet DNA acts as a secure data warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle data. It demonstrates that vehicle drive cycle data can be collected and stored for large-scale analysis and modeling applications. The data serve as a real-world data source for model development and validation. Storage of the results of past/present/future data collection efforts improves analysis efficiency through pooling of shared data and provides the opportunity for 'big data' type analyses. Fleet DNA shows it is possible to develop a common database structure that can store/analyze/report on data sourced from multiple parties, each with unique data formats/types. Data filtration and normalization algorithms developed for the project allow for a wide range of data types and inputs, expanding the project’s potential. Fleet DNA demonstrates the power of integrating Big Data with existing and future tools and analyses: it provides an enhanced understanding and education of users, users can explore greenhouse gases and economic opportunities via AFLEET and ADOPT modeling, drive cycles can be characterized and visualized using DRIVE, high-level vehicle modeling can be performed using real-world drive cycles via FASTSim, and data reporting through Fleet DNA Phase 1 and 2 websites provides external users access to analysis results and gives the opportunity to explore on their own.

  12. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... efficiency credits earned according to the provisions of § 86.1866-12(c); (iii) Off-cycle technology credits... change Selective Enforcement Auditing or in-use testing failures from a failure to a non-failure. The.... (l) Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average CO...

  14. The choice of leasing companies for automobile fleet updating on the basis of hierarchies analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorohov, А.

    2007-01-01

    The basic criteria of leasing companies choice by the transport enterprises for automobile fleet updating such as terms of financing, size of advance, assortment time of existence at the market, have been determined. The determination of the best leasing company according to these parameters on the basis of hierarchies analysis method has been offered.

  15. 76 FR 40617 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking process. Small businesses may send... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0505] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington AGENCY...

  16. Status of the French photovoltaic fleet on the 30 September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication first present some key data regarding photovoltaic energy production in France (connected and to be connected), and then presents the photovoltaic fleet (geographical distribution, installed power in metropolitan France, Corsica and ultramarine territories). It gives an overview of the evolution of connection request and queuing management in France and at the regional level

  17. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  18. Off-wing fleet maintenance study of a CFM56-3B turbofan engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An off wing fleet maintenance study of the CFM56-3B Turbofan engine that propels the Boeing 737-300 aircraft is presented. The engine performance and deteriorating behavior was modeled with a view to estimate the creep life consumption and operating severity. The predicted severity factor of each degradation was ...

  19. Fleet deployment, network design and hub location of liner shipping companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...

  20. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  1. Optimization of transit bus fleet's life cycle assessment impacts with alternative fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Tolga; Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer; Pazour, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Public transportation is one of the most promising transportation modes to reduce the environmental emissions of the transportation sector in the U.S. In order to mitigate the environmental impacts brought by the transit bus system, new energy buses are introduced into the vehicle market. The goal of this study is to find an optimal bus fleet combination for different driving conditions to minimize life cycle cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and conventional air pollutant emission impacts. For this purpose, a Multi-Objective Linear Programming approach is used to select the optimum bus fleet combinations. Given different weight scenarios, this method could effectively provide solutions for decision makers with various budget constraints or emission reduction requirements. The results indicate that in heavily congested driving cycles such as the Manhattan area, the battery electric bus is the dominant vehicle type, while the hybrid bus has more balanced performances in most scenarios because of its lower initial investment comparing to battery electric buses. Petroleum powered buses have seldom been selected by the model. The trade-off analysis shows that the overall greenhouse gas impact performance is sensitive to the life cycle cost after certain points, which could provide valuable information for the bus fleet combination planning. - Highlights: • Hybrid-Life Cycle Assessment analysis approach for transit bus operations. • Optimizing the economic and sustainability impacts of transit bus fleet operation. • CO 2 emissions and other air pollutants related health and environmental damage cost. • Trade-offs between CO 2 emissions and cost of transit bus fleet operation.

  2. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Christian von; Smith, Samuel; Ghanouni, Alex; Power, Emily; Wardle, Jane; Halligan, Steve; Lilford, Richard J.; Morton, Dion; Dadswell, Edward; Atkin, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE. (orig.)

  3. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Christian von; Smith, Samuel; Ghanouni, Alex; Power, Emily; Wardle, Jane [University College London, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College Hospital, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Lilford, Richard J. [Birmingham University, Department of Epidemiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morton, Dion [Birmingham University, Department of Surgery, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Dadswell, Edward; Atkin, Wendy [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE. (orig.)

  4. Preoperative assessment of intestinal endometriosis: A comparison of transvaginal sonography with water-contrast in the rectum, transrectal sonography, and barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, Valentino; Ghezzi, Fabio; Scarperi, Stefano; Raffaelli, Ricciarda; Cromi, Antonella; Franchi, Massimo

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of Transrectal Sonography (TRS) and a new technique, Transvaginal Sonography with Water-Contrast in the Rectum (RWC-TVS), in the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis, and the accuracy of Barium Enema (BE) and RWC-TVS in the detection of intestinal stenosis due to endometriosis. In a prospective study, we compared the findings of TRS and RWC-TVS performed before surgery with the operative and pathologic findings in 61 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopy or laparotomy for suspected rectosigmoid endometriosis. The accuracy of BE and RWC-TVS in the detection of intestinal stenosis was evaluated comparing the radiologic and ultrasonographic results with the macroscopic findings at surgery and pathology. RWC-TVS diagnosed rectosigmoid endometriosis with the same accuracy of TRS and was equally efficient as BE in the detection of a significant intestinal lumen stenosis. For the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of TRS and RWC-TVS were 88.2% and 96%, 80%, and 90%, 95.7%, and 98%, and 57.1% and 81.8%, respectively. For the detection of intestinal stenosis the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of BE and RWC-TVS were 93.7% and 87.5%, 94.2% and 91.4%, 88.2% and 82.3%, and 97% and 94.1%, respectively. RWC-TVS is a new, simple technique for a single-step and accurate preoperative assessment of rectosigmoid endometriosis.

  5. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wagner, Christian; Smith, Samuel; Halligan, Steve; Ghanouni, Alex; Power, Emily; Lilford, Richard J; Morton, Dion; Dadswell, Edward; Atkin, Wendy; Wardle, Jane

    2011-10-01

    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC). After ethical approval, 921 consenting patients with symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer who had been randomly assigned and completed either BE (N = 606) or CTC (N = 315) received a questionnaire to assess experience of the clinical episode including bowel preparation, procedure and complications. Satisfaction, worry and physical discomfort were assessed using an adapted version of a validated acceptability scale. Non-parametric methods assessed differences between the randomised tests and the effect of patient characteristics. Patients undergoing BE were significantly less satisfied (median 61, interquartile range [IQR] 54-67 vs. median 64, IQR 56-69; p = 0.003) and experienced more physical discomfort (median 40, IQR 29-52 vs. median 35.5, IQR 25-47; p < 0.001) than those undergoing CTC. Post-test, BE patients were significantly more likely to experience 'abdominal pain/cramps' (68% vs. 57%; p = 0.007), 'soreness' (57% vs. 37%; p < 0.001), 'nausea/vomiting' (16% vs. 8%; p = 0.009), 'soiling' (31% vs. 23%; p = 0.034) and 'wind' (92% vs. 84%; p = 0.001) and in the case of 'wind' to also rate it as severe (27% vs. 15%; p < 0.001). CTC is associated with significant improvements in patient experience. These data support the case for CTC to replace BE.

  6. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  7. Phosphate-a poison for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-10-01

    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (<5%) of the personal car fleets in BKK, HCMC, and Yangon. Euro3 was generally the most advanced technology found in other fleets in these cities. Motorcycles (MC) was the most dominant fleet in all cities, except in Yangon, where they were not allowed. Low vehicle speeds, mainly below 25 km/h, were observed for all vehicle types, indicating traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0

  9. Phosphate vibrations as reporters of DNA hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcelli, Steven

    The asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency is extraordinarily sensitive to its local solvent environment. Using density functional theory calculations on the model compound dimethyl phosphate, the asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency was found to shift linearly with the magnitude of an electric field along the symmetry axis of the PO2 moiety (i.e. the asymmetric phosphate stretch is an excellent linear vibrational Stark effect probe). With this linear relationship established, asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequencies were computed during the course of a molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated DNA. Moreover, contributions to shifts in the frequencies from subpopulations of water molecules (e.g. backbone, minor groove, major groove, etc.) were calculated to reveal how phosphate vibrations report the onset of DNA hydration in experiments that vary the relative humidity of non-condensing (dry) DNA samples.

  10. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  11. 77 FR 6080 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities to be conducted within the Atlantic Fleet... research activities conducted within the AFAST Study Area under regulations issued on January 22, 2009 (74... [[Page 6082

  12. Causes and consequences of fleet diversity in fisheries: The case of the Norwegian Barents Sea cod fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Eide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fisheries operate under fluctuating environmental conditions, targeting fish stocks that appear in varying densities in different areas, often with abrupt and unexpected local changes. Physical conditions, markets and management regulations constrain vessels in different and varying ways. These factors all contribute to forming the fleet diversity we find in most fisheries. Here, a simulation model of the Northeast Arctic cod fishery is used in order to investigate how this diversity is formed and maintained, assuming rational economic behaviour under varying combined constraints. The study also focuses on how the ability of vessels to find fish influences fleet diversity, profitability, stock development and seasonal profiles of the fishery. Results indicate that an increased ability to target the most profitable fishing grounds may influence fleet diversity positively or negatively, depending on overall exploitation level. High exploitation rates also increase the temporal fluctuations in fleet diversity and profits, which are amplified as the fish-finding ability increases.

  13. Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandivadekar, Anup; Cheah, Lynette; Evans, Christopher; Groode, Tiffany; Heywood, John; Kasseris, Emmanuel; Kromer, Matthew; Weiss, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term will require rapid penetration of these technologies into the vehicle fleet, and not all alternatives can meet both objectives simultaneously. Placing a much greater emphasis on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving vehicle performance can greatly reduce the required market penetration rates. Addressing the vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies and fuels

  14. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes...... detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...

  15. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each electric vehicle’s set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges....... In particular, the paper addresses the optimization and analysis of infrastructure design alternatives dealing with (1) the number of battery-exchange stations, (2) their locations, (3) the recharging capacity and inventory management of batteries at each facility, and (4) routing and scheduling of the fleet...

  16. Electric bus fleet size and mix problem with optimization of charging infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogge, Matthias; van der Hurk, Evelien; Larsen, Allan

    2018-01-01

    Battery electric buses are seen as a well-suited technology for the electrification of road-based public transport. However, the transition process from conventional diesel to electric buses faces major hurdles caused by range limitations and required charging times of battery buses. This work...... addresses these constraints and provides a methodology for the cost-optimized planning of depot charging battery bus fleets and their corresponding charging infrastructure. The defined problem covers the scheduling of battery buses, the fleet composition, and the optimization of charging infrastructure...... in a joint process. Vehicle schedule adjustments are monetized and evaluated together with the investment and operational costs of the bus system. The resulting total cost of ownership enables a comparison of technical alternatives on a system level, which makes this approach especially promising...

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS A CRITERION IN THE VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vujanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport represents an industry sector with intense energy consumption, the road transport sector within is the dominant subsector. The objective of the research presented in this paper is in defining the activities which applied within road freight transport companies contribute to enhancing vehicles' energy efficiency. Vehicle fleet operation management process effects on fuel consumption decrease have been looked into. Operation parameters that influence vehicle fuel consumption were analysed. In this sense, a survey has been realised in order to evaluate the vehicle load factor impact on the specific fuel consumption. Measures for enhancing vehicle's logistics efficiency have been defined. As a tool for those measures' implementation an algorithm for vehicle fleet operation management was developed which represented a basis for a dedicated software package development for vehicle dispatching process decision support. A set of measures has been recommended and their effects in fuel savings were evaluated.

  18. Waste minimization, recycling and reuse in operations support services fleet maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Government regulations and smart business practices demand that organizations dramatically reduce both the type and volume of waste generated by their operations. This article describes successful waste minimization and recycling programs created by the Fleet Maintenance, Operations Support Services Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company. These comprehensive programs have greatly reduced waste formerly produced in maintaining 3,528 government-owned vehicles and nearly 200 emergency power generators at the Hanford Site. The actions are integral to preventing future contamination of the Site as well as to cleaning up the complexity of wastes from almost 50 years of defense production. The results of the Fleet Maintenance programs are impressive, recording cost savings of $290,000 in fiscal year 1993 and $965,000 since 1988

  19. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system...... and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling...

  20. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.