WorldWideScience

Sample records for fleet fuel gaining

  1. Fueling Global Fishing Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyedmers, Peter H.; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, fossil fuels became the dominant energy input to most of the world's fisheries. Although various analyses have quantified fuel inputs to individual fisheries, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the global scale and to map the distribution of fuel consumed by fisheries. By integrating data representing more than 250 fisheries from around the world with spatially resolved catch statistics for 2000, we calculate that globally, fisheries burned almost 50 billion L of fuel in the process of landing just over 80 million t of marine fish and invertebrates for an average rate of 620 L/t. Consequently, fisheries account for about 1.2% of global oil consumption, an amount equivalent to that burned by the Netherlands, the 18th-ranked oil consuming country globally, and directly emit more than 130 million t of CO 2 into the atmosphere. From an efficiency perspective, the energy content of the fuel burned by global fisheries is 12.5 times greater than the edible protein energy content of the resulting catch

  2. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  3. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  4. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  5. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fleet Application for School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propane Buses Jan. 26, 2016 Video thumbnail for Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets Biodiesel thumbnail for Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama May 1, 2012 Video School Transportation Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for New Hampshire Cleans up with Biodiesel Buses

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  8. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel..., insert the following clause in contracts providing for Contractor management of the motor vehicle fleet... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle fleet...

  9. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of...-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets... regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel...

  10. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, J.; Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NO x emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  11. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet...

  13. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  14. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ...-road or non-road vehicle. \\2\\ The definition of the term ``low-speed electric vehicle,'' as used... alternative fuel used in Federal fleet motor vehicles. This report also would include the alternative fuel...-- (1) a motor vehicle that operates solely on alternative fuel; or (2) a low-speed electric vehicle. (g...

  15. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  16. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  17. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  18. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  19. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J.

    2017-10-02

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  20. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonzales, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  1. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-01-01

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  2. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  3. Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandivadekar, Anup; Cheah, Lynette; Evans, Christopher; Groode, Tiffany; Heywood, John; Kasseris, Emmanuel; Kromer, Matthew; Weiss, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term will require rapid penetration of these technologies into the vehicle fleet, and not all alternatives can meet both objectives simultaneously. Placing a much greater emphasis on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving vehicle performance can greatly reduce the required market penetration rates. Addressing the vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies and fuels

  4. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  5. Alternative Practices to Improve Surface Fleet Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    through changes in procedures and operational modifications. iENCON uses BBLs/hr (barrels per hour) to evaluate the change in fuel efficiency (Pehlivan...policies and procedures that can be changed to continue the Navy’s efforts in the reduction of fuel consumption. Chapter III addresses drift...and four main engines. In a “full power” lineup all four engines are online. In a “split plant” lineup two engines remain online, one per shaft

  6. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  7. Alternative Fuel Fleet Vehicle Evaluations | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    delivery, transit, and freight vehicles. Although biodiesel is the most commonly used alternative fuel in Diesel and Biodiesel Renewable diesel is a conventional petroleum diesel substitute produced from alternative to conventional diesel and does not require any vehicle modifications. Biodiesel is an oxygenated

  8. Impacts of the use of spent nuclear fuel burnup credit on DOE advanced technology legal weight truck cask GA-4 fleet size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasheran, A.S.; Boshoven, J.; Lake, B.

    1995-01-01

    The object of this paper is to study the impact of full and partial spent fuel burnup credit on the capacity of the Legal Weight Truck Spent Fuel Shipping Cask (GA-4) and to determine the numbers of additional spent fuel assemblies which could be accommodated as a result. The scope of the study comprised performing nuclear criticality safety scoping calculations using the SCALE-PC software package and the 1993 spent fuel database to determine logistics for number of spent fuel assemblies to be shipped. The results of the study indicate that more capacity than 2 or 3 pressurized water reactor assemblies could be gained for GA-4 casks when burnup credit is considered. Reduction in GA-4 fleet size and number of shipments are expected to result from the acceptance of spent fuel burnup credit

  9. Transport control of forest fuels by fleet manager, mobile terminals and GPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikanen, Lauri; Asikainen, Antti; Lehikoinen, Mikko

    2005-01-01

    Chip transportation is undertaken by private transportation enterprises that are contracted by a larger wood fuel trader. Compared with industrial roundwood supply the volumes and value of wood fuel supply are markedly lower. As a result, the possibilities to invest in information systems for transport management are limited. New portable, wireless communication techniques and internet-based systems for fleet management enable more cost-efficient control systems with low investment costs in hard and software and also low operating costs. Mobile handsets with GPS, digital road map display and global positioning systems (GPS) or general purpose radio service data transfer protocol can be used as mobile terminals in chippers and trucks. In addition, transport management personnel can use them to locate in-forest wood fuel storage piles into the map database as well as point suitable routing to the storage piles. In a pilot study, conducted in Central Finland, an internet based management tool, Arbonaut Fleet ManagerTM, was tailored for forest fuel supply chain management and trailed for three months. It was found that use of mobile handsets with GPS and map display assisted especially in exact location of in-forest wood fuel storage piles by managers. They assisted also trucks and chippers in navigation to storages and landings, but the screen was too small for reading during driving. The management system was found helpful in stock accounting and GPS-based vehicle tracking gave transportation distances directly for invoicing

  10. Transition to a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus fleet for Canadian urban transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducharme, P.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance (CTFCA), created by the Canadian Government as part of its 2000 Climate Change Action Plan, has commissioned MARCON-DDM's Hydrogen Intervention Team (HIT) to provide a roadmap for urban transit systems that wish to move to hydrogen fuel cell-powered bus fleets. HIT is currently in the process of gathering information from hydrogen technology providers, bus manufacturers, fuelling system providers and urban transit systems in Canada, the US and Europe. In September, HIT will be in a position to provide a preview of its report to the CTFCA, due for October 2004. The planned table of contents includes: TOMORROW'S FUEL CELL (FC) URBAN TRANSIT BUS - Powertrain, on-board fuel technologies - FC engine system manufacturers - Bus technical specifications, performances, operating characteristics - FC bus manufacturers TOMORROW'S FC TRANSIT PROPERTY - Added maintenance, facilities and fuelling infrastructure requirements - Supply chain implications - Environmental and safety issues - Alternative operational concepts PATHWAYS TO THE FUTURE - Choosing the future operational concept - 'Gap' assessment - how long from here to there? - Facilities and fleet adjustments, including fuelling infrastructure - Risk mitigation, code compliance measures TRANSITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS - Cost implications - Transition schedule (author)

  11. FleetDASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    FleetDASH helps federal fleet managers maximize their use of alternative fuel. This presentation explains how the dashboard works and demonstrates the newest capabilities added to the tool. It also reviews complementary online tools available to fleet managers on the Alternative Fuel Data Center.

  12. Fuel operation of EDF nuclear fleet presentation of the centralized organization for operational engineering at the nuclear generation division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The main feature of EDF Nuclear Fleet is the standardization, with 'series' of homogeneous plants (same equipment, fuel and operation technical documents). For fuel operation, this standardization is related to the concept of 'fuel management scheme' (typical fuel reloads with fixed number and enrichment of fresh assemblies) for a whole series of plants. The context of the Nuclear Fleet lead to the choice of a centralized organization for fuel engineering at the Nuclear Generation Division (DPN), located at UNIPE (National Department for Fleet Operation Engineering) in Lyon. The main features of this organization are the following: - Centralization of the engineering activities for fuel operation support in the Fuel Branch of UNIPE, - Strong real-time link with the nuclear sites, - Relations with various EDF Departments in charge of design, nuclear fuel supply and electricity production optimization. The purposes of the organization are: - Standardization of operational engineering services and products, - Autonomy with independent methods and computing tools, - Reactivity with a technical assistance for sites (24 hours 'hot line'), - Identification of different levels (on site and off site) to solve core operation problems, - Collection, analysis and valorization of operation feedback, - Contribution to fuel competence global management inside EDF. This paper briefly describes the organization. The main figures of annual engineering production are provided. A selection of examples illustrates the contribution to the Nuclear Fleet performance. (authors)

  13. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry - volume, fleet characteristics and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry in Denmark, using aggregate time series data for the period 1980–2007. The model captures the main linkages between the demand for freight transport, the characteristics of the vehicle fleet, and the demand for fuel. Results...... of this effect is approximately 10% in the short run and 17% in the long run, so that a 1% improvement in fuel efficiency reduces fuel use by 0.90% (short-run) to 0.83% (long-run). Second, we find that higher fuel prices raise the average capacity of trucks, and they induce firm sto invest in newer, typically...... more fuel efficient, trucks. Third, these adjustments and the rebound effect jointly imply that the effect of higher fuel prices on fuel use in the trucking industry is fairly small; estimated price elasticities are _0:13 and _0:22 in the short run and in the long run, respectively. The empirical...

  14. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  15. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  16. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  17. Fleet Purchase Behavior: Decision Processes and Implications for New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, Kevin; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle fleets are a poorly understood part of the economy. They are important, though, in that they purchase a large share of light-duty vehicles and are often targeted by governments as agents of change. We investigate fleet purchase behavior, using focus groups, interviews, and mail and telephone surveys. We categorize fleets into four different decision-making structures (autocratic, bureaucratic, hierarchic, and democratic), determine what share of the market sector each represents, d...

  18. Optimizing in-bay fuel inspection capability to meet the needs of today's CANDU fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, J.; Simons, B.

    2013-01-01

    With the recent return to service of many CANDU units, aging of all others, increasingly competitive energy market and aging hot cell infrastructure - there exists now a greater need for timely, cost-effective and reliable collection of irradiated fuel performance information from fuel bay inspections. The recent development of simple in-bay tools, used in combination with standardized technical specifications, inspection databases and assessment techniques, allows utilities to characterize the condition of irradiated fuel and any debris lodged in the bundle in a more timely fashion and more economically than ever. Use of these tools and 'advanced' techniques permits timely engineering review and disposition of emerging issues to support reliable operation of the CANDU fleet. (author)

  19. Optimizing in-bay fuel inspection capability to meet the needs of today's CANDU fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Pierre, J., E-mail: joe.st-pierre@amec.com [AMEC NSS, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Simons, B. [Stern Laboratories Incorporated, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    With the recent return to service of many CANDU units, aging of all others, increasingly competitive energy market and aging hot cell infrastructure - there exists now a greater need for timely, cost-effective and reliable collection of irradiated fuel performance information from fuel bay inspections. The recent development of simple in-bay tools, used in combination with standardized technical specifications, inspection databases and assessment techniques, allows utilities to characterize the condition of irradiated fuel and any debris lodged in the bundle in a more timely fashion and more economically than ever. Use of these tools and 'advanced' techniques permits timely engineering review and disposition of emerging issues to support reliable operation of the CANDU fleet. (author)

  20. Who pays and who gains from fuel policies in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Madhu; Nuñez, Hector M.; Zilberman, David

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has pursued a mix of policy interventions in the fuel sector to achieve multiple objectives of economic and social development, promoting biofuels and reducing dependence on oil. We develop an economic framework to provide insight on the fuel policy choices in Brazil and to analyze the trade-offs they have engendered in the fuel and sugar sectors. We also examine their distributional impacts on producers and consumers in the sugar, oil and biofuel sectors and on government revenues. Additionally, we undertake a normative analysis for the purpose of comparing the welfare and environmental impacts of existing policies with those justified by the goal of maximizing social welfare and addressing market failure. The ex-post analysis of the outcomes for different stakeholders in the fuel and sugar sectors provides insights on the likely political-economic factors guiding policy choices. We find that the status quo policies are likely to have been motivated by the objectives of increasing oil exports, raising government revenue and promoting rural development through the sugarcane sector and have had a significant adverse effect on fuel and sugar consumers, aggregate social welfare and greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil. - Highlights: • Relative to a no-policy baseline, status quo fuel policies in Brazil have increased oil exports and government revenue. • These policies benefited the sugarcane producing sector but had a significant adverse effect on fuel and sugar consumers. • These policies have adversely affected aggregate social welfare and greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil. • The cap on domestic oil price provides a marginal gain to fuel and sugar consumers but lower aggregate social welfare.

  1. Optimization of transit bus fleet's life cycle assessment impacts with alternative fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Tolga; Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer; Pazour, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Public transportation is one of the most promising transportation modes to reduce the environmental emissions of the transportation sector in the U.S. In order to mitigate the environmental impacts brought by the transit bus system, new energy buses are introduced into the vehicle market. The goal of this study is to find an optimal bus fleet combination for different driving conditions to minimize life cycle cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and conventional air pollutant emission impacts. For this purpose, a Multi-Objective Linear Programming approach is used to select the optimum bus fleet combinations. Given different weight scenarios, this method could effectively provide solutions for decision makers with various budget constraints or emission reduction requirements. The results indicate that in heavily congested driving cycles such as the Manhattan area, the battery electric bus is the dominant vehicle type, while the hybrid bus has more balanced performances in most scenarios because of its lower initial investment comparing to battery electric buses. Petroleum powered buses have seldom been selected by the model. The trade-off analysis shows that the overall greenhouse gas impact performance is sensitive to the life cycle cost after certain points, which could provide valuable information for the bus fleet combination planning. - Highlights: • Hybrid-Life Cycle Assessment analysis approach for transit bus operations. • Optimizing the economic and sustainability impacts of transit bus fleet operation. • CO 2 emissions and other air pollutants related health and environmental damage cost. • Trade-offs between CO 2 emissions and cost of transit bus fleet operation.

  2. The Effect of Converting to a U.S. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet on Emissions and Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    This study analyzes the potential change in emissions and energy use from replacing fossil-fuel based vehicles with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This study examines three different hydrogen production scenarios to determine their resultant emissions and energy usage: hydrogen produced via 1) steam reforming of methane, 2) coal gasification, or 3) wind electrolysis. The atmospheric model simulations require two primary sets of data: the actual emissions associated with hydrogen fuel production and use, and the corresponding reduction in emissions associated with reducing fossil fuel use. The net change in emissions is derived using 1) the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory (NEI) that incorporates several hundred categories of on-road vehicles and 2) a Process Chain Analysis (PCA) for the different hydrogen production scenarios. NEI: The quantity of hydrogen-related emission is ultimately a function of the projected hydrogen consumption in on-road vehicles. Data for hydrogen consumption from on-road vehicles was derived from the number of miles driven in each U.S. county based on 1999 NEI data, the average fleet mileage of all on-road vehicles, the average gasoline vehicle efficiency, and the efficiency of advanced 2004 fuel cell vehicles. PCA: PCA involves energy and mass balance calculations around the fuel extraction, production, transport, storage, and delivery processes. PCA was used to examine three different hydrogen production scenarios: In the first scenario, hydrogen is derived from natural gas, which is extracted from gas fields, stored, chemically processed, and transmitted through pipelines to distributed fuel processing units. The fuel processing units, situated in similar locations as gasoline refueling stations, convert natural gas to hydrogen via a combination of steam reforming and fuel oxidation. Purified hydrogen is compressed for use onboard fuel cell vehicles. In the second scenario, hydrogen is derived from coal, which is extracted from

  3. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  4. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  5. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets : Current Status 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including d...

  6. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets : Current Status 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of ...

  7. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of ...

  8. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  9. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  10. Fossil fleet transition with fuel changes and large scale variable renewable integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Revis [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hesler, Stephen [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bistline, John [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Variability in demand as seen by grid-connected dispatchable generators can increase due to factors such as greater production from variable generation assets (for example, wind and solar), increased reliance on demand response or customer-driven automation, and aggregation of loads. This variability results a need for these generators to operate in a range of different modes, collectively referred to as “flexible operations.” This study is designed to inform power companies, researchers, and policymakers of the scope and trends in increasing levels of flexible operations as well as reliability challenges and impacts for dispatchable assets. Background Because there is rarely a direct monetization of the value of operational flexibility, the decision to provide such flexibility is typically dependent on unit- and region-specific decisions made by asset owners. It is very likely that much greater and more widespread flexible operations capabilities will be needed due to increased variability in demand seen by grid-connected generators, uncertainty regarding investment in new units to provide adequate operational flexibility, and the retirement of older, uncontrolled sub-critical pulverized coal units. Objective To enhance understanding of the technical challenges and operational impacts associated with dispatchable assets needed to increase operational flexibility and support variable demand. Approach The study approach consists of three elements: a literature review of relevant prior studies, analysis of detailed scenarios for evolution of the future fleet over the next 35 years, and engineering assessment of the degree and scope of technical challenges associated with transformation to the future fleet. The study approach integrated two key elements rarely brought together in a single analysis—1) long-term capacity planning, which enables modeling of unit retirements and new asset investments, and 2) unit commitment analysis, which permits examination of

  11. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  12. AREVA's fuel assemblies addressing high performance requirements of the worldwide PWR fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anniel, Marc; Bordy, Michel-Aristide

    2009-01-01

    Taking advantage of its presence in the fuel activities since the start of commercial nuclear worldwide operation, AREVA is continuing to support the customers with the priority on reliability, to: >participate in plant operational performance for the in core fuel reliability, the Zero Tolerance for Failure ZTF as a continuous improvement target and the minimisation of manufacturing/quality troubles, >guarantee the supply chain a proven product stability and continuous availability, >support performance improvements with proven design and technology for fuel management updating and cycle cost optimization, >support licensing assessments for fuel assembly and reloads, data/methodologies/services, >meet regulatory challenges regarding new phenomena, addressing emergent performance issues and emerging industry challenges for changing operating regimes. This capacity is based on supplies by AREVA accumulating very large experience both in manufacturing and in plant operation, which is demonstrated by: >manufacturing location in 4 countries including 9 fuel factories in USA, Germany, Belgium and France. Up to now about 120,000 fuel assemblies and 8,000 RCCA have been released to PWR nuclear countries, from AREVA European factories, >irradiation performed or in progress in about half of PWR world wide nuclear plants. Our optimum performances cover rod burn ups of to 82GWD/tU and fuel assemblies successfully operated under various world wide fuel management types. AREVA's experience, which is the largest in the world, has the extensive support of the well known fuel components such as the M5'TM'cladding, the MONOBLOC'TM'guide tube, the HTP'TM' and HMP'TM' structure components and the comprehensive services brought in engineering, irradiation and post irradiation fields. All of AREVA's fuel knowledge is devoted to extend the definition of fuel reliability to cover the whole scope of fuel vendor support. Our Top Reliability and Quality provide customers with continuous

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buses Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Little Rock Gains Momentum with Natural Gas Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  14. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  15. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the seventh in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results from August 2012 through July 2013 for five FCEB demonstrations at four transit agencies.

  16. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-11

    This past year has been one of transition for the introduction of fuel cell transit buses. The existing generation of fuel cell buses from Van Hool and UTC Power has continued to operate in service at three transit agencies. At the same time, a new g...

  17. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-11

    his report is the fifth in a series of annual status reports that summarize the progress resulting from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations in the United States and provide a discussion of the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion in t...

  18. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets : Current Status 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the seventh in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. This r...

  19. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets : Current Status 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-12

    This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The repo...

  20. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chandler, Kevin [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results over the last year.

  1. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  2. Fundamentals of using bio-diesel for operating large fleets of mining equipment and building machines and the experience gained so far

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drebenstedt, C.; Jauer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Against the topical background of the finite reserves of fossil mineral oil as well as internationally available vegetable fat and oil resources, of the current developments in the field of the biodiesel production technology and of the international conditions for the reduction of CO 2 emissions, this paper is to examine, whether the suitability of bio-diesel for fuelling mining equipment has come true. The examination will focus on the biogenic fuel profile, on the organizational necessity to actively retrofit the machinery during operations as well as on the precise verification of the expected technical conversion problems and of the saving potentials actually achieved. The examination will be conducted in the world's first open-cast mine that has converted its entire fleet of equipment to be fuelled with bio-diesel. The open-cast mine is operated by the Ronneburg branch of Wismut GmbH, a company based in Germany (referred to hereinafter as the Lichtenberg open-cast mine). (orig.)

  3. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  4. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In September 2007, the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) published a report that reviewed past and present fuel cell bus technology development and implementation in the United States. That report reviewe...

  5. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chander, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2012-11-01

    This report is the sixth in an annual series of reports that summarize the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discuss the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report also provides a snapshot of current FCEB performance results over the last year. There are 25 active FCEBs in demonstrations this year at eight locations.

  6. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  7. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew B [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This annual status report combines results from all FCEB demonstrations, tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. These data and analyses help provide needed information to guide future early-stage research and development. The 2017 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2016 through July 2017. The primary results presented in the report are from five demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; AFCB Project at the University of California at Irvine; AFCB Project at Orange County Transportation Authority; and AFCB Project at Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

  8. Ohio's First Ethanol-Fueled Light-Duty Fleet: Final Study Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1998-10-01

    In 1996, the State of Ohio established a project to demonstrate the use of an ethanol blend (E85, which is 85% transportation-grade ethanol and 15% gasoline) as a transportation fuel in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). The study included ten FFVs and three gasoline vehicles (used as control vehicles) operated by five state agencies. The project included 24 months of data collection on vehicle operations. This report presents the data collection and analysis from the study, with a focus on the last year.

  9. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Start Up Experience: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2001-01-01

    UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies

  10. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  11. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, I.; Wessely, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  12. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  13. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  14. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  15. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  16. Changes of Air Pollution and Climate Forcing Emissions due to Fuel Switching to Gasohol in Motorcycle Fleet in an Urban Area of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattapon Onchang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the exhaust emission changed due to fuel switching to gasohol in actual motorcycles (MC fleet in Nakhon Pathom municipality, Thailand. International Vehicle Emissions (IVE model was applied by specifying the year 2010 as a base case and the target year of 2020 as Business as Usual (BAU. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and MC counting on selected roads during weekday and weekend were conducted. Fuel switching from gasoline octane number 91 to gasohol in all MC fleet in the municipality was set as a scenario according to current Thailand’s transport energy policies. Total pollution emissions reduction of the following pollutants after switching to gasohol E10 (10% of ethanol for all MC in the fleet compared to BAU were obtained: benzene (86%, 1,3-butadiene (69%, VOC (including evaporation (31% and CO (29%, while the following pollutants increased: acetaldehydes (>100%, formaldehydes (51%, NOx (9% and PM (5%. Gasohol use scenario produced larger amount of CO2 (29% and CH4 (9%. Only a small deviation of climate forcer emissions in CO2-equivalent (reduced by 8% for 20-year and increased by 2% for 100-year horizon were obtained. Switching to gasohol in MC fleet in Nakhon Pathom municipality unable to achieve air quality and climate co-benefit. Restriction of the local emission factors (EFs available for adjusting the model’s EFs can be influence to the emission calculation. Also, as PM was excluded from the calculation of GWP due to lack of OC and EC information, this can affect the analysis of climate forcer emissions.

  17. Comparative requirements for electric energy for production of hydrogen fuel and/or recharging of battery electric automobile fleets in New Zealand and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Paul [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Leaver, Jonathan D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Unitec NZ, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-10-15

    Within the current outlook for sustainable electric energy supply with concomitant reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, accelerated attention is focusing on the long-term development of hydrogen fuel cell and all-electric battery vehicles to provide alternative fuels to replace petroleum-derived fuels for automotive national fleets. The potential varies significantly between large industrially developed nations and smaller industrially developing nations. The requirement for additional electric energy supply from low-specific energy renewable resources and high-specific energy nuclear resources depends strongly on individual national economic, environmental, and political factors. Analysis of the additional electric energy supply required for the two potential large-scale technologies for fueling future national transportation sectors is compared for a large Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nation (USA) with a small OECD nation (New Zealand), normalized on a per-capita basis. (author)

  18. New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhao; Jin Yuefu; Wang Michael; Wei Wu

    2010-01-01

    A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7 L/100 km. The Phase 3 standard follows the evaluating system by specifying fuel consumption targets for sixteen individual mass-based classes. Different from compliance with the Phases 1 and 2 fuel consumption standards, compliance of the Phase 3 standard is based on corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) rates for individual automobile companies. A transition period from 2012 to 2014 is designed for manufacturers to gradually adjust their production plans and introduce fuel-efficient technologies. In this paper, we, the designers of the Phase 3 standard, present the design of the overall fuel consumption reduction target, technical feasibility, and policy implications of the Phase 3 standard. We also explore several enforcement approaches for the Phase 3 standard with financial penalties of non-compliance as a priority. Finally, we estimate the overall effect of the Phase 3 standard on oil savings and CO 2 emission reductions.

  19. Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

  20. Cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system

  1. Nuclear fleet: Today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.M.; Kovalenko, V.K.; Sinyaev, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Many years of operational experience have shown advantages of nuclear liner icebreakers over those burning fossil fuels primarily in ensuring reliable and stable shipping along the North Sea Route with an extended navigation season being realized. The advantages of the nuclear fleet are described

  2. Operational experience gained with the failed fuel rod detection system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.H.; Forch, H.

    1985-01-01

    Brown Boveri Reaktor GmbH together with Krautkramer Company developed such a FAILED FUEL ROD DETECTION SYSTEM (FFRDS) which allows to located defective fuel rods without dismantling the fuel assembly or pulling of individual rods. Since 1979 the FFRDS is employed successfully in various nuclear power plants in Europe, USA, Japan, and Korea. The short inspection time and the high reliability of the method make the FFRDS a true competitor to the sipping method. In this paper the authors discuss the method and the design of the system, the equipment set-up, its features and the experience gained so far. The system has been performed and automated to such an extent that within a short installation period series of fuel assemblies can be tested with relatively short intervals of time (5 minutes for BWR and 7 minutes for PWR fuel assemblies per side). The ability of the system for deployment under various conditions and the experience gained during the past six years have made this system universally applicable and highly sensitive to the requirements of NDT during outages and for transport of FAs to intermediate storage facilities. Comparison of FFRDS to conventional sipping has indicated in several instances that the FFRDS is superior to the latter technique

  3. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  4. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  5. Can propulsion and fuel diversity for the bus fleet achieve the win–win strategy of energy conservation and environmental protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Renjie; Wu, Ye; Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhou, Boya; Hao, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We first report WTW energy and environmental impacts of new-energy buses in China. • Both CNGV and BEV eliminate petroleum use but increase the burden of other fossil fuels. • BEV is the best to reduce WTW NO X and VOC emissions but no benefit for PM 2.5 and SO 2 . • CNGV has PM 2.5 emission reductions by 70% greater than DV but no benefit in GHG emissions. • HEV is the only option that can reduce energy use and pollutant emissions at the same time. - Abstract: China is facing serious issues involving energy sufficiency, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution caused partly by the rapid growth of vehicles. In order to relieve those problems, new energy vehicles are introduced into the bus and car market. We adopt life cycle analysis to evaluate the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and pollutant emissions from the traditional diesel bus and new energy buses, including diesel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compressed natural gas vehicles (CNGVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This study reports the current situation and projects future scenarios for the BEV bus for several regions in China due to significant regional differences in the power generation mix. Compared to the diesel bus, the HEV bus can reduce petroleum, fossil fuel use and CO 2 emissions by about 20%, and, at the same time, produce stable reduction benefits for all air pollutants. The CNG bus achieves reductions of WTW primary PM 2.5 emissions by 70% over its diesel counterpart and, of course, uses little petroleum; but increases fossil fuel consumption moderately and has no benefit in GHG emissions. The BEV bus can deliver a substantial petroleum consumption advantage and greatly reduce the WTW NO X , VOC and CO emissions; but, if the electricity is generated from burning coal, the BEV bus has no PM 2.5 emission benefit compared to the conventional diesel bus. Currently, the BEV bus increases fossil energy use and CO 2 emissions in the

  6. CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

  7. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing US cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This study investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. In addition, it assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  8. Improving fleet performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjist, S.

    2015-01-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  9. Stalin's Big Fleet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauner, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Although Dr. Milan Hauner's study 'Stalin's Big Fleet program' has focused primarily on the formation of Big Fleets during the Tsarist and Soviet periods of Russia's naval history, there are important lessons...

  10. Improving fleet performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramjist, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  11. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  12. Fleet retrofit report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests are evaluated of an avionics system which aids the pilot in making two-segment approaches for noise abatement. The implications are discussed of equipping United's fleet of Boeing 727-200 aircraft with two-segment avionics for use down to Category 2 weather operating minima. The experience is reported of incorporating two-segment approach avionics systems on two different aircraft. The cost of installing dual two-segment approach systems is estimated to be $37,015 per aircraft, including parts, labor, and spares. This is based on the assumption that incremental out-of-service and training costs could be minimized by incorporating the system at airframe overhaul cycle and including training in regular recurrent training. Accelerating the modification schedule could add up to 50 percent to the modification costs. Recurring costs of maintenance of the installation are estimated to be of about the same magnitude as the potential recurrent financial benefits due to fuel savings.

  13. A cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs

  14. Application of particle swarm optimization in gas turbine engine fuel controller gain tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri-Gh, M.; Jafari, S.; Ilkhani, M. R.

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the application of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for gain tuning of the gas turbine engine (GTE) fuel controller. For this purpose, the structure of a fuel controller is firstly designed based on the GTE control requirements and constraints. The controller gains are then tuned by PSO where the tuning process is formulated as an engineering optimization problem. In this study, the response time during engine acceleration and deceleration as well as the engine fuel consumption are considered as the objective functions. A computer simulation is also developed to evaluate the objective values for a single spool GTE. The GTE model employed for the simulation is a Wiener model, the parameters of which are extracted from experimental tests. In addition, the effect of neighbour acceleration on PSO results is studied. The results show that the neighbour acceleration factor has a considerable effect on the convergence rate of the PSO process. The PSO results are also compared with the results obtained through a genetic algorithm (GA) to show the relative merits of PSO. Moreover, the PSO results are compared with the results obtained from the dynamic programming (DP) method in order to illustrate the ability of proposed method in finding the global optimal solution. Furthermore, the objective function is also defined in multi-objective manner and the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is applied to find the Pareto-front for the problem. Finally, the results obtained from the simulation of the optimized controller confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach to design an optimal fuel controller resulting in an improved GTE performance as well as protection against the physical limitations.

  15. Definition of breeding gain for the closed fuel cycle and application to a gas cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, W. F. G.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. H. J. J.; Van Dam, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a definition is given for the Breeding Gain (BG) of a nuclear reactor, taking into account compositional changes of the fuel during irradiation, cool down and reprocessing. A definition is given for the reactivity weights required to calculate BG. To calculate the effects of changes in the initial fuel composition on BG, first order nuclide perturbation theory is used. The theory is applied to the fuel cycle of GFR600, a 600 MWth Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor. This reactor should have a closed fuel cycle, with a BG equal to zero, breeding just enough new fuel during irradiation to allow refueling by only adding fertile material. All Heavy Metal is recycled in the closed fuel cycle. The result is that a closed fuel cycle is possible if the reprocessing has low losses ( 238 U, 15% Pu, and low amounts of the Minor Actinides. (authors)

  16. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  17. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  18. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  19. Maximizing your fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J. [GE Capital Rail Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A series of viewgraphs were presented to illustrate this discussion which focused on the economics of the railroad environment in 2001 and beyond. Fleet productivity and customer relations were described. The viewgraphs were entitled: new car builds; fleet demographics for North American LPG/AA fleet; and, issues and trends of North American LPG/AA fleet. It was noted that there is a continued demand for North American LPG/AA fleet as cars are phased out. GE Capital Rail Services is addressing the future by focusing on the following four initiatives: service, globalization, building a six sigma company, and transforming into an e-business. The company's six sigma approach is based on customer orientation, safety and compliance, quality and reliability, productivity and planning, cost, and people and culture. The actions taken thus far have been a planned maintenance program, the relocation of safety valves, and the elimination of early failures. figs.

  20. Fleet Feedback and Fleet Efficiency Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Marine Corps have 10 years of experience implementing a telematics program and several lessons to share with partner agencies. This presentation details results of a Marine Corps survey as well as methods of using telematics to promote fleet efficiency and optimize the vehicle acquisition process.

  1. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  2. Fleet operator risks for using fleets for V2G regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Davion M.; Agarwal, Arun S.; Ayello, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Future fleets of vehicles may include electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) because of potential fuel savings. Recent demonstration of diesel parallel hybrids in a delivery fleet led to fuel economy improvements, and hybrid bus demonstrations exhibited twice the fuel economy of the conventional bus. Fleet ownership may include management of a fleet of vehicles as small as 10 units and as large as hundreds or thousands. In addition to fuel savings, the newer extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) and pure EVs permit vehicle to grid (V2G) opportunities. These V2G opportunities may present additional revenue for fleets by providing ancillary services to local grid independent system operators (ISOs), provided that the burden of driving and V2G services do not accelerate the degradation of the battery systems in these vehicles. The subject of this study is to determine the financial risks associated with accelerated battery degradation in a V2G-enabled EREV fleet expected to perform ancillary service duty while charging in addition to the normal loads of drive cycle duty. We determine that battery cycle life during V2G duty is a critical parameter, which can determine whether or not the business model is viable. - Highlights: ► V2G regulation cycle life of EREV batteries must be >50,000 cycles to be profitable. ► Present knowledge and test data about the impact of V2G cycles on battery life are limited. ► Replacement of batteries and energy throughput are major factors in the cost–benefit analysis. ► V2G fleet is not viable with present data but can be viable with some technical advancement.

  3. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  4. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  5. Fleet management performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The principle goal of this project was to enhance and expand the analytical modeling methodology previously developed as part of the Fleet Management Criteria: Disposal Points and Utilization Rates project completed in 2010. The enhanced and ex...

  6. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  7. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  8. Municipal green fleet management in Ontario: best practices manual 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, M.

    2008-07-01

    When households, institutional and commercial buildings, industry, and especially auto transportation use fossil fuel based energy, they generate carbon dioxide emissions. Considering the environmental concerns and the soaring fuel prices, this could be the opportunity for the municipal fleet operator to assume a leadership position regarding environmental issues and look for new cost efficiencies. To begin, a meticulous examination of the fuel expenditures, a good management approach of fleet operations and a clearly defined system or guidance for lowering fleet fuel costs would be helpful for municipal fleet managers. This document is involved in a pilot program aimed at helping Ontario municipalities understand and promote fleet efficiencies and obtain related environmental benefits. Existing and cost-effective automotive fleet management policies and practices that can mitigate pollution causing global warming are given in this guide. These policies and practices also allow money savings and contribute to a better workplace health and livability of the community. This document is based on the experience of fleet management experts and local governments in Ontario. 54 refs.

  9. On the energy gain enhancement of DT+D3He fuel configuration in nuclear fusion reactor driven by heavy ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khoshbinfar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that advanced fuels be employed in the second generation of nuclear fusion reactors. Theoretical calculations show that in such a fuel, a high plasma temperature about 100 keV is a requisite for reaction rate improvement of nuclear fusion. However, creating such a temporal condition requires a more powerful driver than we have today. Here, introducing an optimal fuel configuration consisting of DT and D-3He layers, suitable for inertial fusion reactors and driven by heavy ion beams, the optimal energy gain conditions have been simulated and derived for 1.3 MJ system. It was found that, in this new fuel configuration, the ideal energy gain, is 22 percent more comparing with energy gain in corresponding single DT fuel layer. Moreover, the inner DT fuel layer contributed as an ignition trigger, while the outer D3He fuel acts as particle and radiation shielding as well as fuel layer.

  10. How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumesnil, J.; Malvache, P.; Hugon, F.C.; Sollacaro, M.

    2006-01-01

    CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

  11. Magnox Fuel Cycles; Cycles des combustibles gaines de magnox; Toplivnye tsikly magnoks; Ciclos de combustible magnox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley, Warrington, Lancs (United Kingdom)

    1963-10-15

    The interaction between reactivity flux and temperature distributions and irradiation patterns caused by different refuelling policies is considered and present calculation methods outlined. Various refuelling schemes for both batch and continuous discharge systems are compared. The problem of the efficient irradiation of the first charge is considered together with delayed onset refuelling and shuffling schemes. The economic advantages and problems of using non-natural uranium in flattened reactors are discussed. The practical consideration of on-load refuelling schemes on new reactors are considered and reference is made to the experience gained on Bradwell and Berkeley. The effect of the variation of fuel cost and endurance on fuel-cycle economics is outlined. (author) [French] L'auteur etudie en premier lieu l'interaction entre les distributions de la temperature du flux et de la reactivite, d'une part, et le regime de l'irradiation, d'autre part, dans le cas de differents programmes de rechargement du combustible et il decrit brievement les methodes de calcul actuelles. Il compare ensuite differents programmes de rechargement du combustible pour le dechargement par lots et le dechargement continu. Il etudie le probleme de l'irradiation effica ce de la premiere charge dans le cadre de programmes de remplacement et de deplacement des cartouches a action retardee. Il analyse les avantages economiques de l'utilisatio n d'uranium non naturel dans les reacteurs a flux aplati et les problemes qu'elle pose. Il examine les aspects pratiques des programmes de rechargement en marche pour les nouveaux reacteurs, en se referant a l'experience acquise au moyen des reacteurs de Bradwell et de Berkeley. Enfin, il decrit brievement les effets des variations du cout et de la resistance du combustible sur l'economie des cycles de combustible. (author) [Spanish] La memoria estudia la interaccion entre el flujo de reactividad y la distribucion de temperaturas, asi como los

  12. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  13. Breeding gains of sodium-cooled oxide-fueled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mougniot, J.C.; Barre, J.Y.; Clauzon, P.; Ciacometti, C.; Neviere, G.; Ravier, J.; Sichard, B.

    Calculated values are presented for the breeding gains of French fast reactors, and the experimental uncertainties are discussed. The effect of various choices of planning on the breeding gains is next analyzed within the framework of classical concepts. In the final part, a new concept involving ''heterogeneous cores'' with a single enrichment zone is presented. This concept permits a significant improvement in the breeding gain and doubling time of fast reactors. (U.S.)

  14. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing U.S. cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. It assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  15. BioFleet case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    These six case studies examined the use of different biodiesel blends as fuel supply sources for businesses in British Columbia (BC). In the first case study, 6 municipalities participated in a pilot program designed to compare the performance of biodiesel and diesel fuels. Each municipality operated 2 base vehicles running on conventional diesel along with 2 similar vehicles which used biodiesel. Real time emissions tests and analyses of the vehicles using biodiesel were also conducted by 2 of the participating municipalities. All municipalities participating in the study agreed to purchase significant volumes of biodiesel. The second case study described a pilot study conducted by the City of Vancouver's equipment services branch in 2004. As a result of the study, the city now has over 530 types of equipment that use biodiesel. The third case study described a program designed by TSI Terminals in Vancouver to assess the emission reduction impact of using biodiesel at its port facility. Six different pieces of equipment were used to confirm that biodiesel could be used throughout the terminal. Test results confirmed that biodiesel blends could be used to reduce emissions. Overall emissions were reduced by 30 per cent. The fourth case study described a waste renderer that used a fleet of 36 trucks to deliver raw products to its plants. The company made the decision to use only biodiesel for its entire fleet of trucks. Since July 2005, the company has logged over 1.7 million km using biodiesel blends. The fifth case study described a salmon hatchery that switched from diesel to biodiesel in order to reduce emissions. The biodiesel blends are used to fuel the hatchery's 2 diesel generators. The hatchery has reduced emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by an estimated 1800 tonnes annually. The sixth case study described how the Township of Langley has started using biodiesel for its entire fleet of of approximately 250 pieces of equipment. The township has not

  16. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  17. Design and modelling of high gain DC-DC converters for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, D.; Karthigeyan, V.; Subhanu, B.; Ashwin, M.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    Transportation (Diesel and petrol internal combustion engine vehicles) approximately contributes to 25.5% of total CO2 emission. Thus diesel and petrol engine vehicles are the most dominant contributors of CO2 emission which leads global warming which causes climate change. The problem of CO2 emission and global warming can be reduced by focusing on renewable energy vehicles. Out of the available renewable energy sources fuel cell is the only source which has reasonable efficiency and can be used in vehicles. But the main disadvantage of fuel cell is its slow response time. So energy storage systems like batteries and super capacitors are used in parallel with the fuel cell. Fuel cell is used during steady state vehicle operation while during transient conditions like starting, acceleration and braking batteries and super capacitors can supply or absorb energy. In this paper a unidirectional fuel cell DC-DC converter and bidirectional energy storage system DC-DC converter is proposed, which can interface dc sources at different voltage levels to the dc bus and also it can independently control the power flow from each energy source to the dc bus and vice versa. The proposed converters are designed and simulated using PSIM version 9.1.1 and gate pulse pattern, input and output voltage waveforms of the converters for steady state operation are studied.

  18. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  19. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about biodiesel fueling infrastructure codes Case Studies California Ramps Up Biofuels Infrastructure Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate

  2. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  3. The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels Program Evaluation of EC-Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California Vehicle Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The EC-Diesel and particulate filter combination greatly reduced the particulate matter, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions of all vehicles tested in the program to date. Particulate matter reductions greater than 98% were achieved. For several vehicles tested, the PM and HC emissions were less than background levels. Based on preliminary statistical analysis, there is 95%+ confidence that EC-D and particulate filters reduced emissions from three different types of vehicles. A fuel consumption penalty was not detectable using the current test procedures and chassis dynamometer laboratory. Test vehicles equipped with the CRT and DPX particulate filters and fueled with EC-Diesel fuel have operated reliably during the program start-up period

  4. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  5. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R De La Rosa, NREL 34672 The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial vehicle operations data features Odyne-have tapped into Fleet DNA." The data-driven insight and decision-making capabilities

  6. A Framework for Creating Value from Fleet Data at Ecosystem Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Sini-Kaisu; Hanski, Jyri; Marttonen-Arola, Salla; Kärri, Timo

    2017-09-01

    As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambition of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal - to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possible, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  7. A FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING VALUE FROM FLEET DATA AT ECOSYSTEM LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini-Kaisu KINNUNEN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambi-tion of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal – to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possi-ble, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  8. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Science and Technology Highlights Highlights in Research & Development Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Key Research Results Achievement Built on over 11.5 million miles of vehicle operations data, Fleet DNA helps users

  9. Fleet management for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bsaybes, Sahar; Quilliot, Alain; Wagler, Annegret K.

    2016-01-01

    The VIPAFLEET project consists in developing models and algorithms for man- aging a fleet of Individual Public Autonomous Vehicles (VIPA). Hereby, we consider a fleet of cars distributed at specified stations in an industrial area to supply internal transportation, where the cars can be used in different modes of circulation (tram mode, elevator mode, taxi mode). One goal is to develop and implement suitable algorithms for each mode in order to satisfy all the requests under an economic point...

  10. Interfacing the existing cask fleet with the MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, J.W.; Hahn, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possibility of using the existing fleet of casks to achieve spent fuel receipt at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The existing cask fleet includes the NLI-1/2, the NAC-LWT, the TN-8 (and TN-8L), the TN-9, and the IF-300 casks. Other casks may be available, but their status is not certain. Use of the existing cask fleet at the MRS places additional design requirements on the system, and specifically affects the cask-to-MRS interface. The decision to use the existing cask fleet also places additional demands on training needs and operator certification, and the configuration management system. Some existing cask designs may not be able to mate with a bottom opening hot cell MRS. Use of the existing cask fleet also greatly increases the number of shipments that must be received, to the point that a facility larger than originally envisioned may be required

  11. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  12. Efficiency gain of solid oxide fuel cell systems by using anode offgas recycle - Results for a small scale propane driven unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Oelze, Jana; Lindermeir, Andreas; Spitta, Christian; Steffen, Michael; Küster, Torben; Chen, Shaofei; Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard

    The transfer of high electrical efficiencies of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) into praxis requires appropriate system concepts. One option is the anode-offgas recycling (AOGR) approach, which is based on the integration of waste heat using the principle of a chemical heat pump. The AOGR concept allows a combined steam- and dry-reforming of hydrocarbon fuel using the fuel cell products steam and carbon dioxide. SOFC fuel gas of higher quantity and quality results. In combination with internal reuse of waste heat the system efficiency increases compared to the usual path of partial oxidation (POX). The demonstration of the AOGR concept with a 300 Wel-SOFC stack running on propane required: a combined reformer/burner-reactor operating in POX (start-up) and AOGR modus; a hotgas-injector for anode-offgas recycling to the reformer; a dynamic process model; a multi-variable process controller; full system operation for experimental proof of the efficiency gain. Experimental results proof an efficiency gain of 18 percentage points (η·POX = 23%, η·AOGR = 41%) under idealized lab conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements of injector performance, stack fuel utilization and additional reduction of reformer reformer O/C ratio and system pressure drop are required to bring this approach into self-sustaining operation.

  13. Economics of symbiotic nuclear fleets at equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidaud, Adrien; Guillemin, P.; Lecarpentier, David

    2008-01-01

    Many decades of industrial experience have proven that thermal reactors are able to provide a safe, reliable and competitive source of electricity. The higher construction costs of fast reactors compared to thermal reactors could be compensated by their better use of fissile material during the probable fast development of nuclear energy in the first half of the century. Thus, despite the over-cost of their cores, on the longer term, fast reactors are expected to take the lead in the nuclear reactor race. In the mean term, multi-strata symbiotic parks, using high conversion-rate thermal reactors, may delay fast reactor start up. We compare projected fuel cycle costs and cost of electricity of various symbiotic nuclear fleets, on the basis of a simple economic model and elementary costs estimated on publicly available data. These parameters and their evolution over reactor-life time scale can hardly be estimated. That is why we look at the sensitivities of our results to large modifications of the input parameters. The aim of our simple economic model is to understand which reactor characteristics should be optimized to enhance their economic performance when working as a single symbiotic fleet. (authors)

  14. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  15. Anomaly Detection in a Fleet of Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fleet is a group of systems (e.g., cars, aircraft) that are designed and manufactured the same way and are intended to be used the same way. For example, a fleet...

  16. Time to retire : Indicators for aircraft fleets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aircraft fleets are aging alongside rising operations and support costs. Logisticians and fleet managers who better understand the milestones and timeline of an aging fleet can recognise potential savings. This paper outlines generalised milestones germane to military aircraft

  17. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Kristin S. [The George Washington University, 1776 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jefferson, Theresa [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1101 King St, Suite 610 Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  18. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Kristin S.; Jefferson, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  19. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: What Do the Drivers Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    survey of AFV fleet managers. Both the driver and the fleet manager reports are available in .pdf format through DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center home page on the World Wide Web . For a hard copy, call the

  20. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  1. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 3 : ITS fleet management technology resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In todays increasingly competitive economic environment, effective management of commercial vehicle fleets is important for all types of carriers and for the trucking industry as a whole. To meet fleet management needs, carriers increasingly are t...

  2. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  3. LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagnas, F.X.; Jeuland, N.; Fouquet, J.P.; Lauraire, S.; Coroller, P.

    2005-01-01

    LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

  4. NATIONAL FLEET DEVELOPMENT IN THE INNOVATIVE ECONOMY. CASE STUDY OF THE GREEK FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Grzybowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the development of the Greek fleet in the period of last ten years was discussed. The Greek fleet is an example of accommodating itself to the requirements of the global and innovative economy. Greek shipowners are developing their fleets through the consolidation and replacing older ships with new generation vessels. They are invest-ing into ships adapted for new markets, including LNG maritime transport market. As a result of it Greece became a market leader in maritime transport sector and their fleet a biggest and youngest fleet of world in 2016.

  5. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  6. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  7. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  8. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 which are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  9. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; McCreery, P.N.; Shappert, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  10. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  11. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to address rising fuel costs and environmental concerns, many transit agencies across Florida have introduced alternative fuel technologies to their traditional diesel-powered fleets. Fuel types include biodiesel, compressed natural gas,...

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS A CRITERION IN THE VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vujanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport represents an industry sector with intense energy consumption, the road transport sector within is the dominant subsector. The objective of the research presented in this paper is in defining the activities which applied within road freight transport companies contribute to enhancing vehicles' energy efficiency. Vehicle fleet operation management process effects on fuel consumption decrease have been looked into. Operation parameters that influence vehicle fuel consumption were analysed. In this sense, a survey has been realised in order to evaluate the vehicle load factor impact on the specific fuel consumption. Measures for enhancing vehicle's logistics efficiency have been defined. As a tool for those measures' implementation an algorithm for vehicle fleet operation management was developed which represented a basis for a dedicated software package development for vehicle dispatching process decision support. A set of measures has been recommended and their effects in fuel savings were evaluated.

  13. Multiobjective optimization for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios using COSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freynet David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of various fleet evolution options on material inventories and flux in fuel cycle and waste can be analysed by means of transition scenario studies. The COSI code is currently simulating chronologically scenarios whose parameters are fully defined by the user and is coupled with the CESAR depletion code. As the interactions among reactors and fuel cycle facilities can be complex, and the ways in which they may be configured are many, the development of optimization methodology could improve scenario studies. The optimization problem definition needs to list: (i criteria (e.g. saving natural resources and minimizing waste production; (ii variables (scenario parameters related to reprocessing, reactor operation, installed power distribution, etc.; (iii constraints making scenarios industrially feasible. The large number of scenario calculations needed to solve an optimization problem can be time-consuming and hardly achievable; therefore, it requires the shortening of the COSI computation time. Given that CESAR depletion calculations represent about 95% of this computation time, CESAR surrogate models have been developed and coupled with COSI. Different regression models are compared to estimate CESAR outputs: first- and second-order polynomial regressions, Gaussian process and artificial neural network. This paper is about a first optimization study of a transition scenario from the current French nuclear fleet to a Sodium Fast Reactors fleet as defined in the frame of the 2006 French Act for waste management. The present article deals with obtaining the optimal scenarios and validating the methodology implemented, i.e. the coupling between the simulation software COSI, depletion surrogate models and a genetic algorithm optimization method.

  14. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  15. MPC and A enhancements for the Murmansk shipping company icebreaker fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoch, O.; Bondarev, N.; Caskey, D.; Forehand, M.; Lambert, D.; Maltsev, V.; O'Brien, M.; Gardner, B.; Tittemore, G.

    1999-01-01

    The United States and the Russian Federation entered into a cooperative agreement in 1994 that resulted in a nuclear weapons non-proliferation program within the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) currently known as the Russia/Newly Independent States (NIS) Nuclear Material Security Task Force. In 1996, a project was initiated with the Murmansk Shipping Company to enhance material protection, control, and accounting of highly enriched nuclear fuel assemblies used for the Icebreaker Fleet. The commissioning ceremony for this project is scheduled for August 1999. This paper describes the physical protection, material control, and accounting measures implemented for the Icebreaker Fleet

  16. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  17. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  18. Temporal Optimization Planning for Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state-of-the-art pla......Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state......-of-the-art planning and scheduling techniques do not offer cost models that are rich enough to represent essential objectives of these problems. To this end, we introduce a novel framework called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). TOP uses partial order planning to build optimization models associated...

  19. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, T [Bellona Foundation, Oslo (Norway); Kudrik, I [Bellona Foundation Branch Office, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A [Scientific Production Association ` ` Typhoon` ` , Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs.

  20. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, T.; Kudrik, I.; Nikitin, A.

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs

  1. Future Fleet Project. What Can We Afford

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    available to maintain the readiness of the fleet. The reduction in readiness spending coupled with continuing demands from COCOMs for assets eroded... coupled with continuing demands from COCOMs for assets eroded the number of ships in ready‑to‑deploy status. CBO’s estimate of $20.2 billion per...less-expensive aircraft carriers, and additional SSNs. Our intent in designing this fleet is to use the money saved in buying less-expensive

  2. New logistical issues in using electric vehicle fleets with battery exchange infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Adler, Jonathan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels that are more sustainable. The electric vehicle (EV) is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which "refuels" by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses some new logistical issues that must be addressed by such EV fleets, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each EV's set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges. In particular, the paper addresses (1......) the routing and scheduling of the fleet, (2) the locations of battery-exchange stations, and (3) the sizing of each facility. An overview of the literature on the topic is provided and some initial results are presented. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  3. What is behind fleet evolution: a framework for flow analysis and application to the French Atlantic fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Guyader, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The study of fishery dynamics considers national-level fleet evolution. It has, however, failed to consider the flows behind fleet evolution as well as the impact of the dynamics of owners of invested capital on fleet evolution. This paper establishes a general conceptual framework which identifies different vessel and owner flows behind fleet evolution and some relationships between these flows. This descriptive conceptual framework aims to change the current focus on drivers of fleet evolut...

  4. Fleet management tools for the utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caywood, J. [Terex Telelect, Watertown, SD (United States)

    2002-08-01

    In order to enable fleet managers to make the appropriate decisions concerning buying, selling, renting, leasing or repairing vehicles, information about ownership and operating cost and utilization are important. Fleet management tools are now available in the heavy construction industry. The author describes one such fleet management services customized for the utility industry: FleetEdge. This system utilizes current and future technologies to enable the managers to take proactive or predictive approaches to fleet management. An example of a company that has opted for this system was reviewed: Reliant Energy-Houston Metro. The data collection process was explained. A mini-computer processor is fitted on the equipment, and the requested monitoring parameters in turn determine the variety of sensors and alarms to be selected. Location can also be monitored through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment. The parameters normally include low engine oil pressure, high engine operating temperature, high transmission operating temperature, high hydraulic oil temperature, engine hours. Wireless data transfer is effected via cellular or satellite networks. The data is then collected and checked for errors and format at a hub before going to the computer server through the Internet. Information is transmitted from the accounting system to fleet management service through a secure interface. The data is then configured to meet the client's needs. It results in up to date, understandable information to the client. Equipment utilization, downtime and cost by machine or category is easily accessible and printed if required. Fleet equipment status is provided, as well as hourly cost analysis. Other reports are also available. 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Aerodynamic and thermal studies of cans of gas cooled fuel elements; Etudes aerodynamiques et thermiques de gaines d'elements combustibles refroidis par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Milliat, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    Research on clusters was undertaken at the CEA in 1959, while studies on herring-bone cans were developed at the EDF Laboratory at Chatou and the CEA laboratory at Saclay at the end of 1959. In 1962, a general study on corrugations was begun at the Saclay Laboratory with a view to improving the clusters, and continued later in both laboratories relative to the internal cooling of annular fuel elements. As these studies progressed, trial facilities were extended while experimental methods have improved constantly. At the present time, both laboratories, working in complete collaboration, have powerful means at their disposal. Work on the clusters has been concerned chiefly with pressure losses due to the assembly parts, and with the temperature variations around the elements of the cluster. In this way, we have been able to determine satisfactorily the hot points of the can, the deformations of the rods and the conditions of stability of these deformations. In the case of the herring-bone cans, studies have been directed to the evolution of performances as a function of the geometric parameters on the one hand, and to the special aerodynamic and thermal features caused by the fins and by interruptions of cartridge on the other hand. These studies have led to a very thorough knowledge of the cartridges chosen for the reactors EDF 2 and EDF 3, and now open up very hopeful prospects for future reactors, particularly those fitted with annular elements; among the alternatives suitable for the inner surface of the annular element can, corrugations and longitudinal fins have been fairly extensively tested over a wide range of Reynolds number. (authors) [French] Les etudes de grappes ont ete entreprises au C.E.A. en 1959, tandis que les etudes de gaines a chevrons se sont developpees au Laboratoire de Chatou de l'EDF et au Laboratoire de Saclay du C.E.A. a la fin de l'annee 1959. En 1962, une etude generale sur les corrugations a ete commencee au Laboratoire de Saclay pour

  6. On the road to fossil-free public transport: The case of Swedish bus fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Public transport is important for Sweden to acquire a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030. The aim of this paper is to assess the status of Swedish public bus fleets towards decarbonization, and explore factors affecting regional performance variations and fuel choices. Environmental performance indicators such as renewable fuel shares, CO 2 emissions, and energy efficiency are analyzed nationally and regionally. Fuel preferences and best practices are investigated through a survey and interviews with experts working with strategic planning at Public Transport Authorities. Almost 60% of the bus transport volume ran on renewables in 2014 compared to 8% in 2007, but regional variations are significant, partly due to factors such as driving conditions, bus and fuel types, typical trip lengths, and climatic conditions. However, there is no strong correlation between population densities or bus transport volume and the share of renewables achieved. This places political will, strategic planning and policies to promote public transport as key factors affecting renewable fuel deployment. Environmental factors are a priority when choosing fuels, while barriers to renewable fuels are mainly economic and political. Meanwhile, despite the overall progress, achievements in energy efficiency improvement are falling short in comparison to emissions reduction and adoption of renewable fuels, thus requiring further attention. - Highlights: • The penetration of renewables in Swedish public bus fleets reached ca. 60% in 2014. • Public bus emissions per vehicle-km have decreased by 43% between 2007 and 2014. • Efforts are needed to improve energy efficiency in bus transport. • Electricity is likely to receive increased attention according to expert survey.

  7. IMPROVING LOGISTICS SERVICES THROUGH THE TECHNOLOGY USED IN FLEET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vivaldini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing logistics has established itself in the area of the LSP (Logistics Service Provider, which offers a range of services to its customers. In this line, transportation is characterized as one of the most important services, and therefore efficient fleet management is essential for establishing a high level of customer service. With advances in technology and vehicle tracking systems, this approach of management has gained new possibilities for the improvement of logistics services. By studying the specific case of an LSP, this paper investigates the use of these technologies in the management of their business and services. The results indicate that the LSP seeks to increase its services and to streamline information in order to respond to customer needs in real time. It is also evident in this case under study that the combination of the technology available together with the fleet management system has become a distinguishing feature for this LSP, one which increases their skills and important information for both customers and business.

  8. Fleet wide motor asset management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemeier, R.G.; Moxie, J.J.; Mendez, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performed several studies concerning the effects of motor failures on US power production. Problems with aging and the lack of preventative maintenance were noted as major contributors to this production loss. Westinghouse has developed, and successfully utilized, a computer program to assist plants in the decision making process for maximizing the operational availability of their motor fleet. The program considers motors of a fleet as a single, critical to production asset, and aids the operator in decisions regarding the following: 1.) Purchase of spares. 2.) Rewind and refurbishment prioritization. 3.) Long-term budget forecasting. (author)

  9. Fuel cells are gaining ground. Fuel cells as a key technology: future potential, state of the art, economic aspects, practical reports. Proceedings. Brennstoffzellen auf dem Vormarsch. Die Brennstoffzelle als Schluesseltechnologie. Zukunftspotentiale, Stand der Technik, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Praxisberichte. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    This conference report comprises 16 papers on fuel cells. Subjects: Funds for fuel cell technology provided by the 4. programme for energy research and energy technologies; Funds provided by the European Commission for demonstration projects; Fuel cells: Stationary applications in power supply; Liberalisation of the energy markets - effects on fuel cell development; Fuel cell technology from a utility's point of view; PEMFC membrane fuel cells; PFC in domestic energy supply; Applications of PEMFC in stationary power generation; Development of a fuel cell drive; Comparative evaluations of passenger car drives with fuel cells and internal combustion engines; Economic aspects of PAFC fuel cells; Development of the carbonate fuel cell (MCFC); Demonstration plant at Santa Clara (MCFC); Development, demonstration and application of oxide ceramics fuel cells SOFC, Experience with SOFC. Four contributions are available as separate records in this database.

  10. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  11. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  12. Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade; Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 -- Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) are issuing comprehensive guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order (E.O.) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade (E.O. 13693), to help federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions, and ensure the approach helps these agencies meet their requirements. Three key GHG emissions reduction strategies - right-sizing fleets to mission, increasing fleet fuel efficiency, and displacing petroleum with alternative fuel use - are essential to meeting the requirements and are discussed further in this document. This guidance document is intended to help agency Chief Sustainability Officers (CSOs) and headquarters fleet managers craft tailored executable plans that achieve the purpose of E.O. 13693. The guidance will assist agencies in completing the first phase of a comprehensive fleet management framework by identifying the strategies each agency will then implement to meet or exceed its requirements.

  13. Modelling energy demand for a fleet of hydrogen-electric vehicles interacting with a clean energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, F.; Fowler, M.; Wan, D.; Maniyali, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the development of an energy demand model for a hydrogen-electric vehicle fleet and the modelling of the fleet interactions with a clean energy hub. The approach taken is to model the architecture and daily operation of every individual vehicle in the fleet. A generic architecture was developed based on understanding gained from existing detailed models used in vehicle powertrain design, with daily operation divided into two periods: charging and travelling. During the charging period, the vehicle charges its Electricity Storage System (ESS) and refills its Hydrogen Storage System (HSS), and during the travelling period, the vehicle depletes the ESS and HSS based on distance travelled. Daily travel distance is generated by a stochastic model and is considered an input to the fleet model. The modelling of a clean energy hub is also presented. The clean energy hub functions as an interface between electricity supply and the energy demand (i.e. hydrogen and electricity) of the vehicle fleet. Finally, a sample case is presented to demonstrate the use of the fleet model and its implications on clean energy hub sizing. (author)

  14. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the...

  15. Strategic fleet planning for city logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschetti, Anna; Honhon, Dorothee; Laporte, G.; van Woensel, T.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    We study the strategic problem of a logistics service provider managing a (possibly heterogeneous) fleet of vehicles to serve a city in the presence of access restrictions. We model the problem as an area partitioning problem in which a rectangular service area has to be divided into sectors, each

  16. Formation of optimal construction fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuskaeva, Zalina

    2017-10-01

    Machinery supply and its rational use in construction processes considerably determine the final product of construction organizations. Therefore, the problem of defining the type size composition of the construction fleet as one of the lowest material-intensive productions, is of a particular importance.

  17. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  18. Sodium fast reactor: an asset for a PWR UOX/MOX fleet - 5327

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiphine, M.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Girieud, R.; Eschbach, R.; Chabert, C.; Grosman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its low fissile content, Pu from spent MOX fuels is sometimes regarded as not recyclable in LWR. Based on the existing French nuclear infrastructure (La Hague reprocessing plant and MELOX MOX manufacturing plant), AREVA and CEA have evaluated the conditions of Pu multi recycling in a 100% LWR fleet. As France is currently supporting a Fast Reactor prototype project, scenario studies have also been conducted to evaluate the contribution of a 600 MWe SFR in the LWR fleet. These scenario studies consider a nuclear fleet composed of 8 PWR 900 MWe, with or without the contribution of a SFR, and aim at evaluating the following points: -) the feasibility of Pu multi-recycling in PWR; -) the impact on the spent fuels storage; -) the reduction of the stored separated Pu; -) the impact on waste management and final disposal. The studies have been conducted with the COSI6 code, developed by CEA Nuclear Energy Direction since 1985, that simulates the evolution over time of a nuclear power plants fleet and of its associated fuel cycle facilities and provides material flux and isotopic compositions at each point of the scenario. To multi-recycle Pu into LWR MOX and to ensure flexibility, different reprocessing strategies were evaluated by adjusting the reprocessing order, the choice of used fuel assemblies according to their burn-up and the UOX/MOX proportions. The improvement of the Pu fissile quality and the kinetic of Pu multi-recycling in SFR depending on the initial Pu quality were also evaluated and led to a reintroduction of Pu in PWR MOX after a single irradiation in SFR, still in dilution with Pu from UOX to maintain a sufficient fissile quality. (authors)

  19. 'I-tese newsletter Number 15 Spring 2012: an assessment of the 'phasing-out-nuclear cost' in France; Prospective: a posture in the service of man to help him in shaping the future; Climate in UNO: heading for a new multilateral agreement?; Electric mobility with fuel cell: which target price(s) for hydrogen at the pump? Does the 'real production cost' of the present electronuclear fleet exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautremont, Severine; Devezeaux de Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Colle, Francois Xavier; Popiolek, Nathalie; Thais, Francoise; Le Duigou, Alain; Duquesnoy, Thierry; Sabourin, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Based on the definition of two scenarios (a reference scenario with a steady power, and phasing out nuclear), a first article discusses the assessment of the cost of phasing out nuclear for France. A second article comments the importance given to prospective studies which more particularly emerged in the United States after World War II. This article is followed by another one which addresses the peculiar case of energetic prospective studies which can be perceived as a battle of scenarios. An article discusses the need of a new agreement on climate after the Durban conference. The next article discusses how to characterize the competitiveness of hydrogen used in fuel cells in the transport sector. Then, an author comments a report by the French Revenue Court about the initial investment costs of the electronuclear fleet, present operation expenses, maintenance costs and provisions for future expenses

  20. TEMAS: fleet-based bio-economic simulation software to evaluate management strategies accounting for fleet behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Sparre, Per Johan

    2007-01-01

    TEMAS (technical management measures) is a fleet-based bio-economic software for evaluating management strategies accounting for technical measures and fleet behaviour. It focuses on mixed fisheries in which several fleets can choose among several fishing activities to target different stocks...

  1. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  2. A comparative analysis of performance and cost metrics associated with a diesel to biodiesel fleet transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrake, Scott O.; Landis, Amy E.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Collinge, William O.; Xue Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    With energy security, economic stabilization, and environmental sustainability being at the forefront of US policy making, the development of biodiesel production and use within the United States has been growing at an astonishing rate. According to the latest DOE energy report, biodiesel production and consumption in the US has decreased since its peak in 2008, but still remains an important factor in the US energy mix. However, despite recent studies showing that B5 has similar performance qualities to that of the currently used ultra-low-sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) fleet managers and corporations still remain hesitant regarding a switch to B5. This research examined the major areas of concern that arise with transitioning fleets from ULSD to B5 with the goal of alleviating those concerns with quantitative results from an actual fleet implementation and transition. In conjunction with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) a comparison of cost, cold weather fuel properties, engine performance, fuel economy, and maintenance and repairs was conducted using data obtained over 3 years from a pilot study. The results found that B5 performed as well or better than ULSD in all performance metrics. - Research Highlights: →Conducted multi-year study of a DOT fleet transition from ULSD to biodiesel (B5)→No significant difference in cold weather performance, engine power output, or torque→No significant difference in fuel economy→No resulting increase in maintenance and repair costs or frequency→Life-cycle costing revealed no hidden costs as a result of B5 implementation

  3. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Svante

    2009-01-01

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO 2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  4. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  5. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  6. Zinc injection on the EDF fleet monitoring the injection on 12 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Meur, Gaelle Harmand; Anne-Marie; Stutzmann, Agnes; Taunier, Stephane; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Alain, Rocher; Claeys, Myriam; Bonne, Sebastien

    2012-09-01

    After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 and Bugey 4, EDF decided to extend the program to other units of its fleet. 14 more reactors from the French fleet of 58 were chosen in order to - Reduce the radiation sources for curative or preventive (after SGR) reasons - Mitigate stress corrosion cracking on nickel alloys and reduce the rate of generalized corrosion - Prevent the risk of CIPS, mainly after a fuel management change. Zinc injection started on 9 new units in 2011, 1 unit in 2012 and will be extended to 4 other units before the end of 2013. To monitor the injection, EDF has defined a complete program concerning chemistry, radiation protection (dose rate and deposited activities measurements), materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks), fuel (oxide measurements) and waste (radiochemical characterization of filters). Reference units were chosen for each field because of the size of the fleet. This paper will detail the different monitoring programs on the EDF plants injecting zinc. (authors)

  7. Implications of energy use for fishing fleet-Taiwan example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jian; Wu Yihusan

    2011-01-01

    Commercial fisheries rely heavily on fossil fuel combustion and contribute heavily to the emission of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases. Propulsion output of fishing vessels has continually increased from 30 kW in 1959 to nearly 320 kW in 2000, indicating that the Taiwanese fishing fleet tended to voyage farther and faster, and to adjust for the heavier loads demanded by more powerful fishing gear. Daily emissions from Taiwanese fishing vessels were estimated using output method. The marine fishery is unlikely to grow in the future as the government is implementing measures to ensure the development of sustainable fishing practices. There has been a rising trend in pollution to production ratios during the study period between 1959 and 2008. The ratio increased by 47% in the first decade, followed by fluctuations within the range of 50%-58% for the remainder of the statistical period. There is a need to investigate the possibility of reductions in all categories of fishing with regard to energy use and emissions through the subsidization of fishing vessels to encourage operators to switch to more energy efficient equipment and cleaner fuels. - Highlights: → Daily emissions from Taiwanese fishing vessels were estimated using output method. → We reported a steady increase in pollution to production ratio in Taiwan fishing industry. → We urged government and industry work together to ensure a transition to low carbon fishing.

  8. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N.; Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-09-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  9. Proceedings of a Canadian Hydrogen Association workshop in support of the transition to the hydrogen age : Greening the fleet : the status of hydrogen-powered vehicles for fleet applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Canadian Hydrogen Association (CHA) endorses hydrogen as an energy carrier and promotes the development of a supporting hydrogen infrastructure. It promotes the research, development and commercialization of innovative ways to accelerate the application of hydrogen technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The presentations at this conference described new technologies and the companies that are developing hydrogen-powered vehicles, including hybrid-electric powered vehicles for fleet application. Some international activities were also covered, including lessons learned from the California experience and European fuel cell fleets. The benefits of fuel cell hybrids were highlighted along with methods to overcome the barriers to the introduction of new vehicle fuels. A review of current and future hydrogen supply infrastructure systems was also provided. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Fuel elements (uranium clad with zirconium) produced by co-extrusion; Les elements combustibles uranium gaine de zirconium obtenus par coextrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagne, R.; Winogradzki, A.; Sauve, C.; Buffet, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Departement de Metallurgie et de Chimie Appliquee (France)

    1959-07-01

    In this paper a description is given of a process for making fuel elements for atomic reactors. Contact of the most intimate possible kind is achieved between the fuel and the sheath by the simultaneous extrusion of the two elements. Genuine welding between the two metals is thus effected. This can be subsequently improved by a heat-treatment which causes diffusion. Tests made on these co-extruded elements are described in the paper. Reprint of a paper published in Revue de Metallurgie, LV, no. 11, 1958.

  11. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each electric vehicle’s set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges....... In particular, the paper addresses the optimization and analysis of infrastructure design alternatives dealing with (1) the number of battery-exchange stations, (2) their locations, (3) the recharging capacity and inventory management of batteries at each facility, and (4) routing and scheduling of the fleet...

  12. Gas fuels in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Gas fuels are the petroleum substitution fuels that have received the best agreement in most parts of the world. This success is due to the existence of natural gas fields or LPG reserves in several countries and to the possibility of fast development of these resources. Countries with various size and economic policy such as New Zealand, USA, Argentina, Japan or Italy have developed a very significant fleet of gas fuel vehicles. This paper summarizes the consumption of gas fuels, the number of gas fuel equipped vehicles and of gas fuel stations in the principal consuming countries. The size and composition of vehicle fleets varies from one country to the other and depends on the economical and environmental incitements and constraints from the governments. Details are given separately for LPG and natural gas vehicle fuels. (J.S.)

  13. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (<5%) of the personal car fleets in BKK, HCMC, and Yangon. Euro3 was generally the most advanced technology found in other fleets in these cities. Motorcycles (MC) was the most dominant fleet in all cities, except in Yangon, where they were not allowed. Low vehicle speeds, mainly below 25 km/h, were observed for all vehicle types, indicating traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0

  14. Excellence in fleet combat replacement squadrons: predicting carrier qualification success

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Martin P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-part analysis of excellence criteria for fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part one focuses on the qualitative issues and management techniques identified in outstanding fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part two develops and presents a regression model for predicting a fleet replacement squadron pilot's carrier qualification grade. The model was derived using standard linear regression techniques and the SPSSx software package of the Naval Postgraduate School. ...

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.330 What is the Federal Fleet Report? The Federal Fleet Report (FFR..., in evaluating the effectiveness of the operation and management of individual fleets to determine...

  16. Environmental benefits and economic rationale of expanding the Italian natural gas private car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballardin, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    There are several concerns which bring to consider natural gas as a viable alternative to liquid fuels in transport. First, natural gas allows the curbing of global pollution in this steadily growing industry. Indeed, decoupling greenhouse gas emissions from transport growth has become a major issue in tackling climate change. Second, a more extensive use of natural gas would relieve city air quality, which is presently at levels harmful of human health. Nonetheless, this is just one side of the coin. The other side entails building a refuelling station network, and this carries financial requirements. The financing fraction holds a pivotal role in deciding whether natural gas for automotive purposes is an efficient solution. The final aim of this work is, therefore, to compare the natural gas advantages, stemming from avoided global and local emission, with the economic rationale of engaging in supplementary model network investments. A system dynamics model underlies this study's economic reasoning and is taken as reference for quantitative assertions. The model, named CH 4 CleanerAir, contains data referring to two scenarios: a Business As Usual Scenario and an Expansion Scenario. Simulation runs in Expansion Scenario serve to understand how gaseous pollution diminishes and network investments rise when the natural gas-fuelled fleet, as share of the total fleet, increases. Are new infrastructures needs compatible with existing refuelling facilities? What is the extent by which the natural gas-fuelled fleet can actually reduce global and local emission? The scenarios' gap analysis lead to the work's final considerations. The sounder reductions of gaseous pollutants in the last years of the considered time lag make the overall assessment lean towards a positive evaluation of natural gas employment in this industry. The beneficial effects of increasing the natural gas-fuel-led fleet take some time to unfold, but they eventually prevail. This study shows how natural

  17. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Stennis Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which NASA Stennis Space Center (Stennis) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  18. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  19. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  20. Research on Operational Aspects of Large Autonomous Underwater Glider Fleets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fratantoni, David M

    2007-01-01

    This program supported research on the operational and management issues stemming from application of large fleets of autonomous underwater gliders to oceanographic research and rapid environmental...

  1. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  2. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  3. 78 FR 23935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles, by any of the...

  4. 78 FR 64499 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY: Department... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management...

  5. MOX fuel transport: the French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis, H.; Verdier, A.; Sanchis, H.

    1999-01-01

    In the back-end of the fuel cycle, several leading countries have chosen the Reprocessing, Conditioning, Recycling (RCR) option. Plutonium recycling in the form of MOX fuel is a mature industry, with successful operational experience and large-scale fabrication plants an several European countries. The COGEMA Group has developed the industrialized products to master the RCR operation including transport COGEMA subsidiary, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has been operating MOX fuel transports on an industrial scale for more than 10 years. In 1998, around 200 transports of Plutonium materials have been organised by TRANSNUCLEAIRE. These transports have been carried out by road between various facilities in Europe: reprocessing plants, manufacturing plants and power plants. The materials transported are either: PuO 2 and MOX powder; BWR and PWR MOX fuel rods; BWR and PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Because MOX fuel transport is subject to specific safety, security and fuel integrity requirements, the MOX fuel transport system implemented by TRANSNUCLEAIRE is fully dedicated. Packaging have been developed, licensed and manufactured for each kind of MOX material in compliance with relevant regulations. A fleet of vehicles qualified according to existing physical protection regulations is operated by TRANSNUCLEAIRE. TRANSNUCLEAIRE has gained a broad experience in MOX transport in 10 years. Technical and operational know-how has been developed and improved for each step: vehicles and packaging design and qualification; vehicle and packaging maintenance; transport operations. Further developments are underway to increase the payload of the packaging and to improve the transport conditions, safety and security remaining of course top priority. (authors)

  6. Condition Monitoring of the SSE Generation Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiddle, J.; Muthuraman, S.; Connolly, N.

    2012-05-01

    SSE (previously known as Scottish and Southern Energy) operates a diverse portfolio of generation plant, including coal, gas and renewable plant with a total generation capacity of 11,375MW (Sept 2011). In recent years a group of specialists dedicated to providing condition monitoring services has been established at the Equipment Performance Centre (EPC) based at Knottingley, West Yorkshire. We aim to illustrate the role of the EPC and the methods used for monitoring the generation fleet with the objective of maintaining asset integrity, reducing risk of plant failure and unplanned outages and describe the challenges which have been overcome in establishing the EPC. This paper describes methods including vibration and process data analysis, model-based techniques and on-site testing used for monitoring of generation plant, including gas turbines, steam turbines, generators and steam raising plant. These condition monitoring processes utilise available data, adding value to the business, by bringing services in-house and capturing knowledge of plant operation for the benefit of the whole fleet.

  7. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  8. Uncertainty in Fleet Renewal: A Case from Maritime Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantuso, Giovanni; Fagerholt, Kjetil; Wallace, Stein W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the fleet renewal problem and particularly the treatment of uncertainty in the maritime case. A stochastic programming model for the maritime fleet renewal problem is presented. The main contribution is that of assessing whether or not better decisions can be achieved by using...

  9. Application of a greedy algorithm to military aircraft fleet retirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Udluft, H.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a retirement analysis model for aircraft fleets. By employing a greedy algorithm, the presented solution is capable of identifying individually weak assets in a fleet of aircraft with inhomogeneous historical utilization. The model forecasts future retirement scenarios

  10. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  11. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the make or buy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the first one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Methods: The paper discusses ways of fulfilling company's transportation needs (MAKE-or-BUY problem. It means the choice between using company's own and outside fleet (buying transportation services in a market. The essence of the MAKE-or-BUY problem lies in a time dependency, a seasonal nature of transportation needs. It leads to the MAKE-and-BUY solutions including utilization of both in-house and outside fleets. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the MAKE-and-BUY analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows a low economic justification for using the MAKE option in practice. Especially when a fleet composed of brand new vehicles is considered. Conclusions: The paper will be continued in two further papers dedicated to strategic vehicle fleet management problems including fleet sizing / composition and fleet replacement.

  12. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  13. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  14. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) - Naval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC

  15. Multi-objective optimization for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios using COSI - 5187

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynet, D.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Eschbach, R.; Krivtchik, G.; Merle-Lucotte, E.

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of strategic choices on material inventories and flux in the fuel cycle can be analysed with the COSI code. Indeed COSI enables to compare various fleet evolution options (e.g. new reactor systems deployment) and different nuclear materials management (e.g. plutonium multi-recycling). COSI is coupled with the CESAR depletion code. In this paper a methodology for the nuclear fleet evolution scenarios optimization using COSI is introduced. A large number of scenario calculations is needed to solve an optimization problem, which makes infeasible an optimization calculation using the COSI/CESAR version. Given that CESAR calculations represent about 95% of the COSI computation time, CESAR irradiation surrogate models carrying out with ANN regression method and cooling analytic models have been coupled with COSI. An example of optimization study is presented involving 2 discrete variables related to the number of deployed SFR to renew the French PWR fleet and 2 criteria: minimizing the natural uranium consumption and the number of produced HLW vitrified packages

  16. Multi-Year On-Road Emission Factor Trends of Two Heavy-Duty California Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, M.; Bishop, G.

    2017-12-01

    New heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations have resulted in the development of advanced exhaust after-treatment systems that specifically target particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). This has resulted in significant decreases in the emissions of these species. The University of Denver has collected three data sets of on-road gaseous (CO, HC, NO and NOx) and PM (particle mass, black carbon and particle number) emission measurements from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the spring of 2013, 2015 and 2017 at two different locations in California. One site is located at the Port of Los Angeles, CA (1,150 HDVs measured in 2017) and the other site is located at a weigh station in Northern California near Cottonwood, CA (780 HDVs measured in 2017). The On-Road Heavy-Duty Measurement Setup measures individual HDV's fuel specific emissions (DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b06172). Vehicles drive under a tent-like structure that encapsulates vehicle exhaust and 15 seconds of data collection is integrated to give fuel specific information. The measurements obtained from these campaigns contain real-world emissions affected by different driving modes, after-treatment systems and location. The Port of Los Angeles contributes a fleet that is fully equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as a result of the San Pedro Ports Clean Air Action Plan enforced since 2010 that allows only vehicles model year 2007 or newer on the premises. This fleet, although comprised with relatively new HDVs with lower PM emissions, has increased PM emissions as it has aged. Cottonwood's fleet contains vehicles with and without after-treatment systems, a result of a gradual turnover rate, and fleet PM has decreased at a slower rate than at the Port of Los Angeles. The decrease in PM emissions is a result of more HDVs being newer model years as well as older model years being retrofit with DPFs. The complimentary fleets, studied over multiple years, have given the University of Denver

  17. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  18. Saildrone fleet could help replace aging buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voosen, Paul

    2018-03-01

    In April, two semiautonomous drones, developed by Saildrone, a marine tech startup based in Alameda, California, in close collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Washington, D.C., are set to return from an 8-month tour of the Pacific Ocean. This the first scientific test for the drones, which are powered only by the wind and sun, in the Pacific Ocean. The voyage is an important step in showing that such drones, carrying 15 different sensors, could help replace an aging and expensive array of buoys that are the main way scientists sniff out signs of climate-disrupting El Niño events. If successful, scientists envision fleets of similar drones spreading across the ocean, inviting thoughts of what it could be like to do oceanography without a ship.

  19. Fuels demand by light vehicles and motorcycles In Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jose Manoel Antelo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consumption of gasoline, alcohol and natural gas vehicle (NGV) by light vehicles and motorcycles in Brazil. Through the estimation of fleets per consumption class, in an environment influenced by a new engine technology (flex-fuel), this exercise estimates the fleet-elasticity of cars (and motorcycles) powered by gasoline, hydrated alcohol, natural gas vehicle (NGV) and flex-fuel, in addition to the income elasticity within the period from January, 2000 to December, 2008. This paper uses an alternative variable as income proxy and estimates the five different fleets through the combination of vehicles sales and scrapping curves. This paper's conclusion is that given specific issues of the Brazilian fuel market, in special prices and technological innovations, the fleets' equations for the consumption of the three fuels represent in a more significant manner the relationships expected between supply and demand variables than the commonly used functions of prices and income. (author)

  20. Integrated Three-Voltage-Booster DC-DC Converter to Achieve High Voltage Gain with Leakage-Energy Recycling for PV or Fuel-Cell Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated three-voltage-booster DC-DC (direct current to direct current converter is proposed to achieve high voltage gain for renewable-energy generation systems. The proposed converter integrates three voltage-boosters into one power stage, which is composed of an active switch, a coupled-inductor, five diodes, and five capacitors. As compared with conventional high step-up converters, it has a lower component count. In addition, the features of leakage-energy recycling and switching loss reduction can be accomplished for conversion efficiency improvement. While the active switch is turned off, the converter can inherently clamp the voltage across power switch and suppress voltage spikes. Moreover, the reverse-recovery currents of all diodes can be alleviated by leakage inductance. A 200 W prototype operating at 100 kHz switching frequency with 36 V input and 400 V output is implemented to verify the theoretical analysis and to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter.

  1. Mathematical optimization techniques for managing selective catalytic reduction for a fleet of coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis Pena, Antonio Alejandro

    Major commercial electricity generation is done by burning fossil fuels out of which coal-fired power plants produce a substantial quantity of electricity worldwide. The United States has large reserves of coal, and it is cheaply available, making it a good choice for the generation of electricity on a large scale. However, one major problem associated with using coal for combustion is that it produces a group of pollutants known as nitrogen oxides (NO x). NOx are strong oxidizers and contribute to ozone formation and respiratory illness. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the quantity of NOx emitted to the atmosphere in the United States. One technique coal-fired power plants use to reduce NOx emissions is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SCR uses layers of catalyst that need to be added or changed to maintain the required performance. Power plants do add or change catalyst layers during temporary shutdowns, but it is expensive. However, many companies do not have only one power plant, but instead they can have a fleet of coal-fired power plants. A fleet of power plants can use EPA cap and trade programs to have an outlet NOx emission below the allowances for the fleet. For that reason, the main aim of this research is to develop an SCR management mathematical optimization methods that, with a given set of scheduled outages for a fleet of power plants, minimizes the total cost of the entire fleet of power plants and also maintain outlet NO x below the desired target for the entire fleet. We use a multi commodity network flow problem (MCFP) that creates edges that represent all the SCR catalyst layers for each plant. This MCFP is relaxed because it does not consider average daily NOx constraint, and it is solved by a binary integer program. After that, we add the average daily NOx constraint to the model with a schedule elimination constraint (MCFPwSEC). The MCFPwSEC eliminates, one by one, the solutions that do not satisfy the average daily

  2. An updated assessment of the prospects for fuel cell-powered buses. An information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, T.K. [Future Energy Solutions, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents updated conclusions of the Department of Trade and Industry's research and development programme to assess the commercial prospects for advanced fuel cells in buses. The programme has focussed on low temperature solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) for transport and combined heat and power (CHP)/distributed power and high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for CHP/distributed power. As well as assessing the prospects for SPFCs in buses, the report examines those for alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) in buses. The report provides an assessment of the status of technology development for different types of fuel cells in terms of applications to buses and offers estimates of market potential. Some fuel-cell powered buses are now available for demonstration purposes but the report concludes that truly commercial sales are unlikely to start before 2010 and widespread deployment is expected to take a further ten years after that. Buses have now slipped behind cars in terms of worldwide deployment. The issue of fuel choice is considered largely resolved with most fleet vehicle/bus manufacturers currently focussing on hydrogen as a fuel. A discussion of the prospects and barriers for fuel cell buses concludes that cost reduction is now the major barrier to the successful commercialisation of fuel cells in buses. More demonstration prototypes and field trials are required to provide information on energy, environmental and economic performance of fuel cell buses. Field trials could also provide information to assist the development of refuelling systems, fuel storage systems, stacks and other system components and to gain experience of building integrated fuel cell systems.

  3. Assessment of pathways to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger car fleets: Case study in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md. Saniul; Hyde, Bernard; Duffy, Paul; McNabola, Aonghus

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of models provides a robust estimation of tailpipe CO 2 emissions. • Taxation impact of vehicle fleet dieselisation was modelled. • A scenario development approach was proposed for policy analysis. • EV provided the largest cost saving option than that of the other fuel technologies. - Abstract: This study modelled the Passenger (PC) fleet and other categories of road transport in Ireland from 2015 to 2035 to assess the impact of current and potential greenhouse gas mitigation policies on CO 2 emissions. Scenarios included the shift of purchasing towards diesel PCs over gasoline PCs. Scrappage rates were also calculated and applied to the fleet to predict future sales of PCs. Seven future policy scenarios were examined using different penetrations of PC sales for different vehicle technologies under current and alternative bio-fuel obligations. Tank to Wheel (T2W) tailpipe and Well to Wheel (W2W) CO 2 emissions, and energy demand were modelled using COPERT 4v11.3 and a recently published W2W CO 2 emissions model. A percentage reduction of conventional diesel and petrol vehicles, in different scenarios compared to a baseline scenario in the W2W model was applied to estimate the likely changes in T2W emissions at the tailpipe up to 2035. The results revealed that the biofuel policy scenario was insufficient in achieving a significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. However, without a fixed reduction target for CO 2 from the road transport sector, the success of policy scenarios in the long run is difficult to compare. The current Electric vehicle (EV) policy in Ireland is required to be implemented to reduce CO 2 emissions by a significant level. Results also show that a similar achievement of CO 2 emission reduction could be possible by using alternative vehicle technologies with higher abatement cost. However, as EV based policies have not been successful so far, Ireland may need to search for alternative pathways.

  4. 2005 nonroad engine fleet characterization in the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.; Chan, N.; Campbell, K.; Preston, K.; Bolechowsky, K.

    2007-12-01

    Metro Vancouver conducts an emission inventory for the Lower Fraser Valley on a five year basis. This report presented an estimate of the nonroad engine fleet population and emissions in the Canadian portion of the Lower Fraser Valley (CLFV). The nonroad engine fleet includes internal combustion engines of different fuel types used in mobile equipment such as on-road vehicles, aircraft, locomotives and ocean-going marine vessels. Some examples of nonroad equipment that were estimated included agricultural tractors; airport ground equipment; forklifts; excavators; generator sets; lawn mowers; railroad maintenance equipment; pleasure boats; and off-road motorcycles. The purpose of the study was to assist Metro Vancouver and other levels of government in determining what progress has been made in improving air quality, as well as the effect of policies and regulations on the environment in terms of nonroad vehicles. The report presented the objectives of the nonroad engine fleet characterization project which were to review the current data on nonroad engine populations and associated information, and confirm or improve the data through appropriate means; prepare estimates of 2005 emissions in the CLFV based on the revised engine counts using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's nonroad 2005 model; and prepare backcasts and forecasts of the 2005 nonroad engine emission estimates for 1990 to 2030 in five-year increments. Results were presented and analysed into the following 9 equipment type categories: agricultural, airport ground support, commercial, construction, industrial, lawn and garden, railway maintenance, recreational marine and recreational off-road vehicle. Four fuel types were considered for each type of equipment, notably gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gases and compressed natural gas. The report described the methodologies and sources and presented the equipment population data. Emission results for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides

  5. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1 Consolidations into a fleet management...

  6. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency fleet...

  7. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104 Notice of establishment of a fleet management...

  8. Simulating the impact of policy, energy prices and technological progress on the passenger car fleet in Austria-A model based analysis 2010-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloess, Maximilian; Mueller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of policy, fuel prices and technological progress on the Austrian passenger car fleet in terms of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To analyse these effects a simulation model is used. We model the car fleet from a bottom-up perspective, with a detailed coverage of vehicle specifications and propulsion technologies. The model focuses on the technological trend toward electrified propulsion systems and their potential effects on the fleet's energy consumption and GHG emissions. To represent the impact of prices and income on the development of the fleet, we combine the fleet model with top-down demand models. We developed two scenarios for the time frame 2010-2050, using two different sets of assumptions for regulatory development and conditions of increasing fossil fuel prices and continuous technological progress in vehicle propulsion technologies. The results indicate that material cuts in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be achieved with changes to the political framework for passenger cars. Appropriate taxation of fuels and cars can stabilise demand for individual motorised transport and lead to an improvement in vehicle efficiency by fostering the adoption of efficient vehicle propulsion technologies and low carbon fuels. - Highlights: → We present a simulation model for future energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in passenger car transport. → We develop scenarios up to 2050 assuming two different policy schemes. → Policy strongly affects energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in passenger car transport. → Policy can slow down growth in demand for passenger car transport. → Policy can promote the diffusion of more efficient propulsion technologies and low carbon fuels.

  9. Wireless GPS fleet tracking system at the University of Albany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the project undertaken at the University at Albany to make alternative transportation a more : viable option by implementing a GPS Tracking System on the University bus fleet and broadcasting the bus locations to c...

  10. Risk Management of an Aging KC-130 Fleet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    .... For the aging USMC KC-130 F/R fleet, a damage-tolerant approach ensured that safety would be maintained but it presented a problem in forecasting readiness, aircraft remaining in the inventory...

  11. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalile "Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja" (Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel), režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  12. DVD. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Egle Loo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loo, Egle

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalist "Sweeney Todd : The Demon Barber of Fleet Street" Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel : režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  13. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  14. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  15. US Tune Purse Seine Fleet History & Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS SWR has collected historical vessel information on the U.S. tuna cannery baitboat and purse seine fleets for many years. The database's first record of a...

  16. CERN’s automobile fleet turns a brighter shade of green

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    CERN is partnering with Services Industriels de Genève (SIG) in an environmentally friendly initiative to acquire cars running on natural gas. The first forty vehicles will arrive at CERN around mid-February, and enter service in March.   On 3 February 2011 CERN, represented by Steve Myers at the FEDRE Forum, was awarded the mobility prize. CERN currently has approximately 800 vehicles in use at its different sites. Véronique Marchal, head of Site Services in the GS Department, explains: “Our fleet includes a great variety of vehicles, from small Category A cars for staff to utility/transport vehicles. The decision to acquire cars running on natural gas is part of our strategy of diversifying CERN's automobile fleet so as to make it more environmentally friendly.” The new cars are actually bi-fuel, which means that they will have two tanks: one for regular fuel and one for compressed natural gas (CNG). “This kind of car is a little more exp...

  17. Business fleet refueling assessment. Final report, March 1992-November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudier, A.

    1993-01-01

    The report investigates refueling characteristics and capabilities for the light-duty market sector, particularly business automobile fleets. It develops a profile of the characteristics of light-duty and automobile business fleets in 22 designated non-attainment areas, as well as Pittsburgh and Salt Lake City. Reliable data on these subjects will enable better analysis of the market potential for natural gas in the surveyed areas

  18. TQL in the Fleet: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    distribution is unlimited. BEST-AVAILABLE Copy 94-04214 Total Quality Leadership , TQL, Total Quality Kanaginent, 191, i lo of pilo quality management ...703-602-8942). LINDA M. DOHERTY Director Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office TOL In the Fleet: From Theory to Practice...the Fleet: From Theory to Practice ix OVERVIEW ) ver the past year, the Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office (DON TQL Office) has

  19. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

    2013-02-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Detecting and Categorizing Fleeting Emotions in Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d′ analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PMID:22866885

  1. FLEET Velocimetry Measurements on a Transonic Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used to study the flowfield around a symmetric, transonic airfoil in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT facility. A nominal Mach number of 0.85 was investigated with a total pressure of 125 kPa and total temperature of 280 K. Two-components of velocity were measured along vertical profiles at different locations above, below, and aft of the airfoil at angles of attack of 0 deg, 3.5 deg, and 7deg. Measurements were assessed for their accuracy, precision, dynamic range, spatial resolution, and overall measurement uncertainty in the context of the applied flowfield. Measurement precisions as low as 1 m/s were observed, while overall uncertainties ranged from 4 to 5 percent. Velocity profiles within the wake showed sufficient accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to resolve both the mean and fluctuating velocities and general flow physics such as shear layer growth. Evidence of flow separation is found at high angles of attack.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel-Blended Diesel Documentation Requirement Data Download Fueling Stations 149 stations in Maine with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 2 1 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 0 2 Electric ://www.youtube.com/embed/jHftlruFR40 Video thumbnail for Maine's Only Biodiesel Manufacturer Powers Fleets in the

  3. Averaged emission factors for the Hungarian car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haszpra, L. [Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, I. [Central Research Inst. for Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    The vehicular emission of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of NMHC in Hungary and in most of the industrialized countries. Non-methane hydrocarbon plays key role in the formation of photo-chemical air pollution, usually characterized by the ozone concentration, which seriously endangers the environment and human health. The ozone forming potential of the different NMHCs differs from each other significantly, while the NMHC composition of the car exhaust is influenced by the fuel and engine type, technical condition of the vehicle, vehicle speed and several other factors. In Hungary the majority of the cars are still of Eastern European origin. They represent the technological standard of the 70`s, although there are changes recently. Due to the long-term economical decline in Hungary the average age of the cars was about 9 years in 1990 and reached 10 years by 1993. The condition of the majority of the cars is poor. In addition, almost one third (31.2 %) of the cars are equipped with two-stroke engines which emit less NO{sub x} but much more hydrocarbon. The number of cars equipped with catalytic converter was negligible in 1990 and is slowly increasing only recently. As a consequence of these facts the traffic emission in Hungary may differ from that measured in or estimated for the Western European countries and the differences should be taken into account in the air pollution models. For the estimation of the average emission of the Hungarian car fleet a one-day roadway tunnel experiment was performed in the downtown of Budapest in summer, 1991. (orig.)

  4. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  5. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  6. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  7. Use of the renewable wind and photovoltaic sources, for the recharge of a fleet of electric taxis in Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Torres, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Electrification of the transportation sector seems to be one of the alternatives in terms of restriction of pollutant from that sector. However, it is necessary to study the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from Generation Power Plants (EGPP) because could be more or less the same of that from the vehicles. Furthermore, Centralized GPP supply would result in distribution losses, bigger fuel consumption and more pollution. Thus, EVs development should be considered as a sustainable solution if powered by electricity systems with considerable share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). In this paper, the study of the recharge of an EV taxi fleet during night, using photovoltaic and wind mills RES in Havana, Cuba, is analyzed. This work is aiming to find a feasible operational synergy between cited intermittent RES electricity generation and EVs taxi fleet recharge. (author)

  8. Gas detection for alternate-fuel vehicle facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Steve

    2003-05-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles' safety is driven by local, state, and federal regulations in which fleet owners in key metropolitan [table: see text] areas convert much of their fleet to cleaner-burning fuels. Various alternative fuels are available to meet this requirement, each with its own advantages and requirements. This conversion to alternative fuels leads to special requirements for safety monitoring in the maintenance facilities and refueling stations. A comprehensive gas and flame monitoring system needs to meet the needs of both the user and the local fire marshal.

  9. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  10. Impact assessment of road fleet transitions on emissions: The case study of a medium European size country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, T.; Pereira, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the impacts of fleet composition changes on emission due to the introduction of different road transportation policies in a medium size European country (Portugal) applying an ex-post analysis (e.g. policies based on fuel pricing, car scraping, car taxation). A baseline scenario was compared with a counterfactual scenario in order to understand what would occur in the absence of the introduction of those policies. For each scenario, four approaches were assessed using economic effects and/or human health costs. HC, CO, NO x , PM and CO 2 emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles were evaluated. The results show high statistical significance (p≤0.05) between CO emissions and different vehicle features as vehicle age, fuel type and engine classes. The same pattern was observed between the average vehicle age and HC, NO x and PM. After the implementation of road traffic policies, the average emission factors of the fleet decreased 28–62% for HC, CO, NO x , PM and 20–39% for CO 2 . However, if a counterfactual scenario would be implemented, the reduction would be 20–80% and 26–55% higher, respectively. The results demonstrates that although were recorded some benefits, the fleet characteristics distribution were more environmental friendly in 2001 than in 2011. - Highlights: • Assess the effects of fleet composition changes on emission in Portugal between 2001 and 2011. • A baseline scenario was compared with a counterfactual scenario. • In the baseline scenario the average emission factors decreased 28–62%. • If a counterfactual scenario would be implemented, the reduction would be 20–80% higher. • High statistical significance was found only between some pollutants and vehicle features

  11. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 25 - Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction... 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements. (a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance with...

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    charging events could occur at the vehicle home base, high-use work areas, or intermediately along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in significant reductions in the emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The San Francisco Bay Area is a leader in the adoption of PEVs in the United States. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the GGNRA facility would be a benefit for both GGNRA fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned PEVs benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the GGNRA site to identify the optimal placement of the electric vehicle supply equipment station. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and GGNRA for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and GGNRA personnel.

  13. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  14. Shaping future US fuels: A local market laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As air pollution becomes a worsening problem around the world, alternative fuels are supported by many as a way to reduce vehicle emissions without impeding mobility. On June 22, 1992, the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project, CleanFleet, was launched. CleanFleet is a two-year program that will evaluate the performance of five alternative transportation fuels in a major commercial fleet. The study promises to identify the advantages and pitfalls of five alternative fuels on the basis of emissions, safety, maintenance, reliability, performance, and durability. This issue also contains the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of July 10, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1992 Edition

  15. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM 2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM 2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m -3 during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM 2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO 2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  16. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  17. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines the imp...... of vessel decommissioning. The Danish fishing fleet case serves as an empirical example in this regard. Comments on the future capacity management regime and the role of subsidies in EU fisheries are offered.......Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines...

  18. Fleet Sizing of Automated Material Handling Using Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Radinal; Ai, The Jin; Ratna Yuniartha, Deny

    2018-03-01

    Automated material handling tends to be chosen rather than using human power in material handling activity for production floor in manufacturing company. One critical issue in implementing automated material handling is designing phase to ensure that material handling activity more efficient in term of cost spending. Fleet sizing become one of the topic in designing phase. In this research, simulation approach is being used to solve fleet sizing problem in flow shop production to ensure optimum situation. Optimum situation in this research means minimum flow time and maximum capacity in production floor. Simulation approach is being used because flow shop can be modelled into queuing network and inter-arrival time is not following exponential distribution. Therefore, contribution of this research is solving fleet sizing problem with multi objectives in flow shop production using simulation approach with ARENA Software

  19. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  20. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  2. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  3. A fuel in blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that U.s. police departments are increasingly turning to natural gas for the same reasons other vehicle fleet operators do: It's much cheaper than gasoline and better for the environment - and it saves on engine wear-and-tear, too. Of course, the police have a lot of company in seeing the merits of natural gas vehicles (NGVs). Nineteen ninety-two proved itself a good year for NGVs before it was more than a few weeks old. President George Bush personally drove one outside the White House, the General Services Administration ordered 625 NGVs from Chrysler and General Motors, and both Ford and Chevrolet planned to begin this spring to manufacture a small number of vehicles equipped to run solely on natural gas. School districts are happy with the savings they reap by running school buses on natural gas, and the fuel has been embraced by other fleets ranging from garbage trucks in Brooklyn to jet-towing vehicles at Denver's Stapleton Airport. But police departments are different. A patrol care is not just transportation for an officer, but his or her workplace on wheels. And perhaps because they deal with life-and-death situations, police officers aren't eager to change anything - even a vehicle fuel - that they see as doing the job. If marketing natural gas for fleet use is a popular curriculum for gas companies these days, police forces are the demanding final exam

  4. GENUSA Fuel Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choithramani, Sylvia; Malpica, Maria [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas, GENUSA, Josefa Valcarcel, 26 28027 Madrid (Spain); Fawcett, Russel [Global Nuclear Fuel (United States)

    2009-06-15

    GNF ENUSA Nuclear Fuel S.A. (GENUSA) was formed in Madrid in May 1996. GENUSA is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Spain, jointly owned by GNF-A and ENUSA. GENUSA consolidates all European BWR fuel marketing activities of GNF-A and ENUSA, primarily providing marketing and project management. In its standard way of operating, it will obtain engineering, components and conversion from GNF-A and engineering, fabrication and fuel related services from ENUSA. GENUSA's development philosophy over the past decades has been to introduce evolutionary designs, supported by our global experience base, that deliver the performance needed by our customers to meet their operating strategies. GENUSA considers, as one of our strengths, the ever-increasing experience base that provides the foundation for such evolutionary changes. This experience is supported and complemented with an even greater GNF experience. Over the last 40 years, GNF and ENUSA have designed, fabricated, and placed in operation over 144,000 BWR fuel bundles containing over 9.7 million fuel rods. This experience base represents the widest range of operating conditions of any BWR fuel vendor, reflecting varying reactor power densities, operating strategies, and water chemistry environments. It covers operating periods of up to {approx}10 years and bundle average exposures up to 68 MWd/kgU.. It provides the confirmation of our understanding and ability to model fuel performance behavior, and has been instrumental in the identification and characterization of each encountered failure mechanism. With the knowledge gained from this extensive experience base, mitigating actions have been developed and progressively implemented by GENUSA as part of a continuous program toward improved fuel reliability and performance. GENUSA's evolutionary product introduction strategy has been extremely successful. There has been a continuous stream of new products/processes that were developed to

  5. Evaluation of Techniques for Reducing In-Use Automotive Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of proposed techniques for reducing fuel consumption in the in-use light duty road vehicle fleet. Three general classes of techniques are treated: (1) modification of vehicles, (2) modification of traffic flow, and ...

  6. Uranium in phosphate rocks and future nuclear power fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2014-01-01

    According to almost all forward-looking studies, the world’s energy consumption will increase in the future decades, mostly because of the growing world population and the long-term development of emerging countries. The effort to contain global warming makes it hard to exclude nuclear energy from the global energy mix. Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium (a natural, finite resource), whereas some future Generation IV reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR), starting with an initial fissile load, will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in LWR. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources and the nuclear power demand as estimated by various international organisations. Uranium is currently produced from conventional sources. The estimated quantities of uranium evolve over time in relation to their rate of extraction and the discovery of new deposits. Contrary to conventional resources, unconventional resources – because they are hardly used – also exist. These resources are more uncertain both in terms of their quantities and the feasibility of recovering them. Recovering uranium from seawater would guarantee a virtually infinite resource of nuclear fuel, but its technical and economic feasibility has yet to be demonstrated, and huge advances need to be achieved in this direction. According to different publications on phosphate reserves, the potential amount of uranium recoverable from phosphates can be estimated at around 4 MtU. Furthermore, the production of uranium as a by-product of phosphate is determined by the world production of

  7. The Potential Impact of Collaborative and Three-Dimensional Imaging Technology on SHIPMAIN Fleet Modernization Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seaman, Nathan L; Housel, Thomas; Mun, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance and modernization of the US Navy fleet is big business. The Navy has invested substantial fiscal and human resources to standardize the processes used to accomplish maintenance modernization and repair for its fleet of ships...

  8. A Qualitative Examination of the Administrative Process of Fleet Enlisted Personnel in Various Medical Categories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weatherford, Lenora

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the medical management process of placing and monitoring active duty fleet enlisted personnel in a temporary medical duty status and its impact on fleet readiness...

  9. Risk Assessment and Analysis of the M109 Family of Vehicles Fleet Management Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitz, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    ...) Fleet Management Pilot Program. The objective of this program is to reengineer the fleet's logistical support system by outsourcing those functions which make sense and that can be performed more efficiently by private industry...

  10. The Fleet Support Community: Meeting Its Mission in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murdy, Deanna

    1999-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of the Fleet Support community's management practices in meeting the dynamic changes in the complex fleet support arena, while increasing its value to the Navy in the future...

  11. The Retrofit Puzzle Extended: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior over Multiple Time Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-04

    In "The Retrofit Puzzle: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior in the Context of Diesel Retrofit Incentive Programs" (1) an integer program was developed to model profit-maximizing diesel fleet owner behavior when selecting pollution reduction retrofits. Flee...

  12. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 2 : summary of case study interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The FHWA has commissioned the Commercial Vehicle Fleet Management and Information Systems study to determine if there are fleet management needs that the public sector can address through the development of ITS for commercial vehicle operations. As p...

  13. Safety and radiation protection within the French electronuclear fleet in 2014. The IRSN's opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This annual report concerns the 58 pressurized water reactors of the French electronuclear fleet which are currently being operated. After a presentation of this fleet, and a discussion of the global assessment of safety and radiation protection within this fleet (discussion of the noticed trends), this document first reports the analysis performed by the IRSN of some important events and anomalies which occurred in 2014: the presence of migrating elements in the primary circuit which resulted in the damage fuel assembly sheaths (in Saint-Laurent des Eaux), the spraying of electric equipment due to a water flow from leaky hoppers, and the risk of unavailability of important equipment due to a high temperature in the room of the emergency back-up turbo generator set. The next chapter comments significant evolutions: renewal of the command-control system for the 1300 MWe reactors, risks induced on the Gravelines nuclear plant site by the exploitation of the Dunkirk methane terminal, and internal EDF arbitrages related to declarations regarding events which occurred in Val de Loire nuclear plants. These evolutions illustrate how expertises performed by the IRSN on request by the ASN complement EDF expertises and are a contribution to the improvement of installation safety

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    significant reductions in emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The Vancouver, Washington area and neighboring Portland, Oregon are leaders in adoption of PEVs in the United States1. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the FVNHS facility would be a benefit for both FVNHS fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned plug-in electric vehicles benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the FVNHS site to identify the optimal station placement for electric vehicle supply equipment. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and FVNHS for participation in this study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and FVNHS personnel

  15. Serving the fuel cycle: preparing tomorrow's packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main fleet of transport packagings serving today the fuel cycle was born more than 20 years ago. Or was it they? The present paper will show that serving the fuel cycle by preparing tomorrow's logistics is actually an on-going process, rather than a rupture. We shall review the great packagings of the fuel cycle: In the front end, the major actors are the UF 4 , UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , UO 2 powders, fresh fuel packagings. In the back end of the fuel cycle, we find the dry transport casks of the TN-12, TN-17, TN-13, family and also the Excellox wet flasks. In the waste management, a whole fleet of containers, culminating in the TN Gemini, are available or being created. (author)

  16. Extracting Lane Geometry and Topology Information from Vehicle Fleet Trajectories in Complex Urban Scenarios Using a Reversible Jump Mcmc Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeth, O.; Zaum, D.; Brenner, C.

    2017-05-01

    Highly automated driving (HAD) requires maps not only of high spatial precision but also of yet unprecedented actuality. Traditionally small highly specialized fleets of measurement vehicles are used to generate such maps. Nevertheless, for achieving city-wide or even nation-wide coverage, automated map update mechanisms based on very large vehicle fleet data gain importance since highly frequent measurements are only to be obtained using such an approach. Furthermore, the processing of imprecise mass data in contrast to few dedicated highly accurate measurements calls for a high degree of automation. We present a method for the generation of lane-accurate road network maps from vehicle trajectory data (GPS or better). Our approach therefore allows for exploiting today's connected vehicle fleets for the generation of HAD maps. The presented algorithm is based on elementary building blocks which guarantees useful lane models and uses a Reversible Jump Markov chain Monte Carlo method to explore the models parameters in order to reconstruct the one most likely emitting the input data. The approach is applied to a challenging urban real-world scenario of different trajectory accuracy levels and is evaluated against a LIDAR-based ground truth map.

  17. The Fleet-Management as an Element of the Modern Development in the Ukrainian Leasing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Garafonova Olga I.; Svynarchuk Anastasiia V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at researching practical aspects of the fleet-management development in Ukraine; relationships that arise in this process; elements that interact in the market. The preconditions of the companies’ transition to the use of this concept in the management of fleet, as well as the opportunities that arise in the enterprises using the principles of fleet-management were considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of fleet-management in companies wit...

  18. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  19. Fleet servicing facilities for testing and maintaining rail and truck radioactive waste transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.D.; Hudson, B.J.; Preston, M.K.; Keith, D.A.; McCreery, P.N.; Knox, W.; Easterling, E.M.; Lamprey, A.S.; Wiedemann, G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of Fleet Servicing Facilities (FSF). Such facilities are intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the waste handling plants in the United States presently receiving radioactive wastes have an onsite FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing all of these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the transport system is placed into service. Thus a need is indicated for FSFs or their equivalent at various radioactive materials receiving sites. This paper also compares the respective capital costs and operating characteristics of the following three concepts of a spent fuel cask transportation FSF; integrated FSF, colocated FSF, and independent FSF

  20. EDF advanced fuel management strategies for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, A.; Charmensat, P.; Larderet, M.

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear fleet represents 57 PWRs in operation, accounting for 80 % of France's total electricity production. The performance achieved by EDF reactors, in terms of availability (82.6% in 1997) and good cost control, have allowed to improve the nuclear KWh cost by 2% since 1992. The implementation of longer fuel cycles on the 1300 MW reactors from 1996 has contributed to this improvement and, as competitiveness is one of the main challenges for EDF, improving core management strategies is still at the order of the day. With this aim, a thinking process has been initiated to evaluate the benefit brought by the use of a fuel assembly like ALLIANCE, the new fuel product developed by Framatome-Fragema and FCF (Framatome Cogema Fuels) in close cooperation with EDF. The considered product provides enhanced performance, particularly as regards discharge burnup (at least up to 70 GWd/t) and thermal-hydraulic and mechanical behaviour. Fuel management improvements rely on the expertise gained by Framatome through designing core management strategies in a wide range of operating conditions prevailing in nuclear reactors all over the world. It will however be taken into account the necessity for EDF to adopt a policy of stepwise change owing to the potential impact of a 'series effect' on its numerous units. The proposed paper will describe innovative fuel managements, achievable thanks to advanced fuel assembly performance, that are jointly investigated by EDF and Framatome. It includes the following optimization schemes: extending cycle length by using higher enrichments up to 5%, while keeping the same reload size (1/3 core for example for the 1300 MW reactors); decreasing reload size (from 1/3 to 1/4 core), while keeping the same cycle length, using more enriched (up to 5 %) fuel assemblies; reaching annual cycle, with maximization of fuel cycle cost optimization (1/5 core). Beyond such schemes, combinations of optimized loading patterns and neutronic features of

  1. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast... during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010. The security zone... is a need to provide a security zone for the 2010 Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, and there is...

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105-1 Transfers from...

  3. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  4. 76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ...-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Diego, CA. The existing security zone is around the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier. The security zone encompasses all navigable waters within 100 feet of the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that — (a...

  6. Evolution of the deep-sea fleet that supports Canada's international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This study identifies the flag-related trends of fleets used in Canada's international sea-borne trade relative to the world fleet during the 15-year period from 1985 to 1999. The goal is to determine if there is any indication that fleets that serve...

  7. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Fleet Week Maritime Festival. This safety zone is necessary as these events have historically resulted... the safety of life and property on navigable waters during the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival...

  8. Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 - Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-02

    Document contains guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade and helps federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions.

  9. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  10. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  11. Scenario tree airline fleet planning for demand uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repko, M.G.J.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative multi-period modeling approach to solve the airline fleet planning problem under demand uncertainty. The problem is modeled using a scenario tree approach. The tree is composed of nodes, which represent points of decision in multiple time stages of the planning

  12. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  13. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  14. Report: EPA’s Fleet Management Program Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0001, October 6, 2014. If oversight of the EPA’s fleet is not improved, the $6 million-per-year program could be ineffective and inefficient in supporting the agency’s mission and reporting data to the federal system.

  15. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  16. Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the results of the cod monitoring program 2016. The research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs within the EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek. Cod catches of the vessels in the fleet segments BT2 (beam trawl and pulse trawl) and TR (otter trawls

  17. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...

  18. Applying Column Generation to the Discrete Fleet Planning Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation that describes the problem of planning the use of domestic distributed generators, under individual as well as fleet constraints. The planning problem comprises the assignment of time intervals during which the local generator must

  19. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  20. Optimal fleet conversion policy from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyung Chul Kim; Ross, M.H.; Keoleian, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicles typically deteriorate with accumulating mileage and emit more tailpipe air pollutants per mile. Although incentive programs for scrapping old, high-emitting vehicles have been implemented to reduce urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases, these policies may create additional sales of new vehicles as well. From a life cycle perspective, the emissions from both the additional vehicle production and scrapping need to be addressed when evaluating the benefits of scrapping older vehicles. This study explores an optimal fleet conversion policy based on mid-sized internal combustion engine vehicles in the US, defined as one that minimizes total life cycle emissions from the entire fleet of new and used vehicles. To describe vehicles' lifetime emission profiles as functions of accumulated mileage, a series of life cycle inventories characterizing environmental performance for vehicle production, use, and retirement was developed for each model year between 1981 and 2020. A simulation program is developed to investigate ideal and practical fleet conversion policies separately for three regulated pollutants (CO, NMHC, and NO x ) and for CO 2 . According to the simulation results, accelerated scrapping policies are generally recommended to reduce regulated emissions, but they may increase greenhouse gases. Multi- objective analysis based on economic valuation methods was used to investigate trade-offs among emissions of different pollutants for optimal fleet conversion policies. (author)

  1. Planning and forecasting demand for aircraft engines airline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Кучер

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available  The questions of air-engines supply system processes analysis on the basis of order planning and air-engine demand forecasting of airline’s air fleet with the use of imitating simulation methods are considered.

  2. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  3. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  4. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  5. The Potential of Turboprops to Reduce Aviation Fuel Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Smirti, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Aviation system planning, particularly fleet selection and adoption, is challenged by fuel price uncertainty. Fuel price uncertainty is due fuel and energy price fluctuations and a growing awareness of the environmental externalities related to transportation activities, particularly as they relate to climate change. To assist in aviation systems planning under such fuel price uncertainty and environmental regulation, this study takes a total logistic cost approach and evaluates three represe...

  6. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF RUSSIAN INNOVATIVE AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kryazhkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of tractors park and its perspective development are carried out on the basis of realization and improvement of the scientifically based types range constructed on a traction classification sign which conforms to requirements of agricultural production when performing two main conditions: full meeting the requirements for various standard sizes of tractors applicable to conditions of the corresponding zones of Russia and continuous reproduction and development of tractor fleet, both by quantity of efficient machinery and its structure. The developed types range practically runs the gamut of organizational and economic and climatic conditions, and also all range of forms of the organizations using machinery, beginning from individual consumers, small and large rent and contract collectives and finishing large-scale enterprises and their associations. Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat information about a steady tendency of fleet reduction was used for studying of regularities of development of tractor fleet. This information was added by analytical synthesis of data about the annual brand purchases in the Russian market of agricultural tractors. The developed database shows a share of the tractors in fleets of agricultural organizations, which are used over depreciation term, and also minimum necessary number of new machines introduction for formation of volume of tractors with limit age and the total quantity of tractors necessary for minimization of set of expenses. It was established that it is possible to estimate visually the developed quantitative and age structure of tractors fleet and to predict its development on prospect by worked out database representing set of annual tractors brand lines purchasing.

  7. Path Planning Algorithms for the Adaptive Sensor Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric; Hosler, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The Adaptive Sensor Fleet (ASF) is a general purpose fleet management and planning system being developed by NASA in coordination with NOAA. The current mission of ASF is to provide the capability for autonomous cooperative survey and sampling of dynamic oceanographic phenomena such as current systems and algae blooms. Each ASF vessel is a software model that represents a real world platform that carries a variety of sensors. The OASIS platform will provide the first physical vessel, outfitted with the systems and payloads necessary to execute the oceanographic observations described in this paper. The ASF architecture is being designed for extensibility to accommodate heterogenous fleet elements, and is not limited to using the OASIS platform to acquire data. This paper describes the path planning algorithms developed for the acquisition phase of a typical ASF task. Given a polygonal target region to be surveyed, the region is subdivided according to the number of vessels in the fleet. The subdivision algorithm seeks a solution in which all subregions have equal area and minimum mean radius. Once the subregions are defined, a dynamic programming method is used to find a minimum-time path for each vessel from its initial position to its assigned region. This path plan includes the effects of water currents as well as avoidance of known obstacles. A fleet-level planning algorithm then shuffles the individual vessel assignments to find the overall solution which puts all vessels in their assigned regions in the minimum time. This shuffle algorithm may be described as a process of elimination on the sorted list of permutations of a cost matrix. All these path planning algorithms are facilitated by discretizing the region of interest onto a hexagonal tiling.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Office of Management and Budget with opportunities to optimize federal fleet performance, reduce improvements, travel demand management strategies, congestion relief efforts (such as high occupancy vehicle advanced vehicles, fuel blends, fuel economy, hybrid vehicles, and idle reduction. Clean Cities provides

  9. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this project is to continue collecting and reporting the data on the performance and costs of alternatively fueled public transit vehicles in the state in a consistent manner in order to keep the Bus Fuels Fleet Evaluation Tool (BuFFeT) c...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Missouri with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 2 Compressed Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Feb. 5, 2016 https://youtube.com/embed/p4pVRgoWyZw Video thumbnail for AT&T Fleet Reaches

  11. The impact of using reduced capacity baskets on cask fleet size and cask fleet mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Andress, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System transportation system will encounter a wide range of spent fuel characteristics. Since the Initiative I casks are being designed to transport 10-year-old fuel with a burnup of 35,000 MWd/MTU, there is a good likelihood that a number of the cask shipments will need to be derated in order to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission radiation guidelines. This report discusses the impact of cask derating by using reduced-capacity baskets. Cask derating, while enhancing the ability to move spent fuel with a wider range of age and burnup characteristics, increases the number of shipments; the amount of equipment (cask bodies, baskets, etc.); and the number of visits to both shipping and receiving sites required to transport a specific amount of spent fuel

  12. The impact of using reduced-capacity baskets on cask fleet size and cask fleet mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Andress, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System transportation system will encounter a wide range of spent fuel characteristics. Since the Initiative I casks are being designed to transport 10-year-old fuel with a burnup of 35,000 MWd/MTU, there is a good likelihood that a number of the cask shipments will need to be derated in order to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission radiation guidelines. This report discusses the impact of cask derating by using reduced-capacity baskets. Cask derating, while enhancing the ability to move spent fuel with a wider range of age and burnup characteristics, increases the number of shipments; the amount of equipment (cask bodies, baskets, etc.); and the number of visits to both shipping and receiving sites required to transport a specific amount of spent fuel

  13. Automotive fuel efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    For at least the remainder of this century, the United States faces a growing dependence on imported oil. Costs are substantial, and they will mount. In June 1992, net imports provided nearly 50% of supplies, and their cost was $4.3 billion. Cost of net imports of motor vehicles and parts amounted to $3.0 billion. The two items combined totaled more than the negative trade balance of $6.6 billion. The light-duty highway fleet alone accounted for 38.2% of U.S. oil consumption in 1988. Correspondingly, the fleet was a substantial emitter of air pollutants - NO x , CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. In addition, it was a major source of CO 2 . The twin problems of oil imports and pollution would be ameliorated if the fuel economy if cars and trucks could be improved and their emissions were also reduced. In principle, the mileage of US automobiles could be substantially improved. But on purchasing a car, U.S. buyers rank fuel efficiency eight when making their choice. They are attracted to options that lower mileage. Consumers also tend to prefer large cars over small ones for reasons of safety. Increasingly, buyers are purchasing light trucks and vans that have inferior fuel efficiency. As a result of the above trends, the average mileage of the US automotive fleet has been diminishing. As long as fuel is available at comparatively low prices and there is no federal requirement for better mileage, improvement is unlikely. Moreover, even if improvements were mandated, change would be slow

  14. Study of the strength of the internal can for internally and externally cooled fuel elements intended for gas graphite reactors; Etude de la tenue de la gaine interne pour-element combustible a refroidissement interne et externe d'un reacteur graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudouresque, B; Courcon, P; Lestiboubois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cartridge of an internally and externally cooled annular fuel element used in gas-graphite reactors is made up of an uranium fuel tube, an external can and an internal can made of magnesium alloy. For the thermal exchange between the internal can and the fuel to be satisfactory, it is necessary for the can to stay in contact with the uranium under all temperature conditions. This report, based on a theoretical study, shows how the internal can fuel gap varies during the processes of canning, charging into the reactor and thermal cycling. The following parameters are considered: tube diameter, pressure of the heat carrying gas, gas entry temperature, plasticity of the can alloy. It is shown that for all operating conditions the internal can of a 77 x 95 element, planned for a gas-graphite reactor with a 40 kg/cm{sup 2} gas pressure, should remain in contact with the fuel. (authors) [French] La cartouche d'un element combustible annulaire, a refroidissement interne et externe pour reacteur graphite-gaz, est composee d'un tube combustible en uranium, d'une gaine externe et d'une gaine interne en alliage de magnesium. Pour que l'echange thermique entre la gaine interne et le combustible soit bon, il faut que la gaine reste appliquee sur l'uranium quel que soit le regime de temperature. Cette note a pour but de montrer comment, d'apres une etude theorique, le jeu combustible-gaine interne varie au cours des operations de gainage, de chargement dans le reacteur, et des cyclages thermiques. Les parametres suivants sont etudies: diametres de tube, pression du gaz caloporteur, temperature d'entree du gaz, plasticite de l'alliage de gaine. Il est montre que, quel que soit le regime de fonctionnement, la gaine interne d'un element 77 x 95, en projet pour un reacteur graphite-gaz sous pression de 40 kg/cm{sup 2}, doit rester appliquee sur le combustible. (auteurs)

  15. Alternative Fuel News: May 2000 Special Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.; Ficker, C.

    2000-05-03

    In this special issue of Alternative Fuel News, the authors summarize DOE's current position on the local government and private fleet rulemaking that has been under consideration. The authors also look at the new area of focus, niche markets. Your participation and input are invited as the authors craft new directions for the nation's transportation future.

  16. Economic gains from introducing international ITQs - the case of the mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Fitzpatrick, M.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a balance between fishing capacity and fishing opportunities is one of the major challenges in European fisheries. One way to achieve this is to introduce individual tradable quotas or similar management measures. In several mackerel and herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic...... that the gross cash flow can be improved by 21% by allowing the mackerel and herring quotas to be traded internationally in the Northeast Atlantic. This rent gain arises mainly from increased productivity by allowing tradability between areas and fleets. The analysis also shows that the Danish pelagic fleet...... will gain from increasing its share of mackerel and herring quotas, whereas the Irish fleets are incentivised to sell quota, if individual quotas are allowed to be traded among countries. This result is in line with the qualitative analyses that show that Irish fishermen targeting herring in the Celtic Sea...

  17. An approach to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Fesenko, Herman; Doukas, Nikos

    2017-09-01

    An approach and the algorithm to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model are proposed. The input data are the number of the drones, the drone fleet redundancy coefficient, the drone stability and restoration rate, the limit deviation from the norms of the drone fleet recovery, the drone fleet operational availability coefficient, the probability of the drone failure-free operation, time needed for performing the required tasks by the drone fleet. The ways for improving the recoverable drone fleet survivability taking into account amazing factors of system accident are suggested. Dependencies of the drone fleet survivability rate both on the drone stability and the number of the drones are analysed.

  18. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 5, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-04-18

    A quarterly magazine with articles on recent changes to the Clean Cities Program; the SuperTruck student engineering challenge; alternative fuel use in delivery fleets; and a propane vehicle rally and conference in February 2001, in Kansas City, Mo.

  19. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  1. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  2. Renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2012-01-01

    While supposing the lifetime of all present PWR reactors would be extended to sixty years, the author compares two scenarios regarding the renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors: the first one over 40 years and the second one over 20 years. This renewal is based on the construction of EPR reactors at different rhythms. The author compares the associated production costs and assesses the exploitation costs. A renewal scenario over 40 years seems to give better results

  3. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Ji, Qingkai; Chiu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS) to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP), where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this proble...

  4. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ahdieh, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bentley, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  5. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  6. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.

  7. ROTARY FUEL INJECTION PUMP WEAR TESTING USING A 30 %/ 70% ATJ/F-24 FUEL BLEND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    DD-MM-YYYY) 30-09-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) September 2013 – September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rotary... Corrosion Inhibitor/Lubricity Improver cm...fuels, to full scale equipment and fleet testing to determine resulting component and vehicle performance. This report covers investigation into the

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ten Ways You Can Implement Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    heavy-duty vehicle with a Clean Cities decal affixed to it. Connect with Clean Cities If you're looking Energy's Clean Cities program has nearly 100 local coalitions of fleets, fuel providers, businesses Honolulu to Houston to Hartford. Tap into an unbeatable source of transportation know-how and networking by

  9. Regional life cycle assessment of soybean derived biodiesel for transportation fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Xiaobo; Collinge, William O.; Shrake, Scott O.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Landis, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    Although the life cycle environmental impacts of biofuels have been recently reported, studies that focus on specific regions and use real fleet data for the use phase are still lacking. In Pennsylvania, the Penn Security Fuels Initiative required 2% biodiesel (B2), effective on January 1, 2010, with higher blending levels required in the future if production thresholds are met. This study quantifies the environmental impacts of biodiesel blends to meet increasing regional biodiesel demand. A process life cycle model was developed using data collected from collaboration with Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. For PennDOT, both in-state and out-of-state production scenarios were analyzed to estimate the possible environmental impacts of biodiesel blends. The results show that fertilizer usage in the agricultural phase, soy oil extraction and refining, feedstock and fuel transportation, and fuel combustion in the use phase are main contributors to biodiesel’s life cycle environmental impacts for all blends. Comparing biodiesels with ultra low sulfur diesel, significant environmental tradeoffs exist between global warming potential and eutrophication. For Pennsylvania, an in-state farming and processing preference has the lowest environmental impacts for B5. However, the limited area of farmlands in Pennsylvania may not satisfy the state’s biodiesel needs with higher blending levels. - Highlights: ► This study quantifies the environmental impacts of biodiesel policy in Pennsylvania. ► Fertilizer usage, soy oil refining and fuel combustion are the main contributing stages. ► Environmental tradeoffs exist between global warming and eutrophication impact categories. ► In-state farming and processing has the lowest environmental impact at current production levels.

  10. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the concept of equilibrium optimum to design heuristic algorithm for solving the model. Through case study and comparison, the heuristic algorithm is proved to be effective. By using the algorithm presented in this paper, the fleet operational profit is significantly increased compared with the use of the existing route-based model. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the fleet size and structure are more sensitive to the increase of fare price than to the increase of passenger demand.

  11. Fuel Reduction for the Mobility Air Forces: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    to reduce fuel consumption. These measures include technology improvements ( aerodynamics , aircraft weight, propulsion, etc.) and fleet, flight, and...calculate fuel savings from an enterprise perspective. For example, there is significant literature on drag reduction of winglets ; however, most of this...an aircraft. If the weight of the paint can be reduced, then the fuel burn can also be reduced. • Microvanes. Microvanes are small aerodynamic

  12. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015;37:46. Blumenthal SR, et al. An electronic health records study of long-term weight gain following antidepressant ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  13. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  14. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A concise guide to effective management of the public works equipment fleet

    OpenAIRE

    De Armas, Vicente.

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of today's trends in fleet management, including, organization, privatization, effects of environmental regulations and a discussion on info...

  16. Telematics Framework for Federal Agencies: Lessons from the Marine Corps Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Executive Order 13693 requires federal agencies to acquire telematics for their light- and medium-duty vehicles as appropriate. This report is intended to help agencies that are deploying telematics systems and seeking to integrate them into their fleet management process. It provides an overview of telematics capabilities, lessons learned from the deployment of telematics in the Marine Corps fleet, and recommendations for federal fleet managers to maximize value from telematics.

  17. A multi-agent based intelligent configuration method for aircraft fleet maintenance personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Qiang; Li, Songjie; Sun, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A multi-agent based fleet maintenance personnel configuration method is proposed to solve the mission oriented aircraft fleet maintenance personnel configuration problem. The maintenance process of an aircraft fleet is analyzed first. In the process each aircraft contains multiple parts, and different parts are repaired by personnel with different majors and levels. The factors and their relationship involved in the process of maintenance are analyzed and discussed. Then the whole maintenance...

  18. Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels (PF), as a promising technology for CO2 capture from power plants, has gained a lot of concerns and also advanced considerable research, development and demonstration in the last past years worldwide. The use of CO2 or the mixture of CO2 and H2O vapor as th...

  19. Analysis of Fleet Readiness Center Southwest Concept Integration: New-Employee Orientation and Communication Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clemmons, Francini R; Falconieri, Holly M

    2007-01-01

    Fleet Readiness Center Southwest has embraced integration of personnel and processes from Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Departments and Naval Aviation Depots supporting Naval Aviation Maintenance...

  20. CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacEwan, J.R.; Notley, M.J.F.; Wood, J.C.; Gacesa, M.

    1982-09-01

    The direction of CANDU fuel development was set in 1957 with the decision to build pressure tube reactors. Short - 50 cm long - rodded bundles of natural UO 2 clad in Zircaloy were adopted to facilitate on-power fuelling to improve uranium utilization. Progressive improvements were made during 25 years of development, involving 650 man years and 180 million dollars. Today's CANDU bundle is based on the knowledge gained from extensive irradiation testing and experience in power reactors. The main thrust of future development is to demonstrate that the present bundle is suitable, with minor modifications, for thorium fuels

  1. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  2. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    A full spatio-temporal four-dimensional characterization of the microphysics and dynamics of cloud formation including the onset of precipitation has never been reached. Such a characterization would yield a better understanding of clouds, e.g. to assess the dominant mixing mechanism and the main source of cloudy updraft dilution. It is the sampling strategy that matters: fully characterizing the evolution over time of the various parameters (P, T, 3D wind, liquid water content, aerosols...) within a cloud volume requires dense spatial sampling for durations of the order of one hour. A fleet of autonomous lightweight UAVs that coordinate themselves in real-time as an intelligent network can fulfill this purpose. The SkyScanner project targets the development of a fleet of autonomous UAVs to adaptively sample cumuli, so as to provide relevant data to address long standing questions in atmospheric science. It mixes basic researches and experimental developments, and gathers scientists in UAV conception, in optimal flight control, in intelligent cooperative behaviors, and of course atmospheric scientists. Two directions of researches are explored: optimal UAV conception and control, and optimal control of a fleet of UAVs. The design of UAVs for atmospheric science involves the satisfaction of trade-offs between payload, endurance, ease of deployment... A rational conception scheme that integrates the constraints to optimize a series of criteria, in particular energy consumption, would yield the definition of efficient UAVs. This requires a fine modeling of each involved sub-system and phenomenon, from the motor/propeller efficiency to the aerodynamics at small scale, including the flight control algorithms. The definition of mission profiles is also essential, considering the aerodynamics of clouds, to allow energy harvesting schemes that exploit thermals or gusts. The conception also integrates specific sensors, in particular wind sensor, for which classic

  3. Gain curves and hydrodynamic modeling for shock ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ignition of a precompressed thermonuclear fuel by means of a converging shock is now considered as a credible scheme to obtain high gains for inertial fusion energy. This work aims at modeling the successive stages of the fuel time history, from compression to final thermonuclear combustion, in order to provide the gain curves of shock ignition (SI). The leading physical mechanism at work in SI is pressure amplification, at first by spherical convergence, and by collision with the shock reflected at center during the stagnation process. These two effects are analyzed, and ignition conditions are provided as functions of the shock pressure and implosion velocity. Ignition conditions are obtained from a non-isobaric fuel assembly, for which we present a gain model. The corresponding gain curves exhibit a significantly lower ignition threshold and higher target gains than conventional central ignition.

  4. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...... location problem which are known for their tightness. The demand is considered to be elastic in the sense that the service provider can accept any fraction of the origin-destination demand. We then propose a primal decomposition method to solve instances of the problem to optimality. Numerical results...... confirm superiority of our approach in comparison with a general-purpose mixed integer programming solver....

  5. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  6. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  7. Energy Impacts of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors in U.S. Light-Duty Electric Vehicle Fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua A; Riddle, Matthew E; Graziano, Diane J; Das, Sujit; Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Masanet, Eric; Cresko, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide and gallium nitride, two leading wide band gap semiconductors with significant potential in electric vehicle power electronics, are examined from a life cycle energy perspective and compared with incumbent silicon in U.S. light-duty electric vehicle fleet. Cradle-to-gate, silicon carbide is estimated to require more than twice the energy as silicon. However, the magnitude of vehicle use phase fuel savings potential is comparatively several orders of magnitude higher than the marginal increase in cradle-to-gate energy. Gallium nitride cradle-to-gate energy requirements are estimated to be similar to silicon, with use phase savings potential similar to or exceeding that of silicon carbide. Potential energy reductions in the United States vehicle fleet are examined through several scenarios that consider the market adoption potential of electric vehicles themselves, as well as the market adoption potential of wide band gap semiconductors in electric vehicles. For the 2015-2050 time frame, cumulative energy savings associated with the deployment of wide band gap semiconductors are estimated to range from 2-20 billion GJ depending on market adoption dynamics.

  8. Analysis of advanced European nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-01-01

    Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed from a point of view of resources utilization and economics. Scenarios include the current fleet using Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and open fuel cycle (as a reference scenario), a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel and two fuel cycles with Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet or in dedicated Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS).Results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand. Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 20% for Pu management scenario and around 35% for both transmutation scenarios respectively.

  9. Analysis of advanced European nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed from a point of view of resources utilization and economics. Scenarios include the current fleet using Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and open fuel cycle (as a reference scenario), a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel and two fuel cycles with Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet or in dedicated Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS).Results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand. Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 20% for Pu management scenario and around 35% for both transmutation scenarios respectively.

  10. Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

    2009-09-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

  11. Process Approach for Modeling of Machine and Tractor Fleet Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokin, B. D.; Aletdinova, A. A.; Kravchenko, M. S.; Tsybina, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    The existing software complexes on modelling of the machine and tractor fleet structure are mostly aimed at solving the task of optimization. However, the creators, choosing only one optimization criterion and incorporating it in their software, provide grounds on why it is the best without giving a decision maker the opportunity to choose it for their enterprise. To analyze “bottlenecks” of machine and tractor fleet modelling, the authors of this article created a process model, in which they included adjustment to the plan of using machinery based on searching through alternative technologies. As a result, the following recommendations for software complex development have been worked out: the introduction of a database of alternative technologies; the possibility for a user to change the timing of the operations even beyond the allowable limits and in that case the calculation of the incurred loss; the possibility to rule out the solution of an optimization task, and if there is a necessity in it - the possibility to choose an optimization criterion; introducing graphical display of an annual complex of works, which could be enough for the development and adjustment of a business strategy.

  12. Design of the fuel element 'snow-flake' in uranium oxide, canned with aluminium, for the experimental reactor EL 3 (1960); Etude d'un element combustible en oxyde d'uranium gaine d'aluminium, type ''cristal de neige'' pour la pile EL 3 (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M; Guibert, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report sums up the main studies have been carried out on the fuel element 'Snowflake' (uranium oxide, canned with aluminium), designed to replace the present element of the experimental reactor EL3 in order to increase the reactivity without modifying the neutron flux/thermal power ratio. (author) [French] Ce rapport resume les principales etudes qui ont ete faites sur l'element combustible 'Cristal de Neige' (a oxyde d'uranium, gaine d'aluminium) destine a remnlacer l'element actuel du reacteur experimental EL3, afin d'en augmenter la reactivite sans modifier le rapport flux neutronique-puissance thermique. (auteur)

  13. Photomultiplier gain stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Baud, P.; Sautiez, B.

    1958-07-01

    By the control and adjustment of magnetic deflection applied to the electron beam of a photomultiplier it has proved possible to flatten the gain curve, forming plateaux at levels dependent upon the voltage at intake. It should be possible to add this simple device to most photomultipliers on the market today. (author) [fr

  14. Metroplex Optimization Model Expansion and Analysis: The Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Hoffman, Karla; Donohue, George; Beradino, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM) that is designed to provide insights into airline decision-making with regards to markets served, schedule of flights on these markets, the type of aircraft assigned to each scheduled flight, load factors, airfares, and airline profits. The main inputs to the model are hedged fuel prices, airport capacity limits, and candidate markets. Embedded in the model are aircraft performance and associated cost factors, and willingness-to-pay (i.e. demand vs. airfare curves). Case studies demonstrate the application of the model for analysis of the effects of increased capacity and changes in operating costs (e.g. fuel prices). Although there are differences between airports (due to differences in the magnitude of travel demand and sensitivity to airfare), the system is more sensitive to changes in fuel prices than capacity. Further, the benefits of modernization in the form of increased capacity could be undermined by increases in hedged fuel prices

  15. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  16. The Fleet-Management as an Element of the Modern Development in the Ukrainian Leasing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garafonova Olga I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching practical aspects of the fleet-management development in Ukraine; relationships that arise in this process; elements that interact in the market. The preconditions of the companies’ transition to the use of this concept in the management of fleet, as well as the opportunities that arise in the enterprises using the principles of fleet-management were considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of fleet-management in companies with the available fleet of various sizes were researched. The main features, current tendencies of the fleet-management development have been indicated, ways of attraction of automobile enterprises to the use of leasing have been suggested. Prospects for further researches in this direction will be consideration of possibility of attraction of more enterprises to the use of principles of fleet-management in their management routine. Further development of fleet management will provide enterprises with significant opportunities and the reserve funds that can be used for development.

  17. New heuristics for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, W.; Janssens, Gerrit K.; Sirensen, K.; Vernimmen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    In the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (FSMVRPTW) customers need to be serviced in their time windows at minimal costs by a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper new heuristics for the FSMVRPTW are developed. The performance of the heuristics is shown to be significantly

  18. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guard District § 165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165.1121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  19. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  20. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0062] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime...

  1. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Davies

    Full Text Available Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures.

  2. Vehicles with fuel cells: dream or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Broeck, H; Hovestreydt, G

    1979-01-01

    Elenco N.V. is developing a hydrogen/potassium hydroxide/air fuel cell system of 10-50 kw with a specific performance of 72 mw/sq cm and a practical operating life of 5000 hr, which will be available in 1981-82. A comparative cost study was performed for vehicles with 100% fuel cells, 100% batteries, hybrid systems of fuel cells combined with batteries that provide high power for acceleration, hydrogen combustion engines, and conventional diesel engines, for city bus fleets, light commercial vehicles, forklifts, and trucks in Holland and Belgium. Hybrid systems give the best economy and they should become competitive with diesel engines after 1990.

  3. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  4. Measurement and evaluation of fuels and technologies for passenger rail service in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to measure a baseline for fuel use and emission rates on the rebuilt or replaced engines on each locomotive in the NCDOT Rail Division fleet, using ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel; measure real-world, in-use over...

  5. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  6. A multi-agent based intelligent configuration method for aircraft fleet maintenance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-agent based fleet maintenance personnel configuration method is proposed to solve the mission oriented aircraft fleet maintenance personnel configuration problem. The maintenance process of an aircraft fleet is analyzed first. In the process each aircraft contains multiple parts, and different parts are repaired by personnel with different majors and levels. The factors and their relationship involved in the process of maintenance are analyzed and discussed. Then the whole maintenance process is described as a 3-layer multi-agent system (MAS model. A communication and reasoning strategy among the agents is put forward. A fleet maintenance personnel configuration algorithm is proposed based on contract net protocol (CNP. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircraft is studied for verification purposes. A mission type with 3 waves of continuous dispatch is imaged. Compared with the traditional methods that can just provide configuration results, the proposed method can provide optimal maintenance strategies as well.

  7. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  8. Real world vehicle fleet emission factors: Seasonal and diurnal variations in traffic related air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jonathan M.; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Zimmerman, Naomi; Healy, Robert M.; Evans, Greg J.

    2018-07-01

    Temporal variations of vehicle emissions are affected by various compounding factors in the real world. The focus of this study is to determine the effects of ambient conditions and post-tailpipe changes on traffic emissions measured in the near-road region. Emission factors allowed for the isolation of the traffic signal and accounted for effects of local meteorology and dilution. Five month-long measurement campaigns were conducted at an urban near-road site that exhibited a broad range of ambient conditions with temperatures ranging between -18 and +30 °C. Particle number emission factors were 2.0× higher in the winter relative to the summer, which was attributed to changes in particles post-tailpipe. Conversely, toluene emissions were 2.5× higher in the summer relative to the winter, attributed to changes in fuel composition. Diurnal trends of emission factors showed substantial increases in emissions during the morning rush hour for black carbon (1.9×), particle number (2.4×), and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.0×), affected by fleet make-up. In contrast, particle number emission factors were highest midday with mean values 3.7× higher than at night. This midday increase was attributed to particle formation or growth from local traffic emissions and showed different wind direction dependence than regional events.

  9. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 4, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-09-08

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News discusses Executive Order 13149 which is designed to not only increase the use of alternative fuel by federal agencies but also to increase the use of fuel efficient vehicles in the federal fleet. Also highlighted is the 6th National Clean Cities Conference and Expo held in San Diego, May 7-10, 2000, which attracted nearly 1,000 people for three action-packed days of alternative fuel activities. The work to develop a market for alternative fuels is more important than ever.

  10. Hydrogen gains further momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    As first industrial production projects should become a reality in the next few years, hydrogen as a source of energy will find important applications with mobility, which momentum is rapid and irresistible. Next steps will be the (large capacity) storage of hydrogen associated to power-to-gas systems and the generalization of renewable energies. This document presents 5 articles, which themes are: Description and explanation of the process of hydrogen production; Presentation of the H2V project for the construction, in Normandy, of the first operational industrial hydrogen production plant using electric power 100 pc generated by renewable energies; The conversion of electric power from renewable energies through hydrogen storage and fuel cells for buildings applications (Sylfen project); The development of a reversible fuel cell at Mines-Paris Tech University, that will be adapted to the storage of renewable electric power; Hydrogen as a lever for the development of zero-emission vehicles, from trucks to cars and bicycles

  11. Learn and gain

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Alami, Suhair Eyad Jamal

    2013-01-01

    Initiating the slogan ""love it, live it"", Learn and Gain includes eight short stories, chosen to illustrate various modes of narration, as well as to provoke reflection and discussion on a range of issues. All texts utilized here illustrate how great writers can, with their insight and gift for words, help us to see the world we live in, in new probing and exciting ways. What characterises the book, the author believes, is the integration of the skills of literary competence, communicative c...

  12. Clean Cities: AFLEET Measures Impacts of Vehicles and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET factsheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

  13. Fuels demand by light vehicles and motorcycles In Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jose Manoel Antelo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consumption of gasoline, alcohol and natural gas vehicle (NGV) by light vehicles and motorcycles in Brazil. Through the estimation of fleets per consumption class, in an environment influenced by a new engine technology (flex-fuel), this exercise estimates the fleet-elasticity of cars (and motorcycles) powered by gasoline, hydrated alcohol, natural gas vehicle (NGV) and flex-fuel, in addition to the income elasticity within the period from January, 2000 to December, 2008. This paper uses an alternative variable as income proxy and estimates the five different fleets through the combination of vehicles sales and scrapping curves. This paper's conclusion is that given specific issues of the Brazilian fuel market, in special prices and technological innovations, the fleets' equations for the consumption of the three fuels represent in a more significant manner the relationships expected between supply and demand variables than the commonly used functions of prices and income. (author)

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: City of Chicago Program Encourages Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    lacked the funds to support such a project, but officials worked with the Chicago Area Clean Cities (CACC networking opportunities. This photo shows a parked compressed natural gas van the City of Chicago's fleet Infrastructure: 11 private E85 fueling stations Related Links Ethanol Natural Gas Chicago Area Clean Cities

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mammoth Cave National Park Uses Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone National Park Commits to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: James Madison University Teaches Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmartWay Transport Partnership is a market-based public-private collaboration between the U.S operate vehicle fleets, the public, and other interested entities about the benefits of biodiesel use Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center

  19. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet...

  20. Emission Reduction Potential with the Renewal of the Vehicle Fleet in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidov, B.; Brlek, G.; Brajkovic, J.; Karan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union has identified the typical areas of application of measures to tackle the problem of pollutants emissions into the air. Road transport is recognized as the largest polluter of the environment and an increase in CO2 emissions is most difficult to suppress in this type of transport. Looking at the projected trend of emission reductions in Croatia, it is clear that for achieving the minimum targets by 2050, as proposed by the European Union, implementation of the very strong measures in the coming period will be inevitable. The main aim of the paper refers to the analysis of potential emission reduction of pollutants generated by passenger vehicles registered in Croatia, assuming the implementation of measures that will result in technological renewal of the fleet at the national level. Generally considering, passenger cars before the Euro 1 standard, Euro 1 and Euro 2 standards together emit nearly 40 percent of all CO2 emissions generated by passenger cars registered in Croatia. Assuming replacement of all cars up to and including Euro 2, with Euro 6 vehicles, and taking into account certain assumptions, the potential reductions in emissions of NOx, CO, CH4 and particles were quantified. The potential reduction in NOx emissions is approximately 3,061 tons, in CO emissions approximately 14482 tons, in CH4 approximately 114 tons and in particulate matter approximately 257 tons. Depending on the engine size, with the replacement of the typical gasoline 20 years old passenger vehicle with the new one, without changing the driving mode, annual savings of up to 209 liters of gasoline fuel and reduction of CO2 emissions by 475 kg could be achieved (according to the assumptions described in the paper). With the replacement of diesel vehicles under the same conditions, the savings of up to 311 liters of diesel fuel annually and reduction of CO2 emissions by 815 kg could be achieved. (author).

  1. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP, where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this problem, we design three guiding mechanisms in which the search history is used to guide the search. The three mechanisms are experimentally demonstrated to be more efficient than the ones which only apply the known distance information. Armed with the guiding mechanisms and the well-known reactive mechanism, the RGTS can produce remarkable solutions in a reasonable computation time.

  2. First Battleships of the Coast Defense of Russian Emperor Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is told about design and building in Russia of the first tower armored ships, are given their characteristics, are described design features, and also basic stages of service in the composition of Baltic fleet, the advantages and disadvantages in the projects are analyzed. The authors come to the conclusion that the first navigation of tower armored vehicles revealed many design flaws. Low-built monitors and two-turret armored boat had very poor seakeeping. However, for advertising purposes the ten monitors in 1865 have been sent to the coast of Sweden. During the operation it was determined the necessity of combining the reliable protection with sufficient seaworthiness. The solution to this problem is reflected in the subsequent types of armored ships – the tower frigates.

  3. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, I.R.; Carr, M.

    1997-01-01

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  4. A dynamic management of a public transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Celiński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present paper deals with the problems of a public transportation fleet management in public transportation operators. A management concept is proposed based on a real-time acquisition of parameters of public transportation passenger exchange. Methods: The relevant research utilised video materials documenting the processes of passenger exchange in public transportation. The proposed methodology is based on a dynamic real-time measurement of passenger streams. A characteristic feature of the measurement methodology applied is that the data is collected outside the vehicles, with a CCTV camera used per access point. Demand for the public transportation service are calculated using the image processing. Results: The derived demand characteristics allow not only an estimation of the magnitude of traffic streams in public transportation but also their qualitative description. Such an approach permits a flexible design of the transportation offer to adapt to the demand. This allows matching the timetables to the density functions describing the demand for public transportation within the space of transportation networks. In addition, based on the results of this type of research, a public transportation operator may despatch the vehicle base in a flexible way. For each run of a bus or tram fleet, basing on the registered passenger traffic streams, it is possible to rationally despatch the vehicles with suitable capacity. Conclusions: A system of this type is capable of determining the quality of work of the public transportation. With the ITS systems being introduced still more widely, the proposed methodology allows the design and implementation of dynamic timetables.

  5. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  6. CCS Retrofit: Analysis of the Global Installed Power Plant Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity generation from coal is still growing rapidly and energy scenarios from the IEA expect a possible increase from today’s 1 600 GW of coal-fired power plants to over 2 600 GW until 2035. This trend will increase the lock-in of carbon intensive electricity sources, while IEA assessments show that two-thirds of total abatement from all sectors should come from the power sector alone to support a least-cost abatement strategy. Since coal-fired power plants have a fairly long lifetime, and in order to meet climate constraints, there is a need either to apply CCS retrofit to some of today’s installed coal-fired power plants once the technology becomes available. Another option would be to retire some plants before the end of their lifetime. This working paper discusses criteria relevant to differentiating between the technical, cost-effective and realistic potential for CCS retrofit. The paper then discusses today’s coal-fired power plant fleet from a statistical perspective, by looking at age, size and the expected performance of today’s plant across several countries. The working paper also highlights the growing demand for applying CCS retrofitting to the coal-fired power plant fleet of the future. In doing so this paper aims at emphasising the need for policy makers, innovators and power plant operators to quickly complete the development of the CCS technology and to identify key countries where retrofit applications will have the biggest extent and impact.

  7. Comparing flexibility mechanisms for fuel economy standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975, the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program has been the main policy tool in the US for coping with the problems of increasing fuel consumption and dependence on imported oil. The program mandates average fuel economy requirements for the new vehicle sales of each manufacturer's fleet, with separate standards for cars and light trucks. The fact that each manufacturer must on its own meet the standards means that the incentives to improve fuel economy are different across manufacturers and vehicle types, although the problems associated with fuel consumption do not make such distinctions. This paper evaluates different mechanisms to offer automakers the flexibility of joint compliance with nationwide fuel economy goals: tradable CAFE credits, feebates, output-rebated fees, and tradable credits with banking. The policies are compared according to the short- and long-run economic incentives, as well as to issues of transparency, implementation, administrative and transaction costs, and uncertainty

  8. Methodology implementation for multi objective optimisation for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynet, David

    2016-01-01

    The issue of the evolution French nuclear fleet can be considered through the study of nuclear transition scenarios. These studies are of paramount importance as their results can greatly affect the decision making process, given that they take into account industrial concerns, investments, time, and nuclear system complexity. Such studies can be performed with the COSI code (developed at the CEA/DEN), which enables the calculation of matter inventories and fluxes across the fuel cycle (nuclear reactors and associated facilities), especially when coupled with the CESAR depletion code. The studies today performed with COSI require the definition of the various scenarios' input parameters, in order to fulfil different objectives such as minimising natural uranium consumption, waste production and so on. These parameters concern the quantities and the scheduling of spent fuel destined for reprocessing, and the number, the type and the commissioning dates of deployed reactors.This work aims to develop, validate and apply an optimisation methodology coupled with COSI, in order to determine optimal nuclear transition scenarios for a multi-objective platform. Firstly, this methodology is based on the acceleration of scenario evaluation, enabling the use of optimisation methods in a reasonable time-frame. With this goal in mind, artificial neural network irradiation surrogate models are created with the URANIE platform (developed at the CEA/DEN) and are implemented within COSI. The next step in this work is to use, adapt and compare different optimisation methods, such as URANIE's genetic algorithm and particle swarm methods, in order to define a methodology suited to this type of study. This methodology development is based on an incremental approach which progressively adds objectives, constraints and decision variables to the optimisation problem definition. The variables added, which are related to reactor deployment and spent fuel reprocessing strategies, are chosen

  9. Gains from quota trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Levring; Bogetoft, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We provide a framework for evaluating potential effects of introducing tradable quotas to a sector. The effects depend on the economies of scale and scope of the production technology, and on firms' ability and willingness to learn best practice methods (catching up) and to change their input...... and output composition (mix). To illustrate our approach, data from the Danish fishery are used to calculate the potential gains from introducing individually transferable fishing quotas. Data envelopment analysis is used to model the production technology. We find that pure reallocation is as important...

  10. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  11. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-03-17

    The cover story in this issue of the Alternative Fuel News highlights the niche market principle; the places in which AFVs would best fit. This year's SEP funding is expected to be the springboard needed for the development of niche projects. The Clean Cities Program, by matching those needs and attributes in niches, can dramatically increase the attractiveness of AFVs and make an impact on those high-mileage, high-use fleets.

  12. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success.

  13. The IRSN's opinion on safety and radiation protection of the French electronuclear fleet in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this report proposes an overview of significant events which occurred in 2013 in the French nuclear power plants: safety re-examination process, evolution of safety significant events, aspects related to the containment of radioactive substances (fuel rod cladding, enclosure tightness test), evolution of organisational arrangements during reactor stoppage. The second and main part proposes a presentation of the currently operated French electronuclear reactor fleet, a global assessment of safety and radiation protection, a report of events, incidents and anomalies (and more notably: the pollution of the air compressed production and distribution systems of a Cruas reactor, the issue of resistance to earthquakes of some hardware, and fuel assembly deformations in Nogent 2), and an overview of significant evolutions (control of containment enclosures of 1300 and 1450 MWe reactors, the taking of aggressions into account for the third decennial inspection of 1300 MWe reactors, thermal fatigue in mixing areas, safety and radiation protection management during reactor stoppage, corrosion of the zircaloy 4 cladding of fuel assemblies)

  14. C-5M Fuel Efficiency Through MFOQA Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    then contribute to more accurate fuel loading and more efficient fleet fuel usage. Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) data uses the quick access ...into the ranges in Table 2. Visual Basic ( VBA ) code was written to quickly parse an entire mission (one of the thirty samples) into usable cruise...segments within the Altitude ranges of Table 2. The logic for focusing upon stable cruise flight segments was outlined in Chapter II. The VBA code

  15. Multi-criteria methodology to design a sodium-cooled carbide-fueled Gen-IV reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauff, N.

    2011-01-01

    Compared with earlier plant designs (Phenix, Super-Phenix, EFR), Gen IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor requires improved economics while meeting safety and non-proliferation criteria. Mixed Oxide (U-Pu)O 2 fuels are considered as the reference fuels due to their important and satisfactory feedback experience. However, innovative carbide (U-Pu)C fuels can be considered as serious competitors for a prospective SFR fleet since carbide-fueled SFRs can offer another type of optimization which might overtake on some aspects the oxide fuel technology. The goal of this thesis is to reveal the potentials of carbide by designing an optimum carbide-fueled SFR with competitive features and a naturally safe behavior during transients. For a French nuclear fleet, a 1500 MW(e) break-even core is considered. To do so, a multi-physic approach was developed taking into account neutronics, fuel thermo-mechanics and thermal-hydraulic at a pre-design stage. Simplified modeling with the calculation of global neutronic feedback coefficients and a quasi-static evaluation was developed to estimate the behavior of a core during overpower transients, loss of flow and/or loss of heat removal transients. The breakthrough of this approach is to provide the designer with an overall view of the iterative process, emphasizing the well-suited innovations and the most efficient directions that can improve the SFR design project.This methodology was used to design a core that benefits from the favorable features of carbide fuels. The core developed is a large carbide-fueled SFR with high power density, low fissile inventory, break-even capability and forgiving behaviors during the un-scrammed transients studied that should prevent using expensive mitigate systems. However, the core-peak burnup is unlikely to significantly exceed 100 MWd/kg because of the large swelling of the carbide fuel leading to quick pellet-clad mechanical interaction and the low creep capacity of carbide. Moderate linear power fuel

  16. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  17. Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post

  18. Real and alleged hazard of radioactive contamination of seas caused by activities of Russian nuclear fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavkovsky, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The current paper addresses the assessment results of the degree of danger caused by radioactive contamination of seas by wastes from activities of nuclear fleets compared to the results obtained in other works, specifically, in the IASAP program

  19. Maritime Security Fleet: Factors to Consider before Deciding to Select Participants Competitively

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The Maritime Security Act established the Maritime Security Fleet (MSF) program, authorizing MARAD to enter into agreements with maritime shipping companies to provide DOD access to commercial vessels operating under U.S...

  20. Vehicle attributes constraining present electric car applicability in the fleet market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J R

    1979-12-01

    One strategy for reducing petroleum imports is to use electric cars in place of conventional vehicles. This paper examines obstacles which electric cars are likely to encounter in attempting to penetrate a key segment of the passenger car market, namely, the fleet market. A fleet is here defined as a group of cars operated by a corporation or a government agency. The primary data source is a questionnaire that was distributed to fleet operators by the Bobit Publishing Company in the summer of 1977. Six sectors of the fleet market were sampled: police, state and local government, utilities, taxi, rental, and business. The questionnaire was specifically designed to uncover factors limiting market penetration of unconventional vehicles, although no attempt was made to determine price elasticities. Emphasis is on vehicle attributes that are readily quantifiable and relatively projectable, including seating capacity, range, battery recharging characteristics, availability of power options, and ability to use interstate highways.

  1. Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator: CPEN user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, R.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to assist prospective users in the understanding and execution of Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator (CPEN). CPEN is an interactive FORTRAN program whose purpose is to produce estimates of fleet-market-penetration rates of alternative passenger cars that can be described in terms of specific physical and economic attributes. The data were derived from questionnaires distributed to fleet operators affiliated with National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA). Besides the NAFA data, CPEN uses 48 variables that are interactively inserted. Complete data-input descriptions are included in the manual along with algorithm and application flowcharts. Examples of complete successful simulator runs are included for alternative program paths. A listing of the computer program and a glossary for CPEN are included.

  2. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  3. Optimal Scheduling and Operating Target (OPTAR) Cost Model for Aircraft Carriers in the Fleet Response Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    York, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    .... This capability is developed through the Fleet Readiness Training Plan (FRTP) where the Navy's carriers are scheduled in staggered 32-month cycles consisting of four phases of progressive readiness levels...

  4. A Study of Fleet Surgical Teams Readiness Posture in Amphibious Readiness Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tennyson, Ruby

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes and evaluates Fleet Surgical Teams (FSTs). It examines how Navy Medicine adapted FSTs to changing support requirements associated with the Total Health Care Support Readiness Requirement (THCSRR...

  5. PROBLEMS OF ROUTE NETWORK AND AIRCRAFT FLEET OPTIMIZATION AS A SPECIFIC TASK OF AIRLINE STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Karakuts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic problems of route network and aircraft fleet optimization and its role in airline strategic planning are considered. Measures to improve the methods of its implementation are proposed.

  6. The design of a comprehensive microsimulator of household vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The report describes a comprehensive vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution : simulator that can be used to forecast household vehicle ownership and mileage by type of : vehicle over time. The components of the simulator are developed ...

  7. Idle reduction assessment for the New York State Department of Transportation region 4 fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Energetics Incorporated conducted a study to evaluate the operational, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reduce idling in : the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Region 4 fleet without compromising fun...

  8. Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2005-10-14

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

  9. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  10. Investigation of fusion gain in fast ignition with conical targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast ignition is a new scheme for inertial confinement fusion (ICF. In this scheme, at first the interaction of ultraintense laser beam with the hohlraum wall surrounding a capsule containing deuterium-tritium (D-T fuel causes implosion and compression of fuel to high density and then laser produced protons penetrate in the compressed fuel and deposit their energy in it as the ignition hot spot is created. In this paper, following the energy gain of spherical target and considering relationship of the burn fraction to burn duration, we have obtained the energy gain of conical targets characterized by the angle β, and found a hemispherical capsule (β=π/2 has a gain as high as 96% of that of the whole spherical capsule. The results obtained in this study are qualitatively consistent with Atzeni et al.'s studies of simulations.

  11. Decision support with respect to facility location and fleet composition for FoodBank Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lanz, EJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fleet Composition Current & Future Work FoodBank Cape Town First in South Africa Launched on 2 March 2009 Warehouse located in Philippi East [1] Majority of food sourced from DCs and retail sector Distributing to approximately 200 agencies... & Future Work Figure: Sourcing & distributing ow diagram EJ Lanz 40th Annual ORSSA Conference 11 of 36 Background Project Focus Demand & Candidate Sites Facility Location Problems Vehicle Fleet Composition Current & Future Work Data Demand Site...

  12. A New Formulation for the Combined Maritime Fleet Deployment and Inventory Management Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bo; Bektas, Tolga; Chandra, Saurabh; Christiansen, Marielle; Fagerholt, Kjetil

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the fleet deployment problem and in particular the treatment of inventory in the maritime case. A new model based on time-continuous formulation for the combined maritime fleet deployment and inventory management problem in Roll-on Roll-off shipping is presented. Tests based on realistic data from the Ro-Ro business show that the model yields good solutions to the combined problem within reasonable time.

  13. An evaluation and implementation study of the Zenith 120 microcomputer in West Coast Fleet Commands

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Austere funding and the increased administrative burdens being placed on fleet units will ultimately take their toll on performance, morale and combat readiness. Applying low cost microcomputer technology presents one method to alleviate many of these burdens. However, the current implementation process being used is not sufficient to meet the needs of the Fleet. Empirical evidence indicates that expenditures on computers are not ac...

  14. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Sun; Qiang Feng; Songjie Li

    2012-01-01

    According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules) based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negoti...

  15. Design of the fuel element 'snow-flake' in uranium oxide, canned with aluminium, for the experimental reactor EL 3 (1960); Etude d'un element combustible en oxyde d'uranium gaine d'aluminium, type ''cristal de neige'' pour la pile EL 3 (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M.; Guibert, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report sums up the main studies have been carried out on the fuel element 'Snowflake' (uranium oxide, canned with aluminium), designed to replace the present element of the experimental reactor EL3 in order to increase the reactivity without modifying the neutron flux/thermal power ratio. (author) [French] Ce rapport resume les principales etudes qui ont ete faites sur l'element combustible 'Cristal de Neige' (a oxyde d'uranium, gaine d'aluminium) destine a remnlacer l'element actuel du reacteur experimental EL3, afin d'en augmenter la reactivite sans modifier le rapport flux neutronique-puissance thermique. (auteur)

  16. Acting to gain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  17. Quantifying the Impact of Vehicle and Motor Fuel Provisions from the Energy Policy Act on the Sustainability and Resilience of U.S. Cities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, Darlene; Sears, Ted

    2017-02-01

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, with later amendments, was enacted with the goal of reducing U.S. petroleum consumption by building a core market for alternative fuels and vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy manages three federal programs related to EPAct; the Sustainable Federal Fleets Program, the State and Alternative Fuel Provider Program, and Clean Cities. Federal agencies and State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets are required to submit annual reports that document their compliance with the legislation. Clean Cities is a voluntary program aimed at building partnerships and providing technical expertise to encourage cities to reduce petroleum use in transportation. This study reviews the evolution of these three programs in relation to alternative fuel and vehicle markets and private sector adoption of alternative fueled vehicles to assess the impact of the programs on reduction in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions both within the regulated fleets and through development of alternative fuel and vehicle markets. The increased availability of alternative fuels and use of alternative fuels in regulated fleets is expected to improve cities' ability to respond to and quickly recover from both local disasters and short- and long-term regional or national fuel supply interruptions. Our analysis examines the benefits as well as potential drawbacks of alternative fuel use for the resiliency of U.S. cities.

  18. Ignition Delay Properties of Alternative Fuels with Navy-Relevant Diesel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    nozzle tip. 8 Figure 3 EMD injector cross-sectional view, after [15]. c. Sturman Injector A Sturman research diesel injector was used to validate...PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS WITH NAVY-RELEVANT DIESEL INJECTORS by Andrew J. Rydalch June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Christopher M. Brophy...Navy’s Green Fleet Initiative, this thesis researched the ignition characteristics for diesel replacement fuels used with Navy-relevant fuel injectors

  19. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  20. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  1. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  2. Cooperation is fleeting in the world of transposable elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wagner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite transposons are key vehicles for the worldwide spreading of genes that allow bacteria to survive toxic compounds. Composite transposons consist of two smaller transposable elements called insertion sequences (ISs, which flank the genes that permit such survival. Each IS in a composite transposon can either transpose alone, selfishly, or it can transpose cooperatively, jointly with the other IS. Cooperative transposition can enhance an IS's chance of survival, but it also carries the risk of transposon destruction. I use game theory to show that the conditions under which cooperative transposition is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS are not biologically realistic. I then analyze the distribution of thousands of ISs in more than 200 bacterial genomes to test the following prediction of the game-theoretical model: if cooperative transposition was an ESS, then the closely spaced ISs that characterize composite transposons should be more abundant in genomes than expected by chance. The data show that this is not the case. Cooperativity can only be maintained in a transitional, far-from-equilibrium state shortly after a selection pressure first arises. This is the case in the spreading of antibiotic resistance, where we are witnessing a fleeting moment in evolution, a moment in which cooperation among selfish DNA molecules has provided a means of survival. Because such cooperation does not pay in the long run, the vehicles of such survival will eventually disappear again. My analysis demonstrates that game theory can help explain behavioral strategies even for mobile DNA.

  3. More fleet adjustments seen needed for drilling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian oil and gas industry has been in a mode of restructuring since the late 1980s as it became increasingly apparent that the natural gas boom which was to replace activity previously generated by high oil process was not going to materialize. This paper reports that the production companies operating in Canada are concentrating on rationalization of land holdings and corporate downsizing and realignment rather than exploration and development of petroleum resources. Not surprisingly, this has resulted in a substantial downturn of the contract drilling and well servicing sectors in both western Canada, where the majority (95%) of the industry activity takes place, and in the frontier and East Coast offshore arenas. The persistently low levels of utilization throughout this period and prior to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries price shocks in the '70s illustrate that the high levels achieved in the late '70s and early '80s were an aberration. The rig fleet, which was expanded to meet this abnormally high demand, must continue to rationalize if profitability is to return on an on an industrywide basis

  4. The Insufficient Issues In Development Of Vietnamese Ship Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Nam Chu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Vietnam Maritime Administration in 2015 the total volume of transport carried was about 118.7 million tons an increase of 9.5 compared to 2014 - the biggest increase in recent years. However the fleet of Vietnam has taken only 27.8 of total cargo through the port more than 70 of the market share of foreign shipping. By the end of April 2017 the Seal of Memorandum of Understanding PSC of the Asia-Pacific Region Tokyo-MOU comprising 20 members Australia Canada Chile China Fiji Hong Kong China Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Marshall Islands New Zealand Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Russian Federation Singapore Thailand Vanuatu and Vietnam presented the results of this organization in 2016. Accordingly in 2016 members of Tokyo-MOU conducted 31678 PSC inspections of 17503 flag-nautical vessels of 101 countries to regional ports. In 31678 PSC inspections 18943 defect detection ships affected safety security maritime labor conditions environmental pollution prevention and 1090 of flagged vessels from 69 countries. Kept due to serious defects the average retention of the entire region was 3.44 down from 3.67 in 2015 and 3.96 in 2014.

  5. B612 plans asteroid hunt with fleet of small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Adam

    2018-05-01

    Last week, an asteroid the size of Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza whizzed by Earth, missing it by half the distance to the moon. The concern that we may one day not be so lucky has long preoccupied the B612 Foundation, a private organization in Mill Valley, California, dedicated to finding asteroids that cross Earth's orbit and could devastate humanity. B612 itself had a near-death experience 3 years ago, when its bold plans for an asteroid-hunting space telescope fell apart. But now, its ambitions are rising again with a new technique for finding menacing objects. On 10 May, B612 announced a partnership with York Space Systems to investigate building a fleet of small asteroid hunters. For many years, B612 aimed to build and launch a much larger craft, Sentinel, a $450 million space telescope with a 50-centimeter mirror. But fundraising stalled and, in 2015, NASA ended an agreement to help B612 because it wasn't meeting mileposts, essentially killing the telescope. Now, B612 has developed a new technique, called synthetic tracking, that can produce similar results at a far lower cost with small space telescopes. Ed Lu, B612 co-founder and CEO, expects the first telescope to cost about $10 million and believes a full constellation "would be a factor of many, many cheaper" than Sentinel.

  6. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASAs Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as a few hours ago, GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development. data visualization, web services, open access

  7. Evaluation of various fuel cycles to control inventories of plutonium and minor in advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.F.; Anderson, T.; Preston, J.; Humberstone, M.; Hou, J.; McConn, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.

    2007-01-01

    Inventories of Plutonium and minor actinides are important factors in determination of the risk associated with the use of nuclear energy. This includes the potential of exceeding release limits from a repository and the potential for proliferation. The amount of these materials in any given fleet of reactors is determined in large part by the choice of fuel cycle and by the types of reactors selected for operation. Most of the US reactor fleet will need to be replaced within the next 30 years and additional reactors will need to be added if the contribution of power from nuclear energy is expanded. In order to minimize risk and to make judicious use of repository space, inventories of all radionuclides will need to be effectively managed. Use of hard-spectrum reactors to burn excess Plutonium and other actinides is technologically feasible and is most likely less costly than any other options for minimizing various risks. Calculations for the inventories of several categories of radionuclides indicate that introduction of a modest fraction of fast reactors into the US reactor fleet is effective in stabilizing the growth of problematic radioisotopes. Results are obtained from the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies)1,2 Code and from the solution of algebraic equations that define steady state inventories. There are various different possible fuel cycle scenarios to utilize in the implementation of fast, thermal and intermediate spectrum reactors into the U.S. fleet. Results include various combinations of reactor types and fuel with varying times of implementations. Mass flows with uncertainties for equilibrium cycles will also be reported. Time-dependent scenarios are modeled with the DANESS code, and algebraic equations for various fuel cycles are derived. Uncertainties are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations based on estimates of parameters in the models. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of various fuel cycles to control inventories of plutonium and minor in advanced fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.F.; Anderson, T.; Preston, J.; Humberstone, M.; Hou, J.; McConn, J. [Tennessee Univ., Nuclear Engineering Dept., Knoxville, TN (United States); Van Den Durpel, L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Inventories of Plutonium and minor actinides are important factors in determination of the risk associated with the use of nuclear energy. This includes the potential of exceeding release limits from a repository and the potential for proliferation. The amount of these materials in any given fleet of reactors is determined in large part by the choice of fuel cycle and by the types of reactors selected for operation. Most of the US reactor fleet will need to be replaced within the next 30 years and additional reactors will need to be added if the contribution of power from nuclear energy is expanded. In order to minimize risk and to make judicious use of repository space, inventories of all radionuclides will need to be effectively managed. Use of hard-spectrum reactors to burn excess Plutonium and other actinides is technologically feasible and is most likely less costly than any other options for minimizing various risks. Calculations for the inventories of several categories of radionuclides indicate that introduction of a modest fraction of fast reactors into the US reactor fleet is effective in stabilizing the growth of problematic radioisotopes. Results are obtained from the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies)1,2 Code and from the solution of algebraic equations that define steady state inventories. There are various different possible fuel cycle scenarios to utilize in the implementation of fast, thermal and intermediate spectrum reactors into the U.S. fleet. Results include various combinations of reactor types and fuel with varying times of implementations. Mass flows with uncertainties for equilibrium cycles will also be reported. Time-dependent scenarios are modeled with the DANESS code, and algebraic equations for various fuel cycles are derived. Uncertainties are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations based on estimates of parameters in the models. (authors)

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH DISORDER FLEET OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams, parking difficulties, noise horns, especially stress and the increment of air pollution by greenhouse gas emissions by the growing fleet of motor vehicles in Brazilian capitals, then, the question is: what are the possible impacts that the growing fleet of motor vehicles of the State of Ceará may cause to the environment? With the general aim of this study: to analyze the growing fleet of vehicles in the State of Ceará and its possible environmental impacts. And yet with the following specific objectives: to analyze the determinants of growth in vehicle fleet of the state of Ceará, by applying the statistical technique of Multiple Regression; discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental mitigation measures related to the growth fleet of automotive vehicles. This is a literature review, using secondary data that was applied multiple regression analysis. It was made a data analysis about the period between 1980 to 2009. Thiswork serves asawarningas theuncontrolled growthof the fleet ofvehiclesleads to anincrease in pollutionby the emission oftoxic gases, whosedirect consequence isthe destructionof the ozone layerthat protectsthe earth’s atmosphere from the exposure of UV irradiation.

  10. Software Application for Remote Monitoring of Fleets Based on Geographic Information Systems Using Open Source Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlling a fleet usually implies to establish means of control of vehicles, to collect the data associated with the routes taken by these vehicles, to interpret and evaluate the meaning of the collected data and to make the appropriate decisions to improve the efficiency in the use of vehicles in an organization. The implementation of this process of fleet management is mainly performed manually and the solutions available on the market are costly because of the payments for licenses, it is also necessary that the people monitoring the fleets are geographically close to them. This paper aims to answer the following questions: How to reduce errors in the management of information resulting from the fleet management process? How to reduce the cost of remote fleet monitoring? To obtain the solution, we propose the use of GPS devices in each vehicle, the GPS device’s information is captured and consistently stored in a data base, then the information is consulted, analyzed and represented on a map. The result is a software application that allows users have fast and reliable information that will enable them to take the necessary decisions in the vehicle fleet they are trying to control at a low cost.

  11. Evaluation and comparison of alternative fleet-level selective maintenance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Kellie; Richard Cassady, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fleet-level selective maintenance refers to the process of identifying the subset of maintenance actions to perform on a fleet of repairable systems when the maintenance resources allocated to the fleet are insufficient for performing all desirable maintenance actions. The original fleet-level selective maintenance model is designed to maximize the probability that all missions in a future set are completed successfully. We extend this model in several ways. First, we consider a cost-based optimization model and show that a special case of this model maximizes the expected value of the number of successful missions in the future set. We also consider the situation in which one or more of the future missions may be canceled. These models and the original fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models are nonlinear. Therefore, we also consider an alternative model in which the objective function can be linearized. We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models. - Highlights: • Investigate nonlinear fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models. • A cost based model is used to maximize the expected number of successful missions. • Another model is allowed to cancel missions if reliability is sufficiently low. • An alternative model has an objective function that can be linearized. • We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models

  12. Fuel utilization experience in Slovak Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petenyi, V [Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, Bajkalska (Slovakia)

    1997-12-01

    The paper summarizes shortly the gained experience in utilization of the fuel in the four-year fuel cycles and describes the future activities in fuel management. The spent fuel management is also included. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  13. Gasoline sales post minimal gain in 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-22

    Despite the continuing emphasis on conservation and the growing trend to smaller sized automobiles, sales of motor gasoline across Canada posted a gain of 0.4% in 1986. Figures are included in this survey for Canadian motor gasoline sales categorized by province, type of gasoline, and months of 1985 and 1986. Sales of refiners' diesel fuel oil are also categorized by province and by months of 1985 and 1986. Motor gasoline disposition for 1983-1986 is categorized into retail pump sales, road and urban transport, agriculture, public administration, and commercial and other institutional markets. Also included are figures for refiners' propane sales for 1983-1986 by province.

  14. Characterization of air pollutant concentrations, fleet emission factors, and dispersion near a North Carolina interstate freeway across two seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Provat K.; Khlystov, Andrey; Snyder, Michelle G.; Grieshop, Andrew P.

    2018-03-01

    We present field measurement data and modeling of multiple traffic-related air pollutants during two seasons at a site adjoining Interstate 40, near Durham, North Carolina. We analyze spatial-temporal and seasonal trends and fleet-average pollutant emission factors and use our data to evaluate a line source dispersion model. Month-long measurement campaigns were performed in summer 2015 and winter 2016. Data were collected at a fixed near-road site located within 10 m from the highway edge, an upwind background site and, under favorable meteorological conditions, along downwind perpendicular transects. Measurements included the size distribution, chemical composition, and volatility of submicron particles, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), meteorological conditions and traffic activity data. Results show strong seasonal and diurnal differences in spatial distribution of traffic sourced pollutants. A strong signature of vehicle emissions was observed within 100-150 m from the highway edge with significantly higher concentrations during morning. Substantially higher concentrations and less-sharp near-road gradients were observed in winter for many species. Season-specific fleet-average fuel-based emission factors for NO, NOx, BC, and particle number (PN) were derived based on up- and down-wind roadside measurements. The campaign-average NOx and PN emission factors were 20% and 300% higher in winter than summer, respectively. These results suggest that the combined effect of higher emissions and their slower downwind dispersion in winter dictate the observed higher downwind concentrations and wider highway influence zone in winter for several species. Finally, measurements of traffic data, emission factors, and pollutant concentrations were integrated to evaluate a line source dispersion model (R-LINE). The dispersion model captured the general trends in the spatial and temporal patterns in near-road concentrations. However, there was a tendency for the model

  15. Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; He Kebin; Wang, Michael; Yao Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    One of the principal ways to reduce transport-related energy use is to reduce fuel-consumption rates of motor vehicles (usually measured in liters of fuel per 100 km). Since 2004, China has implemented policies to improve vehicle technologies and lower the fuel-consumption rates of individual vehicles. Policy evaluation requires accurate and adequate information on vehicle fuel-consumption rates. However, such information, especially for Chinese vehicles under real-world operating conditions, is rarely available from official sources in China. For each vehicle type we first review the vehicle technologies and fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. We then derive real-world (or on-road) fuel-consumption rates on the basis of information collected from various sources. We estimate that the real-world fuel-consumption rates of vehicles in China sold in 2009 are 9 L/100 km for light-duty passenger vehicles, 11.4 L/100 km for light-duty trucks, 22 L/100 km for inter-city transport buses, 40 L/100 km for urban transit buses, and 24.9 L/100 km for heavy-duty trucks. These results aid in understanding the levels of fuel consumption of existing Chinese vehicle fleets and the effectiveness of policies in reducing on-road fuel consumption, which can help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► Vehicle fuel-consumption rate (VFCR) data are rarely available in China. ► We review the fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. ► We derive real-world VFCRs on the basis of information collected from various sources. ► Results aid in understanding the fuel consumption levels of Chinese vehicle fleets. ► Results help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies.

  16. Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…

  17. Green and economic fleet replacement modeling : part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how equipment replacement decisions are supported with data collection and : quantitative models at state DOTs, and to determine if models found in the research literature offer any bet...

  18. Study of the thermal drop at the uranium-can interface for fuel elements in gas-graphite reactors; Etude de la chute thermique au contact uranium-gaine pour des elements combustibles de reacteur de la filiere graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussat, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Levenes, G; Michel, M [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (France)

    1964-07-01

    The report reviews the tests now under way at the CEA, for determining the thermal contact resistance at the uranium-can interface for fuel elements used in gas-graphite type reactors. These are laboratory tests carried out with equipment based on the principle of a heat flow across a stack of test pieces having planar contact surfaces. The following points emerge from this work: - for a metallic uranium element canned in magnesium, of the type G-2 or EDF-2, a value of 0.2 deg C/W/cm{sup 2} seems reasonable for can temperatures of 400 deg C and above. - this value is independent of the micro-geometric state of the uranium surface in a range of roughness which easily includes those observed on tubes and rods produced industrially. - for the internal cans of elements cooled internally and externally, the value of the contact resistance for temperatures of under 400 deg C as a function of the stresses in the can has not yet been measured exactly. (authors) [French] Le rapport fait le point des essais actuellement en cours au CEA pour determiner la resistance thermique de contact uranium-gaine pour des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz. Ces essais sont effectues en laboratoire sur des appareils bases sur le principe d'une circulation de flux de chaleur a travers un empilement d'eprouvettes dont les faces en contact sont planes. De l'etude, il ressort essentiellement que: - pour un element a uranium metallique et gaine de magnesium type G-2 ou EdF-2, on peut admettre la valeur de 0,2 deg C/W/cm{sup 2} pour des temperatures de gaines de 400 deg C et plus. - cette valeur ne depend pas de l'etat de surface microgeometrique de l'uranium pour un domaine de rugosites couvrant largement celles que l'on observe sur des tubes et barreaux fabriques en serie. - pour les gaines internes d'elements a refroidissement interne et externe la valeur de la resistance de contact reste a preciser pour les temperatures inferieures a 400 deg C, en fonction des contraintes existant dans les

  19. Best Operational and Maintenance Practices for City Bus Fleets to Maximize Fuel Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Energy Sector Management Assistance Program

    2011-01-01

    In most large cities in developing countries, buses continue to be the public transport option of choice, carrying a large share of urban travelers. However, transit bus companies in these countries are often cash-strapped. In many cases, the operating cost per bus kilometer exceeds revenues and bus fares are often kept low irrespective of the cost of providing service. Many cities are dom...

  20. How private car purchasing trends offset efficiency gains and the successful energy policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Gallachoir, Brian P.; Howley, Martin; Cunningham, Stephen; Bazilian, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, energy-related CO 2 emissions from transport energy in Ireland were 168% above 1990 levels. Private cars were responsible for approx 45% of transport energy demand in 2006 (excluding fuel tourism). The average annual growth of new cars between 1990 and 2006 was 5.2%. This paper focuses on these new cars entering the private car fleet, in particular the purchasing trend towards larger size cars. This has considerably offset the improvements in the technical efficiency of individual car models. The analysis was carried out on the detailed data of each individual new vehicle entering the fleet in 2000-2006. The average CO 2 emissions per kilometre for new petrol cars entering the Irish fleet grew from 166 to 168 g CO 2 /km from 2000 to 2005 and reduced to 164 in 2006. For diesel cars the average reduced from 166 in 2000 to 161 in 2006. The paper also discusses how a recent change in vehicle registration taxation and annual motor tax had a significant impact purchasing trends by supporting lower emission vehicles. Cars with emissions up to 155 g CO 2 /km represented 41% of new private cars sold in Ireland in 2007 compared with 84% during the period July-November 2008.

  1. Industrial stakes and scientific challenges associated to current fleet and new generation of reactors for a utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Michel, Delbecq

    2004-01-01

    Energy supply sustainability and nuclear energy are major issues for the 21st century. EDF strategy is to keep the nuclear option open in the energy mix of the future. To achieve this, in a context of electricity market liberalization, nuclear energy must remain safe, clean and competitive. The main axes of EDF strategy are to operate durably its current fleet, to improve nuclear fuel efficiency, to pursue the development of efficient solutions for a good management of high level waste, to prepare the near future with new LWR design to be ready in time for nuclear power replacement of current PWRs and to prepare the long term future by taking an active part in the Generation IV program. This strategy implies a strong R and D effort in many fields. A special focus is made on thermal hydraulics developments by EDF in cooperation with its national and international partners. For an optimum use of nuclear fuel as well as for plant lifetime management and for preparing future nuclear systems, high performance numerical simulation is an indispensable and strategic tool. The necessary evolutions in EDF tools are to-day well engaged: more basic physics, 3D simulations, multi-physics and multi-scale coupling for a more realistic representation of ''reality'' and for enhanced accuracy. EDF R and D Division has structured its R and D in this field around six scientific challenges. This 5 to 10 years long effort, shared with its partners, will lead to an advanced numerical toolbox in 2010. (author)

  2. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects; Massnahmen zur Absenkung des Flottenverbrauchs. Abschaetzung der Wirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R. [Institut fuer Wirtschaft und Oekologie (IWOE-HSG), Universitaet St. Gallen, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  3. Contribution to the study of can deformations in the fuel elements of gas-graphite reactors during thermal cycling; Contribution a l'etude des deformations des gaines des elements combustibles de reacteur graphite-gaz au cours du cyclage thermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M; Boudouresques, B; Delpeyroux, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cans of fuel cartridges used in reactors of the gas-graphite type have either longitudinal fins of variable thickness, short herring-bone fins, or else a mixture of the two. An important test of the strength of these cartridges is their behaviour during thermal cycling carried out in cells reproducing in-pile conditions. It has been observed during with rapid cooling that there occurs a shortening at the base of the fins which can be accompanied in particular by a compression effect at the fin type, which has a tendency to curl, and by a tractive force acting on the body of the can at the ends of the longitudinal fins; this last phenomenon can result in a fracturing of the welds at the extremities or of the ends of the cartridge. This report presents first of all the way in which the stress diagram can be drawn for a can touching the fuel, and then the effect of the ratchet along a fin fixed to a bar with or without grooves. Finally the importance is shown of the test cycling variables (temperature, heating and cooling rates). (authors) [French] Les gaines des cartouches combustibles des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz comportent soit des ailettes longitudinales plus ou moins epaisses, soit de courtes ailettes a chevrons, soit un ensemble des deux. Un test important de la tenue des cartouches, est la tenue au cyclage thermique en cellule pour reproduire le comportement en pile. On a observe au cours des cyclages a refroidissement rapide, un raccourcissement a la base des ailettes qui peut s'accompagner notamment d'une mise en compression du sommet de l'ailette qui a tendance a friser, et d'une traction exercee sur le corps des gaines au bout des ailettes longitudinales; ce dernier phenomene peut se traduire par des ruptures de soudures d'extremites ou des parties terminales de la cartouche. Ce rapport presente d'abord la maniere dont peut etre trace le diagramme des contraintes dans une gaine liee au combustible, puis l'effet du rochet le long d

  4. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  5. Fuel demand on UK roads and dieselisation of fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David

    2009-01-01

    Because of high oil prices, and climate change policy, governments are now seeking ways to improve new car fuel economy thus contributing to air quality and energy security. One strategy is to increase dieselisation rates of the vehicle fleet. Recent trends in fuel economy show improvement since 1995, however, efforts need to go further if the EU Voluntary Agreement targets on CO 2 (a greenhouse gas emission standard) are to be achieved. Trends show diesel car sales have accelerated rapidly and that the advantage of new car fuel economy of diesel cars over gasoline ones is narrowing posing a new challenge. We estimate the demand for new car fuel economy in the UK. In the long-run consumers buy fuel economy, but not in the short-run. We found that long-term income and price changes were the main drivers to achieve improvements particularly for diesel cars and that there is no break in the trend of fuel economy induced by the agreement adopted in the 1990s. Policy should target more closely both consumer choice of, and use of, diesel cars.

  6. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  7. Layup practices at EDF PWR fleet and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Olga Alos; Pablo, Sergio De Maria; Wintergerst, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    A proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. The layup control practices are necessary to prevent corrosion damage during shutdown and are an important part of the life time extension of a nuclear power plant. EDF operational experience in this area confirms that damage to plant equipment from improper layup procedures is a cause of reduced plant reliability and availability and can increase the corrosion products ingress into the SG during start-up. The plant preservation strategy applied across the EDF fleet is based on the following principles: Anticipated time frame of the required layup: short-term outages can become long-term outages, and can necessitate the use of unplanned preservation techniques. Dry layup for a long-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: condenser vacuum assisted draining at high temperature, estimation of air requirements (flow rate, humidity...) to guarantee the optimum conditions inside the system. Wet lay up for a short-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: system filled with operating medium, avoiding air ingress into the system, injection of chemical agents if necessary. Dry lay-up or wet lay up for the steam generators depending on maintenance work or radiation protection needed. This article presents the EDF layup program and the improvements in layup practices. It provides information on the layup procedures, best practices and recommendations, operating experience, considerations for different durations of outages; the implementation of a preservation working group, the selection of the systems that will be included in the lay-up program. Finally, future developments will be presented, such as the development of a 'convective model' to determine air requirements (humidity, flow rate...) and the drying rate to dry a heat exchanger. (author)

  8. HVAC System Replacements for the Spanish Nuclear Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.; Gensollen, T.; Pérez, C.

    2015-07-01

    The European Union and its Member States have established regulations to phase out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The chiller systems installed at the Spanish nuclear fleet contained zone depleting refrigerants (such as R-11, R-12, and R-22), which are being phased out of service. Due to the different material and thermodynamic properties of the replacement refrigerant (e.g. R-134A), a complete chiller system replacement is needed to comply with the EU regulations for CFCs. Delivering state of the art HVAC and Chiller systems that comply with the Nuclear Plant design basis, licensing basis, system and component specifications as well as European Union (EU) and Spanish codes and standards can be challenging for products purchased from US based manufacturers. Procurement specifications and Request for Quotes (RFQs) issued today for the procurement of original Plant components and systems will contain references to numerous codes and standards that were not in effect at the time the original components were specified and procured. The reference to EU and Spanish codes and standards that are unfamiliar to the HVAC suppliers can lead to uncertainty and concern related to specification compliance. The unnecessary burden of ambiguous codes and standards complicates the proposal process and introduces pricing uncertainty and contract risk. A review of the EU and Spanish national codes and standards that are often referenced in HVAC system related RFQs need to be performed to determine what codes and standards are applicable to HVAC systems designed, manufactured and tested in the US for export to Spain for installation in Spanish NPPs. Lessons learned and best practices should be applied to help both the Supplier (HVAC OEM) and the Purchaser Plant Operator) to optimize the procurement process and improve the quality of offerings to comply with applicable codes and standards. (Author)

  9. Heuristic hybrid game approach for fleet condition-based maintenance planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Qiang; Bi, Xiong; Zhao, Xiujie; Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The condition-based maintenance (CBM) method is commonly used to select appropriate maintenance opportunities according to equipment status over a period of time. The CBM of aircraft fleets is a fleet maintenance planning problem. In this problem, mission requirements, resource constraints, and aircraft statuses are considered to find an optimal strategy set. Given that the maintenance strategies for each aircraft are finite, fleet CBM can be treated as a combinatorial optimization problem. In this study, the process of making a decision on the CBM of military fleets is analyzed. The fleet CBM problem is treated as a two-stage dynamic decision-making problem. Aircraft are divided into dispatch and standby sets; thus, the problem scale is significantly reduced. A heuristic hybrid game (HHG) approach comprising a competition game and a cooperative game is proposed on the basis of heuristic rule. In the dispatch set, a competition game approach is proposed to search for a local optimal strategy matrix. A cooperative game method for the two sets is also proposed to ensure global optimization. Finally, a case study regarding a fleet comprising 20 aircraft is conducted, with the results proving that the approach efficiently generates outcomes that meet the mission risk-oriented schedule requirement. - Highlights: • A new heuristic hybrid game method for fleet condition-based maintenance is proposed. • The problem is simplified by hierarchical solving based on dispatch and standby set. • The local optimal solution is got by competition game algorithm for dispatch set. • The global optimal solution is got by cooperative game algorithm between two sets.

  10. Addressing the minimum fleet problem in on-demand urban mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazifeh, M M; Santi, P; Resta, G; Strogatz, S H; Ratti, C

    2018-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have opened the way to new solutions for urban mobility that provide better ways to match individuals with on-demand vehicles. However, a fundamental unsolved problem is how best to size and operate a fleet of vehicles, given a certain demand for personal mobility. Previous studies 1-5 either do not provide a scalable solution or require changes in human attitudes towards mobility. Here we provide a network-based solution to the following 'minimum fleet problem', given a collection of trips (specified by origin, destination and start time), of how to determine the minimum number of vehicles needed to serve all the trips without incurring any delay to the passengers. By introducing the notion of a 'vehicle-sharing network', we present an optimal computationally efficient solution to the problem, as well as a nearly optimal solution amenable to real-time implementation. We test both solutions on a dataset of 150 million taxi trips taken in the city of New York over one year 6 . The real-time implementation of the method with near-optimal service levels allows a 30 per cent reduction in fleet size compared to current taxi operation. Although constraints on driver availability and the existence of abnormal trip demands may lead to a relatively larger optimal value for the fleet size than that predicted here, the fleet size remains robust for a wide range of variations in historical trip demand. These predicted reductions in fleet size follow directly from a reorganization of taxi dispatching that could be implemented with a simple urban app; they do not assume ride sharing 7-9 , nor require changes to regulations, business models, or human attitudes towards mobility to become effective. Our results could become even more relevant in the years ahead as fleets of networked, self-driving cars become commonplace 10-14 .

  11. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  12. Modeling of the PWR fuel mechanical behaviour and particularly study of the pellet-cladding interaction in a fuel rod; Contribution a la modelisation du comportement mecanique des combustibles REP sous irradiation, avec en particulier le traitement de l`interaction pastille-gaine dans un crayon combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdequin, N.

    1995-05-01

    In Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) power plants, fuel cladding constitutes the first containment barrier against radioactive contamination. Computer codes, developed with the help of a large experimental knowledge, try to predict cladding failures which must be limited in order to maintain a maximal safety level. Until now, fuel rod design calculus with unidimensional codes were adequate to prevent cladding failures in standard PWR`s operating conditions. But now, the need of nuclear power plant availability increases. That leads to more constraining operating condition in which cladding failures are strongly influenced by the fuel rod mechanical behaviour, mainly at high power level. Then, the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) becomes important, and is characterized by local effects which description expects a multidimensional modelization. This is the aim of the TOUTATIS 2D-3D code, that this thesis contributes to develop. This code allows to predict non-axisymmetric behaviour too, as rod buckling which has been observed in some irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS. By another way, PCI is influenced by under irradiation experiments and identified with the help of TOUTATIS which includes a densification model and a swelling model. The latter can only be used in standard operating conditions. However, the processing structure of this modulus provides the possibility to include any type of model corresponding with other operating conditions. In last, we show the result of these fuel volume variations on the cladding mechanical conditions. (author). 25 refs., 89 figs., 2 tabs., 12 photos., 5 appends.

  13. The Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations and its Potential Impact on Neighboring Countries. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport

  14. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Emma; Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after reaching this maximum. A post-Kyoto political agenda to reduce oil consumption will have the same effect on aviation fuel production as a natural decline in the crude oil production. On the other hand, it is predicted by the aviation industry that aviation traffic will keep on increasing. The industry has put ambitious goals on increases in fuel efficiency for the aviation fleet. Traffic is predicted to grow by 5% per year to 2026, fuel demand by about 3% per year. At the same time, aviation fuel production is predicted to decrease by several percent each year after the crude oil production peak is reached resulting in a substantial shortage of jet fuel by 2026. The aviation industry will have a hard time replacing this with fuel from other sources, even if air traffic remains at current levels.

  15. Operational gain : measuring the capture of genetic gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of operational gain is more than the weighted average of the genetic quality of planted hectares, and encompasses tree breeding efficiencies, propagation efficiencies, matching of species and genotype to site, plant use efficiency and early measures of stand density and growth. To test the operational gain ...

  16. Driving on Natural Gas, Greening the Gasunie Fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Driving on CNG is preferable to conventional fuels because of diversification of the energy mix, local availability of natural gas, the financial benefit and the transition function towards (sustain-able) biogas and emission reduction. Furthermore, the CNG technology is expected to be safer than

  17. Fleet Forecasts for the United States to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-21

    Commodity 36). In particular, WSTS Commodity 33 includes auto-related items - piston engines, electric motors and generators, air conditioners, fuel pumps...as last year, at best. Mazda , for example, recently announced an actual cutback at its Flat Rock production site. The Voluntary Restraint Agreements

  18. Cost, Energy, and Environmental Impact of Automated Electric Taxi Fleets in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gordon S; Greenblatt, Jeffery B; Gerke, Brian F

    2018-04-17

    Shared automated electric vehicles (SAEVs) hold great promise for improving transportation access in urban centers while drastically reducing transportation-related energy consumption and air pollution. Using taxi-trip data from New York City, we develop an agent-based model to predict the battery range and charging infrastructure requirements of a fleet of SAEVs operating on Manhattan Island. We also develop a model to estimate the cost and environmental impact of providing service and perform extensive sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our predictions. We estimate that costs will be lowest with a battery range of 50-90 mi, with either 66 chargers per square mile, rated at 11 kW or 44 chargers per square mile, rated at 22 kW. We estimate that the cost of service provided by such an SAEV fleet will be $0.29-$0.61 per revenue mile, an order of magnitude lower than the cost of service of present-day Manhattan taxis and $0.05-$0.08/mi lower than that of an automated fleet composed of any currently available hybrid or internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). We estimate that such an SAEV fleet drawing power from the current NYC power grid would reduce GHG emissions by 73% and energy consumption by 58% compared to an automated fleet of ICEVs.

  19. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  20. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negotiation and independent negotiation is established, and the heuristic rules applied to global and local maintenance decision making is proposed. Based on Contract Net Protocol and the heuristic rules, the maintenance decision making algorithm is put forward. Finally, a fleet consisting of 10 aircrafts on a 3-wave continuous mission is illustrated to verify this method. Simulation results indicate that this method can improve the availability of the fleet, meet mission demands, rationalize the utilization of support resources and provide support for online maintenance decision making among a mission oriented fleet.

  1. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  2. Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii Feasibility Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter Hill; Michael Penev

    2014-08-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011) identifies the use of hydrogen for government and fleet electric vehicles as a key step for achieving “reduced greenhouse gas emissions; reduced oil consumption; expanded use of renewable power …; highly efficient energy conversion; fuel flexibility …; reduced air pollution; and highly reliable grid-support.” This report synthesizes several pieces of existing information that can inform a decision regarding the viability of deploying a hydrogen (H2) fueling station at the Fort Armstrong site in Honolulu, Hawaii.

  3. Analysis of uncertainty propagation in nuclear fuel cycle scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivtchik, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear scenario studies model nuclear fleet over a given period. They enable the comparison of different options for the reactor fleet evolution, and the management of the future fuel cycle materials, from mining to disposal, based on criteria such as installed capacity per reactor technology, mass inventories and flows, in the fuel cycle and in the waste. Uncertainties associated with nuclear data and scenario parameters (fuel, reactors and facilities characteristics) propagate along the isotopic chains in depletion calculations, and through out the scenario history, which reduces the precision of the results. The aim of this work is to develop, implement and use a stochastic uncertainty propagation methodology adapted to scenario studies. The method chosen is based on development of depletion computation surrogate models, which reduce the scenario studies computation time, and whose parameters include perturbations of the depletion model; and fabrication of equivalence model which take into account cross-sections perturbations for computation of fresh fuel enrichment. Then the uncertainty propagation methodology is applied to different scenarios of interest, considering different options of evolution for the French PWR fleet with SFR deployment. (author) [fr

  4. A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei

    In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market

  5. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  6. Utilization of Used Nuclear Fuel in a Potential Future US Fuel Cycle Scenario - 13499

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. BOX 2008 MS6172, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6172 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    To date, the US reactor fleet has generated approximately 68,000 MTHM of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and even with no new nuclear build in the US, this stockpile will continue to grow at approximately 2,000 MTHM per year for several more decades. In the absence of reprocessing and recycle, this UNF is a liability and needs to be dealt with accordingly. However, with the development of future fuel cycle and reactor technologies in the decades ahead, there is potential for UNF to be used effectively and efficiently within a future US nuclear reactor fleet. Based on the detailed expected operating lifetimes, the future UNF discharges from the existing reactor fleet have been calculated on a yearly basis. Assuming a given electricity demand growth in the US and a corresponding growth demand for nuclear energy via new nuclear build, the future discharges of UNF have also been calculated on a yearly basis. Using realistic assumptions about reprocessing technologies and timescales and which future fuels are likely to be reprocessed, the amount of plutonium that could be separated and stored for future reactor technologies has been determined. With fast reactors (FRs) unlikely to be commercially available until 2050, any new nuclear build prior to then is assumed to be a light water reactor (LWR). If the decision is made for the US to proceed with reprocessing by 2030, the analysis shows that the UNF from future fuels discharged from 2025 onwards from the new and existing fleet of LWRs is sufficient to fuel a realistic future demand from FRs. The UNF arising from the existing LWR fleet prior to 2025 can be disposed of directly with no adverse effect on the potential to deploy a FR fleet from 2050 onwards. Furthermore, only a proportion of the UNF is required to be reprocessed from the existing fleet after 2025. All of the analyses and conclusions are based on realistic deployment timescales for reprocessing and reactor deployment. The impact of the delay in recycling the UNF

  7. Utilization of Used Nuclear Fuel in a Potential Future US Fuel Cycle Scenario - 13499

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To date, the US reactor fleet has generated approximately 68,000 MTHM of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and even with no new nuclear build in the US, this stockpile will continue to grow at approximately 2,000 MTHM per year for several more decades. In the absence of reprocessing and recycle, this UNF is a liability and needs to be dealt with accordingly. However, with the development of future fuel cycle and reactor technologies in the decades ahead, there is potential for UNF to be used effectively and efficiently within a future US nuclear reactor fleet. Based on the detailed expected operating lifetimes, the future UNF discharges from the existing reactor fleet have been calculated on a yearly basis. Assuming a given electricity demand growth in the US and a corresponding growth demand for nuclear energy via new nuclear build, the future discharges of UNF have also been calculated on a yearly basis. Using realistic assumptions about reprocessing technologies and timescales and which future fuels are likely to be reprocessed, the amount of plutonium that could be separated and stored for future reactor technologies has been determined. With fast reactors (FRs) unlikely to be commercially available until 2050, any new nuclear build prior to then is assumed to be a light water reactor (LWR). If the decision is made for the US to proceed with reprocessing by 2030, the analysis shows that the UNF from future fuels discharged from 2025 onwards from the new and existing fleet of LWRs is sufficient to fuel a realistic future demand from FRs. The UNF arising from the existing LWR fleet prior to 2025 can be disposed of directly with no adverse effect on the potential to deploy a FR fleet from 2050 onwards. Furthermore, only a proportion of the UNF is required to be reprocessed from the existing fleet after 2025. All of the analyses and conclusions are based on realistic deployment timescales for reprocessing and reactor deployment. The impact of the delay in recycling the UNF

  8. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  9. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  10. Definition of breeding gain for molten salt reactors - 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The graphite-moderated Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a potential breeder reactor using the thorium fuel cycle. The MSR has unique properties due to the possibility of making changes to the salt composition during operation. Most important is the extraction of protactinium, which separates the fissile uranium production into two volumes: the reactor core and the external stockpile. The paper focuses on the definition of breeding gain in such a system. The prospects of using breeding gain expressions defined for solid fuel reactors are investigated and new definitions are given which incorporate the processes occurring in the reactor core and the external stockpile. The difference of the growth rate of the mass of fissile material and breeding gain is pointed out. The new definitions are applied to an optimization study of the graphite-salt lattice of a breeder MSR. (authors)

  11. Increased sharing of renewable energies in the electricity production system: what impact on the reactor fleet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cany, C.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Mansilla, C.; Mathonniere, G.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the flexibility of an individual reactor and of the complete fleet of reactors as a means to cope with the variability of renewable energies like solar or wind energies. Flexibility means the ability for load following and this ability is limited by both safety rules and limits on the release of radionuclides in the environment. The flexibility of the fleet depends on individual reactor flexibility but also on organisational and economic constraints. The participation of a reactor to load following depends on: its availability (not in maintenance or testing phase), its position in the cycle, the positioning of its scheduled shutdowns and the minimization of the volume of effluents. The study presents the future need of flexibility for the reactor fleet as the shares of wind and solar energies increase in the French energy mix. (A.C.)

  12. A multi-species multi-fleet bioeconomic simulation model for the English Channel artisanal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Le Gallic, B.; Dunn, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Considering the large number of technical interactions between various fishing activities, the English Channel (ICES divisions VIId and VIIe) fisheries may be regarded as one large and diverse multi-country, multi-gear and multi-species artisanal fishery, although rarely studied as such. A whole...... of the model is to study the long-term consequences of various management alternatives on the economic situation of the English and French fleets fishing in the area and on exploited resources. The model describes this feature through the links between three entities on the one hand (stocks, fleets...... and "metiers", i.e. gear x target species x fishing area), and three modules on the other hand (activity, biological production and economics). The model is described and some simulation results are presented. An example simulating a decrease of one fleet segment effort illustrates these technical interactions...

  13. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  14. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  15. Application of GPS data for benefits of air quality assessment and fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Song; Fat Lam, Yun; Cheong Ying, Chi; Chan, Ka Lok

    2017-04-01

    In the modern digitizedsociety, traffic data can be easily collected for use in roadway development, urban planning and vehicle emission. These data are then further parameterized to support traffic simulation and roadside emission calculations. With the commercialization of AGPS/GPS technology, GPS data are widely utilized to study habit and travelling behaviors. GPS on franchised buses can provide not only positioning information for fleet management but also raw data to analyze traffic situations. In HK, franchised buses account for 6% of RSP and 20% of NOx emissions among the whole vehicle fleet. Being the most heavily means of public transport, the setting up of bus travelling trajectories and service frequency always raise concern from citizens. On this basis, there is an increasing interest and as well as to design and realize an effective cost benefit fleet management strategy. In this study, data collection analysis is carried out on all bus routes (i.e. 112) in Shatin district, one of the 18 districts in Hong Kong. The GPS/AGPS data through Esri ArcGIS investigate the potential benefit of GPS data in different emission scenarios (such as engine type over whole bus fleet). Building on the emission factors from EMFC-HK model, we accounted for factors like travelling distance, idling time, occupancy rate, service frequency, tire and break emissions. Through the simple emission developed model we demonstrate how GPS are data are utilized to assess bus fleet emissions. Further amelioration on the results involve tuning the model with field measurement so as to assess district level emission change after fleet optimization.

  16. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF A FLEET OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND TRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Korotchenya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An indicator for an integral assessment of efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors is proposed. Its calculating consists in multiplying partial efficiencies together: technical and price efficiency of agricultural production, and eco-efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors. Using an axiomatic method, the concept of efficiency of fleet was studied within broader category of productivity and in wider scales - within agriculture. The most general and obvious statements according to which efficiency of machine and tractor fleet is considered as indirectly settlement size counted proceeding from efficiency of agricultural production, were accepted as axioms. In general, efficiency is a ratio between productivity of an object in question and that of the theoretical ideal or an object with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted equal to unity or 100%. Technical efficiency of agricultural production characterizes the ability of an agricultural sector to produce the technically maximum output of agricultural produce obtained from the available resources (land, labor, machines, etc.. Price efficiency evaluates the ability of an agricultural sector to produce output of agricultural produce with regard to employing the optimal mix of resources given their prices. Because the theoretical ideal does not exist, efficiency of an agricultural sector, e.g. in Russia and of its fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors, is measured against agriculture of another country with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted as equal to unity or 100 percent. The calculation can be made on the basis of the Data Envelopment Analysis method. It is possible to calculate price and economic efficiency of Russian agriculture (fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors due to use its domestic prices.

  17. CEMENT TRANSPORTATION LIMITED-FLEET MODELING AND ASSIGNING TO RATED DEMANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes MASHHADI BANDANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is an inseparable part of the supply chain, with a key role in product distribution. This role is highlighted when ratio of “the cost of transportation” to “the value of goods” such as cement is significant. Iran has recently become one of the main centers of cement production in the world. However, transportation is the most important challenge in cement distribution because of weak structure of the transportation fleet and its independent action. Independence of and lack of commitment on the part of transportation fleets to cement companies as well as lack of timely delivery due to shortage of transportation in some routes and seasons lead to customers` dissatisfaction and even market loss or lack of market development. One of the significant differences between the transportation system in Iran and that in developed countries is lack of complete productivity of the transportation fleet. It means that trucks are driver-based in Iran. This paper introduces a model considering some issues such as driver-based trucks, size of the transportation fleet based on the number of active trucks, and demand priorities in the cement company. Taking the relation between the number of active trucks and the cement company into account, this model assigns weekly demands to the transportation fleet. It also tries to minimize the delay to respond to demands and increases the efficiency of the transportation fleet. Finally, this current condition-based model is compared with two other models including “no constraints on different routes of trucks” as well as single-route model for trucks.

  18. Economic balance sheet of a natural gas vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas fuels for vehicles bear an important and variable additional cost which corresponds to the cost for compression. This short paper gives a cost-benefit comparative estimation of the m 3 of natural gas cost when the FUELMAKER and the CIRRUS compressors are used, respectively. A comparative economic estimation between petrol and natural gas for vehicles is given for two Renault vehicles. (J.S.)

  19. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO 2 e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  20. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  1. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  2. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  3. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  4. CoalFleet for tomorrow. An industry initiative to accelerate the deployment of advanced coal-based generation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J. [Electric Power Research Institute (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The industry initiative 'CoalFleet for tomorrow' was launched in November 2004 to accelerate the deployment and commercialization of clean, efficient, advanced coal power systems. This paper discusses the structure of CoalFleet and its strategy for reducing the cost, leadtime and risk of deploying advanced coal technologies such as combined-cycle power plants. 6 figs.

  5. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF`s) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV`S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available ``practical``. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  6. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  7. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  8. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet; Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development (R and D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  9. Modeling air pollutant emissions from Indian auto-rickshaws: Model development and implications for fleet emission rate estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, Andrew P.; Boland, Daniel; Reynolds, Conor C. O.; Gouge, Brian; Apte, Joshua S.; Rogak, Steven N.; Kandlikar, Milind

    2012-04-01

    Chassis dynamometer tests were conducted on 40 Indian auto-rickshaws with 3 different fuel-engine combinations operating on the Indian Drive Cycle (IDC). Second-by-second (1 Hz) data were collected and used to develop velocity-acceleration look-up table models for fuel consumption and emissions of CO2, CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for each fuel-engine combination. Models were constructed based on group-average vehicle activity and emissions data in order to represent the performance of a 'typical' vehicle. The models accurately estimated full-cycle emissions for most species, though pollutants with more variable emission rates (e.g., PM2.5) were associated with larger errors. Vehicle emissions data showed large variability for single vehicles ('intra-vehicle variability') and within the test group ('inter-vehicle variability'), complicating the development of a single model to represent a vehicle population. To evaluate the impact of this variability, sensitivity analyses were conducted using vehicle activity data other than the IDC as model input. Inter-vehicle variability dominated the uncertainty in vehicle emission modeling. 'Leave-one-out' analyses indicated that the model outputs were relatively insensitive to the specific sample of vehicles and that the vehicle samples were likely a reasonable representation of the Delhi fleet. Intra-vehicle variability in emissions was also substantial, though had a relatively minor impact on model performance. The models were used to assess whether the IDC, used for emission factor development in India, accurately represents emissions from on-road driving. Modeling based on Global Positioning System (GPS) activity data from real-world auto-rickshaws suggests that, relative to on-road vehicles in Delhi, the IDC systematically under-estimates fuel use and emissions; real-word auto-rickshaws consume 15% more fuel and emit 49% more THC and 16% more PM2.5. The models

  10. Fuel assemblies for PWR type reactors: fuel rods, fuel plates. CEA work presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, Jacques.

    1976-01-01

    French work on PWR type reactors is reported: basic knowledge on Zr and its alloys and on uranium oxide; experience gained on other programs (fast neutron and heavy water reactors); zircaloy-2 or zircaloy-4 clad UO 2 fuel rods; fuel plates consisting of zircaloy-2 clad UO 2 squares of thickness varying between 2 and 4mm [fr

  11. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  12. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  13. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  14. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, D.; Plevin, R.; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2015-01-01

    We compare two types of fuel market regulations — a renewable fuel mandate and a fuel emission standard — that could be employed to simultaneously achieve multiple outcomes such as reduction in fuel prices, fuel imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We compare these two types of regulations in a global context taking into account heterogeneity in carbon content of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels. We find that although neither the ethanol mandate nor the emission standard is certain to reduce emissions relative to a business-as-usual baseline, at any given level of biofuel consumption in the policy region, a mandate, relative to an emission standard, results in higher GHG emissions, smaller expenditure on fuel imports, lower price of ethanol-blended gasoline and higher domestic fuel market surplus. This result holds over a wide range of values of model parameters. We also discuss the implications of this result to a regulation such as the US Renewable Fuel Standard given recent developments within the US such as increase in shale and tight oil production and large increase in average vehicle fuel economy of the automotive fleet. - Highlights: • Biofuel mandates and fuel GHG emission standards are analyzed from a multiple criteria perspective • An emission-standard always results in lower global emissions while requiring less biofuel relative to a biofuel mandate • An emission-standard results in higher fuel price in the home region relative to a biofuel mandate • Emission standards lead to more shuffling of both fossil fuels and biofuels between home and abroad • The relative impact of the policies on fuel imports depends on the relative cost-effectiveness of domestic & imported biofuel • Recent developments oil production and fuel economy increase the net benefits of an LCFS approach relative to RFS

  15. Effects of AFR storage location on spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of Away-From-Reactor (AFR) siting on the spent fuel transportation system, five different sites were studied: Argonne, Oak Ridge, Savannah River, Idaho Falls, and Richland. Transportation costs, cask fleet sizes, and radiation exposures received by transportation workers and the general public were calculated for each site. Results show that the eastern three sites are best. 5 figures, 5 tables

  16. MOX and UOX PWR fuel performances EDF operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, Jean-Luc; Debes, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Based on a large program of experimentations implemented during the 90s, the industrial achievement of new FAs designs with increased performances opens up new prospects. The currently UOX fuels used on the 58 EDF PWR units are now authorized up to a maximum FA burn-up of 52 GWd/t with a large experience from 45 to 50 GWd/t. Today, the new products, along with the progress made in the field of calculation methods, still enable to increase further the fuel performances with respect to the safety margins. Thus, the conditions are met to implement in the next years new fuel managements on each NPPs series of the EDF fleet with increased enrichment (up to 4.5%) and irradiation limits (up to 62 GWd/t). The recycling of plutonium is part of EDF's reprocessing/recycling strategy. Up to now, 20 PWR 900 MW reactors are managed in MOX hybrid management. The feedback experience of 18 years of PWR operation with MOX is satisfactory, without any specific problem regarding manoeuvrability or plant availability. EDF is now looking to introduce MOX fuels with a higher plutonium content (up to 8.6%) equivalent to natural uranium enriched to 3.7%. It is the goal of the MOX Parity core management which achieve balance of MOX and UOX fuel performance with a significant increase of the MOX average discharge burn-up (BU max: 52 GWd/t for MOX and UOX). The industrial maturity of new FAs designs, with increased performances, allows the implementation in the next years of new fuel managements on each NPPs series of the EDF fleet. The scheduling of the implementation of the new fuel managements on the PWRs fleet is a great challenge for EDF, with important stakes: the nuclear KWh cost decrease with the improvement of the plant operation performance. (author)

  17. Exhaust emissions evaluation of Colombian commercial diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jaime; Bello, Arcesio; Sarmiento, Jose; Rostkowski, Jacek; Brady, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Ecopetrol, based on the results obtained in the study, The effect of diesel properties on the emissions of particulate matter (Bello et al 2000), reformulated the diesel fuel distributed in Bogota, becoming it lighter and with lower sulfur content. In order to evaluate the environmental benefits that the reformulation of diesel fuel generate in Bogota, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (ICP), with the assistance of emissions research and measurement division (ERMD) from environment Canada, arranged a research project to determine the changes in CO, THC, NO x , CO 2 and particulate matter emissions. The research program was developed in two steps. First one, developed in Bogota, involved a fleet test with 15 public service buses that normally operate in Bogota's savannah, using a portable emissions sampling technology developed for ERMD (DOES2) and following a representative transient driving cycle. Second step, carried out in ERMD's Heavy-Duty engine emissions laboratory in Ottawa, tested a 1995 caterpillar 3406E 324/5 KW (435 HP) diesel truck engine on the same samples of Colombian diesel fuels used in the fleet tests performed in Bogota, baselining the tests with a Canadian commercial low sulfur diesel fuel. The two commercial Colombian diesel fuels used had the following properties: High Sulfur Diesel (HSD), with 3000 ppm (0,3 wt %) of sulfur and a final boiling point (FBP) of 633 K and the new reformulated diesel fuel, with 1000 ppm (0,1 wt %) of sulfur and FBP of 613 K, which is currently been distributed in Bogota. Fleet test show small reduction on CO, THC and TPM, and small increments on CO 2 and NO x but with not statistically significant results, while engine testing shows a strong reduction of 40/8% in TPM when you use the new reformulated diesel fuel (0,1 wt % of sulfur) instead of high sulfur diesel

  18. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  19. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoran Li

    Full Text Available Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4 were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6 that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1. First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning.

  20. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusive, and their working memory capacity and processing speed in first and fifth grade. Intelligence was assessed in first grade and their second to fourth grade teachers reported on their in-class attentive behavior. Developmental gains in visuospatial memory span (d = 2.4) were larger than gains in the capacity of the central executive (d = 1.6) that in turn were larger than gains in phonological memory span (d = 1.1). First to fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory and in speed of numeral processing predicted end of fifth grade mathematics achievement, as did first grade central executive scores, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior. The results suggest there are important individual differences in the rate of growth of visuospatial memory during childhood and that these differences become increasingly important for mathematics learning. PMID:23936154