WorldWideScience

Sample records for fleet electric vehicle

  1. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  2. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  3. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  4. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  5. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...

  6. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  7. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  8. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  9. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each electric vehicle’s set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges....... In particular, the paper addresses the optimization and analysis of infrastructure design alternatives dealing with (1) the number of battery-exchange stations, (2) their locations, (3) the recharging capacity and inventory management of batteries at each facility, and (4) routing and scheduling of the fleet...

  10. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  11. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  12. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system...... and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling...

  13. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes...... detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...

  14. Vehicle attributes constraining present electric car applicability in the fleet market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J R

    1979-12-01

    One strategy for reducing petroleum imports is to use electric cars in place of conventional vehicles. This paper examines obstacles which electric cars are likely to encounter in attempting to penetrate a key segment of the passenger car market, namely, the fleet market. A fleet is here defined as a group of cars operated by a corporation or a government agency. The primary data source is a questionnaire that was distributed to fleet operators by the Bobit Publishing Company in the summer of 1977. Six sectors of the fleet market were sampled: police, state and local government, utilities, taxi, rental, and business. The questionnaire was specifically designed to uncover factors limiting market penetration of unconventional vehicles, although no attempt was made to determine price elasticities. Emphasis is on vehicle attributes that are readily quantifiable and relatively projectable, including seating capacity, range, battery recharging characteristics, availability of power options, and ability to use interstate highways.

  15. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  16. Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. New logistical issues in using electric vehicle fleets with battery exchange infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Adler, Jonathan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels that are more sustainable. The electric vehicle (EV) is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which "refuels" by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses some new logistical issues that must be addressed by such EV fleets, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each EV's set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges. In particular, the paper addresses (1......) the routing and scheduling of the fleet, (2) the locations of battery-exchange stations, and (3) the sizing of each facility. An overview of the literature on the topic is provided and some initial results are presented. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  18. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  19. Assessing the potential of different charging strategies for electric vehicle fleets in closed transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Eisel, Matthias; Kolbe, Lutz M.

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for the low sales volumes of electric vehicles is their significantly higher purchasing price in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, various charging strategies can be applied to make these vehicles more profitable. In this paper, controlled charging concepts are transferred to commercial fleets operating in closed transport systems, as we found this field of application particularly well suited for the implementation of charging strategies. We analyzed data gathered in a field experiment conducted in a European port using electric vehicles in combination with a battery-swapping station to calculate the economic potentials of three charging scenarios: (1) optimizing energy procurement (2) trading load-shifting potential on control markets, and (3) a combination of the two. The findings indicate that all approaches are appropriate for reducing economic disadvantages of electric transport vehicles. Furthermore, we find that adjusting charging processes to avoid price peaks is more profitable than offering control reserve. Finally, focusing on the combination of both strategies seems to be most promising from an economic perspective. In this context, operational cost savings of more than 65% can be achieved compared to a similar dieselpowered vehicle when applying this strategy. - Highlights: • We model various charging strategies for electric transport vehicles. • The economic assessment is based on a field experiment with a port operator. • We consider the special market design of spot and ancillary service markets. • All charging strategies presented provide substantial cost-saving potentials. • Optimizing energy procurement is more profitable than offering control reserve

  20. Modelling energy demand for a fleet of hydrogen-electric vehicles interacting with a clean energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, F.; Fowler, M.; Wan, D.; Maniyali, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the development of an energy demand model for a hydrogen-electric vehicle fleet and the modelling of the fleet interactions with a clean energy hub. The approach taken is to model the architecture and daily operation of every individual vehicle in the fleet. A generic architecture was developed based on understanding gained from existing detailed models used in vehicle powertrain design, with daily operation divided into two periods: charging and travelling. During the charging period, the vehicle charges its Electricity Storage System (ESS) and refills its Hydrogen Storage System (HSS), and during the travelling period, the vehicle depletes the ESS and HSS based on distance travelled. Daily travel distance is generated by a stochastic model and is considered an input to the fleet model. The modelling of a clean energy hub is also presented. The clean energy hub functions as an interface between electricity supply and the energy demand (i.e. hydrogen and electricity) of the vehicle fleet. Finally, a sample case is presented to demonstrate the use of the fleet model and its implications on clean energy hub sizing. (author)

  1. Distributed energy storage systems on the basis of electric-vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, A. Z.; Buzoverov, E. A.; Sheindlin, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several power technologies directed to solving the problem of covering nonuniform loads in power systems are developed at the Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS). One direction of investigations is the use of storage batteries of electric vehicles to compensate load peaks in the power system (V2G—vehicle-to-grid technology). The efficiency of energy storage systems based on electric vehicles with traditional energy-saving technologies is compared in the article by means of performing computations. The comparison is performed by the minimum-cost criterion for the peak energy supply to the system. Computations show that the distributed storage systems based on fleets of electric cars are efficient economically with their usage regime to 1 h/day. In contrast to traditional methods, the prime cost of regulation of the loads in the power system based on V2G technology is independent of the duration of the load compensation period (the duration of the consumption peak).

  2. Energy Impacts of Wide Band Gap Semiconductors in U.S. Light-Duty Electric Vehicle Fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua A; Riddle, Matthew E; Graziano, Diane J; Das, Sujit; Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Masanet, Eric; Cresko, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide and gallium nitride, two leading wide band gap semiconductors with significant potential in electric vehicle power electronics, are examined from a life cycle energy perspective and compared with incumbent silicon in U.S. light-duty electric vehicle fleet. Cradle-to-gate, silicon carbide is estimated to require more than twice the energy as silicon. However, the magnitude of vehicle use phase fuel savings potential is comparatively several orders of magnitude higher than the marginal increase in cradle-to-gate energy. Gallium nitride cradle-to-gate energy requirements are estimated to be similar to silicon, with use phase savings potential similar to or exceeding that of silicon carbide. Potential energy reductions in the United States vehicle fleet are examined through several scenarios that consider the market adoption potential of electric vehicles themselves, as well as the market adoption potential of wide band gap semiconductors in electric vehicles. For the 2015-2050 time frame, cumulative energy savings associated with the deployment of wide band gap semiconductors are estimated to range from 2-20 billion GJ depending on market adoption dynamics.

  3. On the synergy between large electric vehicle fleet and high wind penetration – An analysis of the Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the level of wind power penetration beyond the present level in the Danish power system implies large challenges when it comes to energy management and system stability. Plug-in electric vehicles promise to contribute to the flexibility of the energy system by creating a link between...... the power system and the transportation sector and provide the possibility to make use of the inherent energy storage of a large electric vehicle (EV) fleet. The present work investigates the effects of different EV charging strategies on the balance between wind power production and consumption in a future...... batteries are used as backup at times with little wind power production) will have very limited effects on the overall energy management and is more likely to be used only for regulation and reserve services, also in the longer perspective....

  4. Fleet management for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bsaybes, Sahar; Quilliot, Alain; Wagler, Annegret K.

    2016-01-01

    The VIPAFLEET project consists in developing models and algorithms for man- aging a fleet of Individual Public Autonomous Vehicles (VIPA). Hereby, we consider a fleet of cars distributed at specified stations in an industrial area to supply internal transportation, where the cars can be used in different modes of circulation (tram mode, elevator mode, taxi mode). One goal is to develop and implement suitable algorithms for each mode in order to satisfy all the requests under an economic point...

  5. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  7. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  8. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  9. Evolution of the household vehicle fleet : anticipating fleet composition, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Automobile ownership plays an important role in determining vehicle use, emissions, fuel : consumption, congestion and traffic safety. This work provides new data on ownership decisions : and owner preferences under various scenarios, coupled with ca...

  10. Load curve impact of large electric vehicles fleet in the Paris Ile-de-France region

    OpenAIRE

    Assoumou , Edi; Marmorat , Jean-Paul; Houel , Jérôme; Roy , Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The EV-STEP project was carried out within the ERANET+ Electromobility framework. Funding for the research work presented in this paper by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy is gratefully acknowledged. Complementary support was provided by the Chair Modeling for sustainable development, driven by MINES ParisTech, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, and AgroParisTech; supported by ADEME, EDF, GRTgaz, Schneider Electric and the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development...

  11. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  12. Impacts of fleet types and charging modes for electric vehicles on emissions under different penetrations of wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyu; Zhang, Hongcai; Xu, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Chris P.; McElroy, Michael B.; Lv, Jiajun

    2018-05-01

    Current Chinese policy promotes the development of both electricity-propelled vehicles and carbon-free sources of power. Concern has been expressed that electric vehicles on average may emit more CO2 and conventional pollutants in China. Here, we explore the environmental implications of investments in different types of electric vehicle (public buses, taxis and private light-duty vehicles) and different modes (fast or slow) for charging under a range of different wind penetration levels. To do this, we take Beijing in 2020 as a case study and employ hourly simulation of vehicle charging behaviour and power system operation. Assuming the slow-charging option, we find that investments in electric private light-duty vehicles can result in an effective reduction in the emission of CO2 at several levels of wind penetration. The fast-charging option, however, is counter-productive. Electrifying buses and taxis offers the most effective option to reduce emissions of NOx, a major precursor for air pollution.

  13. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the...

  14. An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Ziras, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes...... and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators......, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging...

  15. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  16. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 3 : ITS fleet management technology resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In todays increasingly competitive economic environment, effective management of commercial vehicle fleets is important for all types of carriers and for the trucking industry as a whole. To meet fleet management needs, carriers increasingly are t...

  17. An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi You

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions of using existing, or developing their own, solutions for further applications.

  18. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications The following technical papers, conference papers, and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hybrid electric fleet vehicle Class 8 Hybrid Electric Delivery Trucks. Mike Lammert. (2011) FedEx Delivery Trucks In-Use and Vehicle

  19. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  20. Long Term Hydrogen Vehicle Fleet Operational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    world settings. The implementation and qualification of these technologies addresses national objectives and improves the state of the art to advance...Gasoline Electric Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV). Figure 1 shows one of the H2ICE vehicles. The H2ICE vehicles have a full hybrid system capable of...Hickam NAC National Automotive Center PACOM Pacific Command SLI Starting, Lighting, and Ignition SUV Sport Utility Vehicle TARDEC Tank Automotive Research Development, and Engineering Center

  1. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  2. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  3. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion Dale [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  4. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  5. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  6. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  7. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the make or buy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the first one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Methods: The paper discusses ways of fulfilling company's transportation needs (MAKE-or-BUY problem. It means the choice between using company's own and outside fleet (buying transportation services in a market. The essence of the MAKE-or-BUY problem lies in a time dependency, a seasonal nature of transportation needs. It leads to the MAKE-and-BUY solutions including utilization of both in-house and outside fleets. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the MAKE-and-BUY analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows a low economic justification for using the MAKE option in practice. Especially when a fleet composed of brand new vehicles is considered. Conclusions: The paper will be continued in two further papers dedicated to strategic vehicle fleet management problems including fleet sizing / composition and fleet replacement.

  8. Virtual Power Plants of Electric Vehicles in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe batteries of electric vehicles can be used as Virtual Power Plants to balance out frequency deviations in the electricity grid. Carsharing fleet owners have the options to charge an electric vehicle's battery, discharge an electric vehicle's battery, or keep an electric vehicle

  9. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2014-01-01

    and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric......A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...

  11. Electric vehicles in imperfect electricity markets: The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power market. If excess vehicle batteries can be used for storage, welfare results are reversed: generating firms suffer from the price-smoothing effect of additional storage, whereas power consumers benefit despite increasing overall demand. Strategic players tend to under-utilize the storage capacity of the vehicle fleet, which may have negative welfare implications. In contrast, we find a market power-mitigating effect of electric vehicle recharging on oligopolistic generators. Overall, electric vehicles are unlikely to be a relevant source of market power in Germany in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: → We study the effect of electric vehicles on an imperfectly competitive electricity market. → We apply a game-theoretic model to the German market. → There is a market power-mitigating effect of vehicle loading on oligopolistic generating firms. → Consumers benefit from electric vehicles if excess battery capacity can be used for grid storage. → Electric vehicles are unlikely to be a source of market power in Germany in the near future.

  12. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 2 : summary of case study interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The FHWA has commissioned the Commercial Vehicle Fleet Management and Information Systems study to determine if there are fleet management needs that the public sector can address through the development of ITS for commercial vehicle operations. As p...

  13. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  14. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Ji, Qingkai; Chiu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS) to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP), where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this proble...

  15. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel..., insert the following clause in contracts providing for Contractor management of the motor vehicle fleet... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle fleet...

  16. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency fleet...

  17. Fleet management for vehicle sharing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Transit, touted as a solution to urban mobility problems, cannot match the addictive flexibility of : the automobile. 86.5% of all trips in the U.S. are in personal vehicles (USDOT 2001). A more recent approach to reduce : automobile ownership is thr...

  18. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  19. Demonstration of Heavy Diesel Hybrid Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-29

    of new discoveries of light, sweet crude oil has required that petroleum companies resort to alternative sources (i.e., tar sands , oil shale, and...from electric motor to engine - Limited acceleration - Engine may stall when driving up hill from standstill - Transmission has delayed shifting and...maintenance free for the service team. Service training requirements are minimal due the straightforward maintenance and simplicity of the system. A

  20. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    resort to alternative sources (i.e., tar sands , oil shale, and bitumen) to keep up with demand. These alternative sources are more costly to recover and...Along Event Category Comment Driveability - Abrupt transition from electric motor to engine - Limited acceleration - Engine may stall when driving up...hydraulic system is transparent to the operator, and is relatively maintenance free for the service team. Service training requirements are minimal due

  1. The introduction of electric vehicles in the private fleet: Potential impact on the electric supply system and on the environment. A case study for the Province of Milan, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perujo, Adolfo; Ciuffo, Biagio

    2010-01-01

    The study analyses the possible impact of the electric vehicles' recharging activities on the electric supply system for the Province of Milan and on the global environment with a 2030 time horizon. In particular, the impact on the electric grid is seen both in terms of total electric energy consumption and in power requested to the grid. Because of the long recharging time required by the car batteries, the probability to have thousands of cars contemporary plugged-in at a given time is not negligible. On the other hand, the impact on the environment is seen in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction. Even if, at the moment, the Italian electric energy mix is mainly generated by means of thermal power stations making use of not renewable fossil fuels, the efficiency of these plants is much higher than the efficiency of a vehicle's engine. Results obtained clearly show that electric vehicles can contribute to the overall CO 2 abatement strategy in the transport sector but at the same time without an appropriate regulation (e.g. the intelligent integration of electric vehicles into the existing power grid as decentralised and flexible energy storage asset), electric vehicles could heavily impact on the daily requested electric power.

  2. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  3. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...

  4. The design of a comprehensive microsimulator of household vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The report describes a comprehensive vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution : simulator that can be used to forecast household vehicle ownership and mileage by type of : vehicle over time. The components of the simulator are developed ...

  5. Hybrid CNG propulsion for fleet vehicles: emission reduction potential and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, P. [BC Research Institute, BC (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A project (1) to build an experimental hybrid electric vehicle to be used as a test bed for the development of EZEV-oriented technologies, (2) to develop a control system to manage the energy use in a series hybrid vehicle, (3) to evaluate the suitability of valve regulated lead acid batteries for hybrid propulsion, and (4) to investigate the feasibility of using hybrid propulsion for medium duty fleet vehicles was discussed. In this context, the electric G-Van, the BCRI hybrid G-Van battery, the hybrid power unit, and the electronic control unit were described. The concept of hybrid vehicle control, and the control system software were explained, and a summary of the hybrid system efficiency test was provided.

  6. A hybrid life cycle assessment of the vehicle-to-grid application in light duty commercial fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The vehicle-to-grid system is an approach utilizing the idle battery capacity of electric vehicles while they are parked to provide supplementary energy to the power grid. As electrification continues in light duty vehicle fleets, the application of vehicle-to-grid systems for commercial delivery truck fleets can provide extra revenue for fleet owners, and also has significant potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity generation sector. In this study, an economic input–output based hybrid life cycle assessment is conducted to analyze the potential greenhouse gas emissions emission savings from the use of the vehicle-to-grid system, as well as the possible emission impacts caused by battery degradation. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to address the uncertainties that lie in the electricity exchange amount of the vehicle-to-grid service as well as the battery life of the electric vehicles. The results of this study showed that extended range electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles are both viable regulation service providers for saving greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation if the battery wear-out from regulation services is assumed to be minimal, but the vehicle-to-grid system becomes less attractive at higher battery degradation levels. - Highlights: • The commercial delivery trucks are studied as vehicle-to-grid service providers. • Hybrid life cycle assessment is conducted to evaluate emission mitigation. • Battery degradation level and corresponding emissions and cost are evaluated. • Vehicle-to-grid service is shown to have significant emission saving effect.

  7. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  8. Mobile source CO2 mitigation through smart growth development and vehicle fleet hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C; Holloway, Tracey; Spak, Scott N

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of smart growth development patterns and vehicle fleet hybridization in reducing mobile source emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) across 11 major metropolitan regions of the Midwestern U.S. over a 50-year period. Through the integration of a vehicle travel activity modeling framework developed by researchers atthe Oak Ridge National Laboratory with small area population projections, we model mobile source emissions of CO2 associated with alternative land development and technology change scenarios between 2000 and 2050. Our findings suggest that under an aggressive smart growth scenario, growth in emissions expected to occur under a business as usual scenario is reduced by 34%, while the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicles throughout the light vehicle fleet is found to offset the expected growth in emissions by 97%. Our results further suggest that high levels of urban densification could achieve reductions in 2050 CO2 emissions equivalent to those attainable through the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicle technologies.

  9. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  10. Cost, Energy, and Environmental Impact of Automated Electric Taxi Fleets in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gordon S; Greenblatt, Jeffery B; Gerke, Brian F

    2018-04-17

    Shared automated electric vehicles (SAEVs) hold great promise for improving transportation access in urban centers while drastically reducing transportation-related energy consumption and air pollution. Using taxi-trip data from New York City, we develop an agent-based model to predict the battery range and charging infrastructure requirements of a fleet of SAEVs operating on Manhattan Island. We also develop a model to estimate the cost and environmental impact of providing service and perform extensive sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our predictions. We estimate that costs will be lowest with a battery range of 50-90 mi, with either 66 chargers per square mile, rated at 11 kW or 44 chargers per square mile, rated at 22 kW. We estimate that the cost of service provided by such an SAEV fleet will be $0.29-$0.61 per revenue mile, an order of magnitude lower than the cost of service of present-day Manhattan taxis and $0.05-$0.08/mi lower than that of an automated fleet composed of any currently available hybrid or internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). We estimate that such an SAEV fleet drawing power from the current NYC power grid would reduce GHG emissions by 73% and energy consumption by 58% compared to an automated fleet of ICEVs.

  11. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  12. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP, where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this problem, we design three guiding mechanisms in which the search history is used to guide the search. The three mechanisms are experimentally demonstrated to be more efficient than the ones which only apply the known distance information. Armed with the guiding mechanisms and the well-known reactive mechanism, the RGTS can produce remarkable solutions in a reasonable computation time.

  13. Fleet Purchase Behavior: Decision Processes and Implications for New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, Kevin; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle fleets are a poorly understood part of the economy. They are important, though, in that they purchase a large share of light-duty vehicles and are often targeted by governments as agents of change. We investigate fleet purchase behavior, using focus groups, interviews, and mail and telephone surveys. We categorize fleets into four different decision-making structures (autocratic, bureaucratic, hierarchic, and democratic), determine what share of the market sector each represents, d...

  14. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  15. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  16. Modeling vehicle emissions in different types of Chinese cities: Importance of vehicle fleet and local features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Zhang Qiang; He Kebin; Yao Zhiliang; Wang Xintong; Zheng Bo; Streets, David G.; Wang Qidong; Ding Yan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method to simulate vehicle emissions in Chinese cities of different sizes and development stages. Twenty two cities are examined in this study. The target year is 2007. Among the cities, the vehicle emission factors were remarkably different (the highest is 50-90% higher than the lowest) owing to their distinct local features and vehicle technology levels, and the major contributors to total vehicle emissions were also different. A substantial increase in vehicle emissions is foreseeable unless stronger measures are implemented because the benefit of current policies can be quickly offset by the vehicle growth. Major efforts should be focused on all cities, especially developing cities where the requirements are lenient. This work aims a better understanding of vehicle emissions in all types of Chinese cities. The proposed method could benefit national emission inventory studies in improving accuracy and help in designing national and local policies for vehicle emission control. - Highlights: → We examine vehicle emissions in 22 Chinese cities of different types and locations. → Vehicle emission factors of the cities differ by 50-90% due to distinct local features. → Each vehicle type contributes differently to total emissions among the cities. → A substantial increase in vehicle emissions in most Chinese cities is foreseeable. → City-specific fleet and local features are important in research and policy making. - Vehicle emission characteristics of Chinese cities are remarkably different, and local features need to be taken into account in vehicle emission studies and control strategy.

  17. Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  18. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles...... (EVs) are assumed; comprising 2.5%, 15%, 34%, and 53% of the private passenger vehicle fleet in 2015, 2020, 2025, and 2030, respectively. Results show that when charged/discharged intelligently, EVs can facilitate significantly increased wind power investments already at low vehicle fleet shares....... Moreover, due to vehicle-to-grid capability, EVs can reduce the need for new coal/natural gas power capacities. Wind power can be expected to provide a large share of the electricity for EVs in several of the countries. However, if EVs are not followed up by economic support for renewable energy...

  19. Panorama 2017 - Development of electric vehicle: where are we now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternel, Cyprien

    2016-09-01

    Electric vehicles - a term which refers to battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) - are regarded as one way to lower energy costs and reduce the environmental impact of transport. While mild or full hybrid vehicles are gradually becoming more widespread, the market for electric vehicles is still developing. While the symbolic threshold of one million electric vehicles in circulation worldwide was surpassed in 2015 and sales are increasing from year to year, certain limitations could nevertheless hinder this growth. High purchase prices, the need to establish incentive-based public policies to significantly increase sales, and vehicle range are challenges to overcome before electric vehicles become a sustainable part of the world's automobile fleet. This memorandum takes stock of this specific market and highlights the reasons to believe in its continued progress. It mainly discusses private vehicles (including micro-cars) and utility vehicles, but a specific section is dedicated to mopeds and motorbikes

  20. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  1. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  2. Electric bus fleet size and mix problem with optimization of charging infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogge, Matthias; van der Hurk, Evelien; Larsen, Allan

    2018-01-01

    Battery electric buses are seen as a well-suited technology for the electrification of road-based public transport. However, the transition process from conventional diesel to electric buses faces major hurdles caused by range limitations and required charging times of battery buses. This work...... addresses these constraints and provides a methodology for the cost-optimized planning of depot charging battery bus fleets and their corresponding charging infrastructure. The defined problem covers the scheduling of battery buses, the fleet composition, and the optimization of charging infrastructure...... in a joint process. Vehicle schedule adjustments are monetized and evaluated together with the investment and operational costs of the bus system. The resulting total cost of ownership enables a comparison of technical alternatives on a system level, which makes this approach especially promising...

  3. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  4. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM 2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM 2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m -3 during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM 2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO 2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  5. New heuristics for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, W.; Janssens, Gerrit K.; Sirensen, K.; Vernimmen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    In the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (FSMVRPTW) customers need to be serviced in their time windows at minimal costs by a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper new heuristics for the FSMVRPTW are developed. The performance of the heuristics is shown to be significantly

  6. The electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez duran, R.

    2010-01-01

    The decarbonization of transport is a key element in both energy and environmental European policies as well as one of the levers that will help us achieve the goals of improving energy efficiency, reducing CO 2 emissions and energy dependence. The use of electricity compared to other low-carbon fuels such as bio fuels and hydrogen has the advantage of its existing infrastructure (power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks), being only necessary to developed recharging infrastructures. We emphasize the role of electricity networks and their evolution, which will enable to manage demand and maximise the potential of renewable energies. The idea of an electric vehicle is not a recent one but dates back to the beginning of the last century, when first units appeared. Unfortunately, technological barriers were too high at the time to let them succeed. Namely those barriers limited the range of the electric vehicle due to problems with battery recharges. Nowadays, those difficulties have almost been solved and we can state that institutional support and coordination among all actors involved have made the electric vehicle a plausible reality. While the technological improvements needed for the electric vehicle to become cost competitive are carried out, the plug-in hybrid vehicle represents the intermediate step to reach a total decarbonization of transport. Endesa is committed to this revolution in transport mobility and believes that now is the right time to focus our efforts on it. Our goal is to contribute to a more balanced and sustainable world in the near future. (Author)

  7. EDISON – Study on optimal grid integration of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foosnæs, Anders Holm; Andersen, Claus Amtrup; Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both individual car owners, and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  8. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet...

  9. Optimal charging of electric drive vehicles in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Trine Krogh; Capion, Karsten Emil; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With a potential to facilitate the integration of renewable energy into the electricity system, electric drive vehicles may offer a considerable flexibility by allowing for charging and discharging when desired. This paper takes the perspective of an aggregator that manages the electricity market...... participation of a vehicle fleet and presents a framework for optimizing charging and discharging of the electric drive vehicles, given the driving patterns of the fleet and the variations in market prices of electricity. When the aggregator is a price-taker the optimization can be stated in terms of linear...... programming whereas a quadratic programming formulation is required when he/she has market power. A Danish case study illustrates the construction of representative driving patterns through clustering of survey data from Western Denmark and the prediction of electricity price variations through regression...

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  11. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources (RES including photovoltaic systems (PV, wind farms, and different forms of bioenergy, and the integration of electric-powered vehicles. In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles (EVs and electric motorcycles (EMs. The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production. Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

  12. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  13. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J.

    2017-10-02

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  14. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonzales, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  15. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  16. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH DISORDER FLEET OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams, parking difficulties, noise horns, especially stress and the increment of air pollution by greenhouse gas emissions by the growing fleet of motor vehicles in Brazilian capitals, then, the question is: what are the possible impacts that the growing fleet of motor vehicles of the State of Ceará may cause to the environment? With the general aim of this study: to analyze the growing fleet of vehicles in the State of Ceará and its possible environmental impacts. And yet with the following specific objectives: to analyze the determinants of growth in vehicle fleet of the state of Ceará, by applying the statistical technique of Multiple Regression; discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental mitigation measures related to the growth fleet of automotive vehicles. This is a literature review, using secondary data that was applied multiple regression analysis. It was made a data analysis about the period between 1980 to 2009. Thiswork serves asawarningas theuncontrolled growthof the fleet ofvehiclesleads to anincrease in pollutionby the emission oftoxic gases, whosedirect consequence isthe destructionof the ozone layerthat protectsthe earth’s atmosphere from the exposure of UV irradiation.

  18. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  19. State-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976 (PL 94-413) requires that data be developed to characterize the state of the art of vehicles powered by an electric motor and those propelled by a combination of an electric motor and an internal combustion engine or other power sources. Data obtained from controlled tests of a representative number of sample vehicles, from information supplied by manufacturers or contained in the literature, and from surveys of fleet operators of individual owners of electric vehicles is discussed. The results of track and dynamometer tests conducted by NASA on 22 electric, 2 hybrid, and 5 conventional vehicles, as well as on 5 spark-ignition-engine-powered vehicles, the conventional counterparts of 5 of the vehicles, are presented.

  20. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  1. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  2. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  3. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS A CRITERION IN THE VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vujanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport represents an industry sector with intense energy consumption, the road transport sector within is the dominant subsector. The objective of the research presented in this paper is in defining the activities which applied within road freight transport companies contribute to enhancing vehicles' energy efficiency. Vehicle fleet operation management process effects on fuel consumption decrease have been looked into. Operation parameters that influence vehicle fuel consumption were analysed. In this sense, a survey has been realised in order to evaluate the vehicle load factor impact on the specific fuel consumption. Measures for enhancing vehicle's logistics efficiency have been defined. As a tool for those measures' implementation an algorithm for vehicle fleet operation management was developed which represented a basis for a dedicated software package development for vehicle dispatching process decision support. A set of measures has been recommended and their effects in fuel savings were evaluated.

  5. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  6. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO{sub 2}-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market

  7. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO 2 -emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market. The

  8. Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandivadekar, Anup; Cheah, Lynette; Evans, Christopher; Groode, Tiffany; Heywood, John; Kasseris, Emmanuel; Kromer, Matthew; Weiss, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term will require rapid penetration of these technologies into the vehicle fleet, and not all alternatives can meet both objectives simultaneously. Placing a much greater emphasis on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving vehicle performance can greatly reduce the required market penetration rates. Addressing the vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies and fuels

  9. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment

  10. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Juan, Angel Alejandro; Mendez, Carlos Alberto; Faulin, Javier; de Armas, Jesica; Grasman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Current logistics and transportation (L&T) systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using ?green? technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electr...

  11. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Pantuso, Giovanni; Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    2015-01-01

    . We show that all vehicle owners will benefit from acting more intelligently on the energy market. Furthermore, the high value of the stochastic solution shows that, in case the regulating price differs from the expected, the solution to the deterministic problem becomes infeasible.......This paper analyses different charging strategies for a fleet of electric vehicles. Along with increasing the realism of the strategies, the opportunity for acting on the regulating market is also included. We test the value of a vehicle owner that can choose when and how to charge; by presenting...... optimally in response to predicted spot prices, and – in some settings – additional gains from using the up and down regulating prices. Particularly, strategies are chosen from uncontrolled charging through deterministic optimization, to modelling the charging and bidding problem with stochastic programming...

  12. Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    congestion management scenario within electric distribution networks •optimal EV charging management with the fleet operator concept and smart charging management •EV battery technology, modelling and tests •the use of EVs for balancing power fluctuations from renewable energy sources, looking at power......Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets...... of the technologies for EV integration, this volume is informative for research professors and graduate students in power systems; it will also appeal to EV manufacturers, regulators, EV market professionals, energy providers and traders, mobility providers, EV charging station companies, and policy makers....

  13. Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency of a Fleet of Electric Vehicle for Eco-Driving Application Évaluation de l’efficacité énergétique d’une flotte de véhicules électriques dédiée à une application d’éco-conduite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib W.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to evaluate the energy efficiency of an electrical vehicle during a short trip is addressed. This approach provides metrics that can be used to evaluate the potential of improvement achievable via intelligent eco-driving techniques and the performance actually achieved by any of them. It can be the basis for an evaluation of a fleet of vehicles and of a whole city for which an energy efficiency map could be derived, depending for instance of traffic management strategy. Experimental data are provided to illustrate the approach for a fleet of electric vehicles in an urban environment. The methods proposed are intended to be the basis of a driver assistance system oriented to optimal eco-driving. Dans cet article, nous proposons une approche pour évaluer l’efficacité énergétique d’un véhicule électrique lors d’un déplacement urbain. Cette approche fournit des outils permettant d’évaluer le gain énergétique réalisable par l’intermédiaire des techniques intelligentes d’éco-conduite. Cette approche peut être utilisée pour évaluer une flotte de véhicules, ainsi que pour élaborer une cartographie énergétique d’une ville. Des données expérimentales sont fournies pour illustrer cette approche sur une flotte de véhicules électriques dans un environnement urbain. Les méthodes d’éco-conduite proposées sont destinées à constituer la base d’un système d’assistance au conducteur.

  14. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  15. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Volume I of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  16. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  17. VIII international electric vehicle symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings from the symposium are presented. Major topics discussed include: battery technology, powertrains; hybrid vehicles, marketing and economics, propulsion, and electric vehicle design and performance. Each paper has been separately indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  19. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchheim, R.

    1993-01-01

    Electric cars must have the same safety standards as those which are now state of the art for the compact class of car. Electric vehicles should substitute for conventional vehicles and should not lead to an increase in the stock of vehicles. The current subject of 'side impact protection' shows that design measures are necessary for this, which cannot be achieved in the smallest vehicles. (orig.) [de

  20. Proceedings of a Canadian Hydrogen Association workshop in support of the transition to the hydrogen age : Greening the fleet : the status of hydrogen-powered vehicles for fleet applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Canadian Hydrogen Association (CHA) endorses hydrogen as an energy carrier and promotes the development of a supporting hydrogen infrastructure. It promotes the research, development and commercialization of innovative ways to accelerate the application of hydrogen technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The presentations at this conference described new technologies and the companies that are developing hydrogen-powered vehicles, including hybrid-electric powered vehicles for fleet application. Some international activities were also covered, including lessons learned from the California experience and European fuel cell fleets. The benefits of fuel cell hybrids were highlighted along with methods to overcome the barriers to the introduction of new vehicle fuels. A review of current and future hydrogen supply infrastructure systems was also provided. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  2. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  3. Smart charging of electric vehicles with photovoltaic power and vehicle-to-grid technology in a microgrid; a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, M.J.; van Sark, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    We present a model developed to study the increase of self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power by smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. Whereas previous studies mostly use large EV fleets in their models, our focus is on a smaller scale. We apply the

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  5. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  6. Marketing of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerling, A.; Thoegersen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Substituting electric vehicles for traditional ones could reduce local pollution and greenhouse emissions from the transportation system. However, these societal benefits come at high costs to the owner of the EV in terms of price, driving range, availability, loading capacity, speed and acceleration. In addition, the usability of an EV is hampered by the lack of an infrastructure for recharging. Such a product hardly sells itself to potential customers. Besides supportive national policies, skillful marketing is needed to get it accepted and diffused throughout society. This paper outlines a two-phase strategy for the marketing of EVs based on a discussion of current and expected future characteristics of EVs and on a review of research on early adopters. (author)

  7. Economic balance sheet of a natural gas vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas fuels for vehicles bear an important and variable additional cost which corresponds to the cost for compression. This short paper gives a cost-benefit comparative estimation of the m 3 of natural gas cost when the FUELMAKER and the CIRRUS compressors are used, respectively. A comparative economic estimation between petrol and natural gas for vehicles is given for two Renault vehicles. (J.S.)

  8. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  9. Alternative Fuel Fleet Vehicle Evaluations | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    delivery, transit, and freight vehicles. Although biodiesel is the most commonly used alternative fuel in Diesel and Biodiesel Renewable diesel is a conventional petroleum diesel substitute produced from alternative to conventional diesel and does not require any vehicle modifications. Biodiesel is an oxygenated

  10. Use of the renewable wind and photovoltaic sources, for the recharge of a fleet of electric taxis in Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Torres, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Electrification of the transportation sector seems to be one of the alternatives in terms of restriction of pollutant from that sector. However, it is necessary to study the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from Generation Power Plants (EGPP) because could be more or less the same of that from the vehicles. Furthermore, Centralized GPP supply would result in distribution losses, bigger fuel consumption and more pollution. Thus, EVs development should be considered as a sustainable solution if powered by electricity systems with considerable share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). In this paper, the study of the recharge of an EV taxi fleet during night, using photovoltaic and wind mills RES in Havana, Cuba, is analyzed. This work is aiming to find a feasible operational synergy between cited intermittent RES electricity generation and EVs taxi fleet recharge. (author)

  11. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  12. Electric Vehicles and the Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour.......This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour....

  13. Challenges and Approaches for Developing Ultrafine Particle Emission Inventories for Motor Vehicle and Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane U. Keogh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 µm. Ultrafine particles are generally measured in terms of particle number because they have little mass and are prolific in terms of their numbers. These sized particles are of particular interest because of their ability to enter deep into the human respiratory system and contribute to negative health effects. Currently ultrafine particles are neither regularly monitored nor regulated by ambient air quality standards. Motor vehicle and bus fleet inventories, epidemiological studies and studies of the chemical composition of ultrafine particles are urgently needed to inform scientific debate and guide development of air quality standards and regulation to control this important pollution source. This article discusses some of the many challenges associated with modelling and quantifying ultrafine particle concentrations and emission rates for developing inventories and microscale modelling of motor vehicles and buses, including the challenge of understanding and quantifying secondary particle formation. Recommendations are made concerning the application of particle emission factors in developing ultrafine particle inventories for motor vehicle fleets. The article presents a précis of the first published inventory of ultrafine particles (particle number developed for the urban South-East Queensland motor vehicle and bus fleet in Australia, and comments on the applicability of the comprehensive set of average particle emission factors used in this inventory, for developing ultrafine particle (particle number and particle mass inventories in other developed countries.

  14. Quantifying displaced carbon dioxide emissions from electric vehicles in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Aoife M.; Leahy, Paul G.; McKeogh, Eamon J.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Under EU Directive 2009/28/EC on Renewable Energy each Member State is mandated to ensure that 10% of transport energy (excluding aviation and marine transport) comes from renewable sources by 2020. The Irish Government intends to achieve this target with a number of policies including an increase in the use of biofuels in transport by 3% by 2010 and ensuring that 10% of all vehicles in the transport fleet are powered by electricity by 2020. Electric vehicles (EVs) do not emit exh...

  15. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO x ) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO x emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO x emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO x value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO x values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO x values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs

  16. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    energy sources like wind in power systems. The EV batteries could be used to charge during periods of excess electricity production from wind power and reduce the charging rate or discharge on deficit of power in the grid, supporting system stability and reliability. By providing such grid services......The prospects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in providing clean transportation and supporting renewable electricity is widely discussed in sustainable energy forums worldwide. The battery storage of EVs could be used to address the variability and unpredictability of electricity produced from renewable......, the vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results...

  17. Analysis of electric vehicles measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, B.M.J.; Geldtmeijer, D.A.M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are expected to have a significant impact on electricity grids. Intelligent charging strategies are suggested by literature and tested in the field to prevent overloading of network assets in electricity grids by using the flexibility of electro-mobility. This paper covers an

  18. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work Hybrid electric vehicles combine a primary power source, an energy storage system, and an is used to propel the vehicle during normal drive cycles. The batteries supply additional power for

  19. The potential of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Electric vehicles can help reduce the dependence of road transport on imported oil, cut the country's energy bill, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve air quality in cities through zero exhaust emissions and reduce noise pollution. The economic costs and environmental impacts of electric vehicles are mostly concentrated at the manufacturing stage, whereas the costs and impacts of internal combustion vehicles are predominantly felt during usage. So we cannot simply compare vehicles as objects, we must see how they are used, which means taking a fresh look at the full potential of electric vehicles which must be used intensely to be economically and environmentally viable. The main advantage of internal combustion vehicles is their ability to carry a very large amount of energy giving them a very large range and significant versatility. However, the consequences of the use of fossil fuels on the climate and the environment today require us to look for other solutions for vehicles and mobility systems. Electric vehicles are among these: its lack of versatility, due to its still limited range, is offset by being more adaptable and optimised for the usage sought. Electric vehicles are particularly suitable for new mobility services offerings and allow the transition to new ways of travelling to be speeded up optimising the use of the vehicle and no longer requiring ownership of it. The use of digital, facilitated by the electrical engine, opens up numerous opportunities for innovations and new services (such as the autonomous vehicle for example). In addition, electric vehicles can do more than just transport. Their batteries provide useful energy storage capabilities that can help regulate the power grid and the development of renewable energy. The marketing of electric vehicles may be accompanied by energy services that can be economically viable and used to structure the electro-mobility offer in return. To minimise the impact on the electrical grid, it is

  20. Wave theory analysis of the Hungarian vehi-cle fleet especially focusing on emission categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor SZENDRO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyotarity means the improvement of quality, decrease of production costs and production time, increase of safety and morale. With the help of tools of toyotarity strategic factors can be determined, production or service problems can be revealed. In this paper tools of toyotarity are obtained to analyse the driving factors of Hungarian vehicle fleet and car renewal. Product analysis was conducted on the basis of wavetheory.

  1. Electric Vehicle Service Personnel Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Gerald

    2013-06-21

    As the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV), electric (EV) and fuel-cell (FCV) vehicles grows in the national automotive fleet, an entirely new set of diagnostic and technical skills needs to be obtained by the maintenance workforce. Electrically-powered vehicles require new diagnostic tools, technique and vocabulary when compared to existing internal combustion engine-powered models. While the manufacturers of these new vehicles train their own maintenance personnel, training for students, independent working technicians and fleet operators is less focused and organized. This DOE-funded effort provided training to these three target groups to help expand availability of skills and to provide more competition (and lower consumer cost) in the maintenance of these hybrid- and electric-powered vehicles. Our approach was to start locally in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the densest markets in the United States for these types of automobiles. We then expanded training to the Los Angeles area and then out-of-state to identify what types of curriculum was appropriate and what types of problems were encountered as training was disseminated. The fact that this effort trained up to 800 individuals with sessions varying from 2- day workshops to full-semester courses is considered a successful outcome. Diverse programs were developed to match unique time availability and educational needs of each of the three target audiences. Several key findings and observations arising from this effort include: • Recognition that hybrid and PHEV training demand is immediate; demand for EV training is starting to emerge; while demand for FCV training is still over the horizon • Hybrid and PHEV training are an excellent starting point for all EV-related training as they introduce all the basic concepts (electric motors, battery management, controllers, vocabulary, testing techniques) that are needed for all EVs, and these skills are in-demand in today’s market. • Faculty

  2. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  3. The Effect of Converting to a U.S. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet on Emissions and Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    mines and chemically processed into a hydrogen rich gas. Hydrogen is transmitted through pipelines to refueling stations. In the third scenario, hydrogen is derived via electrolysis powered by wind-generated electricity that has been transmitted across the country to electrolyzers at distributed hydrogen refueling stations. If hydrogen is produced via the first scenario, total annual U.S. production of carbon dioxide (CO2) could be expected to decrease by approximately 900 million metric tons, or 16 percent of annual U.S. CO2 production from all anthropogenic sources. Under this scenario, compared with the conventional vehicle fleet, a fuel cell vehicle fleet would produce some additional CO2 emissions due to the electric power required for the compression of hydrogen, but less CO2 emissions on the road during vehicle operation. This scenario results in an additional methane leakage of approximately one million metric tons per year, or 4 percent of annual U.S. methane emissions from all anthropogenic sources.

  4. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada's healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers.

  5. Electric Vehicle Interaction at the Electrical Circuit Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the Electric Vehicle Interaction at the Electrical Circuit Level project was to investigate electric vehicle (EV) charging as a means of mitigating transient over-voltages (TOVs) on the circuit level electric utility distribution gri...

  6. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  7. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  8. Parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs for conventional and electric light-duty vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, Garrett E.; Reichmuth, David; Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn K.; Guzman, Katherine D.; Edwards, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    A parametric analysis is used to examine the supply demand interactions between the US light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet, its fuels, and the corresponding primary energy sources through 2050. The analysis emphasizes competition between conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, including hybrids, and electric vehicles (EVs), represented by both plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. We find that EV market penetration could double relative to our baseline case with policies to extend consumers' effective payback period to 7 years. EVs can also reduce per vehicle petroleum consumption by up to 5% with opportunities to increase that fraction at higher adoption rates. However, EVs have limited ability to reduce LDV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the current energy source mix. Alone, EVs cannot drive compliance with the most aggressive GHG emission reduction targets, even if the electricity grid shifts towards natural gas powered sources. Since ICEs will dominate the LDV fleet for up to 40 years, conventional vehicle efficiency improvements have the greatest potential for reductions in LDV GHG emissions and petroleum consumption over this time. Specifically, achieving fleet average efficiencies of 72 mpg or greater can reduce average GHG emissions by 70% and average petroleum consumption by 81%. - Highlights: ► Parametric analysis of the light duty vehicle fleet, its fuels, and energy sources. ► Conventional vehicles will dominate the fleet for up to 40 years. ► Improving gasoline powertrain efficiency is essential for GHG and oil use reduction. ► Electric vehicles have limited leverage over GHG emissions with the current grid mix. ► Consumer payback period extensions can double electric vehicle market share.

  9. Homogenization of Vehicle Fleet Frontal Crash Pulses from 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Toh, Akira; Belwadi, Aditya; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale vehicle crash tests are performed globally to assess vehicle structure and restraint system performance. The crash pulse, captured by accelerometers mounted within the occupant compartment, measures the motion of the vehicle during the impact event. From an occupant’s perspective, the crash pulse is the inertial event to which the vehicle’s restraint systems must respond in order to mitigate the forces and accelerations that act on a passenger, and thus reduce injury risk. The objective of this study was to quantify the characteristics of crash pulses for different vehicle types in the contemporary North American fleet, and delineate current trends in crash pulse evolution. NHTSA and Transport Canada crash test databases were queried for full-frontal rigid barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles model year 2000–2010 with impact angle equaling zero degrees. Acceleration-time histories were analyzed for all accelerometers attached to the vehicle structure within the occupant compartment. Custom software calculated the following crash pulse characteristics (CPCs): peak deceleration, time of peak deceleration, onset rate, pulse duration, and change in velocity. Vehicle body types were classified by adapting the Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) methodology, and vehicles were assigned a generation start year in place of model year in order to more accurately represent structural change over time. 1094 vehicle crash tests with 2795 individual occupant compartment-mounted accelerometers were analyzed. We found greater peak decelerations and and shorter pulse durations across multiple vehicle types in newer model years as compared to older. For midsize passenger cars, large passenger cars, and large SUVs in 56 km/h rigid barrier tests, maximum deceleration increased by 0.40, 0.96, and 1.57 g/year respectively, and pulse duration decreased by 0.74, 1.87, and 2.51 ms/year. We also found that the crash pulse characteristics are becoming more homogeneous in

  10. A Column Generation for the Heterogeneous Fixed Fleet Open Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Yousefikhoshbakht

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the heterogeneous fixed fleet open vehicle routing problem (HFFOVRP, in which the vehicles are not required to return to the depot after completing a service. In this new problem, the demands of customers are fulfilled by a heterogeneous fixed fleet of vehicles having various capacities, fixed costs and variable costs. This problem is an important variant of the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP and can cover more practical situations in transportation and logistics. Since this problem belongs to NP-hard Problems, An approach based on column generation (CG is applied to solve the HFFOVRP. A tight integer programming model is presented and the linear programming relaxation of which is solved by the CG technique. Since there have been no existing benchmarks, this study generated 19 test problems and the results of the proposed CG algorithm is compared to the results of exact algorithm. Computational experience confirms that the proposed algorithm can provide better solutions within a comparatively shorter period of time.

  11. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Juul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses different charging strategies for a fleet of electric vehicles. Along with increasing the realism of the strategies, the opportunity for acting on the regulating market is also included. We test the value of a vehicle owner that can choose when and how to charge; by presenting a model of four alternative charging strategies. We think of them as increasing in sophistication from dumb via delayed to deterministic and stochastic model-based charging. We show that 29% of the total savings from ‘dumb’ are due to delayed charging and that substantial additional gains come charging optimally in response to predicted spot prices, and – in some settings – additional gains from using the up and down regulating prices. Particularly, strategies are chosen from uncontrolled charging through deterministic optimization, to modelling the charging and bidding problem with stochastic programming. We show that all vehicle owners will benefit from acting more intelligently on the energy market. Furthermore, the high value of the stochastic solution shows that, in case the regulating price differs from the expected, the solution to the deterministic problem becomes infeasible.

  12. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  13. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid...... method where distribution system operator (DSO) optimizes the cost of EV charging while taking substation transformer capacity into account....

  14. A trial of retrofitted advisory collision avoidance technology in government fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James P; Mackenzie, Jamie R R; Dutschke, Jeffrey K; Baldock, Matthew R J; Raftery, Simon J; Wall, John

    2018-06-01

    In-vehicle collision avoidance technology (CAT) has the potential to prevent crash involvement. In 2015, Transport for New South Wales undertook a trial of a Mobileye 560 CAT system that was installed in 34 government fleet vehicles for a period of seven months. The system provided headway monitoring, lane departure, forward collision and pedestrian collision warnings, using audio and visual alerts. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the technology could change the driving behaviour of fleet vehicle drivers and improve their safety. The evaluation consisted of three components: (1) analysis of objective data to examine effects of the technology on driving behaviour, (2) analysis of video footage taken from a sample of the vehicles to examine driving circumstances that trigger headway monitoring and forward collision warnings, and (3) a survey completed by 122 of the 199 individuals who drove the trial vehicles to examine experiences with, and attitudes to, the technology. Analysis of the objective data found that the system resulted in changes in behaviour with increased headway and improved lane keeping, but that these improvements dissipated once the warning alerts were switched off. Therefore, the system is capable of altering behaviour but only when it is actively providing alerts. In-vehicle video footage revealed that over a quarter of forward collision warnings were false alarms, in which a warning event was triggered despite there being no vehicle travelling ahead. The surveyed drivers recognised that the system could improve safety but most did not wish to use it themselves as they found it to be distracting and felt that it would not prevent them from having a crash. The results demonstrate that collision avoidance technology can improve driving behaviour but drivers may need to be educated about the potential benefits for their driving in order to accept the technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onut, S; Kamber, M R; Altay, G

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time

  16. A heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing model for solving the LPG distribution problem: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onut, S.; Kamber, M. R.; Altay, G.

    2014-03-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is an important management problem in the field of distribution and logistics. In VRPs, routes from a distribution point to geographically distributed points are designed with minimum cost and considering customer demands. All points should be visited only once and by one vehicle in one route. Total demand in one route should not exceed the capacity of the vehicle that assigned to that route. VRPs are varied due to real life constraints related to vehicle types, number of depots, transportation conditions and time periods, etc. Heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem is a kind of VRP that vehicles have different capacity and costs. There are two types of vehicles in our problem. In this study, it is used the real world data and obtained from a company that operates in LPG sector in Turkey. An optimization model is established for planning daily routes and assigned vehicles. The model is solved by GAMS and optimal solution is found in a reasonable time.

  17. Development of quick charging system for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anegawa, Takafumi

    2010-09-15

    Despite low environmental impact and high energy efficiency, electric vehicles (EV) have not been widely accepted. The lack of charging infrastructure is one reason. Since lithium-ion battery has high energy density and low internal resistance that allows quick charging, the convenience of EV may be greatly improved if charging infrastructure is prepared adequately. TEPCO aims for EV spread to reduce CO2 emissions and to increase demand for electric power, and has developed quick charging system for fleet-use EV to improve the convenience of EV. And based on research results, we will propose desirable characteristics of quick charger for public use.

  18. Impact of the electric vehicles on the air pollution from a highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Enrico; Alessandrini, Stefano; Balanzino, Alessia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical chemical-dispersion model is applied to compute air pollution generated by traffic. • A measurements campaign is carried out collecting meteorological and chemical variables. • Measurement of traffic flows and related pollution emissions make the work original. • New fleet scenarios based on electric vehicle introduction are considered. • The benefits on air quality and human health due to electric vehicles are evaluated. - Abstract: We have quantified the impact that an introduction of electric vehicles into the car fleet has on air quality (regarding NO and NO_2) using a numerical dispersion model. An experimental campaign is conducted close to a highway in Milan, Italy. Meteorological parameters and chemical concentrations are measured along with the traffic emissions. We use a Lagrangian Stochastic Dispersion Model to create numerical simulations of the chemical reactions and dispersion involving pollutants from the highway. To evaluate the air pollution reductions, emission scenarios with different rates of electric vehicles introduction are simulated. We have found that only a significant replacement (50%) of non-electric vehicles with electric ones yields a remarkable reduction of the pollutant concentrations. However, even with lower electric vehicles introduction rates, the air quality improvements may be relevant during intense pollution episodes. The results provide useful information to decision makers and public administrators for planning measures to modify the car fleet composition aiming to improve the urban air quality.

  19. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  20. Smart and secure charging of electric vehicles in public parking spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Strobbe, Matthias; Mets, Kevin; Tahon, Mathieu; Tilman, M; Spiessens, F; Gheerardyn, J; De Craemer, K; Vandael, S; Geebelen, K; Lagaisse, B; Claessens, B; Develder, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Governments worldwide are starting to give incentives to promote the use of (hybrid) electrical vehicles to achieve cleaner and more energy-efficient road transport with a low carbon footprint. Through tax/VAT reductions and free additional services — such as free parking, and/or battery charging or lower traffic congestion taxes — private users, public organizations and car fleet operators are stimulated to adopt the plug-in (hybrid) electrical vehicle (PHEV). This upcoming breakthrough of P...

  1. Comparative requirements for electric energy for production of hydrogen fuel and/or recharging of battery electric automobile fleets in New Zealand and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Paul [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Leaver, Jonathan D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Unitec NZ, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-10-15

    Within the current outlook for sustainable electric energy supply with concomitant reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, accelerated attention is focusing on the long-term development of hydrogen fuel cell and all-electric battery vehicles to provide alternative fuels to replace petroleum-derived fuels for automotive national fleets. The potential varies significantly between large industrially developed nations and smaller industrially developing nations. The requirement for additional electric energy supply from low-specific energy renewable resources and high-specific energy nuclear resources depends strongly on individual national economic, environmental, and political factors. Analysis of the additional electric energy supply required for the two potential large-scale technologies for fueling future national transportation sectors is compared for a large Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nation (USA) with a small OECD nation (New Zealand), normalized on a per-capita basis. (author)

  2. A Review of Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Emissions and Policy Recommendations to Increase EV Penetration in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Vidhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles reduce pollution only if a high percentage of the electricity mix comes from renewable sources and if the battery manufacturing takes place at a site far from the vehicle use region. Industries developed due to increased electric vehicle adoption may also cause additional air pollution. The Indian government has committed to solving New Delhi’s air pollution issues through an ambitious policy of switching 100% of the light duty consumer vehicles to electric vehicles by 2030. This policy is based on vehicle grid interaction and relies on shared mobility through the electric vehicle fleet. There are several human behavioral changes necessary to achieve 100% adoption of electric vehicles. This paper reviews different steps in the lifecycle of an electric vehicle (EV, their impact on environmental emissions, and recommends policies suitable for different socio-economic group that are relevant to the Indian market. To reduce air pollution through adoption of electric vehicles, the Indian government needs to adopt policies that increase sale of electric vehicles, increase percentage of renewable energy in the electricity mix, and prevent air pollution caused from battery manufacturing. The recommended policies can be customized for any market globally for reducing air pollution through increased adoption of electric vehicles.

  3. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  4. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  5. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  6. On the multiple depots vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous fleet capacity and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, F.; Hartono, A. P.; Bakhtiar, T.

    2018-03-01

    This current manuscript concerns with the optimization problem arising in a route determination of products distribution. The problem is formulated in the form of multiple depots and time windowed vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous capacity and velocity of fleet. Model includes a number of constraints such as route continuity, multiple depots availability and serving time in addition to generic constraints. In dealing with the unique feature of heterogeneous velocity, we generate a number of velocity profiles along the road segments, which then converted into traveling-time tables. An illustrative example of rice distribution among villages by bureau of logistics is provided. Exact approach is utilized to determine the optimal solution in term of vehicle routes and starting time of service.

  7. Study Of Solar Charging Facility For Electric Vehicles In Edinburgh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Nassar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The solar power system decreases carbon dioxide CO2 emissions which are the lead cause of global warming. This paper presented a novel way to design a commercial solar photovoltaic PV farm to provide electricity for 10 of the Edinburgh domestic car fleet. The design is used for sizing of the solar system based on an excel spreadsheets. The results show that the proposed solar system reduces the CO2 emissions with around 95 less than the conventional energy system. Around 0.5TWh of electrical energy is required to meet Edinburgh domestic car fleet whenever converted to electrical vehicles. The PV solar panels at the investigated site has a capacity factor of around 12. The dynamic tilt angle is estimated for the investigated site while the fixed tilt angle is determined to be 49. Depending on dynamic solar panels leads to harvesting more solar energy than depending on fixed tilt angle around 14 higher energy. The meter square of land in Edinburgh receive some 950KWh per year based on the dynamic tilt angle. Around 218000 of solar panels are required to meet 10 of Edinburgh domestic car fleet.

  8. Modeling vehicle emissions in different types of Chinese cities: importance of vehicle fleet and local features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Yao, Zhiliang; Wang, Xintong; Zheng, Bo; Streets, David G; Wang, Qidong; Ding, Yan

    2011-10-01

    We propose a method to simulate vehicle emissions in Chinese cities of different sizes and development stages. Twenty two cities are examined in this study. The target year is 2007. Among the cities, the vehicle emission factors were remarkably different (the highest is 50-90% higher than the lowest) owing to their distinct local features and vehicle technology levels, and the major contributors to total vehicle emissions were also different. A substantial increase in vehicle emissions is foreseeable unless stronger measures are implemented because the benefit of current policies can be quickly offset by the vehicle growth. Major efforts should be focused on all cities, especially developing cities where the requirements are lenient. This work aims a better understanding of vehicle emissions in all types of Chinese cities. The proposed method could benefit national emission inventory studies in improving accuracy and help in designing national and local policies for vehicle emission control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  10. AVTA federal fleet PEV readiness data logging and characterization study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nienhueser, Ian [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  12. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control sys...

  13. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  15. ROMO - The Robotic Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Brembeck, Jonathan; Ho, Lok Man; Schaub, Alexander; Satzger, Clemens; Tobolar, Jakub; Bals, Johann; Hirzinger, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the ROboMObil, an innovative electro-mobility concept based on intelligent central control of four Wheel Robots, which integrate the drivetrain, brakes, steering and dampers. The motivation behind the Wheel Robot concept, the implementation details together with the suspension design are described. The electric power system, consisting of a Li-Ion battery cluster to provide high-voltage power for propulsion and a low-voltage supply for vehicle control, i...

  16. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  17. The design of electric vehicle intelligent charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangyang; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-01

    As the situation of the lack of energy and environment pollution deteriorates rapidly, electric vehicle, a new type of traffic tool, is being researched worldwide. As the core components of electric vehicle, the battery and charger's performance play an important roles in the quality of electric vehicle. So the design of the Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charger based on language-C is designed in this paper. The hardware system is used to produce the input signals of Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charger. The software system adopts the language-C software as development environment. The design can accomplish the test of the parametric such as voltage-current and temperature.

  18. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  19. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lebeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles. Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  20. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. PMID:26236769

  1. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  2. Implementation Approach for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on Joint Base Lewis McChord (JBLM), which is located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at JBLM to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and the types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of select vehicles were identified and vehicle movements were recorded in data loggers in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. In Task 3, the results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements0, as well as the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the JBLM fleet.

  3. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  4. Potential vehicle fleet CO2 reductions and cost implications for various vehicle technology deployment scenarios in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaoglu, Guzay; Honselaar, Michel; Thiel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The continuous rise in demand for road transportation has a significant effect on Europe's oil dependency and emissions of greenhouse gases. Alternative fuels and vehicle technology can mitigate these effects. This study analyses power-train deployment scenarios for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in EU-27 until 2050. It considers European policy developments on vehicle CO 2 emissions, bio-energy mandates and reductions in the CO 2 footprint of the European energy mix and translates these into comprehensive scenarios for the road transport sector. It quantifies and assesses the potential impact of these scenarios on well-to-wheel (WtW) CO 2 emission reductions primary energy demand evolution, and cost aspects for the prospective vehicle owners. The study reveals that, under the deployed scenarios, the use of bio-fuel blends, technological learning and the deployment of hybrids, battery electric, plug-in hybrid and fuel cell vehicles can decrease WtW CO 2 emissions in EU-27 passenger road transport by 35–57% (compared to 2010 levels) and primary energy demand by 29–51 Mtoe as they would benefit from a future assumed decarbonised electricity and hydrogen mix in Europe. Learning effects can lead to acceptable payback periods for vehicle owners of electric drive vehicles. - Highlights: ► Power-train penetration scenarios for 2010–2050 passenger road transport in Europe. ► A dedicated tool is developed to analyse H 2 production and distribution mix till 2050. ► Alternative vehicles can drastically reduce CO 2 emissions and energy demand. ► Electric vehicles could become cost competitive to conventional vehicles by 2030. ► Policies needed to create adequate momentum and guarantee decarbonised transport.

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.70 - What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions? 102-34.70 Section 102-34.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  6. A well-scalable metaheuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Porkka, Pasi P.; Dullaert, Wout; Repoussis, Panagiotis P.; Tarantilis, Christos D.

    This paper presents an efficient and well-scalable metaheuristic for fleet size and mix vehicle routing with time windows. The suggested solution method combines the strengths of well-known threshold accepting and guided local search metaheuristics to guide a set of four local search heuristics. The

  7. Overview of hybrid electric vehicle trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haomiao; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Yingshu; Wang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of per capita energy consumption, environmental pollution is worsening. Using new alternative sources of energy, reducing the use of conventional fuel-powered engines is imperative. Due to the short period, pure electric vehicles cannot be mass-produced and there are many problems such as imperfect charging facilities. Therefore, the development of hybrid electric vehicles is particularly important in a certain period. In this paper, the classification of hybrid vehicle, research status of hybrid vehicle and future development trends of hybrid vehicles is introduced. It is conducive to the public understanding of hybrid electric vehicles, which has a certain theoretical significance.

  8. Scenario generation for electric vehicles' uncertain behavior in a smart city environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, João; Borges, Nuno; Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Vale, Zita; Moura Oliveira, P.B. de

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a framework and methods to estimate electric vehicles' possible states, regarding their demand, location and grid connection periods. The proposed methods use the Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the probability of occurrence for each state and a fuzzy logic probabilistic approach to characterize the uncertainty of electric vehicles' demand. Day-ahead and hour-ahead methodologies are proposed to support the smart grids' operational decisions. A numerical example is presented using an electric vehicles fleet in a smart city environment to obtain each electric vehicle possible states regarding their grid location. - Highlights: • New concept/framework in smart cities context to estimate the states of electric vehicles and energy demand. • Monte Carlo Simulation and fuzzy logic probabilistic approach to support the envisaged concept. • A day-ahead and an hour-ahead stochastic scenarios generation to support the smart grid's operational decisions.

  9. A prospective assessment of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document proposes a synthetic version of a cost-benefit analysis study of the development of electric vehicles (all-electric vehicles and hybrid-re-chargeable vehicles) by 2020. The authors have assessed the replacement of a conventional thermal engine vehicle by an electric vehicle. They comment the results obtained for the both types of electric vehicle. They outline that costs of ownership of electric vehicles are higher in 2010 but become competitive in 2020, and that environmental benefits are already present in 2010 but depend on the electricity production mode. They observe that some other environmental impacts are not taken into account, outline that a recharge station network has to be developed, and discuss the cost of this infrastructure

  10. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  11. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  12. Risk Assessment and Analysis of the M109 Family of Vehicles Fleet Management Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitz, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    ...) Fleet Management Pilot Program. The objective of this program is to reengineer the fleet's logistical support system by outsourcing those functions which make sense and that can be performed more efficiently by private industry...

  13. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  14. Exploration of dispatch model integrating wind generators and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Ibn Saif, A.U.N.; Nguyen, P.H.; Torbaghan, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel business model for the BRPs is analyzed. • Imbalance cost of wind generation is considered in the UC-ED model. • Smart charging of EVs is included into the UC-ED problem to mitigate the imbalance cost. • Effects of smart charging on generation cost, CO 2 emissions and total network load are assessed. - Abstract: In recent years, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity generation mix has been expanding rapidly. However, limited predictability of the RES poses challenges for traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED). This paper presents an advanced UC-ED model to incorporate wind generators as RES-based units alongside conventional centralized generators. In the proposed UC-ED model, an imbalance cost is introduced reflecting the wind generation uncertainty along with the marginal generation cost. The proposed UC-ED model aims to utilize the flexibility of fleets of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to optimally compensate for the wind generation uncertainty. A case study with 15 conventional units and 3 wind farms along with a fixed-sized PEV fleet demonstrates that shifting of PEV fleets charging at times of high wind availability realizes generation cost savings. Nevertheless, the operational cost saving incurred by controlled charging appears to diminish when dispatched wind energy becomes considerably larger than the charging energy of PEV fleets. Further analysis of the results reveals that the effectiveness of PEV control strategy in terms of CO 2 emission reduction is strongly coupled with generation mix and the proposed control strategy is favored in cases where less pollutant-based plants like nuclear and hydro power are profoundly dominant.

  15. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models......Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  16. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  17. Electric drive choices for light, medium, and heavy duty vehicles to reduce their climate change impact in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of electric drive technologies from 1988, at the 9 th International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS 9) in Toronto, to 2007 at EVS 23 in Anaheim, is described. Total hybridization of Canada's fleet of light, medium and heavy duty vehicles would result in greenhouse reductions savings of 30 Mt of CO 2 E per year, similar to the saving from a 25% reduction in vehicle weight. Further savings in greenhouse reductions from plug-in hybrids require a battery cost similar to that needed for electric vehicles. Further development of both ultracapacitors and batteries is needed as is work on other parts of the electric drive supply chain. (author)

  18. Developing cross entropy genetic algorithm for solving Two-Dimensional Loading Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem (2L-HFVRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramestha, D. L.; Santosa, B.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional Loading Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem (2L-HFVRP) is a combination of Heterogeneous Fleet VRP and a packing problem well-known as Two-Dimensional Bin Packing Problem (BPP). 2L-HFVRP is a Heterogeneous Fleet VRP in which these costumer demands are formed by a set of two-dimensional rectangular weighted item. These demands must be served by a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles with a fix and variable cost from the depot. The objective function 2L-HFVRP is to minimize the total transportation cost. All formed routes must be consistent with the capacity and loading process of the vehicle. Sequential and unrestricted scenarios are considered in this paper. We propose a metaheuristic which is a combination of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Cross Entropy (CE) named Cross Entropy Genetic Algorithm (CEGA) to solve the 2L-HFVRP. The mutation concept on GA is used to speed up the algorithm CE to find the optimal solution. The mutation mechanism was based on local improvement (2-opt, 1-1 Exchange, and 1-0 Exchange). The probability transition matrix mechanism on CE is used to avoid getting stuck in the local optimum. The effectiveness of CEGA was tested on benchmark instance based 2L-HFVRP. The result of experiments shows a competitive result compared with the other algorithm.

  19. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To

  20. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  1. Emission Reduction Potential with the Renewal of the Vehicle Fleet in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidov, B.; Brlek, G.; Brajkovic, J.; Karan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union has identified the typical areas of application of measures to tackle the problem of pollutants emissions into the air. Road transport is recognized as the largest polluter of the environment and an increase in CO2 emissions is most difficult to suppress in this type of transport. Looking at the projected trend of emission reductions in Croatia, it is clear that for achieving the minimum targets by 2050, as proposed by the European Union, implementation of the very strong measures in the coming period will be inevitable. The main aim of the paper refers to the analysis of potential emission reduction of pollutants generated by passenger vehicles registered in Croatia, assuming the implementation of measures that will result in technological renewal of the fleet at the national level. Generally considering, passenger cars before the Euro 1 standard, Euro 1 and Euro 2 standards together emit nearly 40 percent of all CO2 emissions generated by passenger cars registered in Croatia. Assuming replacement of all cars up to and including Euro 2, with Euro 6 vehicles, and taking into account certain assumptions, the potential reductions in emissions of NOx, CO, CH4 and particles were quantified. The potential reduction in NOx emissions is approximately 3,061 tons, in CO emissions approximately 14482 tons, in CH4 approximately 114 tons and in particulate matter approximately 257 tons. Depending on the engine size, with the replacement of the typical gasoline 20 years old passenger vehicle with the new one, without changing the driving mode, annual savings of up to 209 liters of gasoline fuel and reduction of CO2 emissions by 475 kg could be achieved (according to the assumptions described in the paper). With the replacement of diesel vehicles under the same conditions, the savings of up to 311 liters of diesel fuel annually and reduction of CO2 emissions by 815 kg could be achieved. (author).

  2. EVC EXPO 80. Proceedings of the third international electric vehicle conference, St. Louis, MO, May 20-22, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, L.

    1980-01-01

    Issues and trends in the case of electric vehicles are considered along with vehicle systems, EV fleet user experience, batteries, aspects of vehicle testing, EV commercial market and vehicle potentials, EV cost considerations, the effective utilization of EVs, and modeling, mission analysis, and impact assessment. Attention is given to EV component reliability, automatic gearshift control for an efficient battery vehicle drive system, a brushless DC motor-power conditioner unit designed and built for propulsion of electric passenger vehicles, a roadway powered electric vehicle system, inductively coupled power systems for electric vehicles, a fuel-cell-powered golf cart, electric vehicles in telephone service, electric vehicle use in the U.S. Postal Service, high performance electric commercial vehicles, nickel iron battery design and performance, the development of the nickel-iron-battery system for electric vehicle propulsion, the advancing performance threshold of the lead-acid electric vehicle battery, advances in zinc bromine batteries for motive power, some aspects of battery vehicle evaluation with particular attention to a battery model, and a generic battery model for electric and hybrid vehicle simulation performance prediction.

  3. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett

    2012-01-01

    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... is to highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  4. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ...-road or non-road vehicle. \\2\\ The definition of the term ``low-speed electric vehicle,'' as used... alternative fuel used in Federal fleet motor vehicles. This report also would include the alternative fuel...-- (1) a motor vehicle that operates solely on alternative fuel; or (2) a low-speed electric vehicle. (g...

  5. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  6. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  7. A case study of heterogeneous fleet vehicle routing problem: Touristic distribution application in Alanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Karagül

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem is considered in order to optimize the distribution of the tourists who have traveled between the airport and the hotels in the shortest distance by using the minimum cost. The initial solution space for the related methods are formed as a combination of Savings algorithm, Sweep algorithm and random permutation alignment. Then, two well-known solution methods named as Standard Genetic Algorithms and random search algorithms are used for changing the initial solutions. Computational power of the machine and heuristic algorithms are used instead of human experience and human intuition in order to solve the distribution problem of tourists coming to hotels in Alanya region from Antalya airport. For this case study, daily data of tourist distributions performed by an agency operating in Alanya region are considered. These distributions are then modeled as Vehicle Routing Problem to calculate the solutions for various applications. From the comparisons with the decision of a human expert, it is seen that the proposed methods produce better solutions with respect to human experience and insight. Random search method produces a solution more favorable in terms of time. As a conclusion, it is seen that, owing to the distribution plans offered by the obtained solutions, the agencies may reduce the costs by achieving savings up to 35%.

  8. Effect of extreme temperatures on battery charging and performance of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. To investigate these effects, we combine a hybrid artificial neural network-empirical Li-ion battery model with a lumped capacitance EV thermal model to study how temperature will affect the performance of an EV fleet. We find that at -10 °C, the self-weighted mean battery charging power (SWMCP) decreases by 15% compared to standard 20 °C temperature. Active battery thermal management (BTM) during parking can improve SWMCP for individual vehicles, especially if vehicles are charged both at home and at workplace; the median SWMCP is increased by over 30%. Efficiency (km/kWh) of the vehicle fleet is maximized when ambient temperature is close to 20 °C. At low (-10 °C) and high (+40 °C) ambient temperatures, cabin preconditioning and BTM during parking can improve the median efficiency by 8% and 9%, respectively. At -10 °C, preconditioning and BTM during parking can also improve the fleet SOC by 3-6%-units, but this also introduces a ;base; load of around 140 W per vehicle. Finally, we observe that the utility of the fleet can be increased by 5%-units by adding 3.6 kW chargers to workplaces, but further improved charging infrastructure would bring little additional benefit.

  9. Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense base studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) located in North Carolina. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at MCBCL to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the MCBCL fleet. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from MCBCL personnel.

  10. Federal energy and fleet management : plug-in vehicles offer potential benefits, but high costs and limited information could hinder integration into the FederalFleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The U.S. transportation sector relies almost exclusively on oil; as a result, it causes about a third of the nations greenhouse gas emissions. Advanced technology vehicles powered by alternative fuels, such as electricity and ethanol, are one way ...

  11. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  12. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Srinivasa Raghavan, Seshadri [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This document describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

  13. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Srinivasa Raghavan, Sesha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-07

    This presentation describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

  14. Electric vehicle utilization for ancillary grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicle has been developed through several decades as transportation mean, without paying sufficient attention of its utilization for other purposes. Recently, the utilization of electric vehicle to support the grid electricity has been proposed and studied intensively. This utilization covers several possible services including electricity storage, spinning reserve, frequency and voltage regulation, and emergency energy supply. This study focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of utilization of electric vehicles and their used batteries to support a small-scale energy management system. Charging rate of electric vehicle under different ambient temperature (seasonal condition) is initially analyzed to measure the correlation of charging rate, charging time, and state-of-charge. It is confirmed that charging under warmer condition (such as in summer or warmer region) shows higher charging rate than one in colder condition, therefore, shorter charging time can be achieved. In addition, in the demonstration test, each five electric vehicles and used batteries from the same electric vehicles are employed and controlled to support the electricity of the office building. The performance of the system is evaluated throughout a year to measure the load leveling effect during peak-load time. The results show that the targeted peak-load can be shaved well under certain calculated peak-shaving threshold. The finding confirms that the utilization of electric vehicle for supporting the electricity of grid or certain energy management system is feasible and deployable in the future.

  15. Extracting Lane Geometry and Topology Information from Vehicle Fleet Trajectories in Complex Urban Scenarios Using a Reversible Jump Mcmc Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeth, O.; Zaum, D.; Brenner, C.

    2017-05-01

    Highly automated driving (HAD) requires maps not only of high spatial precision but also of yet unprecedented actuality. Traditionally small highly specialized fleets of measurement vehicles are used to generate such maps. Nevertheless, for achieving city-wide or even nation-wide coverage, automated map update mechanisms based on very large vehicle fleet data gain importance since highly frequent measurements are only to be obtained using such an approach. Furthermore, the processing of imprecise mass data in contrast to few dedicated highly accurate measurements calls for a high degree of automation. We present a method for the generation of lane-accurate road network maps from vehicle trajectory data (GPS or better). Our approach therefore allows for exploiting today's connected vehicle fleets for the generation of HAD maps. The presented algorithm is based on elementary building blocks which guarantees useful lane models and uses a Reversible Jump Markov chain Monte Carlo method to explore the models parameters in order to reconstruct the one most likely emitting the input data. The approach is applied to a challenging urban real-world scenario of different trajectory accuracy levels and is evaluated against a LIDAR-based ground truth map.

  16. Merging mobility and energy vision with hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle infrastructure integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yiming; Chowdhury, Mashrur; Ma Yongchang; Pisu, Pierluigi

    2012-01-01

    As the U.S. federal government is seeking useful applications of Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration (VII) and encouraging a greener and more efficient automobile industry, this paper demonstrated a path to meet the national transportation goal via VII. An impact study was conducted in a midsize U.S. metropolitan area on the potential of utilizing VII communication in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) operations by simulating a VII-enabled vehicle framework for both conventional HEV and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The data collection and communication capability of the VII system allowed the prediction of speed profiles at the vehicle level with an average error rate of 13.2%. With the prediction, at the individual vehicle level, VII technology allowed PHEV and HEV to achieve additional benefits with an approximately 3% decrease in total energy consumption and emission. At the network level, the benefit–cost analysis indicated that the benefit–cost ratios for PHEV and HEV of the VII vehicle network exceed one at the fleet penetration rate of 20% and 30%, respectively. Our findings encourage to support public and private investments in VII infrastructure and its integration with HEV and PHEV in order to reap the increased energy savings from these vehicles. - Highlights: ► A VII-HEV/PHEV framework was simulated for a midsized U.S. metropolitan area. ► A VII-based prediction algorithm was developed for the framework. ► Significant improvement in energy efficiency and emission was achieved at single vehicle level. ► Network analysis was conducted to show cost-effectiveness of this framework.

  17. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions and energy use analysis of hypothetical fleet of electrified vehicles in Canada and the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduro, Miguelangel

    The shift to strong hybrid and electrified vehicle architectures engenders controversy and brings about many unanswered questions. It is unclear whether developed markets will have the infrastructure in place to support and successfully implement them. To date, limited effort has been made to comprehend if the energy and transportation solutions that work well for one city or geographic region may extend broadly. A region's capacity to supply a fleet of EVs, or plug-in hybrid vehicles with the required charging infrastructure, does not necessarily make such vehicle architectures an optimal solution. In this study, a mix of technologies ranging from HEV to PHEV and EREV through to Battery Electric Vehicles were analyzed and set in three Canadian Provinces and 3 U.S. Regions for the year 2020. Government agency developed environmental software tools were used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. Projected vehicle technology shares were employed to estimate regional environmental implications. Alternative vehicle technologies and fuels are recommended for each region based on local power generation schemes.

  18. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  19. Environmental assessment of lightweight electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Egede, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This monograph adresses the challenge of the environmental assessment of leightweight electric vehicles. It poses the question whether the use of lightweight materials in electric vehicles can reduce the vehicles’ environmental impact and compares the environmental performance of a lightweight electric vehicle (LEV) to other types of vehicles. The topical approach focuses on methods from life cycle assessment (LCA), and the book concludes with a comprehensive concept on the environmental assessment of LEVs. The target audience primarily comprises LCA practitioners from research institutes and industry, but it may also be beneficial for graduate students specializing in the field of environmental assessment.

  20. The Federal electric and hybrid vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The commercial development and use of electric and hybrid vehicles is discussed with respect to its application as a possible alternative transportation system. A market demonstration is described that seeks to place 10,000 electric hybrid vehicles into public and private sector demonstrations.

  1. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  2. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Illustration of a house with a in the garage, is connected via a power cord to a household outlet. A sustainable transportation sustainable transportation technologies to increase the capacity, efficiency, and stability of the grid

  3. Real world vehicle fleet emission factors: Seasonal and diurnal variations in traffic related air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jonathan M.; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Zimmerman, Naomi; Healy, Robert M.; Evans, Greg J.

    2018-07-01

    Temporal variations of vehicle emissions are affected by various compounding factors in the real world. The focus of this study is to determine the effects of ambient conditions and post-tailpipe changes on traffic emissions measured in the near-road region. Emission factors allowed for the isolation of the traffic signal and accounted for effects of local meteorology and dilution. Five month-long measurement campaigns were conducted at an urban near-road site that exhibited a broad range of ambient conditions with temperatures ranging between -18 and +30 °C. Particle number emission factors were 2.0× higher in the winter relative to the summer, which was attributed to changes in particles post-tailpipe. Conversely, toluene emissions were 2.5× higher in the summer relative to the winter, attributed to changes in fuel composition. Diurnal trends of emission factors showed substantial increases in emissions during the morning rush hour for black carbon (1.9×), particle number (2.4×), and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.0×), affected by fleet make-up. In contrast, particle number emission factors were highest midday with mean values 3.7× higher than at night. This midday increase was attributed to particle formation or growth from local traffic emissions and showed different wind direction dependence than regional events.

  4. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  5. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicle technology: TOPTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between 'refueling' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of 'Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  7. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  8. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  9. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... qualified electric vehicle. A qualified electric vehicle is a motor vehicle that meets the requirements of section 30(c). Accordingly, a qualified electric vehicle does not include any motor vehicle that has ever been used (for either personal or business use) as a non-electric vehicle. (b) Recapture of credit for...

  10. FleetPower: Creating Virtual Power Plants in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractElectric vehicles have the potential to be used as virtual power plants to provide reliable back-up power. This generates additional profits for carsharing rental firms, who rent vehicles by the minute. We show this by developing a discrete event simulation platform based on real-time

  11. Optimal Charge control of Electric Vehicles in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Tian; Hu, Junjie; Wu, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Environment constraints, petroleum scarcity, high price on fuel resources and recent advancements in battery technology have led to emergence of Electric Vehicles (EVs). As increasing numbers of EVs enter the electricity market, these extra loads may cause peak load and need to be properly...... controlled. In this paper, an algorithm is presented for every individual vehicles to minimize the charging cost while satisfying the vehicle owner’s requirements. The algorithm is based on a given future electricity prices and uses dynamic programming. Optimization aims to find the economically optimal...... solution for each vehicle....

  12. A constructive heuristic for time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time-windows and heterogeneous fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize the total heterogeneous fleet cost assuming that the travel time between locations depends on the departure time. Also, hard time window constraints for the customers and limitation on maximum number of the vehicles in depots must be satisfied. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming model. A constructive heuristic procedure is proposed for the problem. Also, the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on 180 test problems. The obtained computational results indicate that the procedure is capable to obtain a satisfying solution.

  13. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  14. Emissions and Cost Implications of Controlled Electric Vehicle Charging in the U.S. PJM Interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison; Michalek, Jeremy J; Jaramillo, Paulina; Lueken, Roger

    2015-05-05

    We develop a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to estimate the operation costs and the air emissions externality costs attributable to new electric vehicle electricity demand under controlled vs uncontrolled charging schemes. We focus our analysis on the PJM Interconnection and use scenarios that characterize (1) the most recent power plant fleet for which sufficient data are available, (2) a hypothetical 2018 power plant fleet that reflects upcoming plant retirements, and (3) the 2018 fleet with increased wind capacity. We find that controlled electric vehicle charging can reduce associated generation costs by 23%-34% in part by shifting loads to lower-cost, higher-emitting coal plants. This shift results in increased externality costs of health and environmental damages from increased air pollution. On balance, we find that controlled charging of electric vehicles produces negative net social benefits in the recent PJM grid but could have positive net social benefits in a future grid with sufficient coal retirements and wind penetration.

  15. US Department of Energy Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The advanced vehicle testing activity (AVTA), part of the US Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modelling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full-size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and internal combustion engine vehicles powered by hydrogen. Currently, the AVTA is conducting a significant evaluation of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) produced by major automotive manufacturers. The results are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the 'real world' performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. The initial fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that determined by the manufacturer and also varies significantly with environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over the life of a given vehicle (160 000 miles).

  16. Electric vehicles: Technology assessment and commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabot, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article traces the history of commercialization efforts relative to electric vehicles, assesses the state-of-the-art of electric vehicle technology and identifies the industrial firms that are investing heavily in this field. The main design problems affecting the commercialization of these vehicles (e.g., battery weight, autonomy, operating safety and toxicity) are pointed out. Comparisons of commercialization prospects are made with those for hydrogen fuelled vehicles. With regard to investments in research programs, it is argued that, in addition to car manufacturers and oil companies, the usual active participants in the transport sector, new participants are needed to give added support to the development of electric vehicles, namely, electric utilities and battery manufacturers

  17. Intelligent Control Of An Electric Vehicle ICEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Chaouachi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle allows fast gentle quiet and environmentally friendly movements in industrial and urban environments. The automotive industry has seen the opportunity to revive its production by replacing existing vehicles due to the reluctance of oil reserves around the world. In order to greatly reduce countries dependence on oil strategic sectors such as transport must increasingly integrate technologies based primarily on clean and renewable energy. Governments must implement large-scale measures to equip themselves with electric vehicles and build large recharge networks. The traditional system for conversions of conventional vehicles into electric vehicles consists of replacing the internal combustion engine and the gearbox with electrical components engine and gearbox or engine and gearbox retaining the rest of the elements Transmission transmission shafts etc..

  18. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  19. Electrical Vehicles Activities Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Gerd; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    engine. In the 1990s research and demonstrations intensified and built a good basis for actual development of electrical vehicles. Discussion of the results achieved and lessons learned from millions of kilometers of road testing is worthwhile but in addition to technological developments such as light...... which have jointly changed how mobility is viewed in recent years. We describe key points concerning such field testing and the renaissance in electric vehicles that occurred around 2010. We discuss progress in lithium battery technology for high power and high energy density, improvement in integrated...... business models, and the availability of high-performance electric vehicles have become key enablers of this new technology. In this regard, it is promising that electric vehicles will soon be a part of a green transport solution (green mobility) powered by renewable energy and a new smart electricity...

  20. A General Overview of Electric Road Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamblin, Veronique

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue with two articles: the first of these by Pierre Bonnaure, above, assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process; this second article by Veronique Lamblin offers a general over - view of electric road vehicles (passenger cars, heavy good vehicles, bicycles etc.) throughout the world. (author)

  1. Prediction on the charging demand for electric vehicles in Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    yun, Cai; wanquan, Zhang; wei, You; pan, Mao

    2018-03-01

    The development of the electric vehicle charging station facilities speed directly affect the development of electric vehicle speed. And the charging demand of electric vehicles is one of the main factors influencing the electric vehicle charging facilities. The paper collected and collated car ownership in recent years, the use of elastic coefficient to predict Chengdu electric vehicle ownership, further modeling to give electric vehicle charging demand.

  2. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  3. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    O. Smirnov; A. Borisenko

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  4. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  5. Control of Flywheel Energy Storage Systems in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Growing environmental awareness and strong political impetus have resulted in plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) becoming ever more attractive means of transportation. They are expected to have a significant impact to the overall loading of future distribution networks. Thus, current distribution grids need to be updated in order to accommodate PEV fleets, which are recognized in smart grid (SG) objective. The prevailing concern in that sense is the combined impact of a large number of randomly ...

  6. The on-line electric vehicle wireless electric ground transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This book details the design and technology of the on-line electric vehicle (OLEV) system and its enabling wireless power-transfer technology, the “shaped magnetic field in resonance” (SMFIR). The text shows how OLEV systems can achieve their three linked important goals: reduction of CO2 produced by ground transportation; improved energy efficiency of ground transportation; and contribution to the amelioration or prevention of climate change and global warming. SMFIR provides power to the OLEV by wireless transmission from underground cables using an alternating magnetic field and the reader learns how this is done. This cable network will in future be part of any local smart grid for energy supply and use thereby exploiting local and renewable energy generation to further its aims. In addition to the technical details involved with design and realization of a fleet of vehicles combined with extensive subsurface charging infrastructure, practical issues such as those involved with pedestrian safety are c...

  7. Vehicle State Estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; van Boekel, J.J.P.; Iersel, van S.S.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the electric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  8. Environmental impacts of future urban deployment of electric vehicles: Assessment framework and case study of Copenhagen for 2016-2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnes, Florence Alexia; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    To move towards environmentally-sustainable transport systems, electric vehicles (EVs) are increasingly seen as viable alternatives to internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). To ensure effectiveness of such deployment, holistic assessments of environmental impacts can help decision-makers determine...... a fleet-based, foresight perspective. The analysis of the passenger car fleet development in the city of Copenhagen for the years 2016-2030 is used as a proof-of-concept. We modelled and compared five powertrain technologies, and we assessed four fleet-based scenarios for the entire city. Our results...... showed relative environmental benefits from range-extended and fuel-cell EVs over ICVs and standard EVs. These results were found to be sensitive to local settings, like electricity grid mix, which could alter the relative environmental performances across EV technologies. The comprehensive framework...

  9. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  10. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  11. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  12. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  13. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs – VA Manhattan Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Manhattan Campus (VA- Manhattan) fleet to identify the daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively called PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  15. Electric Vehicles--A Historical Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't realize that the history of electric vehicles (EVs) predates the Civil War. This article provides a historical snapshot of EVs to spark the interest of both teachers and students in this important transportation technology.

  16. Electric Vehicle and Wireless Charging Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Wireless charging tests of electric vehicles (EV) have been conducted at the EVTC Wireless Laboratory located at the Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL. These tests were performed to document testing protocols, evaluate standards and evaluate ope...

  17. Impact of Electric Vehicles as Distributed Energy Storage in Isolated Systems: The Case of Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramírez Díaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated regions are highly dependent on fossil fuels. The use of endogenous sources and the improvement in energy efficiency in all of the consumption activities are the two main ways to reduce the dependence of petroleum-derived fuels. Tenerife offers an excellent renewable resource (hours of sun and wind. However, the massive development of these technologies could cause important operational problems within the electric power grids, because of the small size of the system. In this paper, we explore the option of coupling an electric vehicle fleet as a distributed energy storage system to increase the participation of renewables in an isolated power system, i.e., Tenerife Island. A model simulator has been used to evaluate five key outputs, that is the renewable share, the energy spilled, the CO2 emissions, the levelized cost of generating electricity and fuel dependence, under alternative scenarios. Comparing to the current situation, combining a gradual renewable installed capacity and the introduction of an electric vehicle fleet using alternative charging strategies, a total of 30 different scenarios have been evaluated. Results shows that the impact of 50,000 electric vehicles would increase the renewable share in the electricity mix of the island up to 30%, reduce CO2 emissions by 27%, the total cost of electric generation by 6% and the oil internal market by 16%.

  18. Variable-Reluctance Motor For Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes research on variable-reluctance electric-motor drive for eventual use in electric-vehicle propulsion. Primary design and performance criteria were torque and power output per unit mass of motor, cost, and drive efficiency. For each criterion, optimized drive design developed, and designs unified to yield single electric-vehicle drive. Scaled-down motor performed as expected. Prototype of paraplegic lift operated by toggle switch and joystick. Lift plugs into household electrical outlet for recharging when not in use.

  19. Electric vehicles: Market survey. Marktuebersicht Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the context of this article a tabular list of electric vehicles is shown, which are licensed and available on the German market. This contains one- to two-seated light-weight vehicles with ordinary serial bodyworks as well as transporters and busses. (BWI)

  20. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995 (first quarter of fiscal year 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    This is the Site Operator Program quarterly report for USDOE electric and hybrid vehicle research. Its mission now includes the three major activity categories of advancement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 11 Site Operator Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of the site operators totals about 250 vehicles. The individual fleets are summarized.

  1. Fleet operator risks for using fleets for V2G regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Davion M.; Agarwal, Arun S.; Ayello, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Future fleets of vehicles may include electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) because of potential fuel savings. Recent demonstration of diesel parallel hybrids in a delivery fleet led to fuel economy improvements, and hybrid bus demonstrations exhibited twice the fuel economy of the conventional bus. Fleet ownership may include management of a fleet of vehicles as small as 10 units and as large as hundreds or thousands. In addition to fuel savings, the newer extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) and pure EVs permit vehicle to grid (V2G) opportunities. These V2G opportunities may present additional revenue for fleets by providing ancillary services to local grid independent system operators (ISOs), provided that the burden of driving and V2G services do not accelerate the degradation of the battery systems in these vehicles. The subject of this study is to determine the financial risks associated with accelerated battery degradation in a V2G-enabled EREV fleet expected to perform ancillary service duty while charging in addition to the normal loads of drive cycle duty. We determine that battery cycle life during V2G duty is a critical parameter, which can determine whether or not the business model is viable. - Highlights: ► V2G regulation cycle life of EREV batteries must be >50,000 cycles to be profitable. ► Present knowledge and test data about the impact of V2G cycles on battery life are limited. ► Replacement of batteries and energy throughput are major factors in the cost–benefit analysis. ► V2G fleet is not viable with present data but can be viable with some technical advancement.

  2. Consequences of flexible electricity production from biogas on the conventional power plant fleet and the CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhammer, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Electricity production using biogas is rather homogeneous throughout the year due to the compensational regulations. As a consequence of the fluctuating energy production from renewable energy sources a more flexible electricity production is needed. The contribution deals with the regulations and measures of the new renewable energy law 2012 and their impact on the conventional power plant fleet and the carbon dioxide emissions and their impact on an improvement of demand-oriented electricity production.

  3. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  4. Potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Jen-Ping; Tsai, I-Chun; He, Qingyang; Chi, Szu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Fu, Tzung-May

    2016-10-01

    The prospective impacts of electric vehicle (EV) penetration on the air quality in Taiwan were evaluated using an air quality model with the assumption of an ambitious replacement of current light-duty vehicles under different power generation scenarios. With full EV penetration (i.e., the replacement of all light-duty vehicles), CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 emissions in Taiwan from a fleet of 20.6 million vehicles would be reduced by 1500, 165, 33.9 and 7.2Ggyr(-1), respectively, while electric sector NOx and SO2 emissions would be increased by up to 20.3 and 12.9Ggyr(-1), respectively, if the electricity to power EVs were provided by thermal power plants. The net impacts of these emission changes would be to reduce the annual mean surface concentrations of CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 by about 260, 11.3, 3.3ppb and 2.1μgm(-3), respectively, but to increase SO2 by 0.1ppb. Larger reductions tend to occur at time and place of higher ambient concentrations and during high pollution events. Greater benefits would clearly be attained if clean energy sources were fully encouraged. EV penetration would also reduce the mean peak-time surface O3 concentrations by up to 7ppb across Taiwan with the exception of the center of metropolitan Taipei where the concentration increased by <2ppb. Furthermore, full EV penetration would reduce annual days of O3 pollution episodes by ~40% and PM2.5 pollution episodes by 6-10%. Our findings offer important insights into the air quality impacts of EV and can provide useful information for potential mitigation actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R De La Rosa, NREL 34672 The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial vehicle operations data features Odyne-have tapped into Fleet DNA." The data-driven insight and decision-making capabilities

  6. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  8. CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

  9. Optimal planning of the Nordic transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Wu, Qiuwei; Warland, Leif; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal planning of the Nordic backbone transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050. Electric vehicles will play an important role in the future energy systems and can reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transport sector. However, the electric vehicles will increase the electricity consumption and might induce congestions in the transmission systems. In order to deal with the electricity consumption increase from the electric vehicle integration into the power system and maximize the social welfare, the optimal investments of the Nordic transmission system are studied. Case studies were conducted using the market simulation model EMPS (Efi's multi-area power market simulator) and two electric vehicle charging scenarios: a spot price based scenario and a dumb charging scenario. The electric vehicle charging power is assumed to be 3.68 kW with 1 phase 16 A. The complete electrification of the private passenger fleet increases the yearly power demand in the Nordic region with ca 7.5%. The profitable increases in transmission capacities are highest for dumb charging, but are very low for both dumb and spot price based charging compared to a Reference case. - Highlights: • The electric vehicle distribution is done using population and car statistics. • The 100% penetration electric vehicle demand is obtained for Nordic countries. • The optimal investments in the Nordic transmission system with electric vehicles are studied.

  10. Electric Motors for Vehicle Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This work is intended to contribute with knowledge to the area of electic motorsfor propulsion in the vehicle industry. This is done by first studying the differentelectric motors available, the motors suitable for vehicle propulsion are then dividedinto four different types to be studied separately. These four types are thedirect current, induction, permanent magnet and switched reluctance motors. Thedesign and construction are then studied to understand how the different typesdiffer from ea...

  11. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Imagine being able to one that's in a standard hybrid electric vehicle. The larger battery pack allows plug-in hybrids to between fill-ups) that's very similar to the range of a conventional vehicle. A plug-in hybrid vehicle's

  12. Electric Motor-Generator for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odvářka, Erik; Mebarki, Abdeslam; Gerada, David; Brown, Neil; Ondrůšek, Čestmír

    2009-01-01

    Several topologies of electrical machines can be used to meet requirements for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This paper describes process of an electric motor-generator selection, considering electromagnetic, thermal and basic control design. The requested electrical machine must develop 45 kW in continuous operation at 1300 rpm with field weakening capability up to 2500 rpm. Both radial and axial flux topologies are considered as potential candidates. A family of axial flux machi...

  13. OPTIMAL CONTROL FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE STABILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This main objective of the paper is to stabilize an electric vehicle in optimal manner to a step lane change maneuver. To define the mathematical model of the vehicle, the rigid body moving on a plane is taken into account. An optimal lane keeping controller delivers the adequate angles in order to stabilize the vehicle’s trajectory in an optimal way. Two degree of freedom linear bicycle model is adopted as vehicle model, consisting of lateral and yaw motion equations. The proposed control maintains the lateral stability by taking the feedback information from the vehicle transducers. In this way only the lateral vehicle’s dynamics are enough to considerate. Based on the obtained linear mathematical model the quadratic optimal control is designed in order to maintain the lateral stability of the electric vehicle. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  14. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Robin J. D. [Smith Electric Vehicles Corporation, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  16. Impacts of plug-in electric vehicles in a balancing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Unit commitment methodology is used to determine BEV impact on electricity market. • Roles of charging profile, dispatch strategy and interconnecting area are assessed. • Results show that impact of BEV on cost of electricity generation is small. • Controlled BEV charging can lower emissions intensity of the grid and MCP. • BEV deployment helps reduce overall criteria pollutant emissions. - Abstract: High contributions of the electricity generation and transportation sectors to criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions have resulted in an increased interest and shift towards low to non-carbon generation options such as renewable wind and solar, and alternative transportation options including plug-in electric vehicles. Since plug-in electric vehicles transfer the tailpipe emissions to the electric grid, it is important to study the interaction between the two sectors. In this paper, a previously developed spatially and temporally resolved unit commitment model is used to determine the dispatch schedule of resources with and without battery electric vehicles for 2050 in a fictitious balancing area located within the South Coast Air Basin of California. Cases studied include various charging profiles, penetration in light-duty fleet, imports mix, and grid dispatch strategies. Results of the analysis include average cost of electricity production, market clearing price, temporal production of individual generators, and emissions from electricity generation and the transportation sectors. The results show that deploying battery electric vehicles (1) has little impact on the average cost of electricity generation-maximum of $2.5 per MW h for the cases studied with 40% penetration in the light-duty fleet, (2) reduces the overall criteria pollutant emissions except for one case, and (3) results in a smoother load profile, reduces the use of peaking units, and reduces the average emission intensity of the grid through controlled off

  17. Utilization of excess wind power in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Wilfried; Mischinger, Stefan; Linssen, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of future wind power utilization for charging electric vehicles (EVs) in Germany. The potential wind power production in the model years 2020 and 2030 is derived by extrapolating onshore wind power generation and offshore wind speeds measured in 2007 and 2010 to the installed onshore and offshore wind turbine capacities assumed for 2020 and 2030. The energy consumption of an assumed fleet of 1 million EVs in 2020 and 6 million in 2030 is assessed using detailed models of electric vehicles, real world driving cycles and car usage. It is shown that a substantial part of the charging demand of EVs can be met by otherwise unused wind power, depending on the amount of conventional power required for stabilizing the grid. The utilization of wind power is limited by the charging demand of the cars and the bottlenecks in the transmission grid. -- Highlights: •Wind power available for charging depends on minimum required conventional power (must-run). •With 20 GW must-run power, 50% of charging can be met by excess wind power. •Grid bottlenecks decrease charging met by wind power from 50 % to 30 %. •With zero must-run power, only very little wind power is available for charging

  18. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected......‐2013). Also the power capabilities may increase meaning that e.g. acceleration capabilities will improve as well as the top speed. This development occurs due to new battery technology that may experience substantial improvements in the coming years. When looking at plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...

  19. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations NREL's technology validation team analyzes hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) operating in a real-world setting to include commercial FCEVs for the first time. Current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations build on the

  20. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This report addresses the fundamental question of how much plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure—also known as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)—is needed in the United States to support both plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

  1. Effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on ozone concentrations in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Gregory L; Denholm, Paul; Hannigan, Michael P; Milford, Jana B

    2010-08-15

    This study explores how ozone concentrations in the Denver, CO area might have been different if plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) had replaced light duty gasoline vehicles in summer 2006. A unit commitment and dispatch model was used to estimate the charging patterns of PHEVs and dispatch power plants to meet electricity demand. Emission changes were estimated based on gasoline displacement and the emission characteristics of the power plants providing additional electricity. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was used to simulate the effects of these emissions changes on ozone concentrations. Natural gas units provided most of the electricity used for charging PHEVs in the scenarios considered. With 100% PHEV penetration, nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions were reduced by 27 tons per day (tpd) from a fleet of 1.7 million vehicles and were increased by 3 tpd from power plants; VOC emissions were reduced by 57 tpd. These emission changes reduced modeled peak 8-h average ozone concentrations by approximately 2-3 ppb on most days. Ozone concentration increases were modeled for small areas near central Denver. Future research is needed to forecast when significant PHEV penetration may occur and to anticipate characteristics of the corresponding power plant and vehicle fleets.

  2. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  3. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Duty Cycles for Electric Powertrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Bennion, Kevin; Miller, Eric; Prohaska, Bob

    2016-03-02

    NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation group has extensive in-use vehicle data demonstrating the importance of understanding the vocational duty cycle for appropriate sizing of electric vehicle (EV) and power electronics components for medium- and heavy-duty EV applications. This presentation includes an overview of recent EV fleet evaluation projects that have valuable in-use data that can be leveraged for sub-system research, analysis, and validation. Peak power and power distribution data from in-field EVs are presented for four different vocations, including class 3 delivery vans, class 6 delivery trucks, class 8 transit buses, and class 8 port drayage trucks, demonstrating the impacts of duty cycle on performance requirements.

  4. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willer, B.

    1993-01-01

    An electrical drive is an alternative to the present internal combustion engines. The electric car produces no exhaust gas where it is used and drives practically noiselessly. The energy required for driving is usually taken from an electro-chemical battery. The necessary electricity generation generates emission and CO 2 , depending on the primary energy used. An alternative is provided by electricity generation with the aid of regenerative energy. Apart from hydroelectric and wind energy, solar energy can make a considerable contribution in the future. (orig.) [de

  5. Vehicle test report: Electric Vehicle Associates electric conversion of an AMC Pacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.; Pompa, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the EVA Pacer and to provide baseline data that can be used for the comparison of improved batteries that may be incorporated into the vehicle at a later time. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem; i.e., the batteries, controller and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, and range evaluations for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle's performance was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with other electric and hybrid vehicles. The Pacer performance was approximately equal to the majority of those vehicles assessed in 1977.

  6. Plug-in electric vehicles integrating fluctuating renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallinger, David

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines a method to model plug-in electric vehicles as part of the power system and presents results for the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources. The scientific contribution includes: - A novel approach to characterizing fluctuating generation. This allows the detailed comparison of results from energy analysis and is the basis to describe the effect of electricity from renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles on the power system. - The characterization of mobile storage, which includes the description of mobility behavior using probabilities and battery discharging costs. - The introduction of an agent-based simulation approach, coupling energy markets and distributed grids using a price-based mechanism design. - The description of an agent with specific driving behavior, battery discharging costs and optimization algorithm suitable for real plug-in vehicles and simulation models. - A case study for a 2030 scenario describing the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance generation from renewable energy sources in California and Germany.

  7. Vehicle state estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Boekel, J.J.P. van; Iersel, S.S. van; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the elctric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  8. Flinders University Electric Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the specifications and principles involved in the operation of an electric car developed by the Institute of Solar and Electochemical Energy Conversion at Flinders University in South Australia. (JR)

  9. Solar electric propulsion for Mars transport vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. M.; Curtis, H. B.; Alexander, S. W.; Gilland, J. H.; Hack, K. J.; Lawrence, C.; Swartz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is an alternative to chemical and nuclear powered propulsion systems for both piloted and unpiloted Mars transport vehicles. Photovoltaic solar cell and array technologies were evaluated as components of SEP power systems. Of the systems considered, the SEP power system composed of multijunction solar cells in an ENTECH domed fresnel concentrator array had the least array mass and area. Trip times to Mars optimized for minimum propellant mass were calculated. Additionally, a preliminary vehicle concept was designed.

  10. Smart Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, Joshua; Chung, Ching-Yen; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-02-19

    WINSmartEV™ is a smart electric vehicle charging system that has been built and is currently in operation. It is a software and network based EV charging system designed and built around the ideas of intelligent charge scheduling, multiplexing (connecting multiple vehicles to each circuit) and flexibility. This paper gives an overview of this smart charging system with an eye toward its unique features and capabilities.

  11. Infrastructure for thulium-170 isotope power systems for autonomous underwater vehicle fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.

    1991-07-01

    The radioisotope thulium-170 is a safe and environmentally benign heat source for providing the high endurance and energy densities needed by advanced power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). Thulium Isotope Power (TIP) systems have an endurance of ∼3000 h, and gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 3 x 10 4 Wh/kg and 3 x 10 8 Wh/m 3 , respectively. These energy densities are more than 200 times higher than those currently provided by Ag-Zn battery technology. In order to capitalize on these performance levels with about one hundred AUVs in continuous use, it will be necessary to establish an infrastructure for isotope production and heat-source refurbishment. The infrastructure cost is not trivial, and studies are needed to determine its optimum configuration. The major component of the projected infrastructure is the nuclear reactor used to produce Tm- 170 by neutron absorption in Tm-169. The reactor design should ideally be optimized for TM-170 production. Using the byproduct ''waste'' heat beneficially would help defray the cost of isotope production. However, generating electric power with the reactor would compromise both the cost of electricity and the isotope production capacity. A coastal location for the reactor would be most convenient from end-use considerations, and the ''waste'' heat could be used to desalinate seawater in water-thirsty states. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Distributed multi-level supervision to effectively monitor the operations of a fleet of autonomous vehicles in agricultural tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Ribeiro, Angela

    2015-03-05

    This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  13. Distributed Multi-Level Supervision to Effectively Monitor the Operations of a Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles in Agricultural Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conesa-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  14. Environmental implication of electric vehicles in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Michael Q; Streets, David G; He, Kebin

    2010-07-01

    Today, electric vehicles (EVs) are being proposed in China as one of the potential options to address the dramatically increasing energy demand from on-road transport. However, the mass use of EVs could involve multiple environmental issues, because EVs use electricity that is generated primarily from coal in China. We examined the fuel-cycle CO(2), SO(2), and NO(x) emissions of EVs in China in both current (2008) and future (2030) periods and compared them with those of conventional gasoline vehicles and gasoline hybrids. EVs do not promise much benefit in reducing CO(2) emissions currently, but greater CO(2) reduction could be expected in future if coal combustion technologies improve and the share of nonfossil electricity increases significantly. EVs could increase SO(2) emissions by 3-10 times and also double NO(x) emissions compared to gasoline vehicles if charged using the current electricity grid. In the future, EVs would be able to reach the NO(x) emission level of gasoline vehicles with advanced emission control devices equipped in thermal power plants but still increase SO(2). EVs do represent an effective solution to issues in China such as oil shortage, but critical policy support is urgently needed to address the environmental issues caused by the use of EVs to make EVs competitive with other vehicle alternatives.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Fueling and Driving Options Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries can be charged by an outside sized hybrid electric vehicle. If the vehicle is driven a shorter distance than its all-electric range drives the wheels almost all of the time, but the vehicle can switch to work like a parallel hybrid at

  16. Net air emissions from electric vehicles: the effect of carbon price and charging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B; Whitacre, J F; Apt, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become part of the transportation fleet on time scales of a decade or two. We calculate the electric grid load increase and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generation mix, the current mix with a $50/tonne CO(2) price, and this case but with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO(2) capture. We also examine all new generation being natural gas or wind+gas. PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50% are examined. Vehicles with small (4 kWh) and large (16 kWh) batteries are modeled with driving patterns from the National Household Transportation Survey. Three charging strategies and three scenarios for future electric generation are considered. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO(2) emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows somewhat smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO(2) generation. NO(X) is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO(2) emissions or allowance prices under a cap.

  17. Cost Analysis of a Transition to Green Vehicle Technology for Light Duty Fleet Vehicles in Public Works Department Naval Support Activity Monterey (PWD Monterey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    price of the hybrid vehicle. Many consumers will view the idea of paying more initially to save on gasoline costs down the road as not worthwhile...braking and electricity generation from an ICE. Similar to the HEV, upon purchase of a PHEV, the consumer may take advantage of the green vehicle tax ... electric cards and Hybrids? (2015, November 3). Retrieved from Plug’n Drive website: https://www.plugndrive.ca/whats- the-difference-between- electric - cars

  18. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  19. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Mude, Kishore Naik

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems transfer electric energy from a source to a load without any wired connection. WPTs are attractive for many industrial applications because of their advantages compared to the wired counterpart, such as no exposed wires, ease of charging, and fearless transmission of power in adverse environmental conditions. Adoption of WPTs to charge the on-board batteries of an electric vehicle (EV) has got attention from some companies, and efforts are being made for ...

  20. On electric vehicle battery charger modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz Sapera, Luis; Mesas García, Juan José; Balcells Sendra, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) battery chargers connected to electric networks could lead to future harmonic problems in power systems. These loads are nonlinear devices that inject harmonic currents and pollute network voltages. Thus, battery charger modeling must be studied in detail to determine their harmonic emissions and prevent future problems. This paper investigates EV battery charger behavior, analyzes its equivalent circuit and reports a model for each ...

  1. Climate-based policies may increase life-cycle social costs of vehicle fleet operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac; Mbonimpa, Eric; Thal, Alfred E.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability guidelines and regulations in the United States often focus exclusively on carbon or petroleum reductions. Though some of these policies have resulted in substantial progress toward their goals, the effects of these efforts on other social and environmental externalities are often ignored. In this study, we examine the life-cycle air pollutant emissions for alternative fuel and vehicle purchase scenarios at a military installation near a typical urban area in the United States (U.S.). We find that scenarios which minimize petroleum use or greenhouse gas emissions do not concomitantly minimize criteria air pollutant emissions. We also employ social cost methodologies to quantify economic externalities due to climate change and health-related air pollutant impacts. Accounting for the social costs of climate change and air pollution from vehicle use reveals that criteria air pollutants may have a greater total impact than greenhouse gas emissions in locations similar to the urban area examined in this study. Use of first-generation biofuels, particularly corn grain ethanol, may reduce net petroleum use at the cost of increased total health impacts. More comprehensive policies may be needed to ensure that sustainability policies result in a net benefit to society. - Highlights: • U.S. energy and transportation policies focus on petroleum use and greenhouse gases. • Use of corn ethanol at a military base in Ohio, U.S. increases total social costs vs. gasoline. • Renewable electricity provides cost-effective climate and health protection. • DOD strategy to improve energy security may damage Americans' health. • More inclusive policies needed to protect health and climate.

  2. Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    7* * E L E C T R I C V E t I C L E S U L A T I 0 N VEHICLE CCNITANTS AgE: FRCNIAL AREA- i.eO SCUARE PETERS PAYLCAD PASS=270. KILOCRAMS FIXEC...34 1CC ,FdPPqFM qOA lFCRPAIt35x 71-C2AC CCEFFICIENT.,F5.Z,,15Xl3HFqCNTAL AQEA.,FS.Z,3.AH CSCUARE PETERS ,]13PAYLOAC PASS-j,.O 4CH KCILOCRAPS9/35XILHFIXED...SPO CALL TRP.EFFPFETAh,?AATT.VVhRRAR.8SPO.TSTP,1TSTP ,ETATETAI C 10 ICo . zec 9204 ppP.EQ.0.I ~,9ZOS ;2C 5 P pCT-p5PC6cRIquiijcR1Ij5 S3 E"’EXPE.0311.-1

  3. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  4. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  5. Climate control loads prediction of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ziqi; Li, Wanyong; Zhang, Chengquan; Chen, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of vehicle climate control loads is proposed based on experiments. • Main climate control loads of the modeled vehicle are quantitatively analyzed. • Range reductions of the modeled vehicle under different conditions are simulated. - Abstract: A new model of electric vehicle climate control loads is provided in this paper. The mathematical formulations of the major climate control loads are developed, and the coefficients of the formulations are experimentally determined. Then, the detailed climate control loads are analyzed, and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) range reductions due to these loads are calculated under different conditions. It is found that in an electric vehicle, the total climate control loads vary with the vehicle speed, HVAC mode and blower level. The ventilation load is the largest climate control load, followed by the solar radiation load. These two add up to more than 80% of total climate control load in summer. The ventilation load accounts for 70.7–83.9% of total heating load under the winter condition. The climate control loads will cause a 17.2–37.1% reduction of NEDC range in summer, and a 17.1–54.1% reduction in winter, compared to the AC off condition. The heat pump system has an advantage in range extension. A heat pump system with an average heating COP of 1.7 will extend the range by 7.6–21.1% based on the simulation conditions.

  6. New propulsion components for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Improved component technology is described. This includes electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configurations, an unconventional brush commutated motor, ac induction motors, various controllers, transmissions and complete systems. One or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25982

  7. Explaining variance in national electric vehicle policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transition studies’ understanding of differences in public policy is limited due to its tendency to focus on single-country cases. This paper assesses differences in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) policies, comprising RD&D subsidies, infrastructure investments and sales incentives, across

  8. Can Electricity Powered Vehicles Serve Traveler Needs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhe Du

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EV, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV are believed to be a promising substitute for current gas-propelled vehicles. Previous research studied the attributes of different types of EVs and confirmed their advantages. The feasibility of EVs has also been explored using simulation, retrospective survey data, or a limited size of field travel data. In this study, naturalistic driving data collected from more than 100 drivers during one year are used to explore naturalistic driver travel patterns. Typical travel distance and time and qualified dwell times (i.e., the typical required EV battery recharging time between travels as based on most literature findings are investigated in this study. The viability of electric cars is discussed from a pragmatic perspective. The results of this research show that 90 percent of single trips are less than 25 miles; approximately 70 percent of the average annual daily travel is less than 60 miles. On average there are 3.62 trips made between four-hour dwell times as aggregated to 60 minutes and 50 miles of travel. Therefore, majority of trips are within the travel range provided by most of the currently available EVs. A well-organized schedule of recharging will be capable of covering even more daily travels.

  9. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  10. Electric Vehicles. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John E., Comp.

    This document reviews the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress on electric vehicles. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed as the title implies, to put the reader "on target." This is of greatest utility to the beginning student of the topic. (AA)

  11. Urban electric vehicles: a contemporary business case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha SADEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world where energy supply security and environmental protection are major concerns, the development of green vehicles is becoming a necessity. The Electric vehicle (EV is one of the most promising technologies that will make the “green dream” come true. This paper is a contemporary business case that encourages the immediate deployment of urban EVs. It proposes a model in which we can profit from the benefits of urban EVs namely, high energy efficiency, emissions reduction, small size and noise reduction. The model mitigates the EV potential limitations such as energy source, charging infrastructure, impact on electrical power system and cost issues. It also provides ideas to overcome the barriers of the technology application in order to speed up their commercialization. This study reveals that having an environmentally friendly vehicle can soon become a reality if our collaborative efforts are properly directed.

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Health and Human Services – ASPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  13. Evaluating effectiveness of real-time advanced traveler information systems using a small test vehicle fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    ADVANCE was an in-vehicle advanced traveler information system (ATIS) providing route guidance in real time that operated in the northwestern portion and northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. It used probe vehicles to generate dynamically travel ti...

  14. Electromechanical converters for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros, T.; Burduniuc, M.; Deaconu, S. I.; Rujanschi, N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of various constructive schemes of synchronous electromechanical converters with permanent magnets fixed on the rotor and asynchronous with the short-circuit rotor. Various electrical stator winding schemes have also been compared, demonstrating the efficiency of copper utilization in toroidal windings. The electromagnetic calculus of the axial machine has particularities compared to the cylindrical machine, in the paper is presented the method of correlating the geometry of the cylindrical and axial machines. In this case the method and recommendations used in the design of such machines may be used.

  15. Optimizing Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions: An Eleven-Agency FY 2012 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report focuses on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) fiscal year (FY) 2012 effort that used the NREL Optimal Vehicle Acquisition (NOVA) analysis to identify optimal vehicle acquisition recommendations for eleven diverse federal agencies. Results of the study show that by following a vehicle acquisition plan that maximizes the reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, significant progress is also made toward the mandated complementary goals of acquiring alternative fuel vehicles, petroleum use reduction, and alternative fuel use increase.

  16. The U.S. Combat and Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fleets: Issues and Suggestions for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    capac- ity and higher thermal operating temperatures, and improvements in ultracapacitors, which will enable improved regenerative braking ...associated with particular categories of combat vehi- cles and armored tactical wheeled vehicles, and with particular missions of such vehicles. (D...and an assessment of emerging threats • identify critical technology elements or integration risks asso- ciated with particular categories of vehicles

  17. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  18. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Alejandro Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current logistics and transportation (L&T systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs. However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electric-based vehicles, meaning that investment decisions need to be made about the number, location, and capacity of these stations. Similarly, the limited driving-range capabilities of EVs, which are restricted by the amount of electricity stored in their batteries, impose non-trivial additional constraints when designing efficient distribution routes. Accordingly, this paper identifies and reviews several open research challenges related to the introduction of EVs in L&T activities, including: (a environmental-related issues; and (b strategic, planning and operational issues associated with “standard” EVs and with hydrogen-based EVs. The paper also analyzes how the introduction of EVs in L&T systems generates new variants of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem, one of the most studied optimization problems in the L&T field, and proposes the use of metaheuristics and simheuristics as the most efficient way to deal with these complex optimization problems.

  19. Conversion of Diesel Vehicles to Electric Vehicles and Controlled by PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Mengi, Onur Özdal

    2017-01-01

    Internal combustion engine vehicles are the most producedand sold vehicles on the market. In recent years, interest in electric vehicleshas begun to increase, especially due to the environmental problems. In thenear future, it is estimated that gasoline and diesel vehicles will becompletely electric vehicles. For this reason, many studies have been conductedon electric vehicles. Particularly the change of the engine parts, the turningof the internal combustion part to the electric motor, and ...

  20. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  1. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Science and Technology Highlights Highlights in Research & Development Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Key Research Results Achievement Built on over 11.5 million miles of vehicle operations data, Fleet DNA helps users

  2. How to electrify more of the public to lease electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huestis, E.P. [City of Vacaville, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The City of Vacaville, in Northern California, aims to become the city which boast the highest number of electric vehicles per capita (residential) in both California and the United States. To that effect, it secured a $300,000 grant from the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program in order to provide an incentive of $6,000 to 35 customers over the life of the three-year lease of a qualifying electric vehicle. Additional electric charging infrastructure throughout the Vacaville and the replacement of some aging City fleet vehicles with electric vehicles will be possible using the remainder of the grant money. The incentive program proved so popular, through word of mouth and positive press coverage, that 75 customers expressed an interest in the program. Several of the customers had just taken delivery of an electric vehicle from General Motors or Ford. Unable to provide the same incentive to all customers from the original grant, the City of Vacaville applied for a $600,000 additional grant from the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality to serve 50 more customers, as well as for the provision of additional charging stations at strategic locations. The expansion of the program has received preliminary approval for its second grant application.

  3. Vehicle fleet emissions of black carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants measured by a mobile laboratory in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of concern due to their effects on climate and health. The main goal of this research is to provide the first estimate of emissions of BC and particle-phase PAHs (PPAHs from motor vehicles in Mexico City. The emissions of other pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and particulate matter of diameter 2.5 μm and less (PM2.5 are also estimated. As a part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 (MCMA-2003, a mobile laboratory was driven throughout the city. The laboratory was equipped with a comprehensive suite of gas and particle analyzers, including an aethalometer that measured BC and a photoionization aerosol sensor that measured PPAHs. While driving through traffic, the mobile lab continuously sampled exhaust plumes from the vehicles around it. We have developed a method of automatically identifying exhaust plumes, which are then used as the basis for calculation of fleet-average emissions. In the approximately 75 h of on-road sampling during the field campaign, we have identified ~30 000 exhaust measurement points that represent a variety of vehicle types and driving conditions. The large sample provides a basis for estimating fleet-average emission factors and thus the emission inventory. Motor vehicles in the Mexico City area are estimated to emit 1700±200 metric tons BC, 57±6 tons PPAHs, 1 190 000±40 000 tons CO, 120 000±3000 tons NOx, 240 000±50 000 tons VOCs, and 4400±400 tons PM2.5 per year, not including cold start emissions. The estimates for CO, NOx, and PPAHs may be low by up to 10% due to the slower response time of analyzers used to measure these species. Compared to the government's official motor vehicle emission inventory for the year 2002, the estimates for CO, NOx, VOCs, and PM2.5 are 38% lower, 23% lower, 27% higher, and 25% higher, respectively. The

  4. The hybrid electric vehicle revolution, off road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.E. [ePower Technologies (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In this presentation the author presents concepts and details of hybrid vehicles in general, including their benefits, then describes off-road hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have been experimented with for over a century. Demonstrator vehicles include a diesel-electric tractor, an electric lawn tractor, a hybrid snow thrower, and a hybrid wheel loader. A duty cycle for the loader is shown with battery-assisted acceleration, and regenerative braking. Both of these keep the size of the engine small, the loads on it less variable, thus improving fuel economy. A hybrid excavator and its duty cycle is shown. A fuel cell lift truck that is currently in design is illustrated. The author then describes the possibilities of the hydrogen economy where sourcing and infrastructure are yet to be demonstrated on a commercial scale. The author predicts that off-road hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will be commercially viable five years before on-road applications. The author predicts hydrogen sourced from biogas, photovoltaics, and wind power. tabs, figs.

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.290 - What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What forms do I use to report a crash involving a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.290 Section 102-34.290 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  6. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  7. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  8. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 vehicle utilization report provided results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. Finally, this report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune personnel.

  9. Efficiency Test Method for Electric Vehicle Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... different vehicles. A unified method for testing the efficiency of the charger in EVs, without direct access to the component, is presented. The method is validated through extensive tests of the models Renault Zoe, Nissan LEAF and Peugeot iOn. The results show a loss between 15 % and 40 %, which is far...

  10. Diffusion of new automotive technologies for improving energy efficiency in Brazil's light vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2010-01-01

    Historically, Brazil has promoted the development and sales of light duty vehicles running on ethanol (firstly, ethanol-dedicated cars, and recently flexfuel cars). In the 1990s, the country also favored the sales of compact cars to middle and low-income classes. However, in the last years, the profile of vehicles sold in Brazil has converged towards larger and less-efficient vehicles. In 2008, Brazil launched the vehicle labeling program. Based on the outcomes of the historical programs oriented towards the development of automotive innovations, and on a survey conducted with the country's main auto makers, this article evaluates whether the vehicle labeling program will both improve the energy efficiency of light vehicles, and introduce new technologies. Our results indicate that, despite its virtuous intentions, the program will not control the tendency of rising fuel consumption of passenger cars sold in Brazil. Therefore, other policies are needed to boost innovations in Brazil's automotive industry. (author)

  11. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  12. A demand-side approach to the optimal deployment of electric vehicle charging stations in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrenacci, N.; Ragona, R.; Valenti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A demand-side approach to the location of charging infrastructure problem is discussed in the paper. • The analysis is based on a large data-set of private vehicle travels within the urban area of Rome. • Cluster analysis is applied to the data to find the optimal location zones for charging infrastructures. • The daily energy demand and the average number of users per day are calculated for each and every charging infrastructure. - Abstract: Despite all the acknowledged advantages in terms of environmental impact reduction, energy efficiency and noise reduction, the electric mobility market is below expectations. In fact, electric vehicles have limitations that pose several important challenges for achieving a sustainable mobility system: among them, the availability of an adequate charging infrastructure is recognized as a fundamental requirement and appropriate approaches to optimize public and private investments in this field are to be delineated. In this paper we consider actual data on conventional private vehicle usage in the urban area of Rome to carry out a strategy for the optimal allocation of charging infrastructures into portions (subareas) of the urban area, based on an analysis of a driver sample under the assumption of a complete switch to an equivalent fleet of electric vehicles. Moreover, the energy requirement for each one of the subareas is estimated in terms of the electric energy used by the equivalent fleet of electric vehicles to reach their destination. The model can be easily generalized to other problems regarding facility allocation based on user demand.

  13. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, D M; Kammen, D M; Farrell, A E

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream

  14. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, D. M.; Kammen, D. M.; Farrell, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream.

  15. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  16. Electric Vehicle Careers: On the Road to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations related to electric vehicles are similar to those that help to make and maintain all types of automobiles. But the industry is also adding some nontraditional jobs, and workers' skill sets must evolve to keep up. This article describes careers related to electric vehicles. The first section is about the electric vehicle industry…

  17. An SCR inverter for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T.; Bosack, D.; Ehrlich, R.; Jahns, T.; Mezera, J.; Thimmesch, D.

    1980-01-01

    An inverter for an electric vehicle propulsion application has been designed and constructed to excite a polyphase induction motor from a fixed propulsion battery source. The inverter, rated at 35kW peak power, is fully regenerative and permits vehicle operation in both the forward and reverse directions. Thyristors are employed as the power switching devices arranged in a dc bus commutated topology. This paper describes the major role the controller plays in generating the motor excitation voltage and frequency to deliver performance similar to dc systems. Motoring efficiency test data for the controller are presented. It is concluded that an SCR inverter in conjunction with an ac induction motor is a viable alternative to present dc vehicle propulsion systems on the basis of performance and size criteria.

  18. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  19. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  20. Energy Intensity of the Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dziubiński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous energy intensity is a dependency between continuous energy intensity and energy intensity of movement. In the paper it is proposed analyze energy intensity of the movement, as the size specifying the power demand to the wheel drive and presented the balance of power of an electric car moving in the urban cycle. The object of the test was the hybrid vehicle with an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The measurements were carried out for 4 speeds and 2 driving profiles.

  1. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  2. Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, W. A.; Stickel, R. B.; May, G. J.

    Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of research laboratories and onto the streets, in daily side-by-side operation with vehicles powered by conventional gasoline and alternative fuels. This commercially available battery technology can provide traffic-compatible performance in a reliable and affordable manner, and can be used for either pure EVs or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Independent results obtained when applying lead-tin batteries in highly abusive conditions, both electrically and environmentally, are presented. The test fleet of EVs is owned and operated by Arizona Public Service (APS), an electric utility in Phoenix, AZ, USA. System, charger and battery development will be described. This gives a single charge range of up to 184 km at a constant speed of 72 km h -1, and with suitable opportunity charging, a 320 km range in a normal 8 h working day.

  3. Electric vehicles as flexible loads – A simulation approach using empirical mobility data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, Michael; Doetsch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase of wind and photovoltaic generation, flexible storage applications become more important. Electric vehicles are supposed as one option to fill the gap between a fixed energy demand and a stochastic feed in from fluctuating energy sources. But the charging loads will also affect the grid load, since the transport sector contributes considerably to the total energy consumption today. This study examines the conflicting relationship between user mobility and grid support and introduces an approach to simulate large vehicle fleets on the basis of individual driving profiles. 9744 driving profiles from the German mobility panel were used within this examination. 958 were classified as potential early adopters for electric vehicles. Those vehicles could provide grid support in 81% of the time, when charging spots are available at home and at work. We simulated the charging loads under the restrictions of the individual mobility for the scenario 2030. Uncoordinated charging will increase the load fluctuations, whereas coordinated charging loads allow load shifting without limiting the mobility. The additional electricity demand is moderate over the next two decades. -- Highlights: ► We processed and analyzed 9744 driving profiles from a German mobility study. ► We simulated 3 concepts for a charging control, resulting in different load profiles. ► Additional energy demand of electric vehicles is moderate over the next two decades. ► Uncoordinated charging will increase the total peak load, coordinated charging can balance fluctuations.

  4. The multi-depot electric vehicle location routing problem with time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Multi-Depot Electric Vehicle Location Routing Problem with Time Windows (MDVLRP is addressed. This problem is an extension of the MDVLRP, where electric vehicles are used instead of internal combustion engine vehicles. The recent development of this model is explained by the advantages of this technology, such as the diminution of carbon dioxide emissions, and the support that they can provide to the design of the logistic and energy-support structure of electric vehicle fleets. There are many models that extend the classical VRP model to take electric vehicles into consideration, but the multi-depot case for location-routing models has not been worked out yet. Moreover, we consider the availability of two energy supply technologies: the “Plug-in” Conventional Charge technology, and Battery Swapping Stations; options in which the recharging time is a function of the amount of energy to charge and a fixed time, respectively. Three models are proposed: one for each of the technologies mentioned above, and another in which both options are taken in consideration. The models were solved for small scale instances using C++ and Cplex 12.5. The results show that the models can be used to design logistic and energy-support structures, and compare the performance of the different options of energy supply, as well as measure the impact of these decisions on the overall distance traveled or other optimization objectives that could be worked on in the future.

  5. Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, W. G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Golden, D. M.

    This study examines the potential change in primary emissions and energy use from replacing the current U.S. fleet of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) with hybrid electric fossil fuel vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV). Emissions and energy usage are analyzed for three different HFCV scenarios, with hydrogen produced from: (1) steam reforming of natural gas, (2) electrolysis powered by wind energy, and (3) coal gasification. With the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory as the baseline, other emission inventories are created using a life cycle assessment (LCA) of alternative fuel supply chains. For a range of reasonable HFCV efficiencies and methods of producing hydrogen, we find that the replacement of FFOV with HFCV significantly reduces emission associated with air pollution, compared even with a switch to hybrids. All HFCV scenarios decrease net air pollution emission, including nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ammonia, and carbon monoxide. These reductions are achieved with hydrogen production from either a fossil fuel source such as natural gas or a renewable source such as wind. Furthermore, replacing FFOV with hybrids or HFCV with hydrogen derived from natural gas, wind or coal may reduce the global warming impact of greenhouse gases and particles (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent emission) by 6, 14, 23, and 1%, respectively. Finally, even if HFCV are fueled by a fossil fuel such as natural gas, if no carbon is sequestered during hydrogen production, and 1% of methane in the feedstock gas is leaked to the environment, natural gas HFCV still may achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollution emission over FFOV.

  6. Average Behavior of Battery - Electric Vehicles for Distributed Energy System Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    The increase of focus on electric vehicles (EVs) as distributed energy resources calls for new concepts of aggregated models of batteries. Despite the developed battery models for EVs applications, when looking at energy storage scenarios using EVs, both geographical-temporal aspects and battery...... conditions. The obtained results show that EV fleets are non-linear time-variant systems which however can be described with good approximation taking into account a number of variables such as number of cycles, temperature, depth-of-discharge and current rates....

  7. Anaheim electric vehicle car-sharing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, D. [City of Anaheim Transportation Programs Planner, Anaheim, CA (United States); Chase, B. [Costa Mesa Planning Center, Costa Mesa, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper described how the city of Anaheim in California is looking into a variety of clean transportation options for visitors, employees and residents in an effort to minimize air quality and congestion impacts. The city, which attracts approximately 24 million visitors annually, is looking into an electric vehicle (EV) car-sharing program that promotes EV use in multiple applications for both short- and long-term rental opportunities. There are two components to the program which provides eight 5-passenger electric Toyota RAV4 vehicles to both local employees and visitors. The electric RAV4s include nickel-hydride batteries which provide a range of 120 miles per charge. The city has already developed a network of public accessible EV charging stations and this project is a perfect extension of the city's continued efforts to seek opportunities to apply EV technologies within its jurisdictions. The Station Car Program provides flexibility for rail commuters to get from the rail station to their place of employment. On weekdays, the EVs are available to registered commuters at two rail stations to drive to and from work. A total of 32 commuters can benefit from the program at a cost of $40 per month. On weekends, the EVs are offered to visitors through Budget Rent-a-Car Agency at a rate comparable to gasoline-fueled vehicles. So far, participant feedback has been positive and the city is looking into expanding its efforts to provide clean transportation options. tab.

  8. Impacts of Electric Vehicle Loads on Power Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system losses etc. by integrating electric vehicles in the range of 0-50% of the cars with different charging capacities. The dump as well as smart charging modes of electric vehicles......Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system...... is applied in this analysis. A typical Danish primary power distribution system is used as a test case for the studies. From the simulation results, not more than 10% of electric vehicles could be integrated in the test system for the dump charging mode. About 40% of electric vehicle loads could...

  9. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Department of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology, Japan. Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile, electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot. These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles, i.e., batteries and electric motors, does not deteriorate the environment. To drive motors for vehicle traveling, robotic technologies were applied.

  10. Environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xinying; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    Electric vehicles have been seen by some policymakers as a tool to target reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.1,2 Some researchers have shown that the full environmental impact of electric vehicles depends very much on the cleanliness of the electricity grid.3 In countries such as the USA and China, where coal-fired power plants still play a very important role in electricity generation, the environmental impact of electric vehicles is equivale...

  11. Analysis of Wheel Hub Motor Drive Application in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuechao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of the performance characteristics of centralized and distributed drive electric vehicles, we found that the wheel hub motor drive mode of the electric vehicles with distributed drive have compact structure, high utilization ratio of interior vehicle space, lower center of vehicle gravity, good driving stability, easy intelligent control and many other advantages, hence in line with the new requirements for the development of drive performance of electric vehicles, and distributed drive will be the ultimate mode of electric vehicles in the future.

  12. Analysis of the vehicle fleet in the Kathmandu Valley for estimation of environment and climate co-benefits of technology intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shreejan Ram; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Xu, Quishi; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2013-12-01

    Technologies and activities of the on-road traffic fleets, including bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and motorcycle (MC) in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during 2010, were investigated with the aim to produce emission estimates, using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model, for the base year and for an optimistic technology scenario. The parking lot survey, GPS monitoring and video camera monitoring were conducted over four typical road types (arterial, highway, residential and outskirt roads). The average age of vehicles in the bus, van, 3-wheeler, taxi and MC fleet was 9, 8.7, 11, 9.5 and 4 years, respectively. There were some extremely old buses (over 40 years old) which had extremely high emission factors. Except for MCs that had a large share of Euro III technology (75%), other types of surveyed vehicles were at most Euro II or lower. The average vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) for each vehicle type was estimated based on odometer readings which showed comparable results with the GPS survey. The emission factors (EFs) produced by the IVE model for the driving and meteorological conditions in Kathmandu were used to estimate emissions for the base case of 2010. EFs in Kathmandu were higher than other developing cities, especially for PM and NOx from the bus fleet. Diurnal variations of the emissions were consistent with the diurnal vehicle density. From the fleet in 2010, total emissions of the major pollutants, i.e., CO, VOC, NOx, PM, BC, and CO2, were 31, 7.7, 16, 4.7, 2.1, and 1554 Gg, respectively. If the entire fleet in the Kathmandu Valley would comply with Euro III then the emission would decrease, as compared to the base case, by 44% for toxic air pollutants (excluding CO2) and 31% for climate-forcers in terms of the 20-year horizon CO2-equivalent. Future surveys should include other vehicle types such as trucks, personal cars, and non-road vehicles. The EFs obtained for the Euro III scenario in Kathmandu were well above those in other parts of the

  13. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  14. Dynamic electricity pricing for electric vehicles using stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, João; Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali Fotouhi; Borges, Nuno; Vale, Zita

    2017-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are an important source of uncertainty, due to their variable demand, departure time and location. In smart grids, the electricity demand can be controlled via Demand Response (DR) programs. Smart charging and vehicle-to-grid seem highly promising methods for EVs control. However, high capital costs remain a barrier to implementation. Meanwhile, incentive and price-based schemes that do not require high level of control can be implemented to influence the EVs' demand. Having effective tools to deal with the increasing level of uncertainty is increasingly important for players, such as energy aggregators. This paper formulates a stochastic model for day-ahead energy resource scheduling, integrated with the dynamic electricity pricing for EVs, to address the challenges brought by the demand and renewable sources uncertainty. The two-stage stochastic programming approach is used to obtain the optimal electricity pricing for EVs. A realistic case study projected for 2030 is presented based on Zaragoza network. The results demonstrate that it is more effective than the deterministic model and that the optimal pricing is preferable. This study indicates that adequate DR schemes like the proposed one are promising to increase the customers' satisfaction in addition to improve the profitability of the energy aggregation business. - Highlights: • A stochastic model for energy scheduling tackling several uncertainty sources. • A two-stage stochastic programming is used to tackle the developed model. • Optimal EV electricity pricing seems to improve the profits. • The propose results suggest to increase the customers' satisfaction.

  15. Increased sharing of renewable energies in the electricity production system: what impact on the reactor fleet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cany, C.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Mansilla, C.; Mathonniere, G.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the flexibility of an individual reactor and of the complete fleet of reactors as a means to cope with the variability of renewable energies like solar or wind energies. Flexibility means the ability for load following and this ability is limited by both safety rules and limits on the release of radionuclides in the environment. The flexibility of the fleet depends on individual reactor flexibility but also on organisational and economic constraints. The participation of a reactor to load following depends on: its availability (not in maintenance or testing phase), its position in the cycle, the positioning of its scheduled shutdowns and the minimization of the volume of effluents. The study presents the future need of flexibility for the reactor fleet as the shares of wind and solar energies increase in the French energy mix. (A.C.)

  16. Optimal recharging strategy for battery-switch stations for electric vehicles in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, M.; El Hajj Moussa, C.; Adnot, J.; Galli, A.; Riviere, P.

    2013-01-01

    Most papers that study the recharging of electric vehicles focus on charging the batteries at home and at the work-place. The alternative is for owners to exchange the battery at a specially equipped battery switch station (BSS). This paper studies strategies for the BSS to buy and sell the electricity through the day-ahead market. We determine what the optimal strategies would have been for a large fleet of EVs in 2010 and 2011, for the V2G and the G2V cases. These give the amount that the BSS should offer to buy or sell each hour of the day. Given the size of the fleet, the quantities of electricity bought and sold will displace the market equilibrium. Using the aggregate offers to buy and the bids to sell on the day-ahead market, we compute what the new prices and volumes transacted would be. While buying electricity for the G2V case incurs a cost, it would have been possible to generate revenue in the V2G case, if the arrivals of the EVs had been evenly spaced during the day. Finally, we compare the total cost of implementing the strategies with the cost of buying the same quantity of electricity from EDF. - Highlights: • Optimal strategies for buying/selling electricity through day-ahead auction market. • Given fleet size power bought and sold would change market price and volume. • New prices computed using aggregate offers to buy/sell power in 2010 and 2011. • Timing of arrival of EVs critical in V2G case. If evenly spaced BSS makes money. • Strategies are very robust even when French and German markets were coupled Nov. 2010

  17. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  18. New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhao; Jin Yuefu; Wang Michael; Wei Wu

    2010-01-01

    A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7 L/100 km. The Phase 3 standard follows the evaluating system by specifying fuel consumption targets for sixteen individual mass-based classes. Different from compliance with the Phases 1 and 2 fuel consumption standards, compliance of the Phase 3 standard is based on corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) rates for individual automobile companies. A transition period from 2012 to 2014 is designed for manufacturers to gradually adjust their production plans and introduce fuel-efficient technologies. In this paper, we, the designers of the Phase 3 standard, present the design of the overall fuel consumption reduction target, technical feasibility, and policy implications of the Phase 3 standard. We also explore several enforcement approaches for the Phase 3 standard with financial penalties of non-compliance as a priority. Finally, we estimate the overall effect of the Phase 3 standard on oil savings and CO 2 emission reductions.

  19. Effective business models for electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilescu Ileana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study aims to use asyncretic and synthetic approach of two elements that have an intrinsic efficiency value: business models and electric vehicles. Our approach seeks to circumscribe more widespread concerns globally - on the one hand, to oil shortages and climate change - and on the other hand, economic efficiency to business models customized to new types of mobility. New “electric” cars projects besiege the traditional position of the conventional car. In the current economy context the concept of efficiency of business models is quite different from what it meant in a traditional sense, particularly because of new technological fields. The arguments put forward by us will be both factual and emotional. Therefore, we rely on interviews and questionnaires designed to fit significantly to the point of the study. Research in the field of new propulsion systems for vehicles has been exploring various possibilities lately, such as: electricity, hydrogen, compressed air, biogas, etc. Theoretically or in principle, it is possible for tomorrow’s vehicles to be driven by the widest variety if resources. A primary goal of our study would be to theoretically reconsider some of the contemporary entrepreneurship coordinates and secondly to provide minimum guidance for decision-making of businesses that will operate in the field of electric mobility. To achieve this, we shall specifically analyze an electric mobility system but in parallel we will address business models that lend themselves effectively on aspects of this field. With a methodology based on questionnaires that had to overcome the conventional mechanism using some of the most unusual ingredients, we hope that the results of our research will successfully constitute a contribution to the goals and especially as a means of managerial orientation for entrepreneurs in the Romanian market.

  20. Towards low energy mobility using light and ultralight electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex; Sergeant, Peter; Hofman, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Electrical vehicles are seriously considered today. However their energy needs depend seriously on the way how they are designed, ranging from electric bicycles to the electrical utility vehicle, it can differ from 1kWh to more than 20kWh/100km. One can look at the problem if it is better to use compressed natural gas in a vehicle directly or is it better to make electricity first and use that electricity in an electric vehicle. A special attention is given to the development of ultra-ligh...

  1. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  2. The load shift potential of plug-in electric vehicles with different amounts of charging infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnann, Till; Klingler, Anna-Lena; Kühnbach, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles are the currently favoured option to decarbonize the passenger car sector. However, a decarbonisation is only possible with electricity from renewable energies and plug-in electric vehicles might cause peak loads if they started to charge at the same time. Both these issues could be solved with coordinated load shifting (demand response). Previous studies analyzed this research question by focusing on private vehicles with domestic and work charging infrastructure. This study additionally includes the important early adopter group of commercial fleet vehicles and reflects the impact of domestic, commercial, work and public charging. For this purpose, two models are combined. In a comparison of three scenarios, we find that charging of commercial vehicles does not inflict evening load peaks in the same magnitude as purely domestic charging of private cars does. Also for private cars, charging at work occurs during the day and may reduce the necessity of load shifting while public charging plays a less important role in total charging demand as well as load shifting potential. Nonetheless, demand response reduces the system load by about 2.2 GW or 2.8% when domestic and work charging are considered compared to a scenario with only domestic charging.

  3. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  4. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  5. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  6. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  7. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczur-Uermoessy, G. [DAUG Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, Esslingen (Germany)

    1998-03-30

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g. nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries. (orig.)

  8. Estimating Energy Efficiency of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles in a Mixed Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Jing Dong (orcid.org/0000-0002-7304-8430); Liang Hu (orcid.org/0000-0001-6351-8542); Chaoru Lu (orcid.org/0000-0001-8418-7658); Connected and autonomous vehicle (CAV) technologies are likely to be gradually implemented over time and in a traffic envi...

  9. The effect on photochemical smog of converting the U.S. fleet of gasoline vehicles to modern diesel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Seinfeld, John H.; Carmichael, Greg R.; Streets, David G.

    2004-01-01

    With the increased use of particle traps and nitrogen oxide (NO_x) control devices to reduce air pollution, “modern” diesel vehicles are being encouraged over gasoline vehicles globally as a central method of slowing global warming. Data to date, though, suggest that the NO_2:NO ratio from modern diesel may exceed that of gasoline, and it is difficult to reduce diesel NO_x below gasoline NO_x without increasing particle emissions. Here, it is calculated that, unless the diesel NO_2:NO ratio a...

  10. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  11. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs. James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, North America, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, James J. Peters VA Medical Center (VA - Bronx) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  12. Performance tests of communal electric-powered vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, J.

    1993-01-01

    The use of electric vehicles within the service industry (such as the town's sanitation, its trash collection and horticultural authority) can lead to a visible environmental relief, particularly in the inner city. The RWE in Essen has been supporting the development and use of electric vehicles for over 20 years and introduced a program in 1990 for the communities(ProKom) which provides 5 million DM for over 5 years for the support of electric vehicles. In this article the communities' requirements for electric vehicles are discussed, the types of vehicles which are mediated by ProKom are introduced and the first practical experiences made are also reported. (BWI) [de

  13. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products | Hydrogen and Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells | NREL Vehicle Composite Data Products Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products The following composite data products (CDPs) focus on current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations Cell Operation Hour Groups CDP FCEV 39, 2/19/16 Comparison of Fuel Cell Stack Operation Hours and Miles

  14. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  15. The Nikola project intelligent electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Marinelli, Mattia; Olesen, Ole Jan

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) has certain properties that elevate its relevance to the smart grid. If EV integration is to meet its potential in supporting an economic and secure power system and at the same time lower the operating costs for the owner, it is necessary to thoroughly and systematically...... investigate the value-adding services that an EV may provide. The Danish Nikola project defines EV services as the act of influencing the timing, rate and direction of the power and energy exchanged between the EV battery and the grid to yield benefits for user, system, and society. This paper describes...

  16. Model Design on Emergency Power Supply of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the mobile storage characteristic of electric vehicles, an emergency power supply model about the electric vehicles is presented through analyzing its storage characteristic. The model can ensure important consumer loss minimization during power failure or emergency and can make electric vehicles cost minimization about running, scheduling, and vindicating. In view of the random dispersion feature in one area, an emergency power supply scheme using the electric vehicles is designed based on the K-means algorithm. The purpose is to improve the electric vehicles initiative gathering ability and reduce the electric vehicles gathering time. The study can reduce the number of other emergency power supply equipment and improve the urban electricity reliability.

  17. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This presentation provides information about NREL's real-world evaluations of commercial vehicle technologies, which compare the performance of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles to conventional vehicles. NREL conducts these customized evaluations in partnership with commercial and government fleets across the nation. Current fleet and industry partners include UPS, Workhorse, Parker Hannifin, Proterra, Foothill Transit, Long Beach Transit, BYD, Odyne, Duke Energy, Miami-Dade, TransPower, Eaton, Cummins, Bosch, and Clean Cities/National Clean Fleet Partnership. The presentation focuses on two particular vehicle evaluation projects -- hydraulic hybrid refuse haulers operated by Miami-Dade and electric transit buses operated by Foothill Transit.

  18. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  19. Intentions to introduce electric vehicles in the commercial sector: A model based on the theory of planned behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Gruber, Johannes; Reinthaler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Light and heavy duty commercial vehicles are a cause of concern in urban areas because of their cumulative stress on the system in terms of air pollution, congestion, and noise. This cumulative stress is expected to increase with the expected growth in commercial vehicle movements. While electric...... fleets. The framework is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and it is modelled with a structural equation model with latent variables. The model is estimated on the basis of 1443 responses from a large-scale survey in Austria, Denmark, and Germany. The results establish a linkage between...

  20. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  1. Electric vehicle charge patterns and the electricity generation mix and competitiveness of next generation vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Murata, Akinobu; Endo, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy system of whole of Japan is analyzed in this study. • An advanced model based on MARKAL is used for the energy system analysis. • The impact of charge patterns of EVs on electricity generation mix is evaluated. • Technology competitiveness of the next generation vehicles is also evaluated. - Abstract: The nuclear accident of 2011 brought about a reconsideration of the future electricity generation mix of power systems in Japan. A debate on whether to phase out nuclear power plants and replace them with renewable energy sources is taking place. Demand-side management becomes increasingly important in future Japanese power systems with a large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. This paper considers the charge control of electric vehicles (EVs) through demand-side management. There have been many studies of the control or operation methods of EVs known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G), and it is important to evaluate both their short-term and long-term operation. In this study, we employ energy system to evaluate the impact of the charge patterns of EVs on both the electricity generation mix and the technology competitiveness of the next generation vehicles. An advanced energy system model based on Market Allocation (MARKAL) is used to consider power system control in detail

  2. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuum Magazine | NREL Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success Powered by a fuel cell system with light-weight, high-pressure hydrogen tanks, an electric motor, a nickel -metal-hydride battery, and a power-control unit, the Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle has zero tailpipe

  3. Assessing the impact of policy interventions on the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles: An agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia, Chris; Krause, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened concern regarding climate change and energy independence has increased interest in plug-in electric vehicles as one means to address these challenges and governments at all levels have considered policy interventions to encourage their adoption. This paper develops an agent-based model that simulates the introduction of four policy scenarios aimed at promoting electric vehicle adoption in an urban community and compares them against a baseline. These scenarios include reducing vehicle purchase price via subsidies, expanding the local public charging network, increasing the number and visibility of fully battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on the roadway through government fleet purchases, and a hybrid mix of these three approaches. The results point to the effectiveness of policy options that increased awareness of BEV technology. Specifically, the hybrid policy alternative was the most successful in encouraging BEV adoption. This policy increases the visibility and familiarity of BEV technology in the community and may help counter the idea that BEVs are not a viable alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles. - Highlights: •Various policy interventions to encourage electric vehicle adoption are examined. •An agent based model is used to simulate individual adoption decisions. •Policies that increase the familiarity of electric vehicles are most effective.

  4. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuphorn, H. (Accumulatorenfabrik Sonnenschein GmbH, Buedingen (Germany))

    1992-09-15

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects world-wide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles. (orig.).

  5. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuphorn, Hans

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects worldwide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead/acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles.

  6. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  7. Enabling unmanned capabilities in the tactical wheeled vehicle fleet of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah

    2012-06-01

    From transporting troops and weapons systems to supplying beans, bullets, and Band-Aids to front-line warfighters, tactical wheeled vehicles serve as the materiel backbone anywhere there are boots on the ground. Drawing from the U.S. Army's Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Strategy and the Marine Corps Vision & Strategy 2025 reports, one may conclude that the services have modest expectations for the introduction of large unmanned ground systems into operational roles in the next 15 years. However, the Department of Defense has already invested considerably in the research and development of full-size UGVs-and commanders deployed in both Iraq and Afghanistan have advocated the urgent fielding of early incarnations of this technology, believing it could make a difference on their battlefields today. For military UGVs to evolve from mere tactical advantages into strategic assets with developed doctrine, they must become as trustworthy as a well-trained warfighter in performing their assigned task. Starting with the Marine Corps' ongoing Cargo Unmanned Ground Vehicle program as a baseline, and informed by feedback from previously deployed subject matter experts, this paper examines the gaps which presently exist in UGVs from a mission-capable perspective. It then considers viable near-term technical solutions to meet today's functional requirements, as well as long-term development strategies to enable truly robust performance. With future conflicts expected to be characterized by increasingly complex operational environments and a broad spectrum of rapidly adapting threats, one of the largest challenges for unmanned ground systems will be the ability to exhibit agility in unpredictable circumstances.

  8. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  9. Electric passenger and goods vehicles: A review of UK activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escombe, F.; Rawnsley, A.

    1993-01-01

    The production of electric-powered vehicles has been reduced to only a few hundred, after several thousand had been produced in Great Britain during the past five years. In the framework of this article, the different components of electric-powered vehicles are being examined regarding the economical situation: such as the vehicle itself, the batteries, the motor and the vehicle control. (BWI) [de

  10. Fleet Feedback and Fleet Efficiency Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Marine Corps have 10 years of experience implementing a telematics program and several lessons to share with partner agencies. This presentation details results of a Marine Corps survey as well as methods of using telematics to promote fleet efficiency and optimize the vehicle acquisition process.

  11. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register...-0148] RIN 2127-AK93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and...

  12. A Comprehensive Analysis for Widespread use of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhou; Zhaoyang Dong; Xiaomei Zhao

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly investigates the environmental and economic impacts of worldwide use of electric vehicles. It can be concluded that governments have good reason to promote the use of electric vehicles. First, the global vehicles population is evaluated with the help of grey forecasting model and the amount of oil saving is estimated through approximate calculation. After that, based on the game theory, the amount and types of electricity generation needed by electronic ...

  13. Load demand profile for a large charging station of a fleet of all-electric plug-in buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Rios

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a general procedure to compute the load demand profile from a parking lot where a fleet of buses with electric propulsion mechanisms are charged. Such procedure is divided in three different stages, the first one models the daily energy utilisation of the batteries based on Monte Carlo simulations and route characteristics. The second one models the process in the charging station based on discrete event simulation of queues of buses served by a lot of available chargers. The third step computes the final demand profile in the parking lot because of the charging process based on the power consumption of batteries’ chargers and the utilisation of the available charges. The proposed procedure allows the computation of the number of required batteries’ chargers to be installed in a charging station placed at a parking lot in order to satisfy and ensure the operation of the fleet, the computation of the power demand profile and the peak load and the computation of the general characteristics of electrical infrastructure to supply the power to the station.

  14. Comparison of electric drives for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, C; Stephan, W [Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft m.b.H., Esslingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    The low energy-storage capacity of the electrolytic energy-storage apparatus available at the moment limits the practical use of electric vehicles to meeting the requirements for restricted areas. But in this field of application, conversion from drive with internal combustion engine to electric drive can be considered only if a reduction of costs is achieved with electric drive. From the wide range of possible drive units the most suitable is found to be the dc squirrelcage motor the speed of which is controlled by field weakening. In the case of a motor with conventional design, the controllable drive range is limited to about 1 : 3, so that generally additional measures are required for extending the drive range. But if the motor is fitted with a compensation winding, field weakening to give a controlled speed range of 1 : 8 can be obtained. To evaluate the different drive units under consideration use is made of the acceleration when, according to the drive system, advantages are obtained from the point of view of energy consumption with disadvantages in acceleration time, and vice versa. By using vehicles proven in practice with different drive systems, either with hydrodynamic transducer and battery switchover, or else with changeover gear and mechanical clutch, the overall construction of the different control and protective arrangements are demonstrated. It is then found that the extra cost of regulation in the case of automatic drive operation is partly compensated by the additional protective devices which are required to limit the effects of any incorrect operations with a manually-operated drive.

  15. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Goncalo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Bozchalui, Mohammed C. [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Sharma, Ratnesh [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbosa-Povoa, Ana [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferrao, Paulo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-12-06

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  16. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  17. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO 2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO 2 /km and the annual CO 2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  18. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  19. Batteries for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Elton J; Albertus, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Batteries have powered vehicles for more than a century, but recent advances, especially in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are bringing a new generation of electric-powered vehicles to the market. Key barriers to progress include system cost and lifetime, and derive from the difficulty of making a high-energy, high-power, and reversible electrochemical system. Indeed, although humans produce many mechanical and electrical systems, the number of reversible electrochemical systems is very limited. System costs may be brought down by using cathode materials less expensive than those presently employed (e.g., sulfur or air), but reversibility will remain a key challenge. Continued improvements in the ability to synthesize and characterize materials at desired length scales, as well as to use computations to predict new structures and their properties, are facilitating the development of a better understanding and improved systems. Battery research is a fascinating area for development as well as a key enabler for future technologies, including advanced transportation systems with minimal environmental impact.

  20. The Wave Glider°: A New Autonomous Surface Vehicle to Augment MBARI's Growing Fleet of Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) evolving fleet of ocean observing systems has made it possible to collect information and data about a wide variety of ocean parameters, enabling researchers to better understand marine ecosystems. In collaboration with Liquid Robotics Inc, the designer of the Wave Glider autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), MBARI is adding a new capability to its suite of ocean observing tools. This new technology will augment MBARI research programs that use satellites, ships, moorings, drifters, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to improve data collection of temporally and spatially variable oceanographic features. The Wave Glider ASV derives its propulsion from wave energy, while sensors and communications are powered through the use of two solar panels and batteries, enabling it to remain at sea indefinitely. Wave Gliders are remotely controlled via real-time Iridium burst communications, which also permit real-time data telemetry. MBARI has developed Ocean Acidification (OA) moorings to continuously monitor the chemical and physical changes occurring in the ocean as a result of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The moorings are spatially restricted by being anchored to the seafloor, so during the summer of 2011 the ocean acidification sensor suite designed for moorings was integrated into a Wave Glider ASV to increase both temporal and spatial ocean observation capabilities. The OA sensor package enables the measurement of parameters essential to better understanding the changing acidity of the ocean, specifically pCO2, pH, oxygen, salinity and temperature. The Wave Glider will also be equipped with a meteorological sensor suite that will measure air temperature, air pressure, and wind speed and direction. The OA sensor integration into a Wave Glider was part of MBARI's 2011 summer internship program. This project involved designing a new layout for the OA sensors

  1. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based Relay Vehicle Selection for Electric Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale electric vehicle integration into power grid and charging randomly will cause serious impacts on the normal operation of power grid. Therefore, it is necessary to control the charging behavior of electric vehicle, while information transmission for electric vehicle is significant. Due to the highly mobile characteristics of vehicle, transferring information to power grid directly might be inaccessible. Relay vehicle (RV can be used for supporting multi-hop connection between SV and power grid. This paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making (MADM-based RV selection algorithm, which considers multiple attribute, including data transfer rate, delay, route duration. It takes the characteristics of electric vehicle communication into account, which can provide protection for the communication services of electric vehicle charging and discharging. Numerical results demonstrate that compared to previous algorithm, the proposed algorithm offer better performance in terms of throughput, transmission delay.

  2. Lightweight electric-powered vehicles. Which financial incentives after the large-scale field tests at Mendrisio?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.; Frick, R.; Hammer, S.

    1999-08-01

    How should lightweight electric-powered vehicles be promoted, after the large-scale fleet test being conducted at Mendrisio (southern Switzerland) is completed in 2001, and are there reasons to put question marks behind the current approach? The demand for electric vehicles, and particularly the one in the automobile category, has remained at a persistently low level. As it proved, any appreciable improvement of this situation is almost impossible, even with substantial financial incentives. However, the unsatisfactory sales figures have little to do with the nature of the fleet test itself or with the specific conditions at Mendrisio. The problem is rather of structural nature. For (battery-operated) electric cars the main problem at present is the lack of an expanding market which could become self-supporting with only a few additional incentives. Various strategies have been evaluated. Two alternatives were considered in particular: a strategy to promote explicitly electric vehicles ('EL-strategy'), and a strategy to promote efficient road vehicles in general which would have to meet specific energy and environmental-efficiency criteria ('EF-strategy'). The EL-strategies make the following dilemma clear. If the aim is to raise the share of these vehicles up to 5% of all cars on the road (or even 8%) in a mid-term prospect, then substantial interventions in the relevant vehicle markets would be required, either with penalties for conventional cars, or a large-scale funding scheme, or interventions at the supply level. The study suggests a differentiated strategy with two components: (i) 'institutionalised' promotion with the aim of a substantial increase of the share of 'efficient' vehicles (independently of the propulsion technology), and (ii) the continuation of pilot and demonstration projects for the promotion of different types of innovative technologies. (author) [de

  3. Reconciling sectoral abatement strategies with global climate targets: the case of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Dhaniati, Ni Made A; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-03

    The IPCC Forth Assessment Report postulates that global warming can be limited to 2 °C by deploying technologies that are currently available or expected to be commercialized in the coming decades. However, neither specific technological pathways nor internationally binding reduction targets for different sectors or countries have been established yet. Using the passenger car stock in China as example we compute direct CO(2) emissions until 2050 depending on population, car utilization, and fuel efficiency and compare them to benchmarks derived by assuming even contribution of all sectors and a unitary global per capita emission quota. Compared to present car utilization in industrialized countries, massive deployment of prototypes of fuel efficient cars could reduce emissions by about 45%, and moderately lower car use could contribute with another 33%. Still, emissions remain about five times higher than the benchmark for the 2 °C global warming target. Therefore an extended analysis, including in particular low-carbon fuels and the impact of urban and transport planning on annual distance traveled and car ownership, should be considered. A cross-sectoral comparison could reveal whether other sectors could bear an overproportional reduction quota instead. The proposed model offers direct interfaces to material industries, fuel production, and scrap vehicle supply.

  4. Predicting the Potential Market for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    diffusion models in marketing research use fairly simple demand models. In this paper we discuss the problem of predicting market shares for new products and suggest a method that combines advanced choice models with a diffusion model to take into account that new products often need time to gain......Forecasting the potential demand for electric vehicles is a challenging task. Because most studies for new technologies rely on stated preference (SP) data, market share predictions will reflect shares in the SP data and not in the real market. Moreover, typical disaggregate demand models...... are suitable to forecast demand in relatively stable markets, but show limitations in the case of innovations. When predicting the market for new products it is crucial to account for the role played by innovation and how it penetrates the new market over time through a diffusion process. However, typical...

  5. Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shapiro, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-11

    With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policy-makers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual level of emission reduction associated with the electrification of the transport sector is dependent on the contexts that determine when and where drivers charge electric vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios.

  6. "Can Vehicle-to-Grid Revenue Help Electric Vehicles on the Market?"

    OpenAIRE

    George R. Parsons; Michael K. Hidrue; Willett Kempton; Meryl P. Gardner

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) electric vehicles can return power stored in their batteries back to the power grid and be programmed to do so at times when power prices are high. Since providing this service can lead to payments to owners of vehicles, it effectively reduces the cost of electric vehicles. Using data from a national stated preference survey (n = 3029), this paper presents the first study of the potential consumer demand for V2G electric vehicles. In our choice experiment, 3029 responden...

  7. Straight methanol and vehicle evaluation. Phase 4: durability of a fleet of methanol-fuelled vehicles in normal service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    The work described in this report is part of a long-term program to evaluate the performance of methanol-fuelled vehicles. Six Ford Escorts which were modified by the manufacturer to run on fuel-methanol have now been operated for 1 year in normal long-distance service using 3 different test oils. The oils were formulated with proprietary additive packages, one supplied by Shell and 2 others from outside companies. The formulations had been identified from earlier phases of the study as promising a level of protection for the special needs of methanol engines. The results indicate that the 3 test oils are equivalent in performance and better than the Phase 2 oil, over the duration of the study in their effect on cam and lifter wear, ring wear, and, to lesser extent, cylinder bore wear, engine durability, and cleanliness in a mainly highway-style, long-trip distance accumulation mode. In contrast to the more severe short-trip distance accumulation test performed in Phase 3, the results for the present test were not significantly worse than expected for an equivalent gasoline engine, but with an oil drain period reduced by approximately 58%.

  8. A granular t abu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jose; Escobar, John Willmer; Linfati, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW) for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase), a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase). Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  9. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, I.; Wessely, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  10. A granular t abu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Jose; Escobar, John Willmer; Linfati, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW) for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase), a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase). Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  11. Environmental Impacts of Future Urban Deployment of Electric Vehicles: Assessment Framework and Case Study of Copenhagen for 2016-2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnes, Florence A; Gregg, Jay S; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-12-05

    To move toward environmentally sustainable transport systems, electric vehicles (EVs) are increasingly seen as viable alternatives to internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). To ensure effectiveness of such deployment, holistic assessments of environmental impacts can help decision-makers determine optimized urban strategies in a long-term perspective. However, explicit guidance and conduct of such assessments are currently missing. Here, we therefore propose a framework using life cycle assessment that enables the quantification of environmental impacts of a transport system at full urban scale from a fleet-based, foresight perspective. The analysis of the passenger car fleet development in the city of Copenhagen for the years 2016-2030 is used as a proof-of-concept. We modeled and compared five powertrain technologies, and we assessed four fleet-based scenarios for the entire city. Our results showed relative environmental benefits from range-extended and fuel-cell EVs over ICVs and standard EVs. These results were found to be sensitive to local settings, like electricity grid mix, which could alter the relative environmental performances across EV technologies. The comprehensive framework developed here can be applied to other geographic areas and contexts to assess the environmental sustainability of transport systems.

  12. Positive impact of electric vehicle and ngv on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidul I Khan; Kannan, K.S.; Md Shah Majid

    1999-01-01

    Electric Vehicle uses electricity from batteries as fuel and is environment friendly with zero emission. The occurrence of haze in 1997 in Malaysia and neighbouring countries has called for new studies about motor vehicle emission as it aggravates the problem. In big cities like Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Johor Bahru where it is estimated that over 300,000 vehicles enter the city everyday, smoke pollution from vehicles is identified as the major contributor to air quality. One of the solutions to air pollution problem could be the use of Electric Vehicles (EV) and Natural Gas for Vehicle (NGV). The NGV uses compressed natural gas mainly methane, is lead free and clean burning with low emission. The electric vehicles use batteries as power source. These batteries are charged off-peak hour, specifically after mid-night when the electric load curve has its least demand period. The number of electric vehicles and NGV in future years is calculated considering the penetration level. The reduction in pollution is estimated considering the number of automobiles replaced by electric vehicles and NGV. Finally, it is concluded that EV and NGV could be the ultimate solution for pollution control and could improve the environment specifically that of congested cities of Malaysia. (Author)

  13. Vehicles under electricity. Result booklet; Autos unter Strom. Ergebnisbroschuere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The booklet under consideration reports on the environmental relief of electric-driven vehicles by means of the research project OPTUM 'Potentials of environmental relief of electric driven vehicles - Integrated analysis of vehicle usage and energy economy'. Experts from the Institute for Applied Ecology (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Institute for Social-Ecological Research (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) are devoted to the following issues: (1) What is the acceptance for electric-driven vehicles?; (2) What is their future market potential?; (3) What are the advantages of electromobility with respect to the climate?; (4) Are their supply shortages concerning major raw materials?.

  14. Reference architecture for interoperability testing of Electric Vehicle charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehfuss, F.; Nohrer, M.; Werkmany, E.; Lopezz, J.A.; Zabalaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a reference architecture for interoperability testing of electric vehicles as well as their support equipment with the smart grid and the e-Mobility environment. Pan-European Electric Vehicle (EV)-charging is currently problematic as there are compliance and interoperability

  15. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  16. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    . This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...

  17. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Veen, W.R. ter; Raadschelders, J.W.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    2000-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the requirements on batteries are very different from those for battery electric vehicles (BEV). A high power (bipolar) lead-acid battery could be a good alternative for other types of batteries under development for this application. It is potentially cheap and

  18. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  19. Inductively coupled power systems for electric vehicles: a fourth dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolger, J G

    1980-09-01

    There are three traditional methods of supplying energy to electric vehicles. The inductively coupled roadway power system is a fourth method that adds important new dimensions to electric-vehicle capabilities. It efficiently transfers power to moving vehicles without physical contact, freeing the electric vehicle from most of the applicational constraints imposed by the other three methods. The single power conductor in the roadway carries several hundred amperes of alternating current. The current causes a weak magnetic flux to circulate through the air above it when a vehicle's power pickup is not present. When a vehicle's pickup is suported over the inductor, a more intense flux circulates through the steel cores in the road and in the pickup. Applications, electrical safety, and present status of the technology are discussed in the paper presented at the St. Louis EXPO '80.

  20. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  1. Regulatory adaptation: Accommodating electric vehicles in a petroleum world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsey, Nicholas; Sperling, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the policy challenges of adjusting established regulations to accommodate evolving and new technologies. We examine energy and emissions regulations for older petroleum powered vehicles and newer plug-in electric vehicles. Until now, vehicle regulations across the world have ignored energy consumption and emissions upstream of the vehicle (at refineries, pipelines, etc), largely because of the convenient fact that upstream emissions and energy use are nearly uniform across petroleum-fueled vehicles and play a relatively minor role in total lifecycle emissions. Including upstream impacts would greatly complicate the regulations. But because the vast majority of emissions and energy consumption for electric vehicles (and hydrogen and, to a lesser extent, biofuels) are upstream, the old regulatory design is no longer valid. The pressing regulatory question is whether to assign upstream GHG emissions to electric vehicles, or not, and if so, how. We find that assigning zero upstream emissions—as a way of incentivizing the production and sale of PEVs—would eventually lead to an erosion of 20% of the GHG emission benefits from new vehicles, assuming fixed vehicle standards. We suggest alternative policy mechanisms and strategies to account for upstream emissions and energy use. - Highlights: ► We quantify the effects of electric vehicles within greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation. ► Electric vehicle GHG impacts are substantial and vary greatly by grid power sources. ► Existing “zero emission” electric vehicle incentives undermine regulation benefits. ► 10% electric vehicle sales leads to 20% erosion in regulation benefits by 2020–2025. ► Lifecycle crediting improves policy cost-effectiveness and technology neutrality.

  2. Near-term electric vehicle program: Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B. H.; Murry, R.

    1977-08-01

    A final report is given for an Energy Research and Development Administration effort aimed at a preliminary design of an energy-efficient electric commuter car. An electric-powered passenger vehicle using a regenerative power system was designed to meet the near-term ERDA electric automobile goals. The program objectives were to (1) study the parameters that affect vehicle performance, range, and cost; (2) design an entirely new electric vehicle that meets performance and economic requirements; and (3) define a program to develop this vehicle design for production in the early 1980's. The design and performance features of the preliminary (baseline) electric-powered passenger vehicle design are described, including the baseline power system, system performance, economic analysis, reliability and safety, alternate designs and options, development plan, and conclusions and recommendations. All aspects of the baseline design were defined in sufficient detail to verify performance expectations and system feasibility.

  3. Canadians' perceptions of electric vehicle technology : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    While Canadians seem to appreciate some of the possible benefits of electric vehicle technology (EVT), they generally lack knowledge or understanding of EVTs, in terms of how they operate and what types of EVT vehicles are currently available. This paper described the challenges associated with the adoption of EVT in Canada. In particular, it described a research program that was designed to assess Canadians' attitudes towards electric vehicle technology, in order to provide input into the development of a technology roadmap and its implementation plan, to provide input into communications plans and strategies to promote greater awareness and acceptance of the technology, and to establish baseline attitudinal indicators that could be tracked over time. Specifically, the objectives of the paper were to measure the Canadian public's levels of awareness, knowledge and comfort with EVTs; determine the motivators to adoption of EVT; determine the barriers to broader acceptance and market diffusion of EVT; and identify key group differences. Topics that were discussed included public awareness and knowledge of electric vehicle technology; and interest in plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery-electric vehicles, including perceived advantages and barriers. A profile of drivers consisted of a review of vehicle type; vehicle use profile; size of vehicle; considerations when choosing a vehicle; personal orientation to vehicle ownership; attitudes about vehicle choice; and attitudes about vehicles and air quality. Descriptions of the quantitative and qualitative methods employed in conducting the research, as well as the survey questionnaire and discussion guide were included as appendices. It was concluded that the small proportion of Canadian drivers who see vehicles as a form of personal expression are more likely to be interested in a future plug-in hybrid electric vehicles purchase or rental. tabs., figs., appendices.

  4. 78 FR 23935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles, by any of the...

  5. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-A low-carbon solution for Ireland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2006, the primary energy requirement of the Irish transport sector increased by 166%. Associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have followed a corresponding trajectory, and are responsible-at least in part-for Ireland's probable failure to meet its Kyoto targets. As in most countries, Ireland's transport sector is almost totally reliant on oil-a commodity for which Ireland is totally dependent on imports-and therefore vulnerable to supply and price shocks. Conversely, the efficiency and carbon intensity of the Irish electricity supply system have both improved dramatically over the same period, with significant further improvements projected over the coming decade. This paper analyses the prospects for leveraging these changes by increasing the electrification of the Irish transport sector. Specifically, the potential benefits of plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV) are assessed, in terms of reducing primary energy requirement (PER) and CO 2 emissions. It is shown that, on a per-km basis, PHEV offer the potential for reductions of 50% or more in passenger car PER and CO 2 intensity. However, the time required to turn over the existing fleet means that a decade or more will be required to significantly impact PER and emissions of the PC fleet.

  6. Stochastic optimal charging of electric-drive vehicles with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoš, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the stochastic optimization algorithm that may eventually be used by electric energy suppliers to coordinate charging of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) in order to maximize the use of renewable energy in transportation. Due to the stochastic nature of transportation patterns, the Monte Carlo simulation is applied to model uncertainties presented by numerous scenarios. To reduce the problem complexity, the simulated driving patterns are not individually considered in the optimization but clustered into fleets using the GAMS/SCENRED tool. Uncertainties of production of renewable energy sources (RESs) are presented by statistical central moments that are further considered in Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method in order to define estimate points considered in the optimization. Case studies illustrate the application of the proposed optimization in achieving maximal exploitation of RESs in transportation by EDVs. -- Highlights: ► Optimization model for EDV charging applying linear programming. ► Formation of EDV fleets based on the driving patterns assessment applying the GAMS/SCENRED. ► Consideration of uncertainties of RES production and energy prices in the market. ► Stochastic optimization. ► Application of Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method.

  7. Developments in batteries and fuel cells for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to ever increasing threats of climate change, urban air pollution and costly and depleting oil and gas sources a lot of work is being done for the development of electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all electric vehicles are powered by batteries or by hydrogen and fuel cells are the main types of vehicles being developed. Main types of batteries which can be used for electric vehicles are lead-acid, Ni-Cd, Nickel-Metal-Hybrid ( NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries which are discussed and compared. Lithium ion battery is the mostly used battery. Developments in the lithium ion batteries are discussed and reviewed. Redox flow batteries are also potential candidates for electric vehicles and are described. Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce fuel consumption considerably and is a good midterm solution. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles are discussed. Electric vehicles are necessary to mitigate the effects of pollution and dependence on oil. For all the electric vehicles there are two options: batteries and fuel Cells. Batteries are useful for small vehicles and shorter distances but for vehicle range greater than 150 km fuel cells are superior to batteries in terms of cost, efficiency and durability even using natural gas and other fuels in addition to hydrogen. Ultimate solution for electric vehicles are hydrogen and fuel cells and this opinion is also shared by most of the automobile manufacturers. Developments in fuel cells and their applications for automobiles are described and reviewed. Comparisons have been done in the literature between batteries and fuel cells and are described. (author)

  8. Possibilities for increasing the use of electric vehicles in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijamatovic, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In the towns, it is becoming urgent to define an environment friendly mobility and transport strategy for medium and long distance transportation. Electrical vehicle, whether dependent on an electrical system or battery powered, must be supported as the only solution capable of efficiently fighting against the concentration of chemical and especially noise pollution. By replacing 10% of the Swiss vehicles on the road with electrical vehicles, the electricity consumption in Switzerland would increase by 1.1%. The effects of a massive introduction of electrical vehicles can be beneficial in various sectors of activity. The Swiss confederation has invested money in this sector and the EV promotion is carried out by the electrical utilities, associations, clubs, publications, automobile fairs. These different aspects are discussed in further details. (author)

  9. Modeling light-duty plug-in electric vehicles for national energy and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Di; Aliprantis, Dionysios C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets forth a family of models of light-duty plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) fleets, appropriate for conducting long-term national-level planning studies of the energy and transportation sectors in an integrated manner. Using one of the proposed models, three case studies on the evolution of the U.S. energy and transportation infrastructures are performed, where portfolios of optimum investments over a 40-year horizon are identified, and interdependencies between the two sectors are highlighted. The results indicate that with a gradual but aggressive introduction of PEVs coupled with investments in renewable energy, the total cost from the energy and transportation systems can be reduced by 5%, and that overall emissions from electricity generation and light-duty vehicle (LDV) tailpipes can be reduced by 10% over the 40-year horizon. The annual gasoline consumption from LDVs can be reduced by 66% by the end of the planning horizon, but an additional 800 TWh of annual electricity demand will be introduced. In addition, various scenarios of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions are investigated. It is found that GHG emissions can be significantly reduced with only a marginal cost increment, by shifting electricity generation from coal to renewable sources. - Highlights: • We model plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) for long-term national planning studies. • Realistic travel patterns are used to estimate the vehicles' energy consumption. • National energy and transportation system interdependencies are considered. • Case studies illustrate optimum investments in energy and transportation sectors. • PEVs synergistically with renewable energy can aggressively reduce GHG emissions

  10. Potential of vehicle-to-grid ancillary services considering the uncertainties in plug-in electric vehicle availability and service/localization limitations in distribution grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarabi, Siyamak; Davigny, Arnaud; Courtecuisse, Vincent; Riffonneau, Yann; Robyns, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The availability uncertainty of PEVs are modelled using Gaussian mixture model. • Interdependency of stochastic variables are modelled using copula function. • V2G bidding capacity is calculated using Free Pattern search optimization method. • Localization limitation is considered for V2G service potential assessment. • Competitive services for fleet of V2G-enabled PEVs are identified using fuzzy sets. - Abstract: The aim of the paper is to propose an approach for statistical assessment of the potential of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) ancillary services, where it focuses on PEVs doing daily home-work commuting. In this approach, the possible ancillary services (A/S) for each PEV fleet in terms of its available V2G power (AVP) and flexible intervals are identified. The flexible interval is calculated using a powerful stochastic global optimization technique so-called “Free Pattern Search” (FPS). A probabilistic method is also proposed to quantify the impacts of PEV’s availability uncertainty using the Gaussian mixture model (GMM), and interdependency of stochastic variables on AVP of each fleet thanks to a multivariate modeling with Copula function. Each fleet is analyzed based on its aggregated PEV numbers at different level of distribution grid, in order to satisfy the ancillary services localization limitation. A case study using the proposed approach evaluates the real potential in Niort, a city in west of France. In fact, by using the proposed approach an aggregator can analyze the V2G potential of PEVs under its contract.

  11. The Legal Status of Low Speed, Electric, Automated Vehicles in Texas : Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report explores whether vehicles that are both Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) and Automated Vehicles (AVs) may operate legally on public roads in Texas. First is an examination of Neighborhood Electric Vehicles and how they are governed i...

  12. Analyzing The Impacts of the Biogas-to-Electricity Purchase Incentives on Electric Vehicle Deployment with the MA3T Vehicle Choice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkaminer, Kara [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Xie, Fei [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This analysis represents the biogas-to-electricity pathway under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) as a point of purchase incentive and tests the impact of this incentive on EV deployment using a vehicle consumer choice model. The credit value generated under this policy was calculated in a number of scenarios based on electricity use of each power train choice on a yearly basis over the 15 year vehicle lifetime, accounting for the average electric vehicle miles travelled and vehicle efficiency, competition for biogas-derived electricity among electric vehicles (EVs), the RIN equivalence value and the time value of money. The credit value calculation in each of these scenarios is offered upfront as a point of purchase incentive for EVs using the Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) vehicle choice model, which tracks sales, fleet size and energy use over time. The majority of the scenarios use a proposed RIN equivalence value, which increases the credit value as a way to explore the analysis space. Additional model runs show the relative impact of the equivalence value on EV deployment. The MA3T model output shows that a consumer incentive accelerates the deployment of EVs for all scenarios relative to the baseline (no policy) case. In the scenario modeled to represent the current biogas-to-electricity generation capacity (15 TWh/year) with a 5.24kWh/RIN equivalence value, the policy leads to an additional 1.4 million plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and 3.5 million battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in 2025 beyond the no-policy case of 1.3 million PHEVs and 2.1 million BEVs when the full value of the credit is passed on to the consumer. In 2030, this increases to 2.4 million PHEVs and 7.3 million BEVs beyond the baseline. This larger impact on BEVs relative to PHEVs is due in part to the larger credit that BEVs receive in the model based on the greater percentage of electric vehicle miles traveled by BEVs relative to PHEVs. In this

  13. Electric vehicle machines and drives design, analysis and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K

    2015-01-01

    A timely comprehensive reference consolidates the research and development of electric vehicle machines and drives for electric and hybrid propulsions • Focuses on electric vehicle machines and drives • Covers the major technologies in the area including fundamental concepts and applications • Emphasis the design criteria, performance analyses and application examples or potentials of various motor drives and machine systems • Accompanying website includes the simulation models and outcomes as supplementary material

  14. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  15. Modeling of electric vehicle battery for vehicle-to-grid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Ying; Brady, Cormac; Pellegrino, Giustino

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicle battery models are essential when performing analysis of EV systems. The battery package of electric vehicles is complicated and unpredictable because of its chemical based functioning. In this paper, a battery model is presented with a number of internal and external factors taken...

  16. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  17. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1995-09-12

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

  18. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Global EV Outlook represents the collective efforts of two years of primary data gathering and analysis from the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) and IEA. Key takeaways and insights include landscape analysis of electric vehicle (EV) stock/sales and charging station deployment. Existing policy initiatives are delineated and future opportunities highlighted in an ''Opportunity Matrix: Pathways to 2020''. Together EVI countries accounted for more than 90% of world EV stock at the end of 2012. Strong government support in EVI countries on both the supply and demand sides are contributing to rising market penetration. 12 out of 15 EVI countries offer financial support for vehicle purchases, and most employ a mix of financial and non-financial incentives (such as access to restricted highway lanes) to help drive adoption. The Global EV Outlook is a unique and data-rich overview of the state of electric vehicles today, and offers an understanding of the electric vehicle landscape to 2020.

  19. 0-6763 : accounting for electric vehicles in air quality conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are broadly defined as : vehicles that obtain at least a part of the energy : required for their propulsion from electricity. This : research focused on the three main types of EVs: : Hybrid electric vehicles. : Plug-i...

  20. Torque vectoring for improving stability of small electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Weigel-Milleret, K.

    2016-09-01

    The electric vehicles solutions based on the individually controlled electric motors propel a single wheel allow to improve the dynamic properties of the vehicle by varying the distribution of the driving torque. Most of the literature refer to the vehicles with a track typical for passenger cars. This paper examines whether the narrow vehicle (with a very small track) torque vectoring bring a noticeable change of the understeer characteristics and whether torque vectoring is possible to use in securing a narrow vehicle from roll over (roll mitigation). The paper contains road tests of the steering characteristics (steady state understeer characteristic quasi-static acceleration with a fixed steering wheel (SH = const) and on the constant radius track (R = const)) of the narrow vehicle. The vehicle understeer characteristic as a function of a power distribution is presented.

  1. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  2. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G; Smith, J; Sahl, J; Kavet, R

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study to assess magnetic field levels in electric compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, and established a methodology that would provide valid data for further assessments. The sample consisted of 14 vehicles, all manufactured between January 2000 and April 2009; 6 were gasoline-powered vehicles and 8 were electric vehicles of various types. Of the eight models available, three were represented by a gasoline-powered vehicle and at least one electric vehicle, enabling intra-model comparisons. Vehicles were driven over a 16.3 km test route. Each vehicle was equipped with six EMDEX Lite broadband meters with a 40-1,000 Hz bandwidth programmed to sample every 4 s. Standard statistical testing was based on the fact that the autocorrelation statistic damped quickly with time. For seven electric cars, the geometric mean (GM) of all measurements (N = 18,318) was 0.095 µT with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.66, compared to 0.051 µT (N = 9,301; GSD = 2.11) for four gasoline-powered cars (P electric vehicles covered the same range as personal exposure levels recorded in that study. All fields measured in all vehicles were much less than the exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Future studies should include larger sample sizes representative of a greater cross-section of electric-type vehicles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Advanced Electrical Machines and Machine-Based Systems for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Cheng; Le Sun; Giuseppe Buja; Lihua Song

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a number of advanced solutions on electric machines and machine-based systems for the powertrain of electric vehicles (EVs). Two types of systems are considered, namely the drive systems designated to the EV propulsion and the power split devices utilized in the popular series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle architecture. After reviewing the main requirements for the electric drive systems, the paper illustrates advanced electric machine topologies, including a stator perm...

  4. Frequency-Control Reserves and Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The increasing penetration of variable wind power generation units and electricity consumption in power systems demands additional ancillary services for its reliable operation. The battery storages of electric vehicles are one of the substitute solutions for replacing conventional fossil......-fuelled generators to supply future grid support functions. The quick start and fast response characteristics of battery storages enable the electric vehicles to provide most of the power system auxiliary tasks. This chapter discusses key ancillary services that could be supplied by electric vehicles to maintain...... the system balance in power systems with high volumes of wind power generation. To analyse the applications and performance of electric vehicles in supplying active power balancing services, the case studies simulated in wind-power-dominated Danish power systems are also presented....

  5. Comparison of Different Battery Types for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iclodean, C.; Varga, B.; Burnete, N.; Cimerdean, D.; Jurchiş, B.

    2017-10-01

    Battery powered Electric Vehicles are starting to play a significant role in today’s automotive industry. There are many types of batteries found in the construction of today’s Electric Vehicles, being hard to decide which one fulfils best all the most important characteristics, from different viewpoints, such as energy storage efficiency, constructive characteristics, cost price, safety and utilization life. This study presents the autonomy of an Electric Vehicle that utilizes four different types of batteries: Lithium Ion (Li-Ion), Molten Salt (Na-NiCl2), Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) and Lithium Sulphur (Li-S), all of them having the same electric energy storage capacity. The novelty of this scientific work is the implementation of four different types of batteries for Electric Vehicles on the same model to evaluate the vehicle’s autonomy and the efficiency of these battery types on a driving cycle, in real time, digitized by computer simulation.

  6. Sustainable Electric Vehicle Management using Coordinated Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Valogianni (Konstantina)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how intelligent algorithms can support electricity customers in their complex decisions within the electricity grid. In particular, we focus on how electric vehicle (EV) owners can be supported in their charging and discharging

  7. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  8. Finite Action-Set Learning Automata for Economic Dispatch Considering Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The coming interaction between a growing electrified vehicle fleet and the desired growth in renewable energy provides new insights into the economic dispatch (ED problem. This paper presents an economic dispatch model that considers electric vehicle charging, battery exchange stations, and wind farms. This ED model is a high-dimensional, non-linear, and stochastic problem and its solution requires powerful methods. A new finite action-set learning automata (FALA-based approach that has the ability to adapt to a stochastic environment is proposed. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated in a modified IEEE 30 bus system. It is compared with continuous action-set learning automata and particle swarm optimization-based approaches in terms of convergence characteristics, computational efficiency, and solution quality. Simulation results show that the proposed FALA-based approach was indeed capable of more efficiently obtaining the approximately optimal solution. In addition, by using an optimal dispatch schedule for the interaction between electric vehicle stations and power systems, it is possible to reduce the gap between demand and power generation at different times of the day.

  9. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  10. Concerning the debate on electric-powered-vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporckmann, B.

    1994-01-01

    The fact that electric-powered vehicles do not emit pollutants locally is obvious and must be considered as the main motive for their use. The global air pollution situation can only be of secondary importance because within the foreseeable future emissions linked to the use of electric-powered vehicles will remain within the variation width of power generation emissions that is not to be influenced. All the same, it is indispensable to consider the global situation. The author compares electric-powered vehicles with conventional ones by referring to the power generation of all federal German states. (orig.) [de

  11. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    is needed that meets this requirement. This paper studies the fault-tolerance properties of an electrical steering system. It presents a fault-tolerant architecture where a dedicated AC motor design used in conjunction with cheap voltage measurements can ensure detection of all relevant faults......Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...

  12. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  13. Intelligent Electric Vehicle Integration - Domain Interfaces and Supporting Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach

    This thesis seeks to apply the field of informatics to the intelligent integration of electric vehicles into the power system. The main goal is to release the potential of electric vehicles in relation to a reliable, economically efficient power system based on renewables. To make intelligent EV...... and services in which the electric vehicle may be best suited to participate. The next stakeholder investigated is the distribution system operator representing the low voltage grid. The challenge is assessed by considering a number of grid impacts studies. Next, a set of grid congestion mitigation strategies...

  14. Battery Electric Vehicles: characteristics and research projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses briefly the history of the electric car and its main characteristics. Two projects introduced: the battery electric VW Lupo EL and URE05e electric Formula Student racecar. Presentation slides.

  15. Life-cycle private costs of hybrid electric vehicles in the current Chinese market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chengtao; Wu, Tian; Ou, Xunmin; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Xiliang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the life-cycle private cost (LCPC) of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is important for market feasibility analysis. An HEV LCPC model was established to evaluate HEV market prospects in China compared with traditional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The Kluger HV, a full-hybrid HEV sports utility vehicle (SUV), aimed at the Chinese market, was simulated as the 2010 model's technology details were well publicized. The LCPC of the Kluger HV was roughly the same (about 1.06 times) as that of its comparable ICEV (Highlander SUV). This aligns with other compact and midsize HEV cars (e.g., Toyota Prius, Honda Civic and Toyota Camry HEV) in China. With oil prices predicted to rise in the long-term, the advantage of HEVs energy saving will partly compensate the high manufacturing costs associated with their additional motor/battery components. Besides supporting technology development, enabling policy should be implemented to introduce HEV technology into taxi fleets and business cars. This technology's cost-competitiveness, compared with traditional ICEVs, is advantageous for these higher mileage vehicles. - Highlights: ► A model is set up to evaluate the life-cycle private cost of HEVs. ► Life-cycle private costs of HEVs are higher than conventional cars in China. ► HEVs become competitive when the oil price rises

  16. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers. Case studies of Sweden and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.-L.; Goeransson, L.; Karlsson, S.; Johnsson, F.; Elofsson, A.K.; Galus, M.D.; Andersson, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as providers of regulating power in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary frequency control. Previous studies have shown that PHEVs could generate substantial profits while providing ancillary services. This study investigates under what conditions PHEVs can generate revenues using actual market data, i.e. prices and activations of regulating power, from Sweden and Germany from four months in 2008. PHEV market participation is modelled for individual vehicles in a fleet subject to a simulated movement pattern. Costs for infrastructure and vehicle-to-grid equipment are not included in the analysis. The simulation results indicate that maximum average profits generated on the German markets are in the range 30-80 EUR per vehicle and month whereas the Swedish regulating power markets give no profit. In addition, an analysis is performed to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of PHEVs as regulating power providers. Based on the simulation results and the SWOT analysis, characteristics for an ideal regulating power market for PHEVs are presented. (author)

  17. Selection of the battery pack parameters for an electric vehicle based on performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak, M.; Czerepicki, A.

    2017-06-01

    Each type of vehicle has specific power requirements. Some require a rapid charging, other make long distances between charges, but a common feature is the longest battery life time. Additionally, the battery is influenced by factors such as temperature, depth of discharge and the operation current. The article contain the parameters of chemical cells that should be taken into account during the design of the battery for a specific application. This is particularly important because the batteries are not properly matched and can wear prematurely and cause an additional costs. The method of selecting the correct cell type should take previously discussed features and operating characteristics of the vehicle into account. The authors present methods of obtaining such characteristics along with their assessment and examples. Also there has been described an example of the battery parameters selection based on design assumptions of the vehicle and the expected performance characteristics. Selecting proper battery operating parameters is important due to its impact on the economic result of investments in electric vehicles. For example, for some Li-Ion technologies, the earlier worn out of batteries in a fleet of cruise boats or buses having estimated lifetime of 10 years is not acceptable, because this will cause substantial financial losses for the owner of the rolling stock. The presented method of choosing the right cell technology in the selected application, can be the basis for making the decision on future battery technical parameters.

  18. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts...... for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid in vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G). To respond to such needs, EVs are required to share their battery internal data as well as respond to external control signals. In this paper...

  19. Manitoba plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemsen, R. [Red River College, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Parsons, R. [Government of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Centre for Emerging Renewable Energy

    2010-07-01

    Manitoba has low electricity rates, the highest proportion of renewables, and a legislated commitment to reduce greenhouse gases. However, the province still relies heavily on oil as everyone else. The mix of energy opportunities in Manitoba were highlighted in this presentation, with particular reference to the commercialization of electric vehicles. Several photographs were presented of the Toyota plug-in hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid electric demonstration vehicle. A demonstration project overview was offered that used technology from A123 Systems Inc. The conversion module and vehicle users were profiled. Topics that were presented related to the demonstration project included monitoring; gasoline fuel economy results; fuel economy variability; cold weather operation; cold weather issues; battery upgrade solutions; and highly qualified personnel. It was concluded that in terms of follow-up, there is a need to combine findings of current plug-in hybrid electric vehicle demonstration with those for the new Toyota production plug-in hybrid vehicles. Key next steps for the demonstration are to address cabin heating requirements; better characterizing winter performance; and implementation of IPLC units on all plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for electricity consumption. figs.

  20. China’s electric vehicle subsidy scheme: Rationale and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Ou, Xunmin; Du, Jiuyu; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-01-01

    To promote the market penetration of electric vehicles (EV), China launched the Electric Vehicle Subsidy Scheme (EVSS) in Jan 2009, followed by an update in Sep 2013, which we named phase I and phase II EVSS, respectively. In this paper, we presented the rationale of China’s two-phase EVSS and estimated their impacts on EV market penetration, with a focus on the ownership cost analysis of battery electric passenger vehicles (BEPV). Based on the ownership cost comparison of five defining BEPV models and their counterpart conventional passenger vehicle (CPV) models, we concluded that in the short term, especially before 2015, China’s EVSS is very necessary for BEPVs to be cost competitive compared with CPVs. The transition from phase I to phase II EVSS will generally reduce subsidy intensity, thus resulting in temporary rise of BEPV ownership cost. However, with the decrease of BEPV manufacturing cost, the ownership cost of BEPV is projected to decrease despite of the phase-out mechanism under phase II EVSS. In the mid term of around 2015–2020, BEPV could become less or not reliant on subsidy to maintain cost competitiveness. However, given the performance disadvantages of BEPV, especially the limited electric range, China’s current EVSS is not sufficient for the BEPV market to take off. Technology improvement associated with battery cost reduction has to play an essential role in starting up China’s BEPV market. - Highlights: • China’s phase I and phase II electric vehicle subsidy schemes were reviewed. • Major electric vehicle models in China’s vehicle market were reviewed. • The ownership costs of five defining electric passenger vehicle models were compared. • Policies to promote electric vehicle deployment in China were discussed

  1. Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particular...... the congestion cost component of the LMP. A step-wise congestion management structure has been developed whereby the distribution system operator (DSO) predicts congestion for the coming day and publishes DTs prior to the clearing of the day-ahead market. EV fleet operators (FOs) optimize their EV charging...... schedules with respect to the predicted day-ahead prices and the published DTs, thereby avoiding congestion while still minimizing the charging cost. A Danish 400V distribution network is used to carry out case studies to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed concept for the prevention...

  2. Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

  3. Opportunities for PEM fuel cell commercialization : fuel cell electric vehicle demonstration in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The research and development activities devoted to the development of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were discussed with reference to its application in the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). In the past decade, PEMFC technology has been successfully applied in both the automobile and residential sector worldwide. In China, more than one billion RMB yuan has been granted by the Chinese government to develop PEM fuel cell technology over the past 5 years, particularly for commercialization of the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). The City of Shanghai has played a significant role in the FCEV demonstration with involvement by Shanghai Auto Industrial Company (SAIC), Tongji University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, and Shanghai Shenli High Tech Co. Ltd. These participants were involved in the development and integration of the following components into the FCEV: fuel cell engines, batteries, FCEV electric control systems, and primary materials for the fuel cell stack. During the course of the next five year-plan (2006-2010), Shanghai will promote the commercialization of FCEV. More than one thousand FCEVs will be manufactured and an FCEV fleet will be in operation throughout Shanghai City by 2010.

  4. Forecasting the State of Health of Electric Vehicle Batteries to Evaluate the Viability of Car Sharing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Semanjski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Car-sharing practices are introducing electric vehicles (EVs into their fleet. However, the literature suggests that at this point shared EV systems are failing to reach satisfactory commercial viability. A potential reason for this is the effect of higher vehicle usage, which is characteristic of car sharing, and the implications on the battery’s state of health (SoH. In this paper, we forecast the SoH of two identical EVs being used in different car-sharing practices. For this purpose, we use real life transaction data from charging stations and different EV sensors. The results indicate that insight into users’ driving and charging behavior can provide a valuable point of reference for car-sharing system designers. In particular, the forecasting results show that the moment when an EV battery reaches its theoretical end of life can differ in as much as a quarter of the time when vehicles are shared under different conditions.

  5. Thermal modeling of secondary lithium batteries for electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Selman, J. R.

    A major obstacle to the development of commercially successful electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the lack of a suitably sized battery. Lithium ion batteries are viewed as the solution if only they could be "scaled-up safely", i.e. if thermal management problems could be overcome so the batteries could be designed and manufactured in much larger sizes than the commercially available near-2-Ah cells. Here, we review a novel thermal management system using phase-change material (PCM). A prototype of this PCM-based system is presently being manufactured. A PCM-based system has never been tested before with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and battery packs, although its mode of operation is exceptionally well suited for the cell chemistry of the most common commercially available Li-ion batteries. The thermal management system described here is intended specifically for EV/HEV applications. It has a high potential for providing effective thermal management without introducing moving components. Thereby, the performance of EV/HEV batteries may be improved without complicating the system design and incurring major additional cost, as is the case with "active" cooling systems requiring air or liquid circulation.

  6. A granular tabu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Bernal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase, a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase. Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  7. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  8. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such

  9. Research on minimum sound specifications for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    This report documents research by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to identify ways : to develop sound specifications for electric and hybrid vehicles. The research was conducted to support activities : related to the implem...

  10. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-09

    This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  11. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  12. Battery Technologies for Mass Deployment of Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Electric vehicle (EV) batteries have significantly improved since their inception. However, lifetime of these batteries is still strongly dependent on the usage profiles. This report describes aspects of EV battery utilization, and their impact on ba...

  13. Investigations of safety risks in converted electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolech, M.; Foster, D.L.; Lange, R. de; Rodarius, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the departments Environmentally Sustainable Transport and Automotive of TNO (Netherlands organisation for applied scientific research) several projects investigating safety aspects of electric vehicles have been conducted, including one in cooperation with KEMA and RDW of the Netherlands.

  14. Panorama 2011: The development of hybrid and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Car manufacturers are having to deal with increasingly stringent norms and customers who are increasingly demanding with respect to fuel savings. As a result, large numbers of them are now looking into solutions that involve electrifying their vehicles. Hybrid vehicles, some of which can be recharged, and electric vehicles are the new stars of the auto trade shows. But not all manufacturers are necessarily using the same strategies. (author)

  15. Test and evaluation of Chrysler T115 electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    Three Chrysler T115 mini vans were converted to electric drive in the spring of 1984 and tested in test track, chassis dynamometer, and urban road settings. Vehicle dc energy consumption and driving range were measured on the Society of Automotive Engineers J227a C schedule driving cycle, and at constant speed at the Blainville, Quebec test track. Other tests measured top speed, maximum acceleration, hill climbing, and braking performance of the vehicle. The vehicle's performance achieved the expected results. Net energy consumption, when compared to gasoline powered vehicles, was very favourable. The test program showed that the vehicle electrics and drive system are reliable. However, the acceleration and maximum speed were limited by the voltage output of the lead acid battery. The performance of the vehicle was not adversely affected by wide range as in ambient temperature, due to the thermal management battery system in the vehicle. The range of the vehicle was limited to 80 km due to the power output of the lead acid battery. When tested with the prototype sodium sulphur battery the range exceeded 200 km. With this range, market acceptance of this vehicle will be significantly enhanced. The overall vehicle efficiency of the T115 electric van was calculated to be 58%. This compared very favourably to the gasoline-powered vehicle which has an efficiency of approximately 17%. Results of this program confirmed the fact that until suitable advanced batteries are available, commercial applications of electric vehicles will be limited. 8 refs., 18 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Glasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have been seen by some policymakers as a tool to target reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.1,2 Some researchers have shown that the full environmental impact of electric vehicles depends very much on the cleanliness of the electricity grid.3 In countries such as the USA and China, where coal-fired power plants still play a very important role in electricity generation, the environmental impact of electric vehicles is equivalent to, or even higher than that of cars running on internal combustion engines.4,5 In this study, the environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa were investigated. We found that, as the bulk of South Africa’s electricity is generated from relatively low-quality coal and the advanced exhaust clean up technologies are not implemented in the current coal-fired power plants, the use of electric vehicles in South Africa would not help to cut greenhouse gas emissions now (2010 or in the future (in 2030 using the IRP 2010 Revision 2, policy-adjusted IRP scenario, and actually would lead to higher SOx and NOx emissions.

  17. Improving Transportation Services for the University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce: A Case Study on Solving the Mixed-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Split Deliveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthikarnnarunai, N.; Olinick, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a case study on the application of techniques for solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) to improve the transportation service provided by the University of The Thai Chamber of Commerce to its staff. The problem is modeled as VRP with time windows, split deliveries, and a mixed fleet. An exact algorithm and a heuristic solution procedure are developed to solve the problem and implemented in the AMPL modeling language and CPLEX Integer Programming solver. Empirical results indicate that the heuristic can find relatively good solutions in a small fraction of the time required by the exact method. We also perform sensitivity analysis and find that a savings in outsourcing cost can be achieved with a small increase in vehicle capacity.

  18. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  19. Designing Light Electric Vehicles for urban freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, S.H.; Hogt, Roeland

    2017-01-01

    The number of light commercial vehicles (LCV) in cities is growing, which puts increasing pressure on the livability of cities. Freight vehicles are large contributors to polluting air and CO2 emissions and generate problems in terms of safety, noise and loss of public space. Small electric freight

  20. Optimal Charging of Electric Drive Vehicles: A Dynamic Programming Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Capion, Karsten Emil; Juul, Nina

    2013-01-01

    , therefore, we propose an ex ante vehicle aggregation approach. We illustrate the results in a Danish case study and find that, although optimal management of the vehicles does not allow for storage and day-to-day flexibility in the electricity system, the market provides incentive for intra-day flexibility....

  1. Online prediction of battery electric vehicle energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiquan; Besselink, Igo; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The energy consumption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) depends on a number of factors, such as vehicle characteristics, driving behavior, route information, traffic states and weather conditions. The variance of these factors and the correlation among each other make the energy consumption

  2. Battery electric vehicle energy consumption modelling for range estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Range anxiety is considered as one of the major barriers to the mass adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). One method to solve this problem is to provide accurate range estimation to the driver. This paper describes a vehicle energy consumption model considering the influence of weather

  3. Designing Light Electric Vehicles for urban freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogt, Roeland; Balm, S.H.; Warmerdam, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The number of light commercial vehicles (LCV) in cities is growing, which puts increasing pressure on the liveability of cities. Small electric freight vehicles and cargo bikes can offer a solution, as they take less space, can manoeuvre easily and free from polluting emissions. Within the two-year

  4. Recovery - Strategy to Accelerate U.S. Transition to Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard; LoGrasso, Joseph; Monterosso, Sandra

    2014-04-30

    The objective of this project was to develop Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) advanced propulsion technology and demonstrate a fleet of 146 Volt EREVs to gather data on vehicle performance and infrastructure to understand the impacts on commercialization while also creating or retaining a significant number of jobs in the United States. This objective was achieved by developing and demonstrating EREVs in real world conditions with customers in several diverse locations across the United States and installing, demonstration and testing charging infrastructure while also continuing development on second generation EREV technology. The project completed the development of the Chevrolet Volt and placed the vehicle in the hands of consumers in diverse locations across the United States. This demonstration leveraged the unique telematics platform of OnStar, standard on all Chevrolet Volts, to capture the operating experience that lead to better understanding of customer usage. The project team included utility partners that installed, demonstrated and tested charging infrastructure located in home, workplace and public locations to understand installation issues, customer usage and interaction with the electric grid. Development and demonstration of advanced technologies such as smart charging, fast charging and battery to grid interface were completed. The recipient collected, analyzed and reported the data generated by the demonstration. The recipient also continued to advance the technology of the Chevrolet Volt technology by developing energy storage system enhancements for the next-generation vehicle. Information gathered from the first generation vehicle will be utilized to refine the technology to reduce cost and mass while also increasing energy storage capacity to enhance adoption of the second generation technology into the marketplace. The launch of the first generation Chevrolet Volt will provide additional opportunities to further enhance the RESS

  5. Electric vehicle test report Cutler-Hammer Corvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Vehicles were characterized for the state of the art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed.

  6. An electric-drive vehicle strategy for Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, D.; Lipman, T. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Lundberg, M. [Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    The strategy that Sweden has taken regarding the use of electric-powered vehicles (EVs) to mitigate the environmental impacts caused by the transportation sector was discussed. Sweden's unique attributes include inexpensive and clean electricity, a strong environmental ethic and a strong automotive sector. All versions of electric-drive technology are considered to be environmentally superior to internal combustion engine vehicles. While the cost of batteries is dropping, they will remain highly priced. However, manufacturers are making larger investments into hybrid EVs and fuel cell EVs. Electric drive buses are also gaining in popularity as a means by which to reduce exhaust gases in urban areas. Sweden's industrial policy is aimed at manufacturing electrically driven heavy duty vehicles such as buses and trucks. The environmental policy is aimed at deploying small EVs for on and off-road transportation use, as well as heavy duty EVs targeted by the industrial policy. refs.

  7. State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

  8. Measurement of power loss during electric vehicle charging and discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolaki-Iosifidou, Elpiniki; Codani, Paul; Kempton, Willett

    2017-01-01

    When charging or discharging electric vehicles, power losses occur in the vehicle and the building systems supplying the vehicle. A new use case for electric vehicles, grid services, has recently begun commercial operation. Vehicles capable of such application, called Grid-Integrated Vehicles, may have use cases with charging and discharging summing up to much more energy transfer than the charging only use case, so measuring and reducing electrical losses is even more important. In this study, the authors experimentally measure and analyze the power losses of a Grid-Integrated Vehicle system, via detailed measurement of the building circuits, power feed components, and of sample electric vehicle components. Under the conditions studied, measured total one-way losses vary from 12% to 36%, so understanding loss factors is important to efficient design and use. Predominant losses occur in the power electronics used for AC-DC conversion. The electronics efficiency is lowest at low power transfer and low state-of-charge, and is lower during discharging than charging. Based on these findings, two engineering design approaches are proposed. First, optimal sizing of charging stations is analyzed. Second, a dispatch algorithm for grid services operating at highest efficiency is developed, showing 7.0% to 9.7% less losses than the simple equal dispatch algorithm. - Highlights: • Grid-to-battery-to-grid comprehensive power loss measurement and analysis. • No previous experimental measurements of Grid-Integrated Vehicle system power loss. • Electric vehicle loss analyzed as a factor of state of charge and charging rate. • Power loss in the building components less than 3%. • Largest losses found in Power Electronics (typical round-trip loss 20%).

  9. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  10. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  11. Long-term impacts of battery electric vehicles on the German electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, H. U.; Jochem, P.

    2016-05-01

    The emerging market for electric vehicles gives rise to an additional electricity demand. This new electricity demand will affect the electricity system. For quantifying those impacts a model-based approach, which covers long-term time horizons is necessary in order to consider the long lasting investment paths in electricity systems and the market development of electric mobility. Therefore, we apply a bottom-up electricity system model showing a detailed spatial resolution for different development paths of electric mobility in Germany until 2030. This model is based on a linear optimization which minimizes the discounted costs of the electricity system. We observe an increase of electricity exchange between countries and electricity generated by renewable energy sources. One major result turns out to be that electric vehicles can be integrated in the electricity system without increasing the system costs when a controlled (postponing) charging strategy for electric vehicles is applied. The impact on the power plant portfolio is insignificant. Another important side effect of electric vehicles is their substantial contribution to decreasing CO2 emissions of the German transport sector. Hence, electric mobility might be an integral part of a sustainable energy system of tomorrow.

  12. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  13. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO 2 e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  14. The use of electric vehicles: A case study on adding an electric car to a household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    The market share of battery electric vehicles (EVs) is expected to increase in the near future, but so far little is known about the actual usage of this emergent technology. Consumer preference studies have indicated that the current limitation on driving distance is important. At the same time...... studies on the actual use of household vehicles indicate modest requirements for daily travel. An unresolved issue is to what extent these range limitations affect daily travel in EVs. In this study, we use real electric vehicle trip data to study the distribution of daily use and types of home......-based journeys where a household decides to use an electric vehicle instead of their conventional vehicle. The results show how several factors related to distance and number of necessary charging events have plausible effects on electric vehicle travel behaviour. Further, the modelling indicates that the EV...

  15. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These

  16. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  17. Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    , the prices at which the electric drive vehicles become of interest to the power system are found. Smart charge, including the opportunity to discharge (vehicle-to-grid) is used in all scenarios. Analyses show that the marginal benefits decrease the larger the battery. For very high battery prices, large......The increase in fluctuating power production requires an increase in flexibility in the system as well. Flexibility can be found in generation technologies with fast response times or in storage options. In the transport sector, the proportion of electric drive vehicles is expected to increase over...... the next decade or two. These vehicles can provide some of the flexibility needed in the power system, in terms of both flexible demand and electricity storage. However, what are the batteries worth to the power system? And does the value depend on battery capacity? This article presents an analysis...

  18. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging using Dynamic Price Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Pedersen, Anders Bro; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    , however, be resolved by using intelligent EV charging strategies, commonly referred to as ”Smart Charging”. The basic approach involves modifying the default vehicle charging scheme of ”immediate charging”, to a more optimal one that is derived from insight into the current state of the grid. This work......With yearly increases in Electric Vehicle (EV) sales, the future for electric mobility continues to brighten, and with more vehicles hitting the roads every day, the energy requirements on the grid will increase, potentially causing low-voltage distribution grid congestion. This problem can...... proposed in this paper, involves a real-time control strategy for charging the EV using a dynamic price tariff, with the objective of minimizing the charging cost. Two different charging scenario are investigated, and the results are verified by experiments on a real Electric Vehicle. Finally, the costs...

  19. Alternating-Current Motor Drive for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Rippel, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    New electric drive controls speed of a polyphase as motor by varying frequency of inverter output. Closed-loop current-sensing circuit automatically adjusts frequency of voltage-controlled oscillator that controls inverter frequency, to limit starting and accelerating surges. Efficient inverter and ac motor would give electric vehicles extra miles per battery charge.

  20. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicles and mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2017-01-01

    From mobile, cable-free re-charging of electric vehicles, smart phones and laptops to collecting solar electricity from orbiting solar farms, wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies offer consumers and society enormous benefits. Written by innovators in the field, this comprehensive resource explains the fundamental principles and latest advances in WPT and illustrates key applications of this emergent technology.