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Sample records for fleckvieh dual-purpose cows

  1. Effects of Fleckvieh on the Performance of Dual-Purpose Cattle Improved by Hybridization with Local Beef Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Lian Hongxia; Yan Ping; Liu Xian; Liu Yan; Wang Wenhui; Zhu Ruiguang; Li Ming; Yang Guoyu

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study the improved effect of local beef cattle with Fleckvieh cattle and provide theoretical basic data for local cattle industry in central plain agricultural area in China. [Method] With 500 local beef cattle as female parents and Fleckvieh cattle as male parents,hybridization improvement was conducted via artificial insemination. The growth performance,slaughter performance,milk performance and milk components of F1 and F2 hybrids were measured. [Result] The birth body weights of F2 were significantly higher than those of local beef cow,but there was no remarkable difference between F1 and local beef cow or F1 and F2. The growth rates of F1 and F2 at different stages were higher than those of local beef cattle. The slaughter performance,such as carcass weight( P < 0. 05),dressing percentage,net meat rate( P < 0. 05),marbling score of F1 and F2 were higher than those of local beef cow. Milk production performance,such as actual milk yield,305 d corrected milk yield and 4% standard milk yield of F2 were signally higher than those of F1 and local beef cattle( P< 0. 05),and F1 was markedly higher than local beef cattle( P < 0. 05). For milk composition,although milk fat percentage,milk protein rate,lactose rate and total solids( TS) of F1 and F2 were slightly lowered compared with local beef cattle at varying degrees,they were still at high levels compared with Holstein cows.[Conclusion]Fleckvieh cattle,as a male parent,can significantly improved growth performance,slaughter performance and milk performance of offsprings. It would also increases the economic efficiency of local beef cattle by higher quality and price,as well as changing production model from beef to dual purpose of beef and milk.

  2. Limitations and potentials of dual-purpose cow herds in Central Coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

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    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Nicholson, Charles F; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Feed chemical and kinetic composition and animal performance information was used to evaluate productivity limitations and potentials of dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0) was systematically applied to specific groups of cows in structured simulations to establish probable input-output relationships for typical management, and to estimate probable outcomes from alternative management based on forage-based dietary improvements. Key herd vulnerabilities were pinpointed: chronic energy deficits among dry cows of all ages in late gestation and impeded growth for immature cows. Regardless of the forage season of calving, most cows, if not all, incur energy deficits in the final trimester of gestation; thus reducing the pool of tissue energy and constraining milking performance. Under typical management, cows are smaller and underweight for their age, which limits feed intake capacity, milk production and the probability of early postpartum return to ovarian cyclicity. The substitution of good-quality harvested forage for grazing increased predicted yields by about one-third over typical scenarios for underweight cows. When diets from first parturition properly supported growth and tissue repletion, milk production in second and third lactations was predicted to improve about 60%. Judiciously supplemented diets based on good quality grass and legume forages from first calving were predicted to further increase productivity by about 80% across a three-lactation cow lifetime. These dual-purpose herd owners have large incentives to increase sales income by implementing nutritional strategies like those considered in this study.

  3. Evaluation of tropical grasses for milk production by dual-purpose cows in tropical Mexico.

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    Juarez Lagunes, F I; Fox, D G; Blake, R W; Pell, A N

    1999-10-01

    Two experiments using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System were conducted to characterize the carbohydrate and protein fractions and corresponding rates of digestion of 15 tropical pasture grasses and to evaluate their ability to support milk production by dual-purpose cows. In the first experiment, ranges in carbohydrate and protein fractions of 15 grasses at 35 to 42 d of regrowth were: neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 63.5 to 74.9% of DM; permanganate lignin 4.7 to 7.8% of NDF; CP 5.5 to 11.9% of DM; and soluble protein 15.1 to 44.1% of crude protein (CP). The ranges of rates of digestion expressed as percent per hour were neutral detergent solubles (7.5 to 27.4); NDF (3.8 to 8.4); and neutral detergent insoluble protein (2.9 to 9.5). Predictions of the amount of milk that could be produced based on the amount of metabolizable energy supplied by the diet decreased 35% when NDF increased from 60 to 80%, and increased 88% when the rate of digestion of NDF increased from 3 to 6%/h. The milk production that could be sustained based on metabolizable protein in the diet doubled as CP increased from 4 to 12%. In the second experiment, nitrogen fertilization reduced NDF 7.3% and increased CP 84% without changing protein solubility, resulting in increased rumen nitrogen and metabolizable protein balances. With all forages, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System predicted that availability of metabolizable protein would limit milk production. Predicted microbial growth was limited by ruminally available protein rather than by available carbohydrate.

  4. Analyse of the relationship between milk components and reproduction in the Czech Fleckvieh first-calf cows

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    Jiří Bezdíček

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between reproduction and milk traits in cows of the Czech Fleckvieh. In the period of 90–180 days after calving milk of each dairy cow was analysed for constituent milk components and milk features (40 analyses in total for each sample. The database contained data concerning to the origin and reproduction traits (service period, services per conception and interval between calving and first insemination for every single cow.When the calculated correlations were evaluated the milk yield reached significant (* p < 0.05 to very significant (**p < 0.01 negative correlation to content of some milk components: fat (−0.253**; rough protein (−0.256**; casein (−0.197**; pure protein (−0.247**; and also to content of some macroelements as: phosphorus (−0.245**; sodium (−0.261**; magnesium (−0.151*.Relation of milk yield (in kg and reproduction traits (number of inseminations and length of service period shows non–significant positive correlations. With increasing of milk yield, there are a higher number of services per conception and longer service period. It confirms a general tendency of deterioration of reproduction with an increasing milk yield.We have found out that when the concentration of urea, acetone, number of somatic cells and percentage of fat in milk of Czech Fleckvieh cows was increased, reproduction traits worsened (number of inseminations, length of service period. The differences were not statistically significant. This ne­ga­ti­ve relation was not proven to an interval (number of days between calving and the first insemination, where a company management may have a significant influence.

  5. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SORTING OF FATTY ACID IN BOVINE MILK IN RELATION TO BODY CONDITION OF CZECH FLECKVIEH DAIRY COWS

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    Jaromir DUCHACEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids in milk are one of the most important components of milk. The aim of this study was to determinate relationships between groups of fatty acids and body condition score change in Czech Fleckvieh cows. Fatty acids were classification along its length of chain and its source of creation. To analysis was included total of 50 Czech Fleckvieh cows with different order of lactation. During the first 4 weeks of lactation, milk samples were collected at a weekly interval and body condition score was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Office Excel and the procedures MEANS and GLM of SAS 9.1. During the first four week of lactation, the proportions of short- and medium-chain fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids increased. Moreover the cows with a greater body condition score change mobilized storage depot fat more intensively, which resulted in higher proportions of dietary and depot fatty acids since week 1 of lactation, and long-chain fatty acids since week 2 of lactation. On the contrary, the animals with only a small body condition score change exhibited high proportions of short- and medium-fatty acids as well as de novo synthesised fatty acids in the most part of the period analysed. This indicates abut negative energy balance in early part of lactation and its compensation. The results also confirm the relationships between different groups of fatty acids, body condition score and negative energy balance. As more accurate for evaluation of intensity of negative energy balance was confirmed rather classification along source of creation. These results further emphasize importance the monitoring of body condition, milk composition and good herd management in first part of lactation.

  6. Economic analysis of alternative nutritional management of dual-purpose cow herds in central coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

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    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Nicholson, Charles F; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Market information was combined with predicted input-output relationships in an economic analysis of alternative nutritional management for dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Cow productivity outcomes for typical management and alternative feeding scenarios were obtained from structured sets of simulations in a companion study of productivity limitations and potentials using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0). Partial budgeting methods and sensitivity analysis were used to identify economically viable alternatives based on expected change in milk income over feed cost (change in revenues from milk sales less change in feed costs). Herd owners in coastal Veracruz have large economic incentives, from $584 to $1,131 in predicted net margin, to increase milk sales by up to 74% across a three-lactation cow lifetime by improving diets based on good quality grass and legume forages. This increment is equal to, or exceeds, in value the total yield from at least one additional lactation per cow lifetime. Furthermore, marginal rates of return (change in milk income over feed costs divided by change in variable costs when alternative practices are used) of 3.3 ± 0.8 indicate clear economic incentives to remove fundamental productivity vulnerabilities due to chronic energy deficits and impeded growth of immature cows under typical management. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the economic outcomes are robust for a variety of market conditions.

  7. Comparative study on production, reproduction and functional traits between Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cattle

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    Ludovic-Toma Cziszter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Aim of the current comparative study was to evaluate production outputs, reproduction efficiency and functional traits in dual-purpose Fleckvieh and Braunvieh cows, reared under temperate European conditions. Methods A data-set from 414 Fleckvieh and 42 Braunvieh cows and 799 lactations was analysed. ID tag number, milk yield per milking session, number of steps/interval and milk conductivity were recorded and collected daily using AfiMilk 3.076 A-DU software (Afimilk Ltd., Kibbutz, Israel. Production and milk quality data were taken from the results of the official performance recordings and the reproductive outputs of cows were recorded by the research stations veterinarians. Comparisons between the two genotypes were carried out using the one way analysis of variance protocol, with categorical factor being considered the breed of cows. All the statistical inferences were carried out using Statistica software (StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA. Results Fleckvieh cows significantly outperformed (p≤0.05 the Braunvieh herd, with average milk yields of 5,252.1±35.79 kg and 4,897.6±128.94 kg, respectively. Age at first calving was significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by the breed, with Fleckvieh heifers being more precocious (32.8±0.29 mo compared to those of Braunvieh breed (35.7±0.84 mo. Reproduction efficiency as defined by the number of inseminations per gestation, calving interval, dystocia, days dry and days open, was not influenced by genotype (p>0.05. Incidences of sub-clinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, lameness and abortions were not influenced by the breed factor (p>0.05. Stayability of cows was significantly (p≤0.001 influenced by genotype, with Braunvieh cows having an average age at culling of 117.88±11.78 months compared to 90.88±2.89 months in Fleckvieh. Conclusion Overall, results have shown that genotype significantly influenced milk yield, age at first calving and longevity.

  8. Farmer-observed health data around calving--Genetic parameters and association with veterinarian diagnoses in Austrian Fleckvieh cows.

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    Koeck, A; Fuerst, C; Egger-Danner, C

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if farmer-observed health data around calving can be used together with veterinarian diagnoses for genetic evaluations. Four diseases are recorded by farmers: retained placenta, downer cow syndrome, mastitis, and lameness. Mean disease frequencies were 4.7, 3.8, and 1.8% for retained placenta, downer cow syndrome, and mastitis, respectively. Lameness had a very low frequency (0.7%) and a preliminary analysis revealed a heritability close to zero for this trait. Therefore, lameness was not considered in the analysis. For genetic analyses, univariate and bivariate linear animal models were fitted. Heritabilities for retained placenta, downer cow syndrome, and mastitis were 0.01, 0.03, and 0.003, respectively. Genetic correlations among the investigated disease traits were low to moderate and not significantly different from zero. Pearson correlations between estimated breeding values for disease traits and other routinely evaluated traits were computed, which revealed mostly favorable relationships to fertility, maternal calving ease, muscling, and longevity. In addition, a moderate favorable association was found between mastitis and somatic cell score. Heritability estimates of farmer-observed health traits were comparable to estimates based on veterinarian diagnoses. Genetic correlations between the investigated diseases based on farmer observations and veterinarian diagnoses were almost 1, with estimates ranging from 0.98 to 0.99. These results suggest that farmer recorded health data could be used together with veterinarian diagnoses for genetic evaluations. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Shortening the postpartum anoestrous interval in suckled crossbred dual purpose cows using progestagen intravaginal sponges plus eCG and PGF(2alpha).

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    Gutiérrez, J C; Palomares, R; González, R; Portillo, G; Montero-Urdaneta, M; Rubio-Guillén, J; Hernández-Fonseca, H J; Soto-Belloso, E

    2009-02-01

    One hundred and twenty-six suckled crossbred cows (Bos taurus x Bos indicus), with body condition score >or=3 (1-5 point scale), were employed in the present study to evaluate the effectiveness of intravaginal progestin-releasing sponges (IVS) for shortening anoestrous interval. Fifty-four cows were assigned to control group. Seventy-two cows were treated with IVS impregnated with 250 mg of medroxy-acetate-progesterone (MAP) as follows: day 0, IVS plus 5 mg of 17beta-E and 50 mg of MAP i.m.; day 6, 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin and 25 mg prostaglandin F(2alpha) i.m.; day 8, IVS withdrawal and day 9, 1 mg 17beta-E i.m. Cows were also grouped according to postpartum days (dpp) at treatment: MAP 70 days (n = 47); control >70 days (n = 32). From IVS removal, cows were detected in oestrus and inseminated. Cows not detected in oestrus were timed artificial insemination 72 h after sponge removal. Treatment effect on oestrous rate (ER), conception rate (CR), pregnancy rate (PR) and treatment to conception intervals (TCI) and calving to conception intervals (CCI) were evaluated. The ER, CR and PR were analysed using PROC LOGISTIC, while TCI and CCI with PROC GLM of SAS. The groups MAP 70 days showed higher (p 70 days (84.0% and 76.6% vs 31.8% and 31.3% respectively). The PR was higher (p 70 days vs control cattle.

  10. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

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    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  11. Producción de leche de vacas mestizas del Sistema Doble Propósito en el municipio de Arauca -Milk production of cows crossbred dual purpose system of municipalities of Arauca.

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    Salamanca, CA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa producción de leche y la duración de la lactancia son parámetros que permite conocer la cantidad de leche producida por la vaca y por finca.AbstractMilk production and lactation length are parameters to find out the amount of milk produced by cows and per farm.

  12. Clinical and biochemical signs in Fleckvieh cattle with genetically confirmed Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (cattle homozygous for Fleckvieh haplotype 2).

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    Burgstaller, Johann; Url, Angelika; Pausch, Hubert; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Egerbacher, Monika; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome (FBS) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism, which has been reported in human and some animals (OMIA 000366-9913). In Fleckvieh cattle it is caused by mutations in SLC2A2, a gene encoding for glucose transporter protein 2 (GLUT2), which is primarily expressed in liver, kidney, pancreas and intestines. The causal mutation resides in a previously reported Fleckvieh Haplotype 2 (FH-2). FH-2 homozygous individuals are rare, but due to widespread use of heterozygous bulls in artificial insemination, heterozygous animals are likely to be present in a larger number in the cattle population. Two clinical cases of Fleckvieh cattle with a syndrome resembling the phenotypic appearance of FBS are presented in the present study describing the association between the clinical manifestations of FBS and the postulated frameshift mutation in bovine SLC2A2. Clinical examination showed poor growth, retarded development, polyuria, and polydipsia. Laboratory analyses showed an increased plasma glucose but normal insulin concentration and increased renal glucose excretion. Histopathological examination of kidney and liver samples revealed massively increased liver glycogen storage and nephrosis. Sires of both cases were tested positive for being heterozygous carriers for the same frameshift mutation in SLC2A2 as was originally reported in Fleckvieh cattle. DNA of both cases described was analyzed and Sanger sequencing confirmed homozygosity for the frameshift mutation in SLC2A2.

  13. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

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    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  14. Dual purpose wheat production with different levels of nitrogen topdressing

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    Éderson Luis Henz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the practice of Crop-Livestock Integration is stimulated as a way of increasing the generation of foreign exchange for Brazil. Integrated systems improve land use efficiency as well as preserve, recover and increment or soil fertility. The aim of this research was to evaluate how different doses of nitrogen fertilization can affect production and quality of dual purpose wheat submitted to grazing. The experimental designed was randomized block with five treatments (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 Kg N ha-1, like ammonium nitrate and four repetitions. The forage yield, the percentage crude protein (P=.0001 and acid detergent insoluble protein (P=.0054 had a linear increased because of the nitrogen addition doses. The crude protein percentage changed the estimate of all soluble carbohydrates (P=.0001 and non-fibrous carbohydrates (P=.0186, but did not influence the, nitrogen detergent fiber corrected with ash and proteins percentage contributing for content cell. The crops production (P=.0001 and the number of kernels per ear (P=.0001 showed significantly difference because of the nitrogen additions dose, increasing the number of fertile flowers. The nitrogen topdressing alters forage production, the chemical composition and the production of dual purpose wheat grains subjected to grazing.

  15. Definition of the overall udder score for the Czech Fleckvieh Cattle

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    Josef Kučera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the linear type classification of 49 246 young cows of the Czech Fleckvieh breed the overall udder score was proposed. Calculation of the overall udder score is derived from the particular type traits, especially from those traits, where the optimal development is not scored by maximum. Cubic regression coefficients were used for recalculation and obtained a new scale for traits such as udder depth, teat length, teat thickness, teat position and teat placement. These re-calculated traits together with other particular traits described on the udder were combined to the model for overall udder score – model 1. In the model 2 the same proportion of the particular traits was used with restriction by extreme development of the udder dept, where two different levels of penalization (−3 and −6 points were used. Both models were compared with the current used system, where the x = 77.1, s = 5.22; for model 1 x = 84.94 (s = 2.65; for model 2 x = 84.40, s = 2.74. In both proposed models the distribution of the overall score for udder showed significantly smooth distribution, than in current system.The coefficient of correlation between current system and new proposals reached r = 0.799. Estimated breeding values for new models decreased from x = 0.199, s = 0.946 by the current used system, to x = 0.087 for model 1, x = 0.089 for model 2 respectively. Also the variability of the breeding values decreased. Estimated coefficients of heritability also decreased from 0.22 by the current system to 0.15 by the model 1 and 0.15 by the model 2, respectively.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF THE PUERPERAL AFFECTIONS ON INSEMINATION INDEX AND UTERINE REPOSE IN COWS

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    PĂCALĂ N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made, through a year, at SD Timisoara on cows fromHolstein-Friesian and Fleckvieh breed. The puerperal period was observed, theincidence of the endometrites was recorded and there were calculated tworeproduction parameters: the Insemination Index (Ig and the Uterine Reposeduration (UR (Open days. The Insemination Index (service/conception (Igrepresents the mean number of artificial inseminations performed in order to obtaina pregnancy. Uterine Repose represents the time interval, in days, from calving untilthe fecund insemination. The Uterine Repose has two components: VoluntaryWaiting Period (VWP (time interval from calving until the introduction of thefemale to reproduction and Service Period (SP (time interval from the end of theVWP until the fecund insemination. There were noticed that the incidence of theuterine infections were significant higher (p<0.05 at cows from Holstein-Friesianbreed (63.3%, compared to the cows from Fleckvieh breed (41.3%. TheInsemination Index was significant lower (p<0.05 at cows without uterine infections(1.9, compared to the cows with uterine infections (2.5. The mean duration of theUterine Repose was significant lower (p<0.05 at healthy cows (114.7 days,compared with cows with uterine infections after calving (182.2 days. It seams thatthe cows from Fleckvieh breed are more resistant to the exploitation conditions formilk production than compared with cows from Holstein-Friesian breed.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF THE PUERPERAL AFFECTIONS ON INSEMINATION INDEX AND UTERINE REPOSE IN COWS

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    N. PĂCALĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made, through a year, at SD Timisoara on cows fromHolstein-Friesian and Fleckvieh breed. The puerperal period was observed, theincidence of the endometrites was recorded and there were calculated tworeproduction parameters: the Insemination Index (Ig and the Uterine Reposeduration (UR (Open days. The Insemination Index (service/conception (Igrepresents the mean number of artificial inseminations performed in order to obtaina pregnancy. Uterine Repose represents the time interval, in days, from calving untilthe fecund insemination. The Uterine Repose has two components: VoluntaryWaiting Period (VWP (time interval from calving until the introduction of thefemale to reproduction and Service Period (SP (time interval from the end of theVWP until the fecund insemination. There were noticed that the incidence of theuterine infections were significant higher (p<0.05 at cows from Holstein-Friesianbreed (63.3%, compared to the cows from Fleckvieh breed (41.3%. TheInsemination Index was significant lower (p<0.05 at cows without uterine infections(1.9, compared to the cows with uterine infections (2.5. The mean duration of theUterine Repose was significant lower (p<0.05 at healthy cows (114.7 days,compared with cows with uterine infections after calving (182.2 days. It seams thatthe cows from Fleckvieh breed are more resistant to the exploitation conditions formilk production than compared with cows from Holstein-Friesian breed.

  18. A MITF mutation associated with a dominant white phenotype and bilateral deafness in German Fleckvieh cattle.

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    Ute Philipp

    Full Text Available A dominantly inherited syndrome associated with hypopigmentation, heterochromia irides, colobomatous eyes and bilateral hearing loss has been ascertained in Fleckvieh cattle (German White Fleckvieh syndrome. This syndrome has been mapped to bovine chromosome (BTA 22 using a genome-wide association study with the bovine high density single nucleotide polymorphism array. An R210I missense mutation has been identified within microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF as responsible for this syndrome. The mutation is located in the highly conserved basic region of the protein and causes a negative-dominant effect. SOX10 and PAX3 promoter binding site mutations in MITF could be ruled out as causative for the German White Fleckvieh syndrome. Molecular characterization of this newly detected bovine syndrome means a large animal model is now available for the Tietz syndrome in humans.

  19. A MITF Mutation Associated with a Dominant White Phenotype and Bilateral Deafness in German Fleckvieh Cattle

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    Philipp, Ute; Lupp, Bettina; Mömke, Stefanie; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Eule, Johanna Corinna; Rehage, Jürgen; Distl, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    A dominantly inherited syndrome associated with hypopigmentation, heterochromia irides, colobomatous eyes and bilateral hearing loss has been ascertained in Fleckvieh cattle (German White Fleckvieh syndrome). This syndrome has been mapped to bovine chromosome (BTA) 22 using a genome-wide association study with the bovine high density single nucleotide polymorphism array. An R210I missense mutation has been identified within microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) as responsible for this syndrome. The mutation is located in the highly conserved basic region of the protein and causes a negative-dominant effect. SOX10 and PAX3 promoter binding site mutations in MITF could be ruled out as causative for the German White Fleckvieh syndrome. Molecular characterization of this newly detected bovine syndrome means a large animal model is now available for the Tietz syndrome in humans. PMID:22174915

  20. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF THE LOCAL DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE

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    Zuzana Krupová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year and with negative profitability ratio (-20%. Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%, on the effective utilisation of costs (+105% and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management.

  1. System-Level Logistics for Dual Purpose Canister Disposal

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    Kalinina, Elena A.

    2014-06-03

    The analysis presented in this report investigated how the direct disposal of dual purpose canisters (DPCs) may be affected by the use of standard transportation aging and disposal canisters (STADs), early or late start of the repository, and the repository emplacement thermal power limits. The impacts were evaluated with regard to the availability of the DPCs for emplacement, achievable repository acceptance rates, additional storage required at an interim storage facility (ISF) and additional emplacement time compared to the corresponding repackaging scenarios, and fuel age at emplacement. The result of this analysis demonstrated that the biggest difference in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario is for a repository start date of 2036 with a 6 kW thermal power limit. The differences are also seen in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario for the alternative with a 6 kW thermal limit and a 2048 start date, and for the alternatives with a 10 kW thermal limit and 2036 and 2048 start dates. The alternatives with disposal of UNF in both DPCs and STADs did not require additional storage, regardless of the repository acceptance rate, as compared to the reference repackaging case. In comparison to the reference repackaging case, alternatives with the 18 kW emplacement thermal limit required little to no additional emplacement time, regardless of the repository start time, the fuel loading scenario, or the repository acceptance rate. Alternatives with the 10 kW emplacement thermal limit and the DPCs and STADs fuel loading scenario required some additional emplacement time. The most significant decrease in additional emplacement time occurred in the alternative with the 6 kW thermal limit and the 2036 repository starting date. The average fuel age at emplacement ranges from 46 to 88 years. The maximum fuel age at

  2. 弗莱维赫牛在北京地区超数排卵效果初探%Superovulation of Fleckvieh Cattle in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伯阳; 李卓琳; 田凤; 姬向东; 郭勇; 倪和民

    2017-01-01

    To fully explore the reproductive potential of import dual-purpose cattle Fleckvieh,determine its feasible scheme of superovulation in Beijing and quickly establish a core group of Fleckvieh,two superovulation experiments were conducted in spring (Match) and autumn (September) respectively.The superovulation doses were based on cattles' weight and nutritional status,and the proceedings of the two experiments were the same.The results showed that the average number of available embryos per female (5.33± 1.51) and pregnancy rate (81.82%) in spring had no significant difference compared with those in autumn (6.00 ± 1.83,69.57%) (P>0.05).There were no significant difference on the average number of available embryos per multiparity between spring (6.50±2.21) and autumn (5.33±0.58) (P>0.05).And there were also no significant difference on the average number of available embryos per nulliparity between spring (5.75 ± 1.26) and autumn (4.50 ± 2.38) (P>0.05).The results indicated that this scheme could be used to conduct superovulation of Fleckvieh at different parities both in spring and autumn in Beijing.%为了充分挖掘进口乳肉兼用牛弗莱维赫的繁殖潜力,探寻在北京地区饲养的乳肉兼用牛超数排卵的可行性方案,实现快速建立核心群的目标,在春季(3月份)和秋季(9月份)对同一牛群进行2次超排处理,2次超排程序相同,超排用药量主要依据其体重与营养状况.结果表明:春季的头均可用胚数和妊娠率分别为(5.33±1.51)枚、81.82%,秋季的头均可用胚数和妊娠率分别为(6.00±1.83)枚、69.57%,二者之间差异不显著(P>0.05).经产牛在春季、秋季的头均可用胚数分别为(6.50±2.21)、(5.33±0.58)枚,二者之间差异不显著(P>0.05).育成牛在春季、秋季头均可用胚胎数分别为(5.75±1.26)、(4.50±2.38)枚,二者之间差异不显著(P>0.05).该试验方案可用于北京地区不同胎次弗莱维赫牛的超数排卵,超排季节可选春季或秋季.

  3. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  4. Comparing hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for dual-purpose production under contrasting environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Kailei; Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Thouminot, C.; Bjelková, M.; Stramkale, V.; Amaducci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in hemp as a multi-purpose crop is growing worldwide and for the first time in 2015 it was cultivated in Europe on more than 20.000 ha as a dual-purpose crop, for the seeds and for the fibre. In the present study, fibre and seed productivity of 14 commercial cultivars were tested in four

  5. A Community Facilities Center with Fallout Shelter as Dual Purpose Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A presentation is made of five award-winning designs for a fireproof community recreation facility, on a selected site in New York City, incorporating a fallout shelter as a dual-purpose space. Graphic illustrations are given of the award winning designs, each of which used one of the following solutions--(1) the fallout structure above grade with…

  6. DESIGN OF A COMPACT DUAL-PURPOSE STARTING CLUTCH IN THE DRIVE OF A PROTOTYPE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján PETRÓCI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the development of a dual-purpose clutch was based on racing experiences and application requirements, as well as the results from testing the new power unit in the existing prototype vehicle. In order to achieve the highest possible driving range of the prototype vehicle, it has been necessary to eliminate the maximum possible losses and drive in unnecessary components. The design aimed to achieve simple access, reliability and low weight.

  7. Dual-purpose RTOF diffractometer facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor. Research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Hiismaeki, P.E.; Antson, O.K.; Tiitta, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    Some new features of an RTOF (Reverse Time of Flight) diffractometer facility, to be installed at the ET-RR-1 reactor, are considered. The suggested facility will be a dual-purpose instrument. It can be used for high-resolution crystallography using transmission diffraction technique and for strain measurements of technical components using a scattering geometry with a detector at 90 deg. (Copyright (c) Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus (VTT) 1992.)

  8. Dual-purpose RTOF diffractometer facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayouf, R.M.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Hiisimaeki, P.E.; Antson, O.K.; Tiitta, A.T. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Reactor Lab.

    1992-11-01

    Some new features of an RTOF diffractometer facility, to be installed at the ET-RR-1 reactor, are considered. The suggested facility will be a dual-purpose instrument. It can be used for high-resolution crystallography utilizing transmission diffraction technique and for strain measurements of technical components using a scattering geometry with a detector at 90 deg. (orig.). (30 refs., 1 fig.).

  9. A frameshift mutation in GON4L is associated with proportionate dwarfism in Fleckvieh cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Wurmser, Christine; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Misurova, Lubica; Jung, Simone; Langenmayer, Martin C; Schnieke, Angelika; Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela; Fries, Ruedi; Pausch, Hubert

    2016-03-31

    Low birth weight and postnatal growth restriction are the most evident symptoms of dwarfism. Accompanying skeletal aberrations may compromise the general condition and locomotion of affected individuals. Several paternal half-sibs with a low birth weight and a small size were born in 2013 in the Fleckvieh cattle population. Affected calves were strikingly underweight at birth in spite of a normal gestation length and had craniofacial abnormalities such as elongated narrow heads and brachygnathia inferior. In spite of a normal general condition, their growth remained restricted during rearing. We genotyped 27 affected and 10,454 unaffected animals at 44,672 single nucleotide polymorphisms and performed association tests followed by homozygosity mapping, which allowed us to map the locus responsible for growth failure to a 1.85-Mb segment on bovine chromosome 3. Analysis of whole-genome re-sequencing data from one affected and 289 unaffected animals revealed a 1-bp deletion (g.15079217delC, rs723240647) in the coding region of the GON4L gene that segregated with the dwarfism-associated haplotype. We showed that the deletion induces intron retention and premature termination of translation, which can lead to a severely truncated protein that lacks domains that are likely essential to normal protein function. The widespread use of an undetected carrier bull for artificial insemination has resulted in a tenfold increase in the frequency of the deleterious allele in the female population. A frameshift mutation in GON4L is associated with autosomal recessive proportionate dwarfism in Fleckvieh cattle. The mutation has segregated in the population for more than 50 years without being recognized as a genetic disorder. However, the widespread use of an undetected carrier bull for artificial insemination caused a sudden accumulation of homozygous calves with dwarfism. Our findings provide the basis for genome-based mating strategies to avoid the inadvertent mating of carrier

  10. GRAZING BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY COWS ON MOUNTAIN FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  11. Evaluation of a Dual-Purpose Chemical Applicator for Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Abubakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the major problems of rice production is the shortage of labor resulting from migration from rural to urban areas, making it very difficult to meet peak demands for paddy production. In most developing countries of Southeast Asia, agricultural mechanization of paddy field operation is mostly carried out using conventional machines. For example in rice production powerintensive operations such as water pumping, land preparations, transplanting seedlings, harvestings and threshing are being mechanized but other operations like fertilizer and chemical (pesticides applications are not yet fully mechanized, rather they are performed manually with motorized backpack knapsack sprayers which have many disadvantages. The main objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new concept dual-purpose chemical applicator for paddy fields farmers in order to complement the labor shortage during the peak period. Approach: A dual-purpose chemical applicator for flooded paddy field was evaluated using the S341.4 Standard in respect to the distribution patterns/droplet sizes and uniformity of spreading/spraying for the chemical application to boost agricultural mechanization in rice production and also to overcome the safety concern of hazardous spray drift during chemical application by the paddy farmers. The dual purpose applicator was mounted on a high clearance prime mover. The machine performances for both granular and liquid chemical application were reported. Results: Results for urea granular chemical indicate that at low (40 kg ha−1 and high (120 kg ha−1 rates and 550 rpm disc speed distribution pattern skewed to the left whereas the distribution pattern shape at medium (80 kg ha−1 rates was good flattop. At high rate (120 kg ha−1 and 1000 rpm disc speed, mean distribution pattern became poor (M-shape and also at low and medium application rates the distribution pattern shapes lopsided

  12. Crossbreeding dual-purpose cattle for beef production in tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Voigt, A; Noguera, E; Rodriguez, H L; Huerta-Leidenz, N O; Morón-Fuenmayor, O; Rincón-Urdaneta, E

    1997-11-01

    Six breed types groups of six steer calves each were used to observe differences in growth and carcass traits: F1 Brown Swiss (F1BS), F1 Holstein (F1HO), F2 Brahman (F2BR), F2 Criollo Rio Limon (F2CRL), purebred Criollo Rio Limon (CRL), and Perija Mosaic (PMO). After 404 days of grazing, the heaviest F1BS and F2BR steers were different from F1HO and CRL counterparts (p carcass maturity, quality or yield grade, boneless cut percentages, bone percentage or percent trimmable fat did not vary among breed types. All steers were within the A maturity level and graded Standard. Results indicate the importance of feeding dual-purpose steers to heavier weights to please industry preferences.

  13. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  14. The Analytical Review of the Condition of Heavy Class Military and Dual-Purpose Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blokhin Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is the evaluation of the actual condition of heavy (weight more than 700 kg military robotics and dual-purpose robotics in the world. The extensive review of the world market of heavy class military unmanned ground vehicle was made. All reviewed robots are used at present time or exist like prototypes. All robots were systematized by most important technical characteristics. In the closing of article the analysis of the reviewed heavy class dual purpose UGVs are presented. Based on the analysis the conclusion about actual condition of the heavy military robotics and dual-purpose robotics was made. Also the most promising ways and tendencies of development are representeds.

  15. PREDICTION OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL SIMMENTAL AND RED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN ADMIXTURE LEVELS IN SWISS FLECKVIEH CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Khayatzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimated levels of local ancestry for individuals of the Swiss Fleckvieh dairy cattle population. It is a composite breed descending from two pure breeds, Simmental (SIM and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF. Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip genotyping data for a total of 500 pure and admixed animals were used for the analysis. The global ancestries estimated by Hidden Markov model were 0.68 and 0.32 for RHF and SIM respectively. Local ancestry levels investigated along chromosomes 2, 3 and 13 indicated that there were some regions across the chromosomes exhibiting substantial fluctuations in admixture. On chromosome 2, in the range of 28 to 31, 41 to 46 and 54 to 56 Mb RHF ancestry is substantially higher than average (0.77-0.78. These regions on chromosome 2 are wide, indicating recent admixture. Along the segments on chromosome 2, many QTLs related to dairy, conformation, reproduction, health and carcass traits were found. We observed sharper excess in favour of SIM on chromosome 3, whereas different regions with excess of RHF and SIM were found out on Chromosome 13. At the first part of chromosome 13, an excess of RHF was observed. Moreover, in regions between 40 and 57 Mb excess of SIM, referred to recent admixture was detected. In respect of RHF chromosome segments in admixed animals, dairy, reproduction and health QTLs were found. In positions where more Simmental segments were detected, QTLs related to meat and carcass traits as well as udder health traits were found. In conclusion, the authors believe that estimation of local admixture levels in crossbred populations can add information to the composite breeds history of selection.

  16. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  17. Economic evaluation of dual purpose desalination plants by fuel type in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seung-Su, Kim; Man-Ki, Lee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dae-jeon city (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In light of the recent rapid increase in the fossil fuel prices it is meaningful to evaluate the impact of these price changes in the economics of dual-purpose desalination projects producing electricity and fresh water simultaneously. The price of crude oil and LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased by about 200% and 100% during the past three or four years. The uranium price has also increased by nearly 500% during the same period. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is being developed as a small size PWR type and the LNG Combine Cycle coupled with MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) which are being acknowledged as promising energy sources for the future in Korea. The methods of analysis used in this paper are the lifetime leveled cost method for the power and water cost calculation and the power credit method for the total cost allocation. DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program) developed by IAEA was used to perform an economic comparison between the two dual-purpose desalination projects. From the results of the analysis it is found that the desalination by SMART-MED is much superior to that of LNG CC-MED under the current economic and technical situations. It is also shown that the relative superiority of SMART-MED to LNG CC-MED will be maintained even in case where an increase in the uranium price and the SMART construction cost would reach a maximum in the sensitivity analysis. In the case that the discount rate declines to 5% per year, the relative attractiveness of SMART-MED which is a capital intensive plant will be enhanced when compared to that for a 7% discount rate. In addition to this, it is thought that a nuclear energy source will be favored much more than now in the field of desalination if the regulations for the emission of greenhouse gases are to be strengthened. (authors)

  18. Feed and fuel: the dual-purpose advantage of an industrial sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussoline, Wendy A; Wilkie, Ann C

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable agricultural systems must support nutritional requirements, meet the energy demands of a growing population, preserve environmental resources and mitigate climate change. The sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a high-yielding crop that requires minimal fertilization and irrigation, and the CX-1 industrial cultivar offers superior potential for feed and fuel. CX-1 had the highest agronomic fresh vine yield (51.5 t ha(-1) ), averaged over two cropping seasons, compared with Hernandez (33.7) and Beauregard (21.8) varieties. CX-1 vines were more nutritional than the table varieties, specifically in regard to relative feed value (205), water-soluble carbohydrates (171 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)), total digestible nutrients (643 g kg(-1) DM), metabolizable energy (10.2 MJ kg(-1) DM) and organic matter digestibility. Their lower fiber and lignin concentrations contributed to their freshness and digestibility throughout maturity. Significantly higher iron concentrations make the CX-1 vines a valuable, low-fat iron supplement for animal feed. The CX-1 roots also showed the highest bioethanol potential (82.3 g ethanol kg(-1) fresh root) compared to Hernandez (64.5) and Beauregard (48.1). The CX-1 industrial sweetpotato is an ideal dual-purpose crop for tropical/subtropical climates that can be utilized as a non-grain-based feedstock for bioethanol production while contributing a valuable, high-yielding nutritional supplement for animal feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Genetic relationships between dagginess, breech bareness, and wool traits in New Zealand dual-purpose sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, N K; Blair, H T; Hickson, R E; Dodds, K G; Johnson, P L; McEwan, J C

    2013-10-01

    Genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated for dagginess, breech, wool, and fiber traits from approximately 29,500 progeny born in 2009 and 2010 in New Zealand dual-purpose ram breeding sheep flocks. Dagginess is adherence of fecal matter to the wool, and this study investigates the genetic and phenotypic correlations between dagginess and breech and wool traits. Estimates for heritability were moderate (0.21 to 0.44) for the following traits: dag score at 3 and 8 mo (DAG3, DAG8), breech bareness, wool length, wool bulk (BULK), mean fiber diameter, mean fiber diameter SD, mean fiber diameter CV, curvature (CURV), weaning weight at 3 mo, and autumn BW. Heritability estimates for fleece weight at 12 mo and proportion of medullated fibers were high (0.49 and 0.53, respectively). Dag score at 3 mo and DAG8 had low genetic and phenotypic correlations with all traits. Breech bareness had positive genetic and phenotypic correlations with CURV and BULK and mostly negative genetic correlations with all other wool traits. In summary the quantity and attributes of wool were not primary causative factors in fecal accumulation, leaving fecal consistency and composition as the major factors.

  20. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  1. Activation analysis of dual-purpose metal cask after the end of design lifetime for decommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Man; Ku, Ji Young; Dho Ho Seog; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae Hun [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) has developed a dual-purpose metal cask for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel that has been generated by domestic light-water reactors. The metal cask was designed in compliance with international and domestic technology standards, and safety was the most important consideration in developing the design. It was designed to maintain its integrity for 50 years in terms of major safety factors. The metal cask ensures the minimization of waste generated by maintenance activities during the storage period as well as the safe management of the waste. An activation evaluation of the main body, which includes internal and external components of metal casks whose design lifetime has expired, provides quantitative data on their radioactive inventory. The radioactive inventory of the main body and the components of the metal cask were calculated by applying the MCNP5·ORIGEN-2 evaluation system and by considering each component's chemical composition, neutron flux distribution, and reaction rate, as well as the duration of neutron irradiation during the storage period. The evaluation results revealed that 10 years after the end of the cask's design life, {sup 60}Co had greater radioactivity than other nuclides among the metal materials. In the case of the neutron shield, nuclides that emit high-energy gamma rays such as {sup 28}Al and {sup 24}Na had greater radioactivity immediately after the design lifetime. However, their radioactivity level became negligible after six months due to their short half-life. The surface exposure dose rates of the canister and the main body of the metal cask from which the spent nuclear fuel had been removed with expiration of the design lifetime were determined to be at very low levels, and the radiation exposure doses to which radiation workers were subjected during the decommissioning process appeared to be at insignificant levels. The evaluations of this study strongly suggest that

  2. Structural dimensioning of dual purpose cask prototype; Dimensionamento estrutural de prototipo de casco de duplo proposito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz Leite da; Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta; Lopes, Claudio Cunha [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: silvall@cdtn.br; mouraor@cdtn.br; ccl@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    The structural dimensioning of a Type B(U) dual purpose cask prototype is part of the scope of work of the Brazilian institute CDTN in the IAEA regional project involving Latin American countries which operate research reactors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru). In order to meet the dimensional and operational characteristics of the reactor facilities in these countries, a maximum weight of 10.000 kgf and a maximum dimension of 1 m in at least one direction were set for the cask. With these design restrictions, the cask's payload is either 21 MTR or 78 TRIGA fuel elements. The cask's most important components are main body, primary and secondary lids, basket and impact limiters. The main body has a sandwich-like wall with internal and external layers made of AISI 304 stainless steel with lead in-between. The lead provides biological shielding. The primary lid is similarly layered, but in the axial direction. It is provided with a double system of metallic rings and has ports for pressurization, sampling and containment verification. The secondary lid has the main function of protecting the primary lid against mechanical impacts. The basket structure is basically a tube array reinforced by bottom plate, feet and spacers. Square tubes are used for MTR elements and circular tubes for TRIGA elements. Finally, the impact limiters are structures made of an external stainless steel thin covering and a filling made of the wood composite OSB - Oriented Strand Board. The prototype is provided with bottom and top impact limiters, which are attached to each other by means of four threaded rods. The limiters are not rigidly attached to the cask body. A half scale cask model was designed to be submitted to a testing program. As its volume scales down to 1:8, the model weight is 1,250 kgf. This paper presents the methodology for the preliminary structural dimensioning of the critical parameters of the cask prototype. Both normal conditions of operation and

  3. Estimation and comparison of benefits due to feeding hay and silage during the dry season on commercial dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras and Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, A.D.; Holmann, F.; Argel, P.; Ordoñez, J.C.; Chaves, J.

    2006-01-01

    Smallholders with dual-purpose cattle production systems in most Central America experience a shortage of forages during the dry season (4-8 month. As a result, substantially lower milk production and weight gain occurs. Dual-purpose operations seeking to maximize milk and beef production in the dry

  4. Effects of Ensilaged Apple Pomace on Milk Yield and Quality of Simmental Hybrid Dual-Purpose Cattles%青贮苹果渣对西门塔尔牛产奶量及乳品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严平

    2016-01-01

    选取年龄、体重相近和首次产犊且处于泌乳后期(200d)的西门塔尔牛60头,采用完全随机区组设计分为6组,对照组饲喂由青贮玉米、苜蓿草粉、小麦秸和精料组成的基础日粮,试验组日粮中分别以5kg、10kg、15kg、20kg、25kg的青贮苹果渣替代等量青贮玉米。结果表明,以青贮苹果渣替代青贮玉米对西门塔尔牛的产奶量和乳品质均有一定程度的提高,替代50%时可显著提高牛的产奶量、乳脂率和乳蛋白含量(P0.05)。试验表明,青贮苹果渣替代一定比例的青贮玉米对西门塔尔牛的产奶量、牛奶品质有改善作用。%Selected 60 simmental hybrid dual-purpose cows under the principle of similar age, body weight, body condition at ifrst time parturition, and at about 200 days in lactation period. The cows were divided into 6 experimental groups which have 10 cows each. The basal diet composed of corn silage, alfalfa meal, wheat straw and concentrates. The experimental groups were given diets with different percentage of ensilaged apple pomace instead of same weight of corn silage (5kg、10kg、15kg、20kg、25kg). The results showed that, the milk production and milk quality indices, such as milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage of the ensilaged apple pomace added groups improved at different degree. Moreover, the group with 50% ensilaged apple pomace added improved significantly(P0.05)markedly. Ensilaged apple pomace could improve milking performance and milk quality of simmental hybrid dual-purpose cows at certain degree which varies with the amount of ensilaged apple pomace.

  5. Advanced development in phytochemicals analysis of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ge, Li-Ya; Xiong, Wei; Leong, Fong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-01-08

    In 2011, we wrote a review for summarizing the phytochemical analysis (2006-2010) of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (Zhao et al., J. Chromatogr. A 1218 (2011) 7453-7475). Since then, more than 750 articles related to their phytochemical analysis have been published. Therefore, an updated review for the advanced development (2011-2014) in this topic is necessary for well understanding the quality control and health beneficial phytochemicals in these materials, as well as their research trends.

  6. Biophysical and economic water productivity of dual-purpose cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benjelloun, R; Karrou, M; Ates, S; Kuper, M

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes key factors influencing water productivity in cattle rearing, particularly in contexts characterized by water scarcity. This was done through year-round monitoring of on-farm practices within five smallholder farms located in the Saïss area (northern Morocco). The on-farm monitoring protocol consisted of characterizing: (i) volumes of water used for fodder production and distinguished by source (rainfall, surface irrigation and groundwater), (ii) virtual water contained in off-farm feed resources, (iii) total forage biomass production, (iv) dietary rations fed to lactating cows and their calves and (v) milk output and live weight gain. Findings reveal a mean water footprint of 1.62±0.81 and 8.44±1.09 m3/kg of milk and of live weight gain, respectively. Groundwater represented only 13.1% and 2.2% of the total water used to get milk and live weight gain, respectively, while rainfall represented 53.0% and 48.1% of the total water for milk and live weight gain, respectively. The remaining water volumes used came from surface irrigation water (7.4% for milk and 4.0% for live weight gain) and from virtual water (26.5% for milk and 44.7% for live weight gain). The results also revealed a relatively small gross margin per m3 of water used by the herd, not exceeding an average value of US $ 0.05, when considering both milk and live weight. Given the large variability in farm performances, which affect water productivity in cattle rearing throughout the production process, we highlight the potential for introducing a series of interventions that are aimed at saving water, while concurrently improving efficiency in milk production and live weight gain. These interventions should target the chain of production functions that are implemented throughout the process of water productivity in cattle rearing. Moreover, these interventions are of particular importance given our findings that livestock production depends largely upon rainfall, rather than

  7. Assessment of the sustainability of dual-purpose farms by the IDEA method in the subtropical area of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Reyes, Isela Guadalupe; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sustainability of 10 dual-purpose cattle farms in a subtropical area of central Mexico. The IDEA method (Indicateurs de Durabilité des Exploitations Agricoles) was applied, which includes the agroecological, socio-territorial and economic scales (scores from 0 to 100 points per scale). A sample of 47 farms from a total of 91 registered in the local livestock growers association was analysed with principal component analysis and cluster analysis. From results, 10 farms were selected for the in-depth study herein reported, being the selection criterion continuous milk production throughout the year. Farms had a score of 88 and 86 points for the agroecological scale in the rainy and dry seasons. In the socio-territorial scale, scores were 73 points for both seasons, being the component of employment and services the strongest. Scores for the economic scale were 64 and 56 points for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, when no economic cost for family labour is charged, which decreases to 59 and 45 points when an opportunity cost for family labour is considered. Dual-purpose farms in the subtropical area of central Mexico have a medium sustainability, with the economic scale being the limiting factor, and an area of opportunity.

  8. A comparison between slaughter traits and meat quality of various sheep breeds: wool, dual-purpose and mutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, J J E; Hoffman, L C; Cloete, S W P

    2012-07-01

    The slaughter and meat quality traits of 20-month-old wool (Merino), dual-purpose (Dohne Merino and South African Mutton Merino [SAMM]) and mutton (Dormer) type sheep were compared. Average live weights of SAMM and Dormer sheep were 23% heavier than those of Dohne Merinos which were 28% heavier than Merinos. Fat depths at the thirteenth rib and lumbar regions of Merino and Dohne Merino sheep were lower than those of SAMM and Dormer sheep. The cooking loss, drip loss and shearing value from the M. longissimus dorsi did not differ between breeds. The initial juiciness and sustained juiciness of meat from Merinos were rated significantly lower by sensory analysis. Meat from Dohne Merino was rated significantly more tender for the attribute first bite. It was demonstrated that Dormer and SAMM sheep had heavier but fatter carcasses than Merinos and Dohne Merinos, with differences in meat quality between breeds.

  9. Body condition related to ketosis and reproductive performance in Norwegian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, P; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Karlberg, K

    2001-06-01

    The relationships between body condition score (BCS) and ketosis, and between BCS and reproductive performance in 732 moderate yielding, dual-purpose cows were studied. The cows were of the breed Norwegian Cattle. Farms with tie-stall barns and a history of high ketosis incidence were chosen for the study. Sixteen assessors visited the farms monthly and the same assessor assigned a BCS to each cow once a month. A BCS of 3.5 or higher at calving was associated with increased risk for ketosis. Cows that subsequently developed ketosis had higher BCS than healthy cows before the disease was diagnosed, and they lost more body condition than did the latter after ketosis had occurred. Summer calving cows and primiparous cows showed the lowest risk of ketosis. A history of ketosis before first service decreased the likelihood of conception to that service. Loss in body condition during the postpartum period was associated with decreased likelihood of conception to first service, prolonged calving to conception intervals and increased number of artificial inseminations per conception. Reproductive performance was not associated with BCS at calving. We concluded that BCS is a useful method of monitoring relations among nutritional management, reproduction, and ketosis in moderate yielding dual-purpose cows.

  10. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  11. Dual purpose system that treats anaerobic effluents from pig waste and produce Neochloris oleoabundans as lipid rich biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J; Castillo, Omar S; Mendoza, Anilú; Tapia, Karla; González-Portela, Ricardo E; Hernández-Landa, Víctor J

    2015-05-25

    Dual purpose systems that treat wastewater and produce lipid rich microalgae biomass have been indicated as an option with great potential for production of biodiesel at a competitive cost. The aim of the present work was to develop a dual purpose system for the treatment of the anaerobic effluents from pig waste utilizing Neochloris oleoabundans and to evaluate its growth, lipid content and lipid profile of the harvested biomass and the removal of nutrients from the media. Cultures of N. oleoabundans were established in 4 L flat plate photobioreactors using diluted effluents from two different types of anaerobic filters, one packed with ceramic material (D1) and another one packed with volcanic gravel (D2). Maximum biomass concentration in D1 was 0.63 g L(-1) which was significantly higher than the one found in D2 (0.55 g L(-1)). Cultures were very efficient at nutrient removal: 98% for NNH4(+) and 98% for PO4(3-). Regarding total lipid content, diluted eflluents from D2 promoted a biomass containing 27.4% (dry weight) and D1 a biomass containing 22.4% (dry weight). Maximum lipid productivity was also higher in D2 compared to D1 (6.27±0.62 mg L(-1) d(-1) vs. 5.12±0.12 mg L(-1) d(-1)). Concerning the FAMEs profile in diluted effluents, the most abundant one was C18:1, followed by C18:2 and C16:0. The profile in D2 contained less C18:3 (linolenic acid) than the one in D1 (4.37% vs. 5.55%). In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating that cultures of N. oleoabundans treating anaerobic effluents from pig waste are very efficient at nutrient removal and a biomass rich in lipids can be recovered. The maximum total lipid content and the most convenient FAMEs profile were obtained using effluents from a digester packed with volcanic gravel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Dual-purpose Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Varieties for Grain and Fodder Production at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year field study of eight new and one check dual-purpose cowpea varieties was carried out to evaluate their grain and fodder production potential. Germination and seedling establishment were both high and greater than 80%.Mean dry fodder and seed yields varied from 1,262 to 3,598 kg/ha and 528 to 1,149 kg/ha respectively, with varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 and TVU 12349 retaining larger amounts (> 50% of fresh green leaves at pod harvest during the dry season. Crude protein (CP content of fodder averaged between 15.2 and 21.6%. There were more pods/plant for varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 7/180-4-5 and TVU 12349. 100-seed weight was highest with IT89KD-288 and Kananado (check. Fodder yield, pods/plant and leaf content were moderately correlated with seed yield. Results showed that varieties TVU 12349, IT89KD-288, IAR 2/180/4-12 and IAR 4/48/15-1 appeared suitable for both fodder and grain production. The use of appropriate cowpea varieties to enhance farmer income in an integrated production system is suggested.

  13. Dual-purpose laser irradiation and perfusion testing system for in-vitro experiments using cultured trabecular meshwork endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Brian K.; Roberts, Cynthia J.; Weber, Paul A.

    1998-06-01

    The means by which Argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) is a matter of debate. Mechanical and biological laser-tissue interaction theories have been proposed. To investigate the effect laser irradiation has upon the aqueous outflow facility of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, a suitable in-vitro model is required. Therefore the purpose of this study was to design, construct, and validate a laser irradiation and perfusion testing apparatus. The system was designed to utilize cultured TM cells seeded onto filter supports. Outflow facility will be quantified by calculating the hydraulic conductivity of the monolayer. An appropriate filter support was located, and its perfusion characteristics determined using water. Afterwards, the steady state perfusion flow rate of the filter was ascertained to be 0.096 plus or minus 0.008 ml/min when culture medium is used. Following these tests a single, baseline perfusion experiment was conducted using a TM cell monolayer. Analysis of the data produced a baseline hydraulic conductivity of 0.673 plus or minus 0.076 (mu) l/min/mm Hg/cm2, well within the range found in previous reports. A dual purpose, in vitro-cellular perfusion and laser irradiation testing apparatus has been developed, tested and validates using known baseline cellular perfusion and laser irradiation testing apparatus has been developed, tested, and validated using known baseline cellular perfusion values. Future experiments will be conducted to verify these initial findings, and further experiments will be conducted using Argon laser irradiation. The response of the TM cell monolayer will then be compared to the baseline figures.

  14. Experimental assessment on the thermal effects of the neutron shielding and heat-transfer fin of dual purpose casks on open pool fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kyoung-Sik, E-mail: nksbang@kaeri.re.kr; Yu, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Chan; Seo, Ki-Seog; Choi, Woo-Seok

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • An open pool fire test was performed to estimate not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin of the dual purpose cask. • The heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced, when the neutron shielding burns. • The surface temperatures are lower in the present of the heat transfer fins. • If inflammable material is used as the components of the cask, evaluating thermal integrity using the thermal test would be desirable. - Abstract: Dual purpose casks are used for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. They must therefore satisfy the requirements prescribed in the Korea Nuclear Safety Security Commission Act 2014-50, the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. SSR-6, and US 10 CFR Part 71. These regulatory guidelines classify the dual purpose cask as a Type B package and state that a Type B package must be able to withstand a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. NS-4-FR is used as neutron shielding of the dual purpose cask. Heat transfer fins are embedded to enhance heat transfer from the cask body to the outer-shell because the thermal conductivity of NS-4-FR is not good. However, accurately simulating not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin in the thermal analysis is not easy. Therefore, an open pool fire test was conducted using a one-sixth slice of a real cask to estimate these effects at a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. The temperature at the central portion of the neutron shielding was lower when the neutron shielding in contact with the outer cask burned because the neutron shielding absorbed the surrounding latent heat as the neutron shielding burned. Therefore, the heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced. The surface temperature was lower when a heat transfer fin was installed because the high heat generated by the flame was transferred to the

  15. Dual-Purpose Bioreactors to Monitor Noninvasive Physical and Biochemical Markers of Kidney and Liver Scaffold Recellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzarski, Joseph S; Bijonowski, Brent M; Wang, Bo; Ward, Heather H; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Miller, William M; Wertheim, Jason A

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of perfusion-based bioreactors for organ engineering and a detailed evaluation of physical and biochemical parameters that measure dynamic changes within maturing cell-laden scaffolds are critical components of ex vivo tissue development that remain understudied topics in the tissue and organ engineering literature. Intricately designed bioreactors that house developing tissue are critical to properly recapitulate the in vivo environment, deliver nutrients within perfused media, and monitor physiological parameters of tissue development. Herein, we provide an in-depth description and analysis of two dual-purpose perfusion bioreactors that improve upon current bioreactor designs and enable comparative analyses of ex vivo scaffold recellularization strategies and cell growth performance during long-term maintenance culture of engineered kidney or liver tissues. Both bioreactors are effective at maximizing cell seeding of small-animal organ scaffolds and maintaining cell survival in extended culture. We further demonstrate noninvasive monitoring capabilities for tracking dynamic changes within scaffolds as the native cellular component is removed during decellularization and model human cells are introduced into the scaffold during recellularization and proliferate in maintenance culture. We found that hydrodynamic pressure drop (ΔP) across the retained scaffold vasculature is a noninvasive measurement of scaffold integrity. We further show that ΔP, and thus resistance to fluid flow through the scaffold, decreases with cell loss during decellularization and correspondingly increases to near normal values for whole organs following recellularization of the kidney or liver scaffolds. Perfused media may be further sampled in real time to measure soluble biomarkers (e.g., resazurin, albumin, or kidney injury molecule-1) that indicate degree of cellular metabolic activity, synthetic function, or engraftment into the scaffold. Cell growth within bioreactors is

  16. Full-scale prototyping of the Hitachi dual-purpose metal cask and verification of its heat transfer characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, N.; Ishida, N.; Ootsuka, M.; Kamoshida, M.; Hiranuma, T.; Doumori, S.; Hoshikawa, T.; Shimizu, M.; Kashiwakura, J.; Hayashi, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Hitachi has been developing dual-purpose metal casks for transport and storage of spent nuclear fuels. The Hitachi cask, HDP69B can store 69 BWR fuel assemblies. The cask features are as follows. 1) The fuel basket is assembled mainly with plates of borated stainless steel. The plates are not welded, but cross-inserted into each other like the dividers in an egg carton. Since the borated stainless steel has relatively low heat conductivity, aluminum alloy plates are inserted along with some stainless steel plates to enhance heat removal ability. 2) Cured resin blocks are fitted into the inner shell of the cask for neutron shielding of the cask body. The resin blocks are surrounded by an aluminum casing which transfers heat of stored fuel from the inner shell to the outer shell of the cask. The block type shield structure eliminates the need for welding the heat transfer fins to the inner and outer shells. The weldless structures of the HDP69B lead to its enhanced manufacturability, but they complicate the heat transfer characteristics because there are gaps between such components as the aluminum casing and inner/outer shells. We carried out full-scale prototyping of the HDP69B and ran a heat transfer test using the prototype. The purposes of the heat transfer test were to check the heat removal ability of the HDP69B and to verify the safety analysis model for heat removal. Results of the heat transfer test and optimized analysis model for heat transfer characteristics of the HDP69B are the focus of this paper. The heat transfer test is summarized as follows. Sixty nine heaters simulating the shape and heat power of spent fuel assemblies were inserted into the fuel basket. After replacing the inner atmosphere with 0.1 MPa of helium, the heat transfer test was started. About 7 days were required to equilibrate the temperature distribution. The temperature at the center of the basket was 194 C. The results confirmed the HDP69B had sufficient heat removal ability. The

  17. Effect of a dual-purpose cask payload increment of spent fuel assemblies from VVER 1000 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on basket criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, M; Kamali, J

    2017-01-01

    Dual-purpose casks can be utilized for dry interim storage and transportation of the highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Criticality safety analysis was carried out using the MCNP code for the cask containing 12, 18, or 19 SFAs. The basket materials of borated stainless steel and Boral (Al-B4C) were investigated, and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chinese and International Situation, Progresses and Perspectives of Breeding Strategies in Dual Purpose Cattle%国内外兼用牛现状及育种理论研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秋萌; 秦春华; 王雅春; 史远刚; 张胜利; 张沅

    2013-01-01

    Dual purpose cattle is famous by its elite performance in both milk and meat production.This study first reviewed the genetic resources of dual purpose cattle in China and major dual purpose cattle breeds internationally,then summarized the development of breeding system and breeding strategies applied in dual purpose cattle breeding,to provide reference for drawing up breeding scheme for dual purpose cattle in China.%兼用牛亦称乳肉兼用牛,是兼具较高产奶性能和优秀产肉性能的牛品种.本文就国内外兼用牛的发展现状、育种体系和育种规划方法的研究进展做简要综述,为制定我国兼用牛育种规划提供参考.

  19. 双重功能图像水印算法%An image watermarking algorithm with dual purpose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶天语

    2011-01-01

    An image watermarking algorithm with dual-purpose is proposed,which can achieve both content authentication and copyright protection. Firstly, the original image was divided into non-overlapping blocks,and each block was conducted with singular value decomposition (SVD). A robust zero-watermarking .sequence was produced by judging the numerical relationship between each block's biggest singular value and the average of biggest singular values from all blocks. Afterwards,the original image was divided into non-overlapping blocks,and each block was transformed with discrete cosine transformation (DCT). Several high frequency coefficients were adjusted to establish linear numerical relationship between two different DCT coefficients from the same block,and the modified image was received after inverse discrete cosine transformation (IDCT). Content authentication was accomplished by judging whether there was a linear numerical relationship between two relevant DCT coefficients from each block of the tampered image based on DCT's reversibility. Copyright was identified by the similarity between the original robust zero-watermarking sequence and the robust zero-watermarking sequence extracted from the attacked image. The experimental results show that the algorithm has good invisibility,and can achieve both content authentication and copyright protection.%提出一种能同时实现内容认证和版权保护双重功能的图像水印算法.首先,对原始图像进行分块奇异值分解(SVD),计算所有子块最大奇异值的均值,通过比较各子块的最大奇异值与所有子块最大奇异值的均值间的数值关系产生鲁棒零水印序列.然后,对原始图像进行分块离散余弦变换(DCT).调整图像子块DCT高频系数的数值大小,建立同一子块两个不同DCT系数间数值的线性关系,通过逆DCT(IDCT)得到系数调整后的图像.内容认证时,利用DCT的可逆性,通过判断遭篡改图像每个子块两个相应DCT

  20. (PHF) cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANZ

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... 1Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Poznań University of ... Jersey cows, very similar levels were recorded for four culling reasons: "sterility and reproductive ... specialization of large farms have been observed.

  1. Quantitation of selected terpenoids and mercaptans in the dual-purpose hop varieties Amarillo, Citra, Hallertau Blanc, Mosaic, and Sorachi Ace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibaka, Marie-Lucie Kankolongo; Gros, Jacques; Nizet, Sabrina; Collin, Sonia

    2015-03-25

    Free terpenoids and both free and bound polyfunctional thiols were investigated in five selected dual-purpose hop cultivars. Surprisingly, the dual-purpose Sorachi Ace variety was found to contain higher amounts of farnesene (2101 mg/kg) than aromatic hops such as Saaz but only traces of 3-methylbutylisobutyrate, a compound that usually distinguishes all bitter varieties. All five cultivars investigated here showed an exceptional citrus-like potential explained by either monoterpenic alcohols or polyfunctional thiols. Among the monoterpenic alcohols, β-citronellol at concentrations above 7 mg/kg distinguished Amarillo, Citra, Hallertau Blanc, Mosaic, and Sorachi Ace from Nelson Sauvin and Tomahawk, two previously investigated dual-purpose hops, while linalool (312 mg/kg) and geraniol (211 mg/kg) remained good discriminating compounds for Nelson Sauvin and Tomahawk, respectively. Regarding polyfunctional thiols, higher amounts of 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (27 μg/kg) characterized the Citra variety. Free 4-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-2-one proved discriminant for Sorachi Ace, while the bound form is predominant in Nelson Sauvin. On the other hand, an S-conjugate of 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was found in Sorachi Ace at levels not far from those previously reported for Cascade, although the free form was undetected here. Both free and bound grapefruit-like 3-sulfanyl-4-methylpentan-1-ol (never evidenced before the present work) emerged as discriminating compounds for the Hallertau Blanc variety. The apotryptophanase assay also allowed us to evidence for the first time an S-conjugate of 2-sulfanylethan-1-ol.

  2. Prevalence of and risk factors for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa, Luis Rodrigo; Perea, Anselmo; Jara, Diego Vinicio; Arenas, Antonio José; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Borge, Carmen; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds from Ecuador. A total of 2,367 serum samples from 346 herds were collected from June 2008 to February 2009. A questionnaire, which included variables related to cattle, health, management measures, and the environment, was filled out in each herd. Presence of antibodies against BRSV was analyzed using a commercial indirect ELISA test. A logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors associated with BRSV at herd level. The individual seroprevalence against BRSV in non-vaccinated herds in Ecuador was 80.48% [1,905/2,367; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 78.9-82.1]. The herd prevalence was 91.3% (316/346; 95% CI = 88.3-94.3), and the intra-herd prevalence ranged between 25% and 100% (mean, 90.47%). The logistic regression model showed that the existence of bordering cattle farms, the dual-purpose farms, and the altitude of the farm (more than 2,338 m above sea level) were risk factors associated with BRSV infection. This is the first study about BRSV prevalence in Ecuador. It shows the wide spread of the BRSV infection in the country. The risk factors found will help to design effective control strategies.

  3. A Dual-Purpose Ion-Accelerator for Nuclear-Reaction-Based Explosives-and SNM-Detection in Massive Cargo

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, M B; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Böttger, R; Brandis, M; Bromberger, B; Feldman, G; Friedman, E; Heflinger, D; Lauck, R; Löb, S; Maier-Komor, P; Mardor, I; Mor, I; Speidel, K -H; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2010-01-01

    A dual-purpose ion-accelerator concept, capable of serving as radiation source in a versatile, nuclear-reaction-based cargo inspection system, is presented. The system will automatically and reliably detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of concealed explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). It will be cost-effective, employing largely-common hardware, but different reactions/DAQ-modes. Typical expected throughput is 10-20 aviation containers/hr. PACS: 25.20.Dc; 25.40.Ny; 27.20.+n; 29.27.Fh; 79.77.+g; 89.20.Bb; 89.20.Dd Keywords: Cargo inspection; Nuclear-reaction-based methods; Explosives detection; SNM detection

  4. Design of Bunk Bed with Dual-purpose Ladder%学生双层床两用梯的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张西珠; 耿振香

    2016-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the bunk bed in a current student’s dormitory, a dual-purpose ladder of the bunk bed for students is designed to diversity the function of the ladder. This dual-propose ladder is more than a common one, it can be used as a table after being folded up by sliding and flipping. The ladder’s function can be improved as well as a guarantee of security. The designed ladder not only change the understanding of a bunk bed ladder, but also highlight its perfect innovation features.%通过对目前宿舍学生双层床梯子功能的分析,设计出一种新型的学生双层床两用梯。本文不仅介绍了梯子通过滑动和翻转,使两用梯在完成正常梯子功能后,又可折叠当作书桌使用功能;在保证安全性的同时,完成了结构性设计。本设计具有创新特性,让双层床的梯子功能实现了多样化。

  5. Generating thermal energy and electric power by yourself. Heating system modernization with a mini dual-purpose power plant; Waerme und Strom selbst erzeugen. Heizungsmodernisierung mit Mini-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, H. [Powerplus Technologies GmbH, Gera (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Mini dual-purpose power plants offer many advantages to the customer by means of reduced primary energy consumoption, reduced CO{sub 2} emission and considerable savings of energy costs. The following contribution describes the balance in the one-family house of the Gross family and what heating systems master craftsman Keijo Sprogoetook into consideration when he executed this modernization task. (orig.)

  6. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  7. Effects of Isoflavone-Enriched Feed on the Rumen Microbiota in Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kasparovska

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the effects of two diets containing different isoflavone concentrations on the isoflavone transfer from feed into milk and on the rumen microbiota in lactating dairy cows. The on-farm experiment was conducted on twelve lactating Czech Fleckvieh x Holstein cows divided into two groups, each with similar mean milk yield. Twice daily, cows were individually fed a diet based on maize silage, meadow hay and supplemental mixture. Control group (CTRL received the basal diet while the experimental group (EXP received the basal diet supplemented with 40% soybean isoflavone extract. The average daily isoflavone intake in the EXP group (16 g/day was twice as high as that in the CTRL group (8.4 g/day, P<0.001. Total isoflavone concentrations in milk from the CTRL and EXP groups were 96.89 and 276.07 μg/L, respectively (P<0.001. Equol concentrations in milk increased from 77.78 μg/L in the CTRL group to 186.30 μg/L in the EXP group (P<0.001. The V3-4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was used for metagenomic analysis of the rumen microbiome. The experimental cows exhibited fewer OTUs at a distance level of 0.03 compared to control cows (P<0.05 and reduced microbial richness compared to control cows based on the calculated Inverse Simpson and Shannon indices. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the major contributor to separation between the experimental and control groups were changes in the representation of bacteria belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes. Surprisingly, a statistically significant positive correlation was found only between isoflavones and the phyla Burkholderiales (r = 0.65, P<0.05 and unclassified Betaproteobacteria (r = 0.58, P<0.05. Previous mouse and human studies of isoflavone effects on the composition of gastrointestinal microbial populations generally report similar findings.

  8. Herd- and cow-level prevalence of digital dermatitis in the Netherlands and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, M; Hardenberg, C; Bartels, C J M; Frankena, K

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to reevaluate the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD) and associated risk factors in The Netherlands. Between May 2002 and December 2003, information about the presence or absence of DD lesions and other claw disorders on the hind claws of dairy cows in The Netherlands was collected by 20 hoof trimmers during trimming of all dairy cows in 383 herds. A questionnaire was used to acquire information regarding management and housing. Additional information, such as parity, breed, and stage of lactation of the cows, was provided by the Dutch Herd Book Organization. Digital dermatitis was present in 21.2% (SE = 0.3) of the study population (n = 22,454 cows). The herd prevalence varied from 0% (9.1% of the herds) to 83.0%. Most common was herd prevalence between 5 and 10%. The Holstein-Friesian breed was at higher risk for DD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7] than was the Meuse Rhine IJssel breed (dual purpose breed). The risk for DD decreased with increasing parity. Cows at the peak of their lactation (30 to 60 d in milk) and in the third parity had higher odds for DD in comparison with cows that were later than 60 DIM. The presence of other claw disorders, such as interdigital dermatitis/heel horn erosion (IDHE), interdigital hyperplasia (HYP), and interdigital phlegmon, appeared to be predisposing for DD. Based on estimation of the population-attributable fraction, it was concluded that if IDHE, HYP, and interdigital phlegmon were not present among the study population, respectively, 32.2, 9.0, and 1.1% of the DD cases could have been prevented. The risk for DD slightly decreased when cows affected by IDHE had access to pasture. Because of the interrelation between infectious claw disorders, an effective intervention strategy against DD should focus on an integrated approach to the control of all infectious claw diseases. Cows trimmed >12 mo before the study (during regular trimming of the entire herd) were at lower risk for DD

  9. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  10. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  11. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  12. Índices de seleção para um rebanho Caracu de duplo propósito Selection indices for a dual purpose breed Caracu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aidar de Queiroz

    2005-06-01

    objective (H considered a dual purpose breed producing milk and weaning calves. The biological traits affecting income and expenses considered in H were: total milk yield, age at first calving, number of days open, weaning weight, and productive lifetime. Two economic selection indices were calculated. The selection criteria included in Index 1 were first lactation milk yield, number of days open from first to second calving, scrotal circumference adjusted to age and weight at 15 months and weaning weight (WW. Index 2 included the same traits but WW was switched by average daily gain from birth to weaning. The statistical analyses to estimate the (covariances and genetic and phenotypic parameters were performed by derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method, using an animal model (uni and bi-trait. Records on animal performances, pedigrees and prices were provided by the breeder. The production costs and revenues of this herd were calculated from 1994 to 2000. The profit equation was set to an annual base using annual averages for number of animals per category, biological traits and prices. The economic value of each trait was obtained as the partial derivative of the profit function with respect to that trait (evaluated at the average for all other traits. Both indexes would improve selection response to H, but the economic selection index 1, including WW, would be a little more efficient for total selection response to H.

  13. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  14. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  15. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  16. Toward improved postpartum cyclicity of primiparous dairy cows: Effects of genetic merit for production traits under contrasting feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedere, N; Delaby, L; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Disenhaus, C

    2016-02-01

    Milk genetic merit is known to affect commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) in dairy cows. This effect is considered to be due to energy exported in milk production. The present study aimed to identify and quantify the effects of genetic characteristics [breed and estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield and fat and protein contents] and feeding system on C-LA of primiparous cows. From 2006 to 2013, an experiment was conducted on 97 primiparous dairy (Holstein) and 97 primiparous dual-purpose (Normande) cows. Within breed, cows were classified into 2 groups: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a "milk group" and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a "content group." Within breed, exported energy in milk and body weight (BW) loss were similar for both genetic groups. Two grazing-based strategies were used, a high feeding system (maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate) and a low feeding system (grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate). Interval from calving to C-LA was studied performing survival analyses. Milk progesterone profile, milk yield, and body condition were analyzed using χ(2)-test and analysis of covariance. Holstein cows produced more milk (+1,810 kg in the high feeding system and +1,120 kg in the low feeding system) and lost more BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (-1.4 kg/wk) than Normande cows, whereas Normande cows had earlier C-LA than Holstein cows. Within breed, cows in the content group had earlier C-LA (associated hazard ratio=2.0) than cows in the milk group. Body weight at calving and loss from wk 1 to 14 of lactation tended to be associated with later C-LA. Cows in the high feeding system produced more milk (+2,040 kg for the Holstein cows and +1,350 kg for Normande cows) and lost less BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (+3.8 kg/wk) than cows in the low feeding system. No effect of feeding system or milk yield was observed on C-LA. Prolonged luteal phases were frequent

  17. Cool Cow Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides a game to help develop the skill of estimating and making educated guesses. Uses facts about cows to explain some problems associated with the dairy industry. Includes cards and rules for playing, class adaptation procedures, follow-up activities, and availability of background information on humane concerns. (RT)

  18. Double papilla flap technique for dual purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal tissue recession exposes the anatomic root on the teeth, which gives rise to -common patient complaints. It is associated with sensitivity, tissue irritation, cervical abrasions, and esthetic concerns. Various types of soft tissue grafts may be performed when recession is deep and marginal tissue health cannot be maintained. Double papilla flap is an alternative technique to cover isolated recessions and correct gingival defects in areas of insufficient attached gingiva, not suitable for a lateral sliding flap. This technique offers the advantages of dual blood supply and denudation of interdental bone only, which is less susceptible to permanent damage after surgical exposure. It also offers the advantage of quicker healing in the donor site and reduces the risk of facial bone height loss. This case report presents the advantages of double papilla flap in enhancing esthetic and functional outcome of the patient.

  19. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  20. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  1. Power and heat generation from wood wastes. At a dual-purpose power plant with a rotary tubular kiln; Aus Holzreststoffen Strom und Waerme gewinnen. Im Heizkraftwerk mit Drehrohrofenfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, E.M.; Letz, G. [Heinz H. Lorenz KG, Geretsried (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Wood and related fuels tend to vary considerably as to calorific value, moisture content and particle size and burn with different efficiency. Therefore, new combustion-technical solution concepts are required that meet growing demands on combustion quality and automatic control response in the case of different fuel properties. The company Heinz H. Lorenz at Geretsried are pioneering a wood-fired dual-purpose power plant supplying energy and disposing of wood wastes. The project is sponsored by the Federal Environment Agency and the Bavarian ministry of economy (orig.) [Deutsch] Holz und artverwandte Brennstoffe schwanken in der Praxis oft erheblich in ihrem Heizwert, Feuchtegehalt, Stueckgroesse und verbrennen daher auch unterschiedlich gut. Gefragt sich deshalb neue Loesungen in der Feuerungstechnik angesichts steigender Anforderungen an Verbrennungsqualitaet und Regelverhalten bei unterschiedlichen Brennstoffeigenschaften. Neue Wege bei der Erstellung einer holzbefeuerten Heizkraftwerksanlage zur innerbetrieblichen Energieversorgung und Restholzentsorgung hat die Fa. Heinz H. Lorenz KG in Geretsried beschritten. Unterstuetzt wurde sie dabei durch das Umweltbundesamt und das bayerische Wirtschaftsministerium. (orig.)

  2. Analyse of relationships between freezing point and selected indicators of udder health state among cow, goat and sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk freezing point (MFP is important quality indicator. Aim was to analyse the relationships of MFP to selected udder health milk indicators (MIs by comparison between cows (reference, goats and sheep. Bulk milk samples came from 3 herds of Czech Fleckvieh (B, n 93 and 1 goat herd and sheep flock (White short-haired, W, n 60; Tsigai, C, n 60. Animal nutrition was performed under the typical country conditions. MIs which were investigated: DM, dry matter; SNF, solid non fat; L, lactose (all in %; SCC, somatic cell count (103 ml−1; EC, electrical conductivity (mS cm−1; MFP (°C; Na and K (in mg kg−1. W MFP was −0.5544 ± 0.0293, B −0.5221 ± 0.0043 and C −0.6048 ± 0.0691 °C. The B MFP was related to L (−0.36; P < 0.01, W was not related to L (−0.07; P > 0.05 and C was related to L (0.40; P < 0.01. These facts could be explainable by worse SCC geometric averages for used W (3,646 103 ml−1 and C (560 103 ml−1 milk as compared to B (159 103 ml−1. Only 0.5 and 10.5% of variations in MFP were explainable by variations in DM and SNF in B, 32.7 and 12.8% in W but already 49.4 and 45.0% in C. Higher C values were caused by high MFP variability, 11.8% (C versus 0.8% (B. There is possible to derive the more reliable MFP qualitative limits for more efficient monitoring rules of milk quality problems in B, W and C.

  3. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  4. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  5. Interactive Effect of GA3, N and P Ameliorate Growth, Seed and Fibre Yield by Enhancing Photosynthetic Capacity and Carbonic Anhydrase Activity of Linseed:A Dual Purpose Crop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad N Khan; Firoz Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important dual-purpose, industrial crop. Its seeds are used for the extraction of oil and stem for fibres. However, the production of linseed is not going parallel with the increasing demand of its products. The present work was carried out with an aim to find out whether exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without graded levels of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) could improve the performance of three linseed genotypes Parvati, Shekhar and Shubhra together with minimizing the costly fertilizer input and losses. Four combinations of N and P, viz., 0 mg N+0 mg P kg-1 soil (N0P0), N13.4P4.46, N26.8P8.94 and N40.2P13.4 were constituted. Half dose of each combination was applied basally at the time of sowing and remaining half dose was given at 40 d after sowing (DAS) as foliar spray along with 10-6 mol L-1 GA3. Prior to sowing, the seeds of each linseed genotype were grouped in to two, one group of seeds was soaked in 0 mol L-1 GA3 (control) and the other group was soaked in 10-6 M GA3 solution, each for 8 hours. Treatments were comprised of (i) 0 mol L-1 GA3+N0P0 (T0, control), (ii) 10-6 mol L-1 GA3+N13.4P4.46 (T1), (iii) 10-6 mol L-1 GA3+N26.8P8.94 (T2) and (iv) 10-6 mol L-1 GA3+N40.2P13.4 (T3). The crop performance was assessed in terms of growth, physiological and biochemical parameters at 60 and 75 DAS and yield attributes at harvest (175 DAS). The results showed a parallel increase in most of the parameters with increasing levels of N and P. However, application of 10-6 mol L-1 GA3 in association with N26.8P8.94 proved best, it enhanced seed yield, oil yield and fibre yield by 83.3, 97.3 and 78.7%, respectively accompanied with increase in net photosynthetic rate, carbonic anhydrase activity and dry matter accumulation. Among the genotypes tested, Shubhra performed best, while Parvati the least for most of the parameters studied. Thus, combined application of 10-6 mol L-1 GA3 plus N26.8P8.94 proved best

  6. 风光互补型发电和提水两用机组的研究%Research on wind and solar powers mutually complemented generating-pumping dual purpose unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦君; 尹钢吉; 滕云; 司振江; 陶延怀

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the problems from high energy consumption and large pollution emission over the relevant national standards during pumping water with the conventional energies generally existed in China, a new generation of wind and solar powers mutually complemented generating-pumping dual purpose unit is developed with the key techniques, I. E. High-efficiency centrifugal pump, solar cell array, Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine(VAWT) and "S" type low wind speed windmill, etc. , so as to largely save fuels and electric power resources and lower the production costs concerned. With the optimal structure, this kind of unit has realized the diversification of both the function and the application, and then got the target of energy saving and consumption reducing along with the enhancement of production efficiency.%针对我国目前普遍存在的利用常规能源来提水时能耗大和污染排放超过国家标准等问题,创制出新一代风光互补型发电和提水两用机组,采用高效离心潜水电泵、太阳能电池组和达里厄型立轴式风力机、S型低风速启动风车等这些关键技术来节约大量燃料、电能资源,降低生产成本.这种机组以最优的结构匹配,实现了功能和用途的多样化,达到了节能降耗及提高生产效率之目的.

  7. Breeding of a New Dual-Purpose Hot Pepper Variety — Jiahe 1%干鲜两用型辣椒新品种嘉禾1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞凤琴; 鲍岩峰; 李玉珍; 于晓祥; 秦艳玲

    2011-01-01

    嘉禾1号是以国外品种经多代分离纯化选育出的自交系7310102为母本,自制杂交种经多代分离纯化选育出的自交系818481为父本杂交而成的干鲜两用型辣椒一代杂种。其植株生长势强,商品性好,抗逆性强,比当地主推品种增产36.8%。果实圆筒型,顶部钝尖,青熟果深绿而有光泽,红熟果油亮紫红色,果长13~15cm,果肩宽2.2~2.5cm,鲜椒皮厚3mm,干椒皮厚0.4mm。%Jiahe 1 is a hot pepper F1 hybrid of Inbred Line 7310102 from a foreign variety ×Inbred Line 818481 from a local hylrid variety, and a dual-purpose variety for fresh and dry fruit production. It is of strong growth vigour, high resistance, and the yield potential 36.8% higher than local main varieties. It grows glossy cylinder-shaped fruit with blunt tip from dark-green to purple-red, 13~15cm in length,2.2~2.5 cm in diameter, 3 mm in fresh fruit wall thichness and 0.4 mm in dry fruit wall thickness, with good marketability.

  8. One Cow, One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    We study investment decisions in a farmers' cooperative. Farmers sell their products through the cooperative. Before production takes place the cooperative has to decide on an investment. We study whether voting on investment leads to efficient investment decisions. The answer depends on how the ...... the number of votes and the cost of the investment are distributed among the farmers. It is shown that in a variety of settings, there is no reason to suppose that voting rules favoring large farmers - "one cow, one vote" rules - are more efficient than simple majority rule...

  9. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  10. Possible factors affecting pregnancy rate of cows in the Amazon Ecuatorian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yánez D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess how the cow pregnancy depends on the type of service as, race and follicular development in cattle with dual purpose in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The 341 records of the individual services were evaluated from January 2015 to December 2015 that corresponds to cows of different genotypes and cross: Brown Swiss (BS n = 135, Charolais (Ch n = 24, Holstein Friesian (HF n = 104, Jersey (J n = 12, Normando (N n = 21, x Brown Swiss Holstein Friesian (HFxBS n = 35 and Holstein Friesian x Normando (HFxN n = 10. The work was conducted in the Cantons and Santa Clara which is located in the Pastaza Province (Ecuador. The Two insemination techniques were performed: a estrus detected (natural 136 cows and a Insemination Time (TAI. The independent variables are "Race" (BS, CH, HF, J, HFxBS and HFxN, the "Technical Service" (N and IATF and "Follicular Development" (DF. An additive model was adjusted and it was not significant for the interactions between independent variables and the result of the model. It was found that the variable DF is the only that contributes significantly to the model. That is, pregnancy is significantly affected by follicular development (p-value <0.0001, but is not related to the technical service and race. Maximum Credible estimates the coefficients model and calculated odds ratios. For every unit increase in the value of follicular development, the chance of "pregnant" is 14 times higher than "empty". Keeping fixed the categories for race and service. To conclude that there was no difference between races and insemination technique that was used, even if a relationship between follicular development in proestrus and pregnancy in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  11. Relationship between concentration of health important groups of fatty acids and components and technological properties in cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Groups of fatty acids (FAs in milk fat can have positive and negative impact on consumer health. Profile of FAs could be influenced by dairy cow nutrition, breed, milk yield level et cetera. The question is what relationships the FAs could have to quality of milk products? Relationships between FAs and their groups to selected milk indicators were studied in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cows (64 bulk milk samples. There were 8 herds in 2-year investigation during winter and summer season. The relationship of saturated FAs (SAFA; 66.22% was significant only to lactose (L content (0.290; P < 0.05. The relationships of monounsaturated FAs (MUFA; 29.21% to milk indicators (MIs were in­si­gni­fi­cant (P > 0.05. The relationships of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA, beneficial for consumer health; 4.53% to MIs were narrower: fat (T, 0.321; P < 0.05; lactose (L, 0.458; P < 0.01; milk alcohol stability (AL, 0.447; P < 0.01; titration acidity (SH, 0.342; P < 0.01; cheese curd quality (KV, 0.427; P < 0.01; milk fermentationability (JSH, 0.529; P < 0.001, streptococci count in yoghurt (Strepto, 0.316; P < 0.05; total count of noble bacteria in yoghurt (CPMUK, 0.314; P < 0.05; streptococci/lactobacilly ratio (StreptoLacto, 0.356; P < 0.01. The relationships of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; markedly beneficial for health; 0.68% to MIs were: T (0.379; P < 0.01; L (–0.542; P < 0.001; AL (0.266; P < 0.05; KV (0.411; P < 0.01; Strepto (0.260; P < 0.05; StreptoLacto (0.270; P < 0.05. The higher CLA levels were connected in this way with: higher fat content; lower lactose content; lower alcohol stability; lower streptococci count in yoghurt; lower streptococci/lactobacilly ratio in yoghurt. The PUFA and CLA representation decreased with L increase. Simultaneously some technological milk properties such as alcohol sta­bi­li­ty and fermentationability were slightly improved.

  12. 某型通用机枪大杠杆曲线参数优化研究%Parameter Optimization of Big-lever Curve of a Dual-purpose Machine Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞林; 张本军; 李永建; 郝刚

    2012-01-01

    为解决某型通用机枪首发装填困难的故障,利用线位移传感器进行了首发装填试验,得到了影响首发装填的重要因素,即拨弹滑板在向外和向里2个阶段所受阻力传递到装填拉柄运动方向上的最大值;在大杠杆的两段曲线上各取5个点,利用三次样条曲线对这两条曲线进行拟合,求出了2个最大值与插值点之间的函数关系;分别以这2个最大值为目标函数,以各插值点的Y向坐标为待优化参数,利用遗传算法对大杠杆曲线进行了优化,使得2个目标函数分别减少了47.24%和39.3%,达到了优化的目的.为该枪的改进工作提供指导,所使用的方法为同类型武器的设计和改进提供参考.%To solve the problem in first-round loading of a dual-purpose machine gun, the loading test was carried out by using a linear displacement sensor, and the importance factors which affect the first-round loading were revealed, i. e. two maximum values of resistances transferred from feed slide to the loading handle. Five points were taken in two segments of big-lever curve respectively, and the relationship between two maximum values and interpolation points were found out by using cubic spline curve fitting. Taken these two values as objective functions and the Y coordinates of interpolation points as the optimized parameters, the big-lever curves were optimized by using genetic algorithm, and the objective functions were reduced by 47. 24% and 39. 3% . The method can provide reference for the design and improvement of the similar weapons.

  13. Efecto del régimen de defoliación sobre la producción de grano en trigo doble propósito Effect of the defoliation regime on grain production in dual purpose wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peralta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de cultivos de trigo con doble propósito contribuiría a realizar un uso más eficiente de los recursos ambientales. En Balcarce (Buenos Aires, Argentina se estableció un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum, cv. Baguette 20 sembrado en fecha temprana (17 de marzo de 2006 para comparar la producción de forraje obtenida con tres regímenes de defoliación: T1 (tres defoliaciones, T2 (dos defoliaciones y TG (sin defoliaciones. En esos tres tratamientos y en otro no defoliado sembrado en fecha normal para la producción de grano (7 de junio, TN se cuantificó la biomasa aérea (g MS m², el rendimiento de grano (kg ha-1 y sus componentes. La producción de forraje de T1 fue similar que la de T2 (497 y 392 g m-2, respectivamente. Las defoliaciones posteriores al estado de dos nudos (estado Zadoks 32 afectaron negativamente la radiación fotosintéticamente activa interceptada por el cultivo, disminuyendo tanto el número de granos m-2 como el peso por grano; en consecuencia, la producción de grano cayó 60% respecto de TG y 71% respecto de TN. Se estableció una relación cuantitativa entre la disminución del rendimiento en grano y el momento del último corte (i.e., días entre la última defoliación y antesis. El trigo presenta la ventaja de poseer un destino alternativo a su uso forrajero, que no la presentan otros verdeos de invierno. Puede destinarse sólo para uso forrajero, sólo para producir grano, o se lo puede utilizar buscando un balance entre la producción de forraje y grano.The utilization of dual purpose wheat crops may contribute to perform a more efficient use of environmental resources. In Balcarce (Buenos Aires, Argentina a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Baguette 20 was seeded at an early date (March 17, 2006 and the forage production was compared with three defoliation frequencies: T1 (three defoliations; T2 (two defoliations and TG (without defoliations. The aerial biomass, grain yield (kg ha-1 and its

  14. Niveles de infestación parasitaria y condición corporal en bovinos doble propósito infestados en condiciones naturales (Degree of infestation and body condition in dual purpose naturally infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    2006-04-01

    work was carried out in a dual purpose farm oriented to milk production, located in San Antonio, Municipality of Pedraza in Barinas State. 65 cattle were coprologically examined by mean of McMaster technique with a oversaturated solution of NaCl as flotation liquid. The body condition of the animals was evaluated by mean the method of the scale with scores from 1 to 5 and 2,5 as inflection point. The packed cell volume was evaluated by mean of the microhaematocrit microcentrifugation method. The conjuntive color of each animal was evaluated as well. The highest e.p.g. count were observed in animals with a body condition ≤ 2,5. This animals can be considered as wormy animals, a small fraction of the herd showed a good body condition (≥ 3 and high e.p.g. count. This animals can be considered as resilient. Both group of animals are strong grass contaminants. The haematocrit values were similar between no wormy animals and resilient and higher than wormy animals. No association was found between haematocrit and conjuntive color. No anthelmintic resistance was diagnosed against the drugs used in the farm (Doramectine, Ivermectine and Albendazole.

  15. Costeño-201: nueva variedad de sorgo de temporal de doble propósito para Sinaloa Costeño-201: a new variety of rianfed sorghum of dual purpose in Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Hernández Espinal

    2011-10-01

    to commercial hybrids from private companies, which are grown in the region under the same conditions. Costeño-201 has better bromatological quality than commercial hybrids regarding to forage, with 9.5% protein and 64% digestibility, on average it exceeds in 2.7% and 5% respectively to commercial hybrids. It is tolerant to diseases that occur in the region, such as: ergot (Claviceps african, anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola, panicle blight (Fusarium moniliforme and charcoal stalk rot (Macrophomina phaseolina. Forage of sorghum Costeño-201, is recommended as a dual-purpose material in fodder conservation practices such as hay and silage.

  16. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  17. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  18. Dry period length of dairy cows :

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative ene

  19. Dry period length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative

  20. Rectal temperatures in postpartum cows

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Helena Venturolli Perri; Leslie Cristina Scarpelli; Thais Mioto Martinelli; César Esper; Katia Denise Bresciani; Marion Burkhardt de Koivisto

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate parturition data with the rectal temperature in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. One hundred and eighty cows were randomly selected between September 1999 and July 2000, in seven dairy farms located in the Northwest region of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first ten days postpartum, rectal temperature (RT) was taken between 5:00 and 8:00 a.m. using an electronic thermometer (M525 - GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401-7500). C...

  1. Applying Dairy Cow Behavior in Management Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Kai; LIU Zongping; WANG Zongyuan

    2009-01-01

    Applying dairy cow behavior in management practice is an effective way of improving cow health, welfare and performance. This paper first reviewed daily time budget and normal patterns of dairy cow behavior, and then discussed the influence of major management conditions and practices (such as competitive environments, stocking density, grouping strategies) on cow's feeding, lying and social behavior. Finally, new findings of using feeding behavior to predict disorders in transition period were addressed. It was suggested that dairy researchers and farmers should take advantage of related knowledge of dairy cow behavior to improve dairy cow health and welfare. More research is required to further study dairy cow behavior so as to better apply it in practical management and meet the needs of production.

  2. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk composition and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bobbo, T; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2017-01-01

    Milk coagulation properties (MCP) have been widely investigated in the past using milk collected from different cattle breeds and herds. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have assessed MCP in individual milk samples from several multi-breed herds characterized by either high or low milk productivity, thereby allowing the effects of herd and cow breed to be evaluated independently. Multi-breed herds (n=41) were classified into 2 categories based on milk productivity (high vs. low), defined according to the average milk net energy yielded daily by lactating cows. Milk samples were taken from 1,508 cows of 6 different breeds: 3 specialized dairy (Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose (Simmental, Rendena, Alpine Grey) breeds, and analyzed in duplicate (3,016 tests) using 2 lactodynamographs to obtain 240 curd firming (CF) measurements over 60min (1 every 15 s) for each duplicate. The 5 traditional single-point MCP (RCT, k20, a30, a45, and a60) were yielded directly by the instrument from the available CF measures. All 240 CF measures of each replicate were also used to estimate 4 individual equation parameters: RCT estimated according to curd firm change over time modeling (RCTeq), asymptotic potential curd firmness (CFP), curd firming instant rate constant (kCF), and syneresis instant rate constant (kSR) and 2 derived traits: maximum curd firmness achieved within 45min (CFmax) and time at achievement of CFmax (tmax) by curvilinear regression using a nonlinear procedure. Results showed that the effect of herd-date on traditional and modeled MCP was modest, ranging from 6.1% of total variance for k20 to 10.7% for RCT, whereas individual animal variance was the highest, ranging from 32.0% for tmax to 82.5% for RCTeq. The repeatability of MCP was high (>80%) for all traits except those associated with the last part of the lactodynamographic curve (i.e., a60, kSR, kCF, and tmax: 57 to 71%). Reproducibility, taking into account the effect

  3. Avaliação de esquemas de seleção alternativos para bovinos Zebus de dupla aptidão Evaluation of alternative breeding programs for dual purpose Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Braga Lôbo

    2000-10-01

    herd tier of the population. Genetic gains and returns were high in all schemes. Dairy schemes were superior, mainly due to responses in lowering mature cow weight and increasing milk yield. Reproductive traits were more important in the beef schemes. Returns increased with higher usage of proven sires, although not proportionally. The contribution of beef traits to genetic profit was higher than that of dairy traits only when the economic value of slaughter weight exceeded 14 times the economic value of milk yield. The exclusion of progeny testing in the beef cows tier had little effect on the genetic or economic results.

  4. Mad Cows and Cooked Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Science leads with the results of a recent gloomy assessment of the cause of global climate change. Nature leads off this week with a story about U.S. attempts to prevent the spread of mad cow disease.

  5. Coping strategies in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.In Chapter 1, current concepts of adaptation and stress a

  6. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current concept

  7. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  8. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, D R; Barros, C S L

    2013-09-01

    An 18-month-old Charolais cow developed depression and drooling and was submitted for necropsy after euthanasia. The cow was 1 of 50 moved between 2 farms approximately 5 days before the onset of clinical disease. Gross findings included swollen and hemorrhagic areas of malacia in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Microscopically there was a necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intranuclear astrocytic and neuronal eosinophilic viral inclusions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cerebral cortex as well as in the basal nuclei and thalamus. The gross and microscopic findings were consistent with necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1 or BHV-5), and the diagnosis was confirmed by detection of bovine herpesviral antigen on fresh samples of brain via fluorescent antibody test using a monoclonal antibody against BHV-1 glycoprotein C.

  9. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    cleanliness was explored but no effect was found. In the second study, potential herd and cow level risk factors for poor hind leg cleanliness were evaluated. Data were obtained from a cross sectional study in 42 commercial dairy herds conducted by senior scientist Peter T. Thomsen. Here, no access to pasture......-sociated with a change in the risk hind leg cleanliness with the data available in the pre-sent study. However, a positive effect of the automatic hoof was found by demonstrating that washed feet were affected by DD lesions in fewer weeks in comparison to unwashed feet. Also, the last study demonstrated that the cows......’ risk of DD occurrence and it prospects of cure might depend on lactation stage and age. Furthermore, the study brings forward evidence that challenge the assumptions of DD as a disease with generally slow healing lesions and rare occurrence of spontaneous healing. Further research is needed to find out...

  10. Born to be a Loser Cow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Morten Kargo;

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, an increasing awareness has arisen in Denmark of the existence of cows with a generally lowered health and production status, referred to as "loser cows." A previous study has estimated that the overall prevalence of loser cows in Danish Holstein herds is 3.2%. The aim...... of scoring, age at first calving, lactation stage, and parity in addition to additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects. The heritability of the loser cow score was 0.08 and for the underlying traits the heritability ranged from 0.05 to 0.12. The genetic correlations between various pairs...

  11. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... cleanliness. More knowledge on these aspects will increase our understanding of the disease epidemiology and is essential to improve the success of controlling DD at the herd level. Therefore, the objectives of the present PhD thesis were 1) To investigate the relationship between cow leg cleanliness and DD......; 2) To identify potential risk factors for poor cow leg cleanliness; and 3) To gain more knowledge about potential means of controlling DD. Data was obtained from three studies conducted in commercial Danish dairy herds and the results are presented in four scientific papers. In the first study, cow...

  12. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... and therefore has a major impact on economics and cow welfare. Moist and unhygienic conditions in the cows’ surroundings are considered as important risk factors for DD partly because this can disturb the skin barrier and make the animals more susceptible to infection and partly because the environment might...... act as an infection reservoir. Measures of cow leg cleanliness can be used as a proxy of the hygienic conditions on the floors. Nonetheless, only few studies have used direct measures of cleanliness in association with the risk of DD. Also, little is known about what factors can influence the cow leg...

  13. Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: definition, prevalence and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans

    2007-05-16

    During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice.

  14. Calcium intake and cows' milk free diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; Stanton, R H; David, T J

    1989-01-01

    In children with atopic eczema on elimination diets, the calcium intake was below the estimated requirement in 15 out of 20 who avoided cows' milk and received no milk substitute, and in three out of 26 who avoided cows' milk but were provided with a soya or casein hydrolysate formula.

  15. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  16. Biogas Production from Cow Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Artanti Putri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from livestock waste manure in particular is one of the alternative utilization of organic wastes that can be implemented in Indonesia since there is a huge potential of bio-energy in Indonesia. This study utilizes cow manure as the raw material for making biogas and it is coupled with a cow rumen fluid and water. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of manure, rumen, and water composition in biogas production. The research was conducted in anaerobic for 60 days. The composition of manure, water, and the rumen were vary following the variable and ratio; variable A (manure and water; variable B (manure and rumen. The results indicate that the variable A (manure and water with a 1:3 ratio, and the variable B (manure and rumen with a 1:2 ratio produced the highest volume of biogas compared to other ratios. The highest biogas production occurred on average at day 23.

  17. COW DUNG- A BOON FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSHMITA SHRIVASTAVA*, ALKA MISHRA ARTI PAL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is an agricultural country having variety of plants and animals. Among the animals, cattle like cow has a prominent place in our country. It is considered as go-mata and worshipped by every hindu of India. The five products of cow called “Panchgavya” is a precious gift of this holy animal to our society, which consist of milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung. Among these, cow dung also called cow pad, is a component having crude protein, cellulose, hemicellulose and minerals. It is an efficient organic manure used to increase plant yield in fields. Cow dung slurry is also used by people of our country for plastering the floors and walls of their houses. Considering this custom of our society, a study had been done to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal properties of cow dung extract in distil water, ethanol and n- hexane against Candida, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus and found it highly effective against these microbes. The study revealed that cow dung extract possess antimicrobial properties, which can be used to fight against certain pathogenic diseases and other ailments.

  18. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  19. PREOVULATORY FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT IN HIGH YIELDING COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Tomášek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the development of preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows. The treatment by supergestran and oestrophan was used to synchronize the estrous cycle. Ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. The linear increase of preovulatory follicles was observed in pregnant (P < 0,001 and non-pregnant (P < 0,001 cows during 8 days before ovulation. In conclusion, preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows developed similarly.

  20. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition. PMID:27580019

  1. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  2. Cow's Milk Allergy with Severe Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kaneko, Mariko; Shibukawa, Yasuko; Fukuda, Yutaka; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi

    2016-02-01

    Because the role of eosinophils in neonates is not well understood, the clinical significance of eosinophilia in neonates is unclear. We encountered a rare case of cow's milk allergy in a premature male infant with severe eosinophilia in the neonatal period. The peripheral blood eosinophil count in this infant was 7,404/μL at birth, and he produced stools with fresh blood immediately after birth and prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk. Although the patient's eosinophil count normalized without specific treatment within 6 weeks after birth, it is possible that the causes of the eosinophilia in this infant prior to the first feedings with regular cow's milk were different from those after the first feedings. Cow's milk allergy was diagnosed on the basis of the patient's positivity for this allergy in the challenge test and subsequent allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test performed at 6 months of age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...

  4. Peripartum heart disease in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, N; Okada, H; Koiwa, M; Kudo, K; Matsuo, N; Naito, Y

    1995-11-01

    Thirteen Holstein dairy cows aged 5.1-10.6 years died or were killed as a result of severe illness during the peripartum period, associated with lateral recumbency, moaning, tachycardia and dyspnoea. They were all high milk producers (> 9000 kg/year) and had experienced at least three pregnancies. The average duration of the clinical course was 2.5 +/- 1.7 days. Electro-cardiography revealed marked tachycardia associated with atrial fibrillation or atrioventricular dissociation. Serum clinical chemistry showed severe hypocalcaemia (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl) and at necropsy multifocal myocardial necrosis was invariably found. Myocardial necrosis was accompanied by neutrophilic and mononuclear cellular infiltrates with interstitial fibrosis. The cause of this lesion was not established.

  5. Cows aboveground, protons down below

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    On display at Fort l'Écluse from 19 June to 18 September, the works of Augenblick combine photography, sound and video to create a striking instant parallel between the "real world" and the world of particle physics.   The cows are grazing quietly, blissfully unaware of the mini-Big Bang occurring silently 100 metres beneath them. Curious to compare these two worlds - the visible and the invisible, day-to-day life and particle physics - Laurent Mulot, a multi-disciplinary artist whose work delves into some of the planet's more unusual places, has come up with a unique artistic concept. Called Augenblick (German for "instant"), to emphasise that the images relate to the same point in time, his project uses photography, video and sound to superimpose scenes from everyday life and scenes from science. "The idea came to me in June 2008," says Laurent Mulot, "when Jean-Paul Martin, a research scientist at the Institute of Nuclear...

  6. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  7. Hydrogen fermentation properties of undiluted cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Ogino, Akifumi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment of undiluted cow dung (15% total solids), so-called dry fermentation, produced hydrogen (743 ml-H(2)/kg-cow dung) at an optimum temperature of 60 degrees C, with butyrate and acetate formation. The hydrogen production was inhibited by the addition of NH(4)(+) in a dose-dependent manner. A bacterium with similarity to Clostridium cellulosi was detected in the fermented dung by a 16S rDNA analysis.

  8. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were highe

  9. Effects of whole-plant corn silage hybrid type on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effect of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) hybrids in dairy cattle diets may allow for better decisions on hybrid selection by dairy producers, as well as indicate potential strategies for the seed corn industry with regard to WPCS hybrids. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis using literature data on the effects of WPCS hybrid type on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows. The meta-analysis was performed using a data set of 162 treatment means from 48 peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2014. Hybrids were divided into 3 categories before analysis. Comparative analysis of WPCS hybrid types differing in stalk characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional, dual-purpose, isogenic, or low-normal fiber digestibility (CONS), brown midrib (BMR), hybrids with greater NDF but lower lignin (%NDF) contents or high in vitro NDF digestibility (HFD), and leafy (LFY). Hybrid types differing in kernel characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional or yellow dent (CONG), NutriDense (ND), high oil (HO), and waxy. Genetically modified (GM) hybrids were compared with their genetically similar non-biotech counterpart (ISO). Except for lower lignin content for BMR and lower starch content for HFD than CONS and LFY, silage nutrient composition was similar among hybrids of different stalk types. A 1.1 kg/d greater intake of DM and 1.5 and 0.05 kg/d greater milk and protein yields, respectively, were observed for BMR compared with CONS and LFY. Likewise, DMI and milk yield were greater for HFD than CONS, but the magnitude of the difference was smaller. Total-tract NDF digestibility was greater, but starch digestibility was reduced, for BMR and HFD compared with CONS or LFY. Silage nutrient composition was similar for hybrids of varied kernel characteristics, except for lower CP and EE content for CONG than ND and HO. Feeding HO WPCS to dairy cows decreased milk fat content

  10. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  11. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from 1

  12. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  13. Generation mean analysis of dual purpose traits in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fadiji

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Key words: Gene effects, fodder, Vigna unguiculata, generation mean analysis. .... distribution pattern of fodder yield in the various crosses, the field ...... Tropical Agriculture (IITA), and Japan International Research Center.

  14. Dual-Purpose Bone Grafts Improve Healing and Reduce Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    and PUR+BMP (High) (n = 14) groups. Two-thirds of the animals were used to assess bone formation, and the remainder was used to assess bacterial ...stabilized segmental defect in the rat femur. J Orthopaedic Res. 2005;23:816–823. 14. Anglen JO. Comparison of soap and antibiotic solutions for irrigation of

  15. development of a dual purpose refrigeration system for domestic use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and Air conditioning Engineers. BSR: Board of Standards ... whose elements were encased in a singular unit as is the case in modern ... production, operation and maintenance. 2. ..... conditioning) and food storage (refrigeration). Table 4: ...

  16. The Milking Performance of dual-purpose Crossbred Yaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Jialin; W.Mingqiang; L.Zhonglin; J.M.Chesworth

    2005-01-01

    Wild yak males were crossed with domesticated female yaks to produce a breeding herd of crossbred animals. The milk production of the progeny of this herd was measured in the present study. Yaks were milked once daily after prior suckling of the calf. yaks were allowed to graze for 15 h/day on high-altitude(3200 to 3500 m) pastures. No supplementary food was given. Average daily milk yield of 1.77(s. e. 0. 16)kg and milk yield over 120 days,212.2(s. e. 20.2)kg were significantly higher(P<0.01)than the corresponding figures for uninlproved domestic yaks(1.53(s. e. 0. 10)kg and 164. 6(s. e. 10.5)kg respectively). The fat content of milk from crossbred yaks, 52(s. e. 2. 9)g/kg, was not significantly dlfferent from that of unimproved animals, 53.5(s. e. 4. 1), g/kg.

  17. Dual-Purpose Millikan Experiment with Polystyrene Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. N.; Christensen, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    This procedure, using polystyrene spheres of specified diameter, renders the Millikan oil drop experiment more accurate than the conventional procedure of the polystyrene spheres, eliminates size estimation error, and removes the guesswork involved in assigning proper index integers to the observed charges. (MLH)

  18. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, A K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner;

    2014-01-01

    indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive...... days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days...... associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing...

  19. Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk protein elimination in autistic children: language, cognitive and ... The parents of first group were instructed to eliminate cow milk (CM) from the diet of their ... Autistic patients underwent a Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) test.

  20. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  1. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  2. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, de, Rudi

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows, that need the farmer's attention, because of a possible case of oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables, wh...

  3. Transition cow: interaction with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigoni, A; Trevisi, E

    2003-09-01

    In recent years a progressive worsening of fertility indices in dairy cow herds has been observed. Several factors (genetic, dietary and management) seem to be more related to poor fertility than milk yield level. The degree and the length of the energy deficit during the transition period are inversely related to reproductive indices (e.g. conception rate is fertility in several ways. Excess of rumen degradable proteins, apart from negative energy balance, negatively affects reproductive activity. Conversely, some nutrients (i.e. some polyunsaturated fatty acids or some amino acids) seem to show positive effects on fertility. Finally, the relationship between health status, often compromised during the transition period, and fertility efficiency is discussed. The release of cytokines seems to be related directly and indirectly (mainly by the change in usual hepatic metabolism to the malfunction of reproductive apparatus. Quick recovery of reproductive activity requires the adoption of strategies around calving to cover the higher environmental and nutritive requirements and to prevent disorders of any kind.

  4. Treatment of Cow's Milk Protein Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is still a challenge. A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials for the diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA). Since none of the symptoms of CMPA is specific and since there is no sensitive diagnostic test (except a challenge test), the diagnosis of CMPA remains difficult. A "symptom-based score" is useful in children with symptoms involving different organ systems. The recommended dietary treatment is an extensive cow milk based hydrolysate. Amino acid based formula is recommended in the most severe cases. However, soy infant formula and hydrolysates from other protein sources (rice) are gaining popularity, as they taste better and are cheaper than the extensive cow's milk based hydrolysates. Recent meta-analyses confirmed the safety of soy and estimate that not more than 10-15% of CMPA-infants become allergic to soy. An accurate diagnosis of CMA is still difficult. The revival of soy and the development of rice hydrolysates challenge the extensive cow's milk based extensive hydrolysates as first option and amino acid formula. PMID:24749081

  5. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  6. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,

  7. Clinical practice. Diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Meijer, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is thought to affect 2-3% of infants. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may be difficult to objectify, and as the diagnosis requires cow's milk elimination followed by challenge, often, children are considered cow's milk allergic without proven diagnosi

  8. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realize...

  9. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various conditions,

  10. Specific antibodies to cow's milk proteins in infants: effect of early feeding and diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma Merike; Saarinen, Kristiina Mertta; Savilahti, Erkki

    2010-12-01

    To investigate whether specific IgA, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 responses to cow's milk proteins differ between infants with cow's milk allergy and infants with cow's milk related symptoms (control subjects), and whether early feeding affects these responses as well as specific IgE. A cohort of 6,209 healthy, full-term infants in a double-blind randomized trial received, as supplementary feeding at maternity hospitals (mean duration 4 days), either cow's milk formula, extensively hydrolyzed whey formula or donor breast milk. Infants who developed cow's milk associated symptoms (n = 223) underwent an open oral cow's milk challenge (mean age 7 months), which confirmed cow's milk allergy in 111 and was negative in 112. We measured in sera cow's milk specific IgE levels with UniCAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden), and β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgA, IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy had lower β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG1, IgG4 and IgG levels (p < 0.05) than infants with non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy or control subjects. Within the group of infants with cow's milk allergy, exposure to cow's milk during the first few days after birth led to higher β-lactoglobulin and α-casein specific IgG4 levels (p < 0.005) compared to infants fed with either breast milk or extensively hydrolyzed formula. Subdued IgG class responses to cow's milk proteins characterized IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. In infants who developed cow's milk allergy early exposure to cow's milk resulted in a heightened specific IgG4 response.

  11. Cow Urine Keratopathy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduja, Sumeet; Jain, Prachi; Sachdeva, Sumit; Phogat, Jitender

    2017-04-01

    Injury to the ocular surface has been described to occur with a wide variety of chemicals. In most cases the cause is industrial injury with acids or alkalis. We are reporting a case of ocular surface injury due to "Cow urine" which to the best of our knowledge is been reported for the first time. Cow urine is a well-accepted medicinal ingredient in ancient Indian medicine. However, wrong formulation and inadvertent prescriptions by quacks can lead to severe ocular surface injury and morbidity. Here, with this case report we have discussed the possible culprit and possible mechanism of ocular injury due to instillation of a concoction containing cow urine as an active ingredient and also discuss legal aspects of quackery in India.

  12. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  13. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  14. Some compositional and health indicators of milk quality of dairy cows with higher milk yield at including of selected corn species into feeding ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pozdíšek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of economical reasons the substitution of maize by feed corn as wheat (Sulamit and triticale (Kitaro was revolved in concentrate part of dairy cow feeding rations. The design of mentioned replacement in feeding rations was carried out according to results of previous research (Pozdíšek and Vaculová, 2008 for nutrition experiment. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the possible effects of corn replacement in cow feeding rations on milk composition and properties. The expressively different variants of corn were selected for experiment in comparison to maize (reference. Dairy cows were fed by total mixed ration on the basis of maize and clover silage and hay. Otherwise the identical day feeding rations among cow groups differed only in concentrate portions ((K, control group maize 1.5 kg, wheat (P1 2.0 kg and triticale (P2 2.0 kg (experimental groups. Group feeding rations 1 (K, 2 (P1 and 3 (P2 had: NEL/kg dry (DM matter (6.524, 6.512 and 6.491; NL % in DM (17.9, 18.2 and 17.9; fibre % in DM (15.96, 15.74 and 15.72; PDIN/PDIE (1.189, 1.189 and 1.191. The experiment took six weeks, there were included 8, 9 and 9 cows (n = 26 of Czech Fleckvieh breed. Feed groups were well balanced in terms of milk yield, days in milk and number of lactation. The tie stable and pipeline milking equipment were used in experiment. Animals were milked twice a day and sampled at morning milking in intervals about seven days approximately. Cows were relatively healthy in terms of occurrence of milk secretion disorders. Within groups the individual milk samples (in total 182 in experiment were aggregated into bulk samples (n = 21 = 3 groups × 7 sampling periods, which were analysed on 45 milk indicators, 18 of them were evaluated in this paper. The differences in milk yield were significantly advantageous for K group (15.32 > 14.07 (wheat or 13.86 kg (triticale at morning milking, while fat (3.27 < 3.47 or 3.44 % was lower (P < 0.05. Lactose was not

  15. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M A; Rashid, M H; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  16. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an O...

  17. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from Clinical Healthy Cows and Mastitic Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-xin; ZHAO Xing-xu; ZHANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    The current research presents the protein changes in plasma from healthy dairy cows and clinical mastitic cows using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After staining with silver nitrate and Coomassie Blue, differential expression proteins were detected by PDQuest 7.4 software, and then subjected to ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a Surveyor HPLC System, differential spots of protein were identified. Three protein spots that originated from preparation gels were identified to be two proteins. Overall, haptoglobin precursor was up-regulated in cows infected with clinical mastitis and could be a mastitis-associated diagnostic marker, whereas SCGB 2A1 (secretoglobin, family 2A, member 1) was down-regulated protein. Plasma protein expression patterns were changed when cows were infected with mammary gland inflammation; it suggests that analysis of differential expression protein might be useful to clarify the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology, and find new diagnostic markers of mastitis and potential protein targets for treatment.

  18. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...... in the mammary gland for serum amyloid A to accumulate in milk. The acute phase protein concentrations in milk increased significantly with increasing somatic cell count, suggesting that they may be indicators of the severity of an infection....

  19. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H

    2005-11-01

    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  20. Priming the dairy cow for lactation: a review of dry cow feeding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Friggens, Nicolas; Andersen, Jens; Larsen,Torben; Aaes, Ole; Dewhurst, Richard

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper reviews important aspects of dry cow feeding with emphasis placed on the preparation of the cow for the subsequent lactation. A number of feeding strategies, which have been proposed in recent years, are examined, alongside considerations of the effects of dry period length, levels of body reserves at calving and parity. A number of studies have reported the effect of varying the length of the dry period (in the range 0 to 70 days) on subsequent production a...

  1. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors.

  2. Separate housing for one month after calving improves production and health in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren; Thomsen, Peter; Burow, Elke

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis was that dairy cows housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate group with herd mates would produce more milk and would be healthier than cows integrated in a group of all lactating cows immediately after calving. The experiment was conducted with 489 cows in 6 commercial loose-housing...... dairy herds where cows were randomly selected for treatment (separate housing) or control. Cows selected for treatment were housed for 1 mo after calving in a separate section, and controls were housed in the remaining section of the barn for lactating cows. Data were compared for milk yield, somatic...... cell count, medical treatments, reproductive performance, culling, mortality, and clinical observation of scores for body condition, leg and udder hygiene, lameness, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, and condition of the hair coat. The analysis of the effect of separate housing...

  3. Hepatitis in growth promotor treated cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adult female beef cattle found positive for stanozolol in the urine were investigated for liver pathology. In all the animals toxic hepatitis was found, including cholestasis, periportal fibrosis and inflammation, focal necrosis and blood filled lacunae. As no clinical data of the cows were availabl

  4. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during oestrus cycles in cows, and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 oestrus cycles, comi...

  5. Lactobezoar and cows' milk protein intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoh, J N; Watt, J

    1980-02-01

    A baby girl of an atopic family who developed eczema, asthma, and cows' milk protein intolerance was found to have a gastric lactobezoar at age 9 1/2 months. She responded well to the removal of the bezoar and to the appropriate dietary treatment.

  6. Assessment of skin damages in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Skin damages were assessed at 48 conventional and organic farms with mainly cubicle houses. Scores from 1 – 9 were given depending on type and size of the damaged skin at 9 locations of the cow: outer hock, inner hock, knee and body all left and right hand side and the neck. Only the highest score p

  7. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  8. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level.

  9. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  10. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg) compared with LIT (11.3 ± 0.19 kg) BW cows. Change in BCS was greater (P ≤ 0.03) in higher RFI cows in both RFI groups only in the NOLACT period. Differences in T3 and T4 on d 0 and 70 were 25% and 15% greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the LIT BW group compared with the HEV BW group. A negative correlation existed (P ≤ 0.04) between BW group and T3 and T4, as well as leptin and RFI (P = 0.03). Although cow BW was

  11. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    OROKA FRANK OKE; AKHIHIERO THELMA

    2015-01-01

    Co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung under anaerobic condition was studied. Results indicate a progressive increase in biogas yield with increased cow dung in the co-ferment mixture of water hyacinth: cow dung

  13. [Radiotelemetric studies of uterine motility in cows with acute endometritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, I

    1980-01-01

    Thirty two cows with postpartum complication were radiotelemetrically studied to register uterine motility. The results were compared with those of the control group of 42 cows with normal calving and no complications. Enhanced uterine reactivity to oxytocin and other agents was established in all cows with complications in the postpartum period. It is manifested in the spring also by intensified motor activity of the uterus. Motor activity of the uterus is hardly registered during to summer months in cows with normal peurperium and complications following day 2 of calving. No essential difference was found in estradiol-17 beta content in the blood plasma of both groups of cows. Body temperature rises in cows with postpartum complications.

  14. Glomerular filtration rate in cows estimated by a prediction formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Isao; Miyano, Anna; Sato, Tsubasa; Iwama, Ryosuke; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ichijyo, Toshihiro; Sato, Shigeru; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-01

    To testify the relevance of Jacobsson's equation for estimating bovine glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we prepared an integrated formula based on its equation using clinically healthy dairy (n=99) and beef (n=63) cows, and cows with reduced renal function (n=15). The isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol was utilized as a test tracer. The GFR values estimated from the integrated formula were well consistent with those from the standard multisample method in each cow strain, and the Holstein equation prepared by a single blood sample in Holstein dairy cows. The basal reference GFR value in healthy dairy cows was significantly higher than that in healthy beef cows, presumably due to a breed difference or physiological state difference. It is concluded that the validity for the application of Jacobsson's equation to estimate bovine GFR is proven and it can be used in bovine practices.

  15. Choice of optimum size of installations for dual-purpose production of desalted water and electricity, using nuclear power; Le dimensionnement optimum des installations de production mixte d'eau sessalee et d'electricite faisant intervenir l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1966-07-01

    The author used a method starting with water and power demand curves; this leads to the rational allocation of production costs to water and power within a given market. The power demand curve is needed as it seems improbable to sell at a constant price the enormous quantity of electricity produced by a dual purpose plant. Criteria based on principles of classical economics, help to select objectively desalination methods and plant sizes. On these criteria, normative methods for tariffing action of water and power can be based, while adhering as closely as possible to structure of demand. Examples of such criteria are the maximum profit of the supplier or the maximum satisfaction of the consumers taken collectively. In the first case marginal costs must be equated to marginal revenue, in the second one marginal cost to marginal satisfaction (theory of surpluses). The plant size often determines the choice of desalination process. Therefore the shape of the water demand curve and the economic criterion adopted (public or private ownership, capital restrictions etc.) often determine in this way both size and type of plant. Before deciding on the desalination technique, market surveys and rather subtle economic analyses are therefore necessary. (author) [French] Le probleme est presente en introduisant la notion de courbes de demande d'eau et d'electricite, ce qui permet d'aboutir a un partage rationnel des couts de revient entre eau et electricite dans ]e cadre d'un marche. L'objet de l'etude est, a partir des principes de l'economie classique, de donner des criteres objectifs de selection des dimensions des installations et des techniques de dessalement et d'en deduire une methode normative de tarification des deux produits lies: eau et electricite, en collant autant que possible a la structure de la demande. Ces criteres sont en particulier, soit le maximum de benefice de l'exploitant, soit le maximum de satisfaction des

  16. Effect of flooring system on locomotion comfort in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Telezhenko, Evgenij

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study influence of different flooring systems on several aspects of locomotion of dairy cows. To assess the gait on different floors, trackway analysis was used. Cows walking on a hard, slippery surface had shorter strides, wider posture and asymmetric steps. A hard, slippery surface resulted in stride shortening, wider posture and asymmetric gait. Using soft rubber mats made gait patterns more similar to those on a natural yielding surface such as sand. When cows...

  17. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model for the ammonia emission from dairy cow houses was developed to facilitate this.An ammonia p...

  18. Frequency of cow's milk allergy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne

    2002-01-01

    develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of CMP-based formula. The majority has two or more symptoms from two or more organ systems. Approximately 50 to 60% have cutaneous symptoms, 50 to 60% have gastrointestinal symptoms, and approximately 20 to 30% respiratory......OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, natural history, and prognosis of cow's milk allergy in early childhood and its relationship to development of inhalant allergies. DATA SOURCES: A review of 229 PubMed (National Library of Medicine...... to select the relevant data for this review. RESULTS: The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP), ie, CMPA, has to be confirmed by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. The incidence of CMPA in infancy seems to be approximately 2 to 3% in developed countries...

  19. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    milking on d 0, each cow received an intramammary infusion with 20 to 40 cfu of E. coli in 1 healthy front quarter. Paraclinical and bacteriological examinations were conducted to confirm infection. Half of the cows were subjected to liver and udder biopsies twice during the trial. Behavior was video......). The cows subjected to biopsies showed an overall decreased lying time during the entire observation period (36.3 ± 1.5 vs. 46.1 ± 2.2% of time) but not directly related to the period after the biopsies. Dairy cows show classic signs of illness behavior in the hours after intramammary challenge with E. coli...

  20. Leptospira interrogans serotype hardjo in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Branka M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on L. hardjo infection of dairy cows in the world pint out its important role in the occurrence of health and economic problem. L. interrogans serotype hardjo has been described as the cause of miscarriages, stillbirts, or the birhs of poorly vital calves, agalactia, mastitis, and low fertility in cows. Two L. hardjo genotypes have been identified in cows, namely, hardjopraitno and hardjobovis. Serological investigations have established a drastic increase in this leptospiral infection in cows. L. hardjo has become adapted to cattle as the primary host, so that an infection is maintained in herds and becomes deeply rooted because of the permanent presence of the source of infection. It was believed that sheep were accidental hosts, but the latest research suggest that they are yet another, transitory, host for maintining this leptospira serotype. L. hardjo is also important from the aspect of human health, especially of persons who are professionally exposed to this infection. L. hardjo infection is detected using serological tests and by proving the presence of leptospira. The medicine of choice in the therapy of leptospiral infections is streptomycin (DSM. Therapy using oxytetracyclines for clinical mastitis was also proven effective. Treatment is most successful in the early stage of the disease. A single dose of streptomycin administered in infected herds reduces the duration period of leptospira excretion through urine, thus preventing the spread of infection thorugh contaminated urine. The basic components of the plan to contain leptospira are the following: serological investigations, sanitary-higiene measures, the elimination of animals which excrete leptospira through urine, therapy, vaccination, quarantine.

  1. Robotic milking of dairy cows: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maculan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technology that currently tries to gain market share are milking robots. Despite the high costs, robotic milking may produce benefits for the farmer and for animals submitted to this system. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the use of robotic milking of dairy cows, addressing aspects such as implementation and functioning of the system and effect on milking frequency, milk production and composition, somatic cell count, mastitis, reproduction, and animal welfare. The results showed that the programming of the robot depends on the number of animals to be milked daily and on the milking frequency adopted in each batch. The implementation of the system mainly depends on the site where the facilities will be built and already existing structures on the farm. The milking frequency is higher for high-producing cows and at the beginning of lactation and is influenced by the palatability of the concentrate offered at the time of milking. Frequencies higher than three times per day reduce total milk fat production and increase the concentration of free fatty acids. The incidence of mastitis and somatic cell count tend to increase in the first three months after implementation of the system. After the second year, udder health tends to improve, normalizing mastitis incidence and somatic cell count. Reproduction of the cows is not affected if dry matter intake compensates the higher energy expenditure required for higher milk productions. Robotic milking improves cow welfare since the animals voluntarily turn to the robot when they feel discomfort.

  2. Vermicomposting of Vegetable Wastes Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthukumaravel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid wastes are mainly from domestic and commercial areas containing recyclable toxic substances, compostable organic matter and others. With rapid increase in population, the generation of municipal solid wastes has increased several folds during last few years. Disposal of solid wastes can be done by methods like land filling, incineration, recycling, conversion into biogas, disposal into sea and composting. Vermicomposting is one of the recycling technologies which will improve the quality of the products. The present study aims to find out the possibility of utilization of vegetable wastes for vermiculture. Earthworm Megascolex mauritii cultured in plastic trays (45 x 30 x 30 cm containing soil alone (control (T1, soil + cow dung (T2, soil + vegetable waste (T3 and soil + vegetable waste + cow dung (T4 for 60 days. Nutrient values were determined from the compost and compared with that of the control. From these results, it was found that NPK values were maximum in compost obtained from vegetable waste with the use of cow dung.

  3. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  4. Diversity of Staphylococcus species and prevalence of enterotoxin genes isolated from milk of healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, V L M; Miranda, E S; Castilho, I G; Camargo, C H; Langoni, H; Guimarães, F F; Araújo Júnior, J P; Fernandes Júnior, A

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus spp. in milk from healthy cows and cows with subclinical mastitis in Brazil and to examine the profile of enterotoxin genes and some enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus spp. A total of 280 individual mammary quarter milk samples from 70 healthy cows and 292 samples from 73 cows with subclinical mastitis were collected from 11 farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Staphylococcus spp. were recovered from 63 (22.5%) samples from healthy cows and from 80 samples (27.4%) from cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly different between these 2 groups and was more prevalent in the cows with mastitis. The presence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus was also significantly different between these 2 groups, but this organism was more prevalent in healthy cows. No statistically significant differences were observed in the numbers of other staphylococci in milk samples from the 2 groups. The sea gene was the most prevalent enterotoxin gene in both groups. Eight of 15 (53.3%) Staph. aureus carried this gene and all produced the SEA toxin. In the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) group, 61 of 128 (47.5%) had the same gene and just 1 (1.6%) Staphylococcus epidermidis strain produced the enterotoxin in vitro. Because CNS were isolated from both groups of cows and most CNS contained enterotoxin genes but did not produce toxins, the role of CNS in mastitis should be carefully defined.

  5. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  6. Low protein silage associated with rumen impaction in suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-23

    Rumen impaction associated with low protein diets in a suckler cowCampylobacteriosis in suckler cowsPlant toxicity in ewesListerial encephalitis in ewes ITALIC! Chorioptes bovis-associated infertility in ramsThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for January 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).

  7. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics, alter

  8. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and mana...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist.......In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs...... and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...

  9. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  10. Casein Micelles: Size Distribution in Milks from Individual Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, C.G.; Huppertz, T.

    2012-01-01

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences i

  11. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a

  12. Focal sampling of cow lying behaviour for automated welfare assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattachini, G.; Riva, E.; Bisaglia, C.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Provolo, G.

    2013-01-01

    the objective of the current study was to determine the number of focal animals required to represent the daily lying behaviour of a herd of lactating dairy cows. the study was carried out at 3 commercial dairy farms. the lying time (h/d) and number of lying bouts (n/d) of 15 ± 3 focal dairy cows,

  13. Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether headspace analysis of volatile components can be used for monitoring the quality of raw cows¿ milk. The detection of different quality defects caused by cows¿ feed, microbiological and chemical contamination, as well as enzymatic deterioration was studied. Fresh raw m

  14. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  15. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Piotr

    data were used to create a neural prediction model evaluating the cows' milk yield under ... At the same ... The numerical data, that is, the number of milking cows and the ..... selected factors on the milk yield, somatic cells content and chemical.

  16. Dairy cow performance on silage from semi-natural grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Geerts, R.H.E.M.; Struik, P.C.; Valk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of including forage from semi-natural grassland in the diet of dairy cows were studied in a feeding trial with cows in mid-lactation. Diets were compared in which part of the silage from intensively managed grassland was replaced with 0% (100IM), 20% (20SPP), 40% (40SPP) or 60% (60SPP)

  17. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working pressure... one portable drive unit available on board the vessel for every three COW machines that use portable... members does not have to meet paragraph (e) of this section if the following areas of each cargo tank...

  18. Cows and cow-slaughter in India : religious, political and social aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Batra (Swaraj)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractIndia is a land of sacred cows. They are abundant in the fields, are present with gods in every temple, figure prominently in Parliament and Assemblies, are the deciding factor in elections, and are the subject of judgement in the highest court of India. The sacredness has attained such

  19. Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C. G M; Den Uijl, I. E M; Van Schaik, G.; Olde Riekerink, R. G M; Keurentjes, J. M.; Lam, T. J G M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This st

  20. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  1. Small intestinal mucosa IgE plasma cells and specific anti-cow milk IgE in children with cow milk protein intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrander, J J; Dellevoet, J J; Arends, J W; Forget, P P; Kuijten, R

    1993-05-01

    In a prospective study we looked for the presence of both IgE plasma cells in small bowel mucosa and specific serum IgE antibodies to cow milk in children suspected of cow milk protein intolerance. Thirty-one children with complaints possibly due to cow milk intolerance were submitted to two consecutive cow milk elimination/challenge tests. The diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance was confirmed in 16 of our 31 patients on the basis of two positive elimination/challenge tests. IgE plasma cells were found in nine of 16 patients with proven cow milk protein intolerance and in only one of the 15 patients without cow milk protein intolerance (p < .01). The RAST for cow milk was positive in six of 16 infants with cow milk protein intolerance and in two of the 15 other infants. Serum IgE level was of no value for the diagnosis of cow milk protein intolerance. Neither of these diagnostic procedures was sensitive enough to be used as a screening test for cow milk protein intolerance. Furthermore, the relationship between specific IgE antibodies for cow milk and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells was poor: five of nine infants with cow milk protein intolerance and the presence of mucosal IgE plasma cells had negative RASTs for cow milk.

  2. Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We observed

  3. The natural history of cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Jacobsen, H P; Halken, S

    1995-01-01

    In prospective studies th incidence of cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) in infancy in western industrialized countries has been estimated to be about 2-3% based on strict diagnostic criteria. A significant association between early neonatal exposure to cow's milk formula...... feeding and subsequent development of CMPA/CMPI has been documented. The small amounts of 'foreign' protein in human milk may rather induce tolerance than allergic sensitization. The findings of specific IgE to individual cow's milk proteins in cord blood of the majority of infants who later develop CMPA...... with an early increased IgE response to cow's milk protein have an increased risk of persisting CMPA, development of persistent adverse reactions to other foods and development of allergy against environmental inhalant allergens. Cow's milk protein/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), meaning reproducible adverse reactions...

  4. Reduction of Slaughter Value of Paratuberculosis-Infected Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2009-01-01

    ) recordings from 36,455 cows from herds participating in the Danish MAP control program. Carcass weight and meat quality data were obtained from all cows and the effect of stage of MAP infection was assessed by analysis of variance. MAP infection stage was based on repeated milk antibody ELISA in both...... negative cows only had reduced slaughter results if they were ELISA-positive in the last two tests. Losses at slaughter caused by MAP were much more severe than has previously been estimated, and these losses could be predicted by repeated milk-ELISA tests with or without confirmation with fecal culture.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on slaughter weight and slaughter value of dairy cows. Two datasets were analyzed: 1) recordings from 1,031 cows in herds in a pilot-study to control MAP infections; and 2...

  5. Casein micelles: size distribution in milks from individual cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G Kees; Huppertz, Thom

    2012-05-09

    The size distribution and protein composition of casein micelles in the milk of Holstein-Friesian cows was determined as a function of stage and number of lactations. Protein composition did not vary significantly between the milks of different cows or as a function of lactation stage. Differences in the size and polydispersity of the casein micelles were observed between the milks of different cows, but not as a function of stage of milking or stage of lactation and not even over successive lactations periods. Modal radii varied from 55 to 70 nm, whereas hydrodynamic radii at a scattering angle of 73° (Q² = 350 μm⁻²) varied from 77 to 115 nm and polydispersity varied from 0.27 to 0.41, in a log-normal distribution. Casein micelle size in the milks of individual cows was not correlated with age, milk production, or lactation stage of the cows or fat or protein content of the milk.

  6. RESEARCHES ON THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF CERVICAL MUCUS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZABELA MARTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To succeed in artificial insemination and to produce the fecundation in cows it isnecessary to have knowledge about optimal time of ovulation. Such possibilityappears using the values of electrical resistance of cervical mucus. The smallestvalues are obtained during the ovulation due to the pH modification influenced by theestrogens. The purpose of the paper was to determine the electrical resistance of thecervical mucus in cows with clinical signs of estrus, depending on females’ age. Also,the electrical resistance of the cervical mucus in cows in different physiologicalstages (pregnant, no pregnant was measured. The ovulation detector DRAMINSKIwas used. This equipment allows to obtained a quickly and precise rapport on thephysiological stage of the cow. It can be detected the cow with atypical ovulation,irregular ovulation. This method improve the insemination efficiency, allowsdetecting early gestation period or the moment of ovulation. All these have a positiveinfluence on the development strategy of the farm and improve the economicperformances.

  7. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  8. The effects of calving to first service interval on reproductive performance in normal cows and cows with postpartal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R

    1983-11-01

    The relationships between the calving to first service interval and several measures of reproductive performance were evaluated in 1738 lactation records from cows in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds. Lactation records were divided into three mutually exclusive health categories based on the cows' postpartal disease histories.Relationships between the calving to first service interval and the first service conception rate, number of services per conception and open interval were similar for all three health categories. The first service conception rate was lower and the average number of services per conception higher in cows first bred before 60 days when compared to cows first bred after 60 days. The relationship between the calving to first service interval and the open interval indicated that for each day that breeding was delayed the open interval was extended by 0.86 days.It appeared that overall conception rates may be lower for cows first bred very early or very late, but differences in the overall conception rate were only significant for cows experiencing a reproductive tract infection. Unless very expensive semen is being used, it is suggested that disease free cows be bred at the first heat occurring after 40 days postpartum, and that cows experiencing postpartal disease be bred at the first heat occurring after 60 days postpartum.

  9. Interlaboratory evaluation of a cow's milk allergy mouse model to assess the allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, B.C.A.M. van; Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Jeurink, P.V.; Garssen, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Smit, J.J.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes two phases of a multi-phase project aiming to validate a mouse model for cow's milk allergy to assess the potential allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas (claim support EC-directive 2006/141/E). The transferability and the discriminatory power of this mode

  10. Sensor data on cow activity, rumination, and ear temperature improve prediction of the start of calving in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Kamphuis, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Huijps, K.; Nielen, M.; Steeneveld, W.

    2017-01-01

    Management during calving is important for the health and survival of dairy cows and their calves. Although the expected calving date is known, this information is imprecise and farmers still have to check a cow regularly to identify when it starts calving. A sensor system that predicts the momen

  11. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  12. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying-balance...

  13. A review of the impact of housing on dairy cow behaviour, health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, C.J.C.; Beerda, B.; Knierim, U.; Waiblinger, S.; Lidfors, L.; Krohn, C.C.; Canali, E.; Valk, H.; Veissier, I.; Hopster, H.

    2013-01-01

    Housing dairy cows offers the possibility to control many aspects of their lives, including accurate rationing, which is especially important for high yielding cows, and rapid health care. In addition, some parasitic diseases are largely controlled by removing cows from pasture. However, housing cow

  14. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  15. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  16. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    concentrations of alcohols like propanol and alcohol related esters will increase. If the rumen capacity for alcohol metabolism inadequate this will lead to high portal uptakes of alcohols and as a mammalian hepati alcohol dehydrogenase in general is saturated at relative low alcohol concentrations high portal...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...

  17. RELATIONS BETWEEN SELECTED INDICATORS OF BLOOD AND MILK OF DAIRY COWS WITH METABOLIC DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor the relations between selected indicators of technological properties of milk and blood biochemical parameters of dairy cows with metabolic disorders. Thirty-two cows were chosen, which were divided into 3 groups: first group - cows with metabolic problems of acidosis, second group - cows with metabolic problems of alkalosis, third group - healthy cows. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected. Urea, total lipids, total proteins, glucose and calcium was...

  18. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels.

  19. Follow up study of cow's milk protein intolerant infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrander, J J; Oudsen, S; Forget, P P; Kuijten, R H

    1992-10-01

    Over a period of 4 years, 88 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI) were followed prospectively in order to evaluate the persistence of CMPI and its relationship between either serum IgE levels or RAST results for cow's milk. After exclusion of lactose intolerance, two positive cow's milk elimination challenge tests were considered diagnostic for CMPI. At the age of 1, 2, 3 and 4 years respectively, 85%, 78%, 49% and 33% of the children still were cow's milk intolerant. Initial serum values of IgE greater than or equal to 10 kU/l indicated a late development of tolerance to cow's milk proteins. At the age of 4 years, 90% of infants with initial IgE levels less than 10 kU/l had become tolerant to cow's milk while this was the case for only 47% of infants with initial IgE levels greater than or equal to 10 kU/l. Initial RAST results for cow's milk bore no obvious relationship to outcome.

  20. Effects of roughness and compressibility of flooring on cow locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2006-08-01

    We examined the effects of roughness and degree of compressibility of flooring on the locomotion of dairy cows. We observed 16 cows walking down specially constructed walkways with materials that differed in surface roughness and degree of compressibility. Use of a commercially available soft rubber flooring material decreased slipping, number of strides, and time to traverse the corridor. These effects were most apparent at difficult sections of the corridor, such as at the start, at a right-angle turn, and across a gutter. Covering the walkway with a thin layer of slurry increased frequency of slipping, number of strides, and time taken to traverse the walkway. Effects of adding slurry were not overcome by increasing surface roughness or compressibility. Placing more compressible materials under a slip-resistant material reduced the time and number of steps needed to traverse the corridor but did not reduce slips, and the effects on cow locomotion varied nonlinearly with the degree of compressibility of the floor. Use of commercially available rubber floors improved cow locomotion compared with concrete floors. However, standard engineering measures of the floor properties may not predict effects of the floor on cow behavior well. Increasing compressibility of the flooring on which cows walk, independently of the roughness of the surface, can improve cow locomotion.

  1. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. [Children who are allergic to cow's milk. Nutritional treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Dones, M José; Cruz Martín, Rosa M; Moreno González, Cristina; Oya Luis, Isabel; Martin Rodríguez, María

    2008-09-01

    An allergy or intolerance to cow's milk protein (APLV-IPLV) is the most frequent food allergy among early childhood in our environment, related to genetic and environmental factors. This allergy tends to appear during the first few months of life, after the introduction of cow's milk protein in a child's diet and it manifests itself with symptoms which depend on foreign matter being introduced (immunological or otherwise). A diagnosis is made by means of the patient's case history and is completed by laboratory tests. Treatment consists of excluding cow's milk protein from the child's diet. Formulas derived from cow's milk are substituted by a hydrolyzed formula or one based on soybean. The prognosis is good: patients respond to this diet which does not include cow's milk protein and the majority of patients succeed in forming tolerance for cow's milk protein. A nurse's role is fundamental in educating parents and later on the child in order to achieve following a diet which completely eliminates cow's milk protein (PLV).

  3. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lužajić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease. After calving, sixteen highly pregnant Holstein cows, aged 3 to 9 years, without clinical signs of the disease prior to calving were divided into two groups: the first group (n=9 were animals without retained placenta, or any visible inflammation after birth; the second group (n=7 were cows with retained placenta. Blood was sampled three times before parturition, at intervals of one week, and once 24 hours after birth. The number of total leukocytes, segmented and non segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (NG, lymphocytes and monocytes were determined by standard laboratory techniques. The results have shown that in the group of cows with retained placenta the number of mature neutrophils was slightly elevated in the third, second and last week before calving, and equal number of non segmented neutrophils in regard to the group with no retention. The results have also shown that, in both groups of cows, 24 hours after calving, the number of total leukocytes and the number of segmented neutrophils decreased, but the number of the non segmented neutrophils increased. Based on this, we can conclude that cows with retained placenta had no systemic inflammatory response during three weeks prepartal period, but 24 hours after calving, systemic inflammatory response was documented in all the cows. Moreover, the intensity of inflammatory response in cows with retained placenta was not more pronounced in comparison to cows without retained placenta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  4. Efficiency of calf production of cows from two genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of weight, age and production efficiency of cows from genetic groups based on the calf weight at calving and at weaning. For a period of five years, data of 120 cows (60 Angus-Nellore (AN and 60 Simmental-Nellore (SN at four to nine-years of age were evaluated. All cows were maintained on Brachiaria decumbens pastures, with two forage availability levels (high and low, distributed in a randomized-block design. The cows were placed together with Canchim bulls to generate the crossbred calves. A supplement, consisting of 200 g/kg crude protein and 820 g/kg of total digestible nutrients, was provided to the calves in creep feeding until 210 days-old (weaning. Supplement had a significant effect on the weight of the cow at calving and weaning. The average weights of the Angus-Nellore cows were 529.19 and 514.23 kg at calving and on the weaning day, respectively. These values were higher for Simmental-Nellore cows, which presented 569.60 and 542.59 kg, respectively. The male-calf weight at weaning was 254.69 kg, which was higher than the females (237.70 kg. Genetic group had no effect on weaning weight. The average weight for Canchim × Angus-Nellore calves was 243.41 kg and for Canchim × Simmental-Nellore it was 248.98 kg. Cow age affected weaning weight, promoting a linear increase of 0.804 kg in the weaning weight each year. Younger and smaller cows (Angus-Nellore are more efficient for calf production.

  5. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  6. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  7. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K; Saffran, Jenny R

    2016-04-05

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e.g., pink cow and Holstein-patterned pig). On each trial, toddlers were directed to find a target object. Overall, recognition was disrupted when colors were switched, as measured by eye movements. Moreover, individual differences in vocabularies predicted recognition differences: Toddlers who say fewer shape-based words were more disrupted by color switches. "Knowing" a word may not mean the same thing for all toddlers; different toddlers prioritize different facets of familiar objects in their lexical representations.

  8. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  9. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  10. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  11. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (P0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds.

  12. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte.

  13. Daily eating activity of dairy cows from 3D accelerometer data and RFID signals: prediction by random forests and detection of sick cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie; Gildbjerg, Lars Bilde; Voss, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Feed intake is very important for dairy cows and deviation from normal eating behaviour may predict a cow that needs treatment. We used video recordings of dairy cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre (DKC) combined with data from a neck-collar mounted 3D accelerometer and RFID device from...

  14. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( Angus cows and lower ( Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to 28.6 ± 9.4 kg for cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive ability of Romosinuano in temperate fescue regions may be favorable with respect to relative cow and calf weight but may be a consequence of

  15. Isoelectric focusing and ELISA for detecting adulteration of donkey milk with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzano, Rosa; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2014-06-25

    Donkey milk has been recently revalued intensely due to its nutritional properties. Moreover, donkey milk has been proposed as an effective alternative food for some infants with cow milk allergy. Two fast analytical methods were proposed to detect the fraudulent practice of blending cow milk to donkey milk. Detection of cow αs1-casein bands along the profiles of experimental donkey-cow milk mixtures analyzed by isoelectric focusing was adequate to estimate cow milk used as adulterant of donkey milk starting from 5% (v/v). An ELISA-based method using the antipeptide antibodies raised against the 1-28 sequence stretch of cow β-casein was also developed for an accurate definition of composition of donkey-cow milk mixtures. The presence of cow milk at levels as low as 0.5% (v/v) was detected in donkey-cow milk mixtures prepared at laboratory scale and assayed by ELISA.

  16. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PONKA ROGER

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... sorghum, cotton, vegetables among others), livestock (cattle, goats, swine, and ...... HM (2009). Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals ... fatty acids and cholesterol content in the milk of Pakistani cow breeds.

  17. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    conditions of highland, mid altitude and lowland AEZ using Friesian Jersey and ... Cows were inseminated using pure Holstein from NAIC (Kaliti) and WWS .... condition and clinical and sub clinical mastitis are among the factors that could ...

  18. Natural variation in biomarkers indicating mastitis in healthy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstedt, Maria; Forsbäck, Linda; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Dairy herds are expanding and, with increasing numbers of animals in each herd, there is a need for automatic recording of indicators in milk in order to detect mastitis, inflammation of the udder. A number of biomarkers for mastitis have been suggested over the years. Mastitis usually occurs...... as markers for mastitis. Ten cows were monitored on 42 consecutive milking occasions through collection of udder quarter milk samples and representative cow composite milk samples, giving a total of 2100 individual milk samples. Each cow had its individual profile for the concentrations and variations...... quarters within an individual cow can identify deviations from the natural variations between milkings. This could be a valuable tool instead of, or in combination with, a cut-off value for each parameter in order to detect changes in the milk indicating mastitis....

  19. PRODUCTION OF BIOG S FROM COW DUNG, WEEDS ND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-05-26

    May 26, 2017 ... the anaerobic fermentation of weeds and domestic waste; to determine the ratios of cow ... production; to determine the burning characteristic of the gas produced and to determine ... as newspapers, filter, paper, banana skins,.

  20. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ... Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in West and ... food production (Kamara and Sanginga, 2001). Of.

  1. Value of Milk from Human, Cow and Goat.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mineral content and apparent biological value (ABV) of milk from Human (Tl), White 1 ulani (Btinaji) cow (T2) ... was to investigate the biological value ... in 5% hydrochloric acid was added to .... Selenium conteur and distribution of human,.

  2. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...... before until 96 h after calving while housed in individual calving pens. Data on behaviour were obtained via video recordings and accelerometers attached to the cows’ legs. Cows spent less time lying, had more lying bouts and were more active the day before calving as compared to 2–4 days before calving...... throughout the 24 h following birth. Cows spent more time lying on the second day after calving than on the first day after calving. The results show marked behavioural changes during the last 6 h prior to calving and suggest that behavioural changes may be useful indicators of imminent calving. Furthermore...

  3. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk.

  4. Heel erosion and other interdigital disorders in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic associations between variables obtainable from dairy cow records and the occurrence of heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia at claw trimmings were estimated with multivariable logistic regression analysis on data from 1170 and 542 cows in lactation 1...... and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. In the 17 herds, heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and hyperplasia occurred among 43.8, 4.5, and .9% of cows in lactation 1 and among 69.1, 7.6 and 5.9% of cows in lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Severity of heel erosion increased with parity, and risk increased...... with stage of lactation. Strong seasonal effects were present. Various combinations of veterinary treatments were associated with heel erosion and hyperplasia depending on parity, stage of lactation, and the presence of other claw disorders. In contrast, veterinary treatment had a protective effect...

  5. Investigation of Chlamydophila spp. in dairy cows with reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niskanen Rauni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports worldwide indicate high prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. infection in cattle. To assess the prevalence in Sweden, 525 cows in 70 dairy herds with reproductive disorders was investigated. Methods To detect antibodies two commercially available kits were used. Moreover, 107 specimens, including vaginal swabs, organ tissues and milk were analysed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results Two (0.4% cows were seropositive in the Pourquier Cp. abortus ELISA. The seroprevalence with the Chekit ELISA was 28% with no difference between cases and controls. Five specimens were positive in real-time PCR and further analysed by nested PCR. Cp. pecorum was confirmed by partial omp1 DNA sequencing of the nested PCR product of vaginal swabs from control cows. Conclusion The results suggest that Cp. abortus infection is absent or rare in Swedish cows whereas Cp. pecorum is probably more spread. They also suggest that Chlamydophila spp. are not related to reproduction disorders in Swedish cattle.

  6. Comparison of Bone Resorption Markers During Hypocalcemia in Dairy Cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liesegang, A; Sassi, M.-L; Risteli, J; Eicher, R; Wanner, M; Riond, J.-L

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, or the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen could be used as markers to provide evidence of bone resorption during hypocalcemia of dairy cows...

  7. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  8. Metastatic mammary carcinoma in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Marchezan Piva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mammary gland neoplasms in cattle are rarely observed in the field veterinary diagnostics routine. Therefore, the objective of this study is to report a metastatic mammary carcinoma in a fourteen-year-old Holstein cow in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The animal was diagnosed by the field veterinarian with clinical mastitis that was unresponsive to treatment, and was euthanized due to the poor prognosis. At the necropsy, multiple yellow, firm, and sometimes friable nodules, ranging from 0.1 to 20cm were observed in all mammary glands, lymph nodes, kidneys, spleen, liver, pancreas, mediastinal lymph nodes, heart, and lungs. The final diagnosis of mammary carcinoma was established through the association of clinical, necropsy, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. Differential diagnoses included diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and chronic fungal or bacterial mastitis.

  9. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    within 30 s of an eliminative event. Intentional, incidental or no avoidance of faeces was also recorded for each event. Activity, characterised as static (lying, grazing or loafing), or active (moving to a different area of field, going to drink and catching up with herd) was also recorded. Of the 437...... going to drink or catching up with the herd. Overall, standing to defaecate and moving forward......Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...

  10. Nutritional status of high yielding crossbred cow around parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    Materials and methods: Nutritional status of cows around the peri-parturient period was investigated for six months in dairy farm. Seven to eight months' pregnant cows were selected for this study. Blood samples from 24 randomly selected cows were collected at stage-1, -2 and -3. The serum was stored at -20C until analyzing glucose, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, triglycerides (Tg, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and phosphorus (P. Results: An increasing trend of glucose level was evidenced (P=0.07 during stage-1. Instead, higher levels of TP were found during stage-3 as compared to the stage-1 and -2. The Alb levels differed significantly (P<0.01 among different stages. A significantly increased (P<0.01 cholesterol, Tg, and HDL were found after parturition (stage-2 and -3 than before parturition (stage-1. LDL was significantly (P=0.02 increased during stage-2 and -3. A significantly higher level of Ca (P<0.01, Mg (P<0.01 and P (P=0.03 were present during stage-1. Glucose, TP, cholesterol and Tg were significantly higher (P<0.01 in cows two months after parturition, while Alb was found to be the highest (P<0.01 in cows immediately after parturition. An increasing trend of LDL (P=0.07 and HDL (P=0.07 were found in the cows two months after parturition. However, Ca levels were significantly (P=0.04 higher in cows two months after parturition. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is alteration of biochemical levels among the study population at three different stages, and these data may be helpful in using the necessary nutrients to the the high yielding cows around their parturition. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 68-74

  11. Epidemiological studies of reproductive performance indicators in Swedish dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Löf, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive efficiency in dairy cows is a key factor for milk producers, and numerous studies have identified impaired reproductive performance as a major cause of reduced production efficiency in the dairy industry. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge of factors affecting the reproductive performance indicators currently used by herd advisory services and to find other, possibly more efficient, ways to measure reproductive performance in dairy cows. The studies include...

  12. Odds ratio of dystocia in Holstein cows in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai Firas Rashad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of some factors on dystocia in Holstein cows. The analysis consist of 19090 records of parturitions belonged to 3181 cows from 1990 to 2004 in the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station in Iraq. A logistic regression model was used to predict dystocia. The model included effects of year of birth, season (winter or other seasons), parity (first or later), birth weight (kg), and sex of calf. Results revealed that odds of dystocia decreas...

  13. Performance traits of dairy cows stabled in tie stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the evaluation of fertility and production traits stabled in tie stalls. 50 pure-bred Holstein cows were monitored and those traits were evaluated: interval of insemination, service period, calving interval, milk yield and content of milk protein and fat. All monitored cows finished standard lactation period (305 days) in year 2012. The evaluation was performed in relation to lactation order. Nearly all of fertility traits were evaluated as bad. The average interval...

  14. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Calzone Luigi; Baldi Francesco; Bendandi Barbara; Caffarelli Carlo; Marani Miris; Pasquinelli Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians. The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups...

  15. Welfare assessment for dairy cows in loose stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, welfare assessment using the methodology of the Welfare quality ® assessment protocol for cattle (2009 was performed for dairy cows maintained in the loose system of rearing on three dairy farms. This methodology includes quantitative measurements and qualitative evaluation of certain welfare parameters, criteria and principles of welfare, as well as assessment of the overall welfare of dairy cows. The results showed that the overall level of dairy cow welfare was acceptable on two farms, and was good on one. On two farms, the state of the cows’ social behavior expression was unacceptable. Furthermore, on all three farms, the expression of other types of cow behavior was not acceptable. At one farm, it was determined that the result for the absence of prolonged thirst was unacceptable. Based on these results, it can be concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of cow welfare on these farms. The applied methodology provides a multidimensional insight into the quality of cow welfare in the loose system.

  16. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-03-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k20, min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a30, a45, and a60, mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CFP, mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), curd syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), modeled RCT (RCTeq, min), maximum CF value (CFmax, mm), and time at CFmax (tmax, min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CYCURD), dry matter (%CYSOLIDS), and water (%CYWATER) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC cheese production was observed in the 2 UH status groups with the highest milk SCC (i.e., contagious IMI and culture-negative samples with high SCC), revealing a discrepancy

  17. Possibilities for preventing fatty liver in cows during peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these investigations was to examine possibilities for preventing fatty liver in cows during the peripartal period using the preparation HEPARENOL which includes methionine, lysine and choline in its composition. Investigations were performed on cattle of the Holstein breed whose average production during their last lactation was 8120 liters. The cows included in the experiment were divided into three groups of 10 cows each. Cows of the first group were administered the preparation HEPARENOL perorally 5-7 days before partus in daily doses of 50 ml per animal, and then daily during the first seven days after parturition in daily doses of 100 ml per animal. The second group of cows were administered the preparation in the same way as the first group, but they also received vitamin C injected deep i.m. in doses of 1000 mg per animal per day. The third group of cows were not exposed to any treatment and served as the control group. The body condition of the cows was marked according to the system Elanco Animal Health Bulletin Al 8478. Blood samples were taken by puncture of the jugular vein before the beginning of treatment, and on the third and 12th days after partus. The glucose concentration was determined in the blood samples. On the 12th day after partus, liver tissue samples were taken by biopsy for pathohistological examinations. Since the cows were fed in the same way and were in the same phase of the production-reproduction cycle, the average score of the body condition before treatment was approximately the same. However, on the 3rd day after partus, cows of the second experimental group showed average values that were significantly lower in comparison with the other two groups of cows. It is very interesting that a significantly lower value of glycemia (x=1.93±0.34 mmol/l was established in the same group of cows at this time. In cows of the first experimental and the control group, glycemia was approximately the same

  18. Immunodiagnostic identification of dairy cows infected with Prototheca zopfii at various clinical stages and discrimination between infected and uninfected cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, U; Scholz, H; Hensel, A

    2001-02-01

    Protothecosis is a severe form of mastitis in cattle that is caused by colorless algae of the genus Prototheca. So far, no suitable serological test for the identification of infected animals is available for routine diagnosis. In this study an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the identification of infected cows and for discriminating among infected cows at various clinical stages was developed. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and IgA and IgG1 in whey were used as antibody isotypes. The ELISA was evaluated using serum and whey from animals at different clinical stages of infection. A total of 12 cows with acute clinical manifestation of protothecal mastitis, 22 cows with clinical signs of chronic mastitis, 40 Prototheca zopfii-negative cows, and 18 cows with chronic clinical signs and earlier cultures positive for P. zopfii but with presently negative culturing results were investigated. A sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 94% were calculated for the ELISA based on IgA levels. Intra-assay and interassay variations were calculated to be 6.08 and 6.32%, respectively. Based on these data, this ELISA was found to be suitable for discrimination between infected and uninfected animals and might therefore be useful for screening affected herds.

  19. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 1. How to Distinguish between Non-Lame and Lame Cows Based on Differences in Locomotion or Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Van Nuffel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its detrimental effect on cow welfare, health and production, lameness in dairy cows has received quite a lot of attention in the last few decades—not only in terms of prevention and treatment of lameness but also in terms of detection, as early treatment might decrease the number of severely lame cows in the herds as well as decrease the direct and indirect costs associated with lameness cases. Generally, lame cows are detected by the herdsman, hoof trimmer or veterinarian based on abnormal locomotion, abnormal behavior or the presence of hoof lesions during routine trimming. In the scientific literature, several guidelines are proposed to detect lame cows based on visual interpretation of the locomotion of individual cows (i.e., locomotion scoring systems. Researchers and the industry have focused on automating such observations to support the farmer in finding the lame cows in their herds, but until now, such automated systems have rarely been used in commercial herds. This review starts with the description of normal locomotion of cows in order to define ‘abnormal’ locomotion caused by lameness. Cow locomotion (gait and posture and behavioral features that change when a cow becomes lame are described and linked to the existing visual scoring systems. In addition, the lack of information of normal cow gait and a clear description of ‘abnormal’ gait are discussed. Finally, the different set-ups used during locomotion scoring and their influence on the resulting locomotion scores are evaluated.

  20. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  1. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  3. Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163146.html Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk ... nutrition for babies, a new study suggests that most cow's milk formulas don't increase the risk ...

  4. Milk yield affects time budget in daiyr cows kept in tie-stalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norring, M.; Valros, A.; Munksgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    compared with multiparous cows. Multiparous cows ruminated more while lying than primiparous cows. High milk yield cows spent a shorter time lying and they fell asleep (lay with neck relaxed) sooner. The degree of daily milk yield was associated with modifications in behavior and cows with high milk......Effective selection in breeding programs and improved management has increased the milk production per cow. However, the effects of the increased yield on behavior have not yet been clarified. We investigated the effect of milk yield on the time budget of 29 Finnish Ayrshire cows in the same stage...... of lactation kept in tie-stalls. The time spent lying, eating, ruminating, lying inactive without ruminating, and lying with the neck muscles relaxed, as well as the milk yield of primiparous and multiparous cows were recorded for 2d. The effects of milk yield and parity on behavior were analyzed with mixed...

  5. EFFECT OF MILK UREA AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON FERTILITY INDICES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata JANKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of milk urea and protein levels in four consecutive lactations on fertility indices of Blackand- White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, milk recorded in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province has been made. Poorer fertility indices were found in first-calf heifers and second lactation cows receiving energy-deficient diets and in older (third and fourth lactation cows receiving excess dietary protein and energy. Best fertility was found in young cows fed excess protein (>3.60% regardless of milk urea levels, and in older cows having lower and optimum levels regardless of protein levels. Cow fertility is differentiated more by milk protein levels than by urea content. Fertility parameters were poorer in first and second lactation cows than in older cows. The coefficients of correlation between milk urea and protein levels and fertility indices were very low, with the only significant differences between protein content vs. calving interval and reproductive rest period.

  6. Conception rate in Holstein dairy cows having both normal sized follicles and cystic follicles at estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaneko

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: These results support artificially inseminated of cows that show clear signs of estrus even if they have both cystic follicles and normal sized follicles, and especially when the cows have only one cystic follicle.

  7. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    OpenAIRE

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-01-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  8. Investigation on leukocyte profile of periparturient cows with or without postpartum reproductive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Islam

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The neutrophil% and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio was higher in the cows with PRD during periparturient period. Thus, the increased neutrophil percentage and neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio observed at day15 postpartum is an indication of PRD in cows. The significant rise in TLC on the day of calving than prepartum and post partum days only in normal cows is physiological. It is also clear that cows suffering from ROP most likely to suffer from other post partum reproductive diseases.

  9. Effects of body weight loss on serum progesterone concentrations of non-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R O; Trevisanuto, C; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cortisol, insulin, and progesterone (P4) of dairy cows maintaining or mobilizing body weight (BW). Eleven non-lactating, non-pregnant, and ovariectomized Gir × Holstein cows were stratified by BW and body condition score (BCS), and randomly assigned to: 1) BW loss (six cows; LOSS) and 2) BW maintenance (five cows; MAINT). Treatments were achieved through a grazing schedule using three pastures. From Days -7 to 1 of the study, all cows were maintained in Pasture A (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). From Days 2 to 30, LOSS cows were maintained in Pasture B (less than 1.0 kg of dry matter/cow daily), whereas MAINT cows were maintained in Pasture C (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). However, from Days 3 to 30 of the study, cows from both treatments were regrouped daily into Pasture A from 0600 to 1200 h to allow LOSS cows to consume, on average, 4.5 kg/d of forage dry matter. On Day -66 of the study, all cows received an intravaginal drug releasing device containing 1.9 g of P4 (replaced every 14 d and removed on Day 3). Cow BW and BCS were assessed on Day 0 and 30 and blood samples were collected daily from Days 0 to 30 at 0600 and 1200 h. Changes in BW and BCS were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in LOSS cows compared to MAINT cows. Within samples collected at 0600 h, serum NEFA concentrations were often greater (P adipose tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic Profiles in Ovulatory and Anovulatory Primiparous Dairy Cows During the First Follicular Wave Postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Chiho; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sasamoto, Yoshihiko; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki; MATSUI, Motozumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic hormones affect ovarian function in the cow. However, the relationship between metabolic factors and ovarian function is not clear in the postpartum primiparous cow because they are still growing. The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail the time-dependent profile of the metabolic hormones, metabolites, and milk yields of ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous cows during the first follicular wave postpartum. We used 16 primiparous Holstein cows and obtained blood sa...

  11. Association between prepartum feeding behaviour and periparturient health disorders in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luchterhand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behaviour, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group four weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score > 3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-hour periods 2 to 4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf, primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf and multiparous (lactation > 2. Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behaviour monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behaviour or that of specific cohorts.

  12. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchterhand, Karen M; Silva, Paula R B; Chebel, Ricardo C; Endres, Marcia I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2-4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts.

  13. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) quarters with California mastitis test (CMT) score 2, score 3, and having clinical mastitis and in farms with increasing age of vacuum system. Quarters with CMT score 3, having clinical mastitis, cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS <2.5, and pulling down of milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens.

  14. Stray voltage zapping cows, pigs in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-18

    A power-supply malfunction is giving farm animals in Quebec a shock every time they eat or drink from metal troughs, making them nervous, lowering production, and stunting growth. In 2 years of negotiation with Hydro-Quebec, the utility has refused to correct the problem known as stray voltage. The shocks measure about 10 volts. It has been estimated the average Quebec dairy farmer with 40 cows is losing $15,000 to $20,000/y in reduced milk production. About 4,000 of the 23,000 Quebec pig and dairy farms are bothered by stray voltage. Hydro-Quebec has been asked to install filters that would reduce the problem; however, Hydro-Quebec attributes the stray voltage to the farmers' own equipment. A study conducted by the provincial Agriculture Department that measured stray voltage on 700 farms showed that 70% of the problem was Hydro-Quebec equipment. Farmers are prepared to solve the remaining 30% themselves.

  15. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  16. Simulation of MAD Cow Disease Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.; Gołdasz, J.

    Computer simulation of dynamic of BSE disease is presented. Both vertical (to baby) and horizontal (to neighbor) mechanisms of the disease spread are considered. The game takes place on a two-dimensional square lattice Nx×Ny = 1000×1000 with initial population randomly distributed on the net. The disease may be introduced either with the initial population or by a spontaneous development of BSE in an item, at a small frequency. Main results show a critical probability of the BSE transmission above which the disease is present in the population. This value is vulnerable to possible spatial clustering of the population and it also depends on the mechanism responsible for the disease onset, evolution and propagation. A threshold birth rate below which the population is extinct is seen. Above this threshold the population is disease free at equilibrium until another birth rate value is reached when the disease is present in population. For typical model parameters used for the simulation, which may correspond to the mad cow disease, we are close to the BSE-free case.

  17. State Equation Determination of Cow Dung Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Wicaksono, L. B.

    2017-08-01

    A state function is a thermodynamic function which relates various macroscopically measurable properties of a system (state variable) describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. A good understanding of a biogas state function plays a very important role in an effort to maximize biogas processes and to help predicting combation performance. This paper presents a step by step process of an experimental study aimed at determining the equation of state of cow dung biogas. The equation was derived from the data obtained from the experimental results of compressibility (κ) and expansivity (β) following the general form of gas state equation dV = βdT + κdP. In this equation, dV is gas volume variation, dT is temperature variation, and dP is pressure variation. From these results, we formulated a unique state equation from which the biogas critical temperature (Tc) and critical pressure were then determined (Tc = 266.7 K, Pc = 5096647.5 Pa).

  18. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  19. Detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee by derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirankalgikar, Nikhil M; De, Subrata

    2014-07-01

    Ghee is a widely consumed dairy product in India and that prepared from cow milk is mentioned in ayurvedic texts as an ingredient of many formulations/additive as well. Detection of cow ghee adulteration with vegetable oils/fats and animal body fats is a key concern. Indicated values for commonly used parameters to differentiate pure and adulterated ghee materials are many a times overlapping. Among reported techniques, ultraviolet fluorescence and paper chromatography technique are not that much sensitive while other methods require sophisticated instrumental facilities (such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry) and costly analytical processes. The present paper deals with a promising spectroscopic method to determine the tallow adulteration in cow ghee. Ghee and tallow (taken in chloroform) as such and mixed in different proportions were scanned by spectrophotometer and their second order spectra were analyzed. The value of the ratio of the absorbance of peaks at about 238 nm and 297 nm steadily decreases with the increasing proportion of tallow. This decrease shows consistent linearity suggesting its applicability for quantitative estimation of tallow in cow ghee. The developed derivative spectroscopic method is a rapid, sensitive, cost-effective method for detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee.

  20. Major reproductive health problems of indigenous Borena cows in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ararsa Duguma Benti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the major reproductive health problems and its associated risk factors in indigenous Borena breed cows in Borena zone in Southern Ethiopia between September 2013 and February 2014. Out of the total 409 cows examined, 195 (47.7% were having at least one of the reproductive problems identified by either questionnaire interview (n=329 or regular follow up (n=80 of individual cows. The major reproductive health problems identified in the present study were mastitis (21.3%; n=87/409, abortion (12.2%; n=50/409, repeat breeder (10.3%; n=42/409, anestrus (10.3%; n=42/409 and retained fetal membrane (RFM; 7.6%; n=31/409. The rate of abortion increased significantly (p=0.001 with the increase in the stage of gestation. Laboratory findings indicated that brucellosis and mastitis had great roles in reproductive health problems of dairy cows in the study area with prevalence rates of 2.91% and 68.41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study revealed that several reproductive health problems such as mastitis, abortion, repeat breeder, anestrus and RFM are mostly prevalent in dairy cows in Borena zone in southern Ethiopia.

  1. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2015-03-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an OFC for heated milk can consume butter. The milk-specific IgE value indicative of a negative predictive value of over 95% was 17.8 kUA/L, and patients with low milk-specific IgE values may be able to safely consume butter. Including butter in the diets of patients with milk-allergy after a butter challenge may improve quality of life.

  2. Behaviour of dairy cows subjected to an aversive veterinary procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Hötzel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On small dairy farms that lack appropriate handling facilities, cows can be restrained and subjected to veterinary inspection or treatment in their milking environment, which in turn might influence the behaviour of the animals, disrupting routine management. A group of seven dairy cows kept on an intensive rotational pasture system and machine milked twice a day by two familiar handlers were exposed to a thorough clinical examination for three consecutive days. Behavioural data before and after the procedure were analyzed by ANOVA. The behaviour of all the cows during the procedure indicated strong aversiveness. Treatment did not influence the flight distance (metres kept from the veterinarian or from a person unknown by the cows, assessed before and after the procedure (veterinarian: before = 1.2 ± 0.1; after 0.8 ± 0.2; unknown: 1.0 ± 0.2 after 1.2 ± 0.2; p=0.3, nor did it affect the number of agonistic interactions within the group observed before (7.1 ± 2 and after (11.5 ± 3 the procedure (p=0.3, or reactivity score (p=0.2. These results do not support the conclusion that the repeated application of unavoidable aversive veterinary procedures in the milking environment will influence the behaviour of cows during milking or their reactivity to humans.

  3. Design and test of an artificial reference cow to simulate methane release through exhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate methane emission from dairy cows, a technique is needed to evaluate individual methane emission from a large number of cows under practical conditions in barns. For developing such a measurement technique, a known reference source that can simulate cow exhalation of methane would be a

  4. Physiological and metabolic responses of gestating Brahaman cows to repeated transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiological and metabolic responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows into temperament groups of Calm, Intermediate, or Temperamental. Brahman cows (n = 48) were subjected to 2 hours of transport (TRA...

  5. Design and test of an artificial reference cow to simulate methane release through exhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate methane emission from dairy cows, a technique is needed to evaluate individual methane emission from a large number of cows under practical conditions in barns. For developing such a measurement technique, a known reference source that can simulate cow exhalation of methane would be a

  6. 7 CFR 59.102 - Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. 59.102... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.102 Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. (a) In General. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each cow...

  7. The adaptive immune response to cow's milk proteins in allergy and tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, B.

    2007-01-01

    Cow's milk (CM) and related products are an important source of protein in the diet. Unfortunately, cow's milk proteins (CMPs) can also be allergenic. IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA) occurs in 1.5% of infants, as well as in 0.3% of older children and adults. Insight into the immune response to

  8. Recording and analysis of locomotion in dairy cows with 3D accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Lammers, R.J.H.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Ipema, A.H.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    An automated method for lameness detection can be an alternative for detection by regular observations. Accelerometers attached to a leg of the dairy cow can be used to record the locomotion of a dairy cow. In an experiment the 3D acceleration of the right hind leg during walking of three dairy cows

  9. Cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking in loose housing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    In this study of cow behaviour and managerial aspects of fully automatic milking, the emphasis was on implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) in cubicle houses in a way that suits cows and farmer. The starting points of the research were that the cows would visit the AMS voluntarily and that th

  10. Social interactions of dairy cows introduced postpartally to a separated barn section - pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of reduced social activity of early lactating dairy cows when transferred postpartally to a separated barn section (S, group size 9.3 SD 2.1) vs. to a barn section of the main lactating herd (H, group size 130.1 SD 57.9) was tested. Social interactions of 12 cows in S and 14 cows i...

  11. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  12. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  13. Genetically enhanced cows resist intramammary Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Robert J; Powell, Anne M; Paape, Max J; Kerr, David E; Bannerman, Douglas D; Pursel, Vernon G; Wells, Kevin D; Talbot, Neil; Hawk, Harold W

    2005-04-01

    Mastitis, the most consequential disease in dairy cattle, costs the US dairy industry billions of dollars annually. To test the feasibility of protecting animals through genetic engineering, transgenic cows secreting lysostaphin at concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 14 micrograms/ml [corrected] in their milk were produced. In vitro assays demonstrated the milk's ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. Intramammary infusions of S. aureus were administered to three transgenic and ten nontransgenic cows. Increases in milk somatic cells, elevated body temperatures and induced acute phase proteins, each indicative of infection, were observed in all of the nontransgenic cows but in none of the transgenic animals. Protection against S. aureus mastitis appears to be achievable with as little as 3 micrograms/ml [corrected] of lysostaphin in milk. Our results indicate that genetic engineering can provide a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improve the well-being of livestock.

  14. A Mathematical Model for the Dynamics and Synchronization of Cows

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jie; Porter, Mason A; Dawkins, Marian S

    2010-01-01

    We formulate a mathematical model for daily activities of a cow (eating, lying down, and standing) in terms of a piecewise affine dynamical system. We analyze the properties of this bovine dynamical system representing the single animal and develop an exact integrative form as a discrete-time mapping. We then couple multiple cow "oscillators" together to study synchrony and cooperation in cattle herds. We comment on the relevant biology and discuss extensions of our model. With this abstract approach, we not only investigate equations with interesting dynamics but also develop interesting biological predictions. In particular, our model illustrates that it is possible for cows to synchronize \\emph{less} when the coupling is increased.

  15. Properties of fermented beverages from modified cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic property of mare milk is its low fat and protein content and high lactose content. Whey proteins account for approximately 40% total protein content, while casein content is below 50%. For this reason mare milk is defined as albumin milk in contrast to casein-type cow milk. The aim of the study was to modify cow milk composition to imitate that of mare milk using the microfiltration process. Fermented drinks were produced from modified cow milk with the use of two different starter cultures. Produced drinks were subjected to organoleptic examination, as well as physico-chemical and microbiological analyses. Analyses were performed after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of cold storage. It was found that active acidity, density, colour and dynamic viscosity changed during storage. Counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts decreased. Drinks differed in terms of their taste, as well as aroma and consistency.

  16. Salinomycin and virginiamycin for lactating cows supplemented on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Scatolin de Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals on pasture generally show higher feed efficiency as a result of the use of antibiotics. This study evaluated the effect of the antimicrobials salinomycin and/or virginiamycin on production and the ruminal parameters of supplemented dairy cows grazing on Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Twelve Holstein/Zebu multiparous cows were used, distributed in three Latin squares, one for the evaluation of ruminal parameters, and the others for production parameters. Cows on pasture were fed 50 % of their estimated intake with corn silage and concentrate supplements containing salinomycin, virginiamycin or a combination of additives, in doses of 120 and 150 mg kg−1, respectively. There were no differences in milk production and composition, energy and nitrogen balance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior. However, salinomycin and virginiamycin each reduced pasture and total dry matter intake by about 14 % and 10 %, with a consequent improvement in feed efficiency.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk and butter in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardío, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Rivera, J

    1997-12-03

    This monitoring study of 355 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state and 448 samples of national butter brands was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean HCH levels were 0.094 and 0.093 mg/kg on fat basis in cow's milk and butter samples, respectively. The mean DDT levels were 0.159 and 0.049 mg/kg, respectively. In relation to cow's milk, the total HCH levels in Veracruz state were higher but total DDT levels were comparable to those reported in other countries. On the other hand, organochlorine levels detected in national brand butter samples were lower than those found in other countries, where these pesticides are still used in sanitary actions. These results confirmed that dairy products in Mexico presented organochlorine pesticide residues (owing to their use in sanitary actions) indicating a human exposure through these food products.

  18. Contemporary aspects in assessment of protein needs in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubić Goran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of meeting protein needs in dairy cows is to provide sufficient degradable proteins, which are optimally used in the rumen, to provide the required level of productivity with a minimal amount of crude protein in the diet. The new concept, shown in this paper, which expresses protein value as metabolic, enables better protein balancing in dairy cows than before. The nutritive value of metabolic protein in dairy cows depends on essential amino acid composition of protein and their contribution to total essential amino acids. The improvement of protein utilization efficiency has practical implications. The reason for this is to decrease feeding costs per kilogram of milk or milk protein, the need for more efficient production, higher milk protein yield and to allow other nutrients in the diet to prove their influence on the increase of production.

  19. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further

  20. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  1. [Automated detection of estrus and mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, R M

    2001-02-15

    The development and test of detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows is described in a PhD thesis that was defended in Wageningen on June 5, 2000. These models were based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and cow activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The models alert farmers to cows that need attention, because of possible oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables. A time series model describes the dependence between successive observations. The parameters of the time series models were fitted on-line for each cow after each milking by means of a Kalman filter, a mathematical method to estimate the state of a system on-line. The Kalman filter gives the best estimate of the current state of a system based on all preceding observations. This model was tested for 2 years on two experimental farms, and under field conditions on four farms over several years. A second detection model, for cow milked in an automatic milking system (AMS), was based on a generalization of the first model. Two data sets (one small, one large) were used for testing. The results for oestrus detection were good for both models. The results for mastitis detection were varying (in some cases good, in other cases moderate). Fuzzy logic was used to classify mastitis and oestrus alerts with both detection models, to reduce the number of false positive alerts. Fuzzy logic makes approximate reasoning possible, where statements can be partly true or false. Input for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection models and additional information. The number of false positive alerts decreased considerably, while the number of detected cases remained at the same level. These models make automated detection possible in practice.

  2. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  3. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jasińska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  4. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were co

  5. Ultrasonographic Examination of the Rumen in Healthy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Imran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred nonpregnant cows were subjected to transabdominal ultrasonography to develop baseline topographical data of the rumen. The wall of the rumen could be identified as a thick echogenic line adjacent to the left abdominal wall from left flank to 8th intercostal space. The motility pattern of rumen was characterized by approximately 1 contraction every minute. The mean amplitude of the ruminal contraction was 3.2 cm. Ultrasonography of the rumen in healthy cows is a useful adjunct to the noninvasive diagnostic investigation of the rumen.

  6. Farmers' attitude toward the introduction of selective dry cow therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; Tijs, S H W; den Uijl, I E M; Santman-Berends, I M G A; Velthuis, A G J; Lam, T J G M

    2016-10-01

    The attitude of Dutch dairy farmers toward selective dry cow treatment (SDCT) is unknown, although a favorable mindset toward application of SDCT seems crucial for successful implementation. Given the fact that blanket dry cow treatment has been strongly promoted until recently, the implementation of SDCT was expected to be quite a challenge. This study aimed to provide insight into the level of implementation of SDCT in 2013 in the Netherlands, the methods used by farmers for selection of cows for dry cow treatment (DCT), the relation between SDCT and udder health and antimicrobial usage (AMU) in 2013, and the mindset of farmers toward SDCT. In 2014, a questionnaire was conducted in a group of 177 herds included in a large-scale udder health study in 2013 and for which all clinical mastitis cases during this year were recorded. In addition, data on somatic cell count (SCC) parameters and AMU was available for these herds. The questionnaire included questions with regard to DCT with a special emphasis on farmers' attitude and mindset with regard to applying DCT in 2013. The data that were obtained from the questionnaire were combined with the data on clinical mastitis, SCC, and AMU. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the data and to study the association between DCT, udder health, and AMU. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models with a logit link function were applied to evaluate potential associations between DCT and farmers' mindset. Selective DCT was taken up progressively by the farmers in our study, with 75% of them implementing SDCT in 2013. The main criterion used to select cows for DCT was the SCC history during the complete previous lactation. The herds were divided into 3 groups based on the percentage of cows dried off with antibiotics in 2013 as indicated by the farmers during interviews. The first group applied BDCT, and the herds for which SDCT was applied were split in 2 equally sized groups based on the median percentage

  7. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria from Cow Dung Based Biodynamic Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Radha, T. K.; RAO, D. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and ‘Cow pat pit’ (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (109 ml−1) and yeasts (104 ml−1). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (104 ml−1) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysi...

  8. Stability of plasma metabolites and hormones in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R W; Athanasiou, V N

    1978-06-01

    Plasma concentration stability of glucose, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, growth hormone, insulin were determined in lactating dairy cows. Concentrations of these metabolites and hormones were measured during a 36- to 48-hour period in 3 normal, mature dairy cows in the 2nd month of lactation. Samples were taken at 30-minute intervals; also, intensive sampling (every 10 minutes) was done at varying times in relation to feeding and milking. Of the 5 components measured, glucose concentration was the most stable, easiest to assay, and most reliable for use as a diagnostic aid in assessing metabolic carbohydrate disturbances in dairy cattle.

  9. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but the magnitude of the increase was greater for LBC cows. The LBC cows consumed more pine

  10. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  11. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stülpner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  12. One-hour blood xylose in the diagnosis of cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Iyngkaran, N; Abidin, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The 1-hour xylose absorption test was evaluated as method for the diagnosis of cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy in a prospective study of 48 infants with diarrhoea clinically suspected to be due to intolerance of cows' milk. The infants were maintained on a lactose and cows milk protein-free diet for 6-8 weeks and then were challenged with cows' milk protein. Jejunal biopsies and the 1-hour xylose absorption test were performed immediately before and 20-24 hours after cows' milk provo...

  13. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  14. Effect of mature body weight and stocking rate on cow and calf performance, cow herd efficiency, and economics in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P A; Stewart, C B; Gadberry, M S; Haque, M; Biermacher, J

    2016-04-01

    Eight 4-ha mixed warm-season grass pastures in southwestern Arkansas (33°40'4″ N, 93°35'24″ W, and elevation 107 m) were stocked with either large mature size (571 kg [SD 55.2] BW) or small mature size (463 kg [SD 58.2] BW) spring-calving cows at 4 stocking rates (SR; 1, 1.5, 2, or 2.5 cow-calf pairs/ha) over 4 yr to test the effects of SR and mature body size on cow and calf performance and system economics. Each pasture received 112 kg/ha N as ammonium nitrate in May and was broadcast seeded to annual ryegrass ( Lam.) in mid October each fall along with 112 kg/ha N as ammonium nitrate. Data were analyzed by regression to determine the effects of cow size and SR on calf performance, cow BW change, calf gain, weaning weight per hectare, hay feeding requirements, and net returns. As SR increased, cow BW and BCS at weaning decreased ( Calf BW at weaning in October increased ( calf BW at weaning per 100 kg cow BW decreased ( Calf BW weaned per hectare was not affected ( = 0.75) by cow BW but linearly increased ( feeding days and cost of hay per cow increased ( ≤ 0.05) and kilograms of hay offered per cow tended ( = 0.09) to linearly increase with increasing SR, yet cow BW had no effects ( > 0.22). Although there were no effects ( ≥ 0.38) of cow BW on carrying cost or net returns, increasing SR decreased ( feeding of conserved forages but did not affect pregnancy rates and led to increases in total calf BW weaned per hectare and net returns.

  15. Dairy cow cleanliness and milk quality on organic and conventional farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kathryn A; Innocent, Giles T; Mihm, Monika; Cripps, Peter; McLean, W Graham; Howard, C Vyvyan; Grove-White, Dai

    2007-08-01

    A subjective cow cleanliness scoring system was validated and used to assess the cleanliness score of dairy cows at different times in the year. A longitudinal study followed a number of farms from summer to winter, and a larger, cross-sectional study assessed a greater number of farms during the housed winter period. The scoring system was demonstrated to be both a repeatable and practical technique to use on-farm and showed that cows become dirtier in the transition from summer grazing to winter housing. Although farming system (organic or conventional) had no effect on cow cleanliness when cows were at grass, when housed in the winter, organic cows were significantly more likely to be cleaner. There was a link between cow cleanliness scores and milk quality, with herds having lower bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) tending to have a lower (cleaner) median cow cleanliness score; with this relationship strongest for the organic herds. There was no significant link between cleanliness score and Bactoscan (BS) count or clinical mastitis incidence. No major mastitis pathogens were cultured from bulk tank milk samples from the quartile of herds with the cleanest cows in contrast to the quartile of herds with the dirtiest cows, where significant mastitis pathogens were cultured. Based on this study, all farms, especially organic systems, should attempt to keep cows clean as part of subclinical mastitis control.

  16. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  17. Agreement between different sleep states and behaviour indicators in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternman, Emma; Pastell, Matti; Agenäs, Sigrid;

    2014-01-01

    , so this study examined whether these behavioural estimates also apply for adult cows.Behaviour observations and electrophysiological readings were recorded for a total of 13 cows during one recording session per cow lasting on average 4. h 22. min. Recording started when the cow was fully awake...... that the behavioural estimates for assessing total sleep time in calves could not be applied to adult cows as they markedly overestimated NREM and REM sleep time. Behavioural estimates for NREM and REM sleep time were on average 124 ± 17 and 14 ± 4. min per cow, respectively, while the electrophysiological estimate......Conclusive data regarding behavioural indicators of different sleep states in adult dairy cows are lacking, i.e. agreement between behavioural indicators of sleep and corresponding electrophysiological measures. Behavioural estimates for quantifying total sleep time in calves have been developed...

  18. The Cancer Cow: A study of the risks associated with milk from rbGH treated cows

    OpenAIRE

    Malawa, Zea

    2002-01-01

    In 1993 the FDA approved the commercial sale of milk from rbGH treated cows. Despite this approval, there are a number of public health concerns that have arisen about the safety of this milk. Specifically, there is concern that this milk may increase the risk and rate of cancer. Milk from rbGH treated cows has elevated levels of IGF-1. Furthermore, some amount of IGF-1 from the milk is orally active in humans. IGF-1 has a strong association with a number of cancers including breast, prostate...

  19. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  20. The Role of Improper Use of Artificial Insemination on Infertility and Abortion in Cows in Basrah Province, Iraq: Microbiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, H. A-L. [حيدر عبد اللطيف موسى; Aziz, M A; Bakr, S. S. [سندس صديق بكر; Jamaladdin, N. M. [نظام محمد جمال الدين

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to demonstrate the infectious causes and their mode of transmission in cases of infertility and abortion in cows. There were 434 artificially inseminated cows, of which 155 (35.7%) did not conceive after several trials. Seventy cows were naturally inseminated, of which 30 (42.8%) did not conceive. Delayed oestrus after normal delivery was found in 398 (99%) of 402 cows. Many microorganisms, known to be causative agents of infertility and abortion in cows, wer...

  1. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    McParland, S.; G. Banos; McCarthy, B; Lewis, E.; Coffey, M. P.; O’Neill, B.; O’Donovan, M.; Wall, E.; Berry, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk ...

  2. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  3. Effects of flunixin meglumine and transportation on establishment of pregnancy in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M L; Ansotegui, R P; Burns, P D; MacNeil, M D; Geary, T W

    2007-06-01

    Objectives of these studies were to determine the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) administration on early embryonic mortality and circulating PG and cortisol concentrations in transported and non-transported cows. Cows (n = 483) from 3 locations were used to evaluate the effects of transportation and FM approximately 14 d after AI on the establishment of pregnancy and serum concentrations of progesterone, PGF metabolite (PGFM), and cortisol. Treatments were transport (n = 129), transport + FM (n = 128), no transport (n = 130), and no transport + FM (n = 96). Multiparous cows (n = 224) were used at 2 locations, and nulliparous cows (n = 259) were used at 1 location. The no transport + FM treatment was used at only 2 locations. Flunixin meglumine (approximately 1.1 mg/kg of BW; i.m.) was administered before the cows were separated into transportation groups. Transportation included 4 to 6 h of transportation, without calves, via semitractor trailer. Nontransported cows remained penned, with their calves in adjacent pens, during the same period as the transported cows. Blood samples were collected from all cows before and after treatment and, at 2 locations, approximately 3 h after the onset of treatment. Location affected AI pregnancy rate (P < 0.01). Treatment effects, although not significant (P = 0.16), were of a magnitude to be considered practically important. Cows that received transportation + FM tended (P = 0.07) to have greater AI pregnancy rates (74%) than those that did not receive FM (66%), irrespective of transportation. Cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for transported cows than for nontransported cows. Cows receiving FM had greater (P < 0.05) AI pregnancy rates than non-FM cows (71 vs. 61%, respectively). Cows receiving transportation had lower (P < 0.01) mean PGFM concentrations than nontransported cows (45.4 vs. 54.6 pg/mL, respectively), and cows receiving FM had lower (P < 0.01) mean PGFM concentrations than non-FM cows (39.4 vs. 60

  4. Assessing lameness in cows kept in tie-stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, K A; Dippel, S; Huber, J; March, S; Winckler, C; Whay, H R

    2009-04-01

    Identifying lame cows and quantifying the prevalence of lameness are important elements of cattle welfare assessment that are generally achieved by methods involving observations of each animal walking. There is no published method for assessing lameness in cows confined in tie-stalls. The objective of this study (carried out within the European Commission's Welfare Quality(R) project) was to develop a suitable method and validate it for lameness detection against a published locomotion score. A series of indicators of lameness visible in tied cows was formalized into a stall assessment protocol. This was validated against a traditional locomotion score and tested for repeatability between 2 observers. A total of 98 cows on 4 farms were assessed. Overall interobserver agreement was 91%. Sensitivity compared with locomotion scoring was 0.54 to 0.77, dependent on observer and threshold definition. Assessment in the stall underestimated the herd prevalence of lameness revealed by locomotion scoring by 11 to 37% (mean 27%). The discrepancy between herd lameness prevalence assessed in the stall and by locomotion scoring was not affected significantly by farm or observer. The cases of lameness that were not detected in the stall tended to be the least severe. The proposed method for lameness detection in tie-stalls could be used for herd-level assessment of lameness and detection of individual lame animals by farmers and their advisors, but it is important to remember that it is less sensitive than locomotion scoring.

  5. Repeatability and heritability of response to superovulation in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonhati, H; Lôbo, R B; Oliveira, H N

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative effects of genetic and phenotypic factors on the efficacy and efficiency of superovulation for Holstein-Friesian cows reared in Brazil. A database, established by the Associacao Brasileira de Criadores de Bovinos da Raca Holandesa, consisting of a total of 5387 superovulations of 2941 cows distributed over 473 herds and sired by 690 bulls was used for the analysis. The records were analyzed by MTDFREML (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood), using a repeatability animal model. The fixed effects included in the model were contemporaneous group (veterinarian, herd, year and season of the superovulation); number of semen doses; cow age; and superovulation order. The estimated repeatability of the number of the transferable embryos was low (0.13), and the estimated heritability was 0.03. These results indicate that environmental factors play a critical role in the response of a cow to a superovulation treatment. There is little evidence that future responses to superovulation by individual females can be predicted by previous treatment(s) or that superovulation response is an heritable trait.

  6. Grass tetany in a herd of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odette, O

    2005-08-01

    Five cows in a herd of 15 cattle that had just been turned out onto lush pasture after having over-wintered on poor quality hay died suddenly. Biochemical profiles collected from the cadavers revealed reduced serum levels of magnesium, urea, and beta-hydroxybutycate. Classical grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) was diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  7. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md;

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly t...

  8. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...

  9. Serum biochemical parameters of cows during pregnancy and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    indigenous and crossbred cows during the period under study in the area. Key words: Serum ... nutritional inadequacies, and diseases (Agyemang et al., 1991). In order to improve ... Increased productivity of animals especially the dairy cattle have been ... season, gestation and sampling method (Hewett, 1974), and season ...

  10. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  11. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it investiga

  12. 33 CFR 157.155 - COW operations: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stripping suction; (9) Before the tank vessel begins each ballast voyage, each cargo tank and each cargo... piping of the COW system is drained of crude oil; (11) When the cargo tanks are not being water washed... ballasting the cargo tanks is drained of all crude oil; and (2) Before ballasting or deballasting cargo...

  13. Ovarian follicular dynamics in purebred and crossbred Boran cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... resulting from normal ovarian follicular dynamics is crucial to ... 18.5°C and average annual rainfall was 757 mm (DZARC Agro- meteorology, 2015). Seventeen cows (9 ..... support of this study by the United States Department of ... Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. 327 p.

  14. Immune response to Babesia bigemina infection in pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, T D; Figueroa, M J V; Ramos, A J A; Rojas, M C; Cantó, A G J; Falcón, N A; Alvarez, M J A

    2004-10-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and is transmitted by the tick vector Boophilus microplus. In this study, we investigate B. bigemina infection regarding the clinical infection, T cell distribution, and cytokine profile during the acute phase of an experimental infection in pregnant cows.

  15. Cow status monitoring (health and oestrus) using detection sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatje, K.; Mol, de R.M.; Rossing, W.

    1997-01-01

    In-line sensors were used to measure quarter milk conductivity and milk temperature in the milking claw for monitoring mastitis in dairy cows. In a preliminary experiment, sensor data were used to develop algorithms and threshold values for the detection of mastitis. In a later experiment, these thr

  16. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  17. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  18. Cow status monitoring (health and oestrus) using detection sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatje, K.; Mol, de R.M.; Rossing, W.

    1997-01-01

    In-line sensors were used to measure quarter milk conductivity and milk temperature in the milking claw for monitoring mastitis in dairy cows. In a preliminary experiment, sensor data were used to develop algorithms and threshold values for the detection of mastitis. In a later experiment, these

  19. Application of fuzzy logic in automated cow status monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, R M; Woldt, W E

    2001-02-01

    Sensors that measure yield, temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and animal activity can be used for automated cow status monitoring. The occurrence of false-positive alerts, generated by a detection model, creates problems in practice. We used fuzzy logic to classify mastitis and estrus alerts; our objective was to reduce the number of false-positive alerts and not to change the level of detected cases of mastitis and estrus. Inputs for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection model and additional information, such as the reproductive status. The output was a classification, true or false, of each alert. Only alerts that were classified true should be presented to the herd manager. Additional information was used to check whether deviating sensor measurements were caused by mastitis or estrus, or by other influences. A fuzzy logic model for the classification of mastitis alerts was tested on a data set from cows milked in an automatic milking system. All clinical cases without measurement errors were classified correctly. The number of false-positive alerts over time from a subset of 25 cows was reduced from 1266 to 64 by applying the fuzzy logic model. A fuzzy logic model for the classification of estrus alerts was tested on two data sets. The number of detected cases decreased slightly after classification, and the number of false-positive alerts decreased considerably. Classification by a fuzzy logic model proved to be very useful in increasing the applicability of automated cow status monitoring.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Erdman, Richard A; Swanson, Kara M; Molenaar, Adrian J; Maqbool, Nauman J; Wheeler, Thomas T; Arias, Juan A; Quinn-Walsh, Erin C; Stelwagen, Kerst

    2010-03-01

    It is well established that milk production of the dairy cow is a function of mammary epithelial cell (MEC) number and activity and that these factors can be influenced by diverse environmental influences and management practises (nutrition, milk frequency, photoperiod, udder health, hormonal and local effectors). Thus, understanding how the mammary gland is able to respond to these environmental cues provides a huge potential to enhance milk production of the dairy cow. In recent years our understanding of molecular events within the MEC underlying bovine lactation has been advanced through mammary microarray studies and will be further advanced through the recent availability of the bovine genome sequence. In addition, the potential of epigenetic regulation (non-sequence inheritable chemical changes in chromatin, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which affect gene expression) to manipulate mammary function is emerging. We propose that a substantial proportion of unexplained phenotypic variation in the dairy cow is due to epigenetic regulation. Heritability of epigenetic marks also highlights the potential to modify lactation performance of offspring. Understanding the response of the MEC (cell signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms) to external stimuli will be an important prerequisite to devising new technologies for maximising their activity and, hence, milk production in the dairy cow.

  1. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and l...

  2. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown t

  3. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly c

  4. COW (ESHU) RITUAL IN THE FUNERAL RITE: THE SIGIFICANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow in funeral rite is bound up with the belief of the people which point to their .... would be handed over to Ada – (the first female daughter) of the. Ewu Ngwo Ogodo .... legacy the deceased has left behind, demonstrate that they are.

  5. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly

  6. Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, M.C.J.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    Doel van deze studie is om een inschatting te maken van de methaanproductie door melkkoeien vanaf 1990 tot nu. Tevens zijn de effecten van voer onderzochtThe aim of this study is to calculate methane production by dairy cows during the period 1990 till present. A dynamic mechanistic model of rumen f

  7. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  8. Mastitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in a cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.; Sol, J.; Koene, M.G.J.; Schaaf, A.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis with a raised somatic cell count was diagnosed in a cow in her fifth lactation. It was caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which can also infect humans. This is the first time that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a mastitis sample in the Netherlands.

  9. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  10. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal samples were collected from 30 dairy cows on the same farm beginning at 1 week of age and continuing for 2 years. Samples were collected weekly from 1 wk to 8 wks of age, bi-weekly from 2 mo to 6 mo of age and monthly thereafter. The samples were concentrated and cleaned of fecal debris on a...

  11. Toxic bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in twin cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegsegger; Corti; Sihto; Johler

    2014-11-01

    In this report, we describe two cases of bovine toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus and we provide DNA microarray based characterization data of the strain causing the disease. Both cows had recently calved and suffered from anorexia, pyrexia, and an elevated heart rate. In both animals, at least one mammary gland was swollen, hardened, sensitive to touch, and produced brownish or bloody secretions. The clinical state of the animals deteriorated quickly and both cows had to be euthanized within 48 hours after presentation. The S. aureus strain, which was isolated from the mastitis milk of both cows, was assigned to spa type t267, agr type I, capsule type 5 and CC97, a clonal complex recently identified as the evolutionary origin of two emerging clones of human epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The strain did not harbour any genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents and we did not detect any genes coding for enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin, or exfoliative toxins. Taking into consideration that twin cows were affected by this rare disease, we suggest that host factors may play a crucial role in toxic mastitis associated with S. aureus.

  12. Variation among Dairy Cows in Rumen Liquid Fermentation Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter; Kristensen, Lise

    Volatile fatty acids are the main energy product from rumen fermentation. This study investigated the individuality of VFA concentrations in samples of rumen fluid obtained from 10 Holstein cows using a esophageal probe to take samples repeatedly over a 7 week period. Systematic changes were seen...

  13. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-05

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm.

  14. Magnetic properties of electrodeposited Co-W thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admon, U.; Dariel, M.P.; Grunbaum, E.; Lodder, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thin films of Co-W, 300-500 Å thick, were electrodeposited at various compositions under a wide range of plating conditions. The saturation magnetization, coercivity, and squareness ratio of the films were derived from the parallel (in-plane) and perpendicular hysteresis loops, measured by using a v

  15. Ketosis in dairy cows: etiologic factors, monitoring, treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs during the negative energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows. It is characterized by elevated concentrations of ketone bodies in blood (hyperketonemia), urine, and milk. The thesis of Saskia van der Drift covers investigations on etiologic facto

  16. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  17. Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juncai

    2016-01-01

    During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, subfe

  18. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lene; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    behavioural changes for up to 19 h – and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare...

  19. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzone Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians. The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal, enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested.

  20. Genetic parameters for longevity in Holteins cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Junqueira Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The milk yield has been the most selected trait in dairy cattle breeding programs. However various studies have shown a decline in adaptive and longevity traits in herds that are under selection for improving production, especially in taurine breeds, as the Holstein, who was highly selected for milk production. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for first lactation 305-day milk yield (Y305 and for longevity traits and to verify the association among them, in high production Holstein cows. The data sets used were from Agrindus Farm, with calving occurring between 1989 and 2005. The traits analyzed were Y305, productive life (PL, calculated as the length of lactation days from the first day of lactation until the culling, and age at culling (AC. Variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood, applying multi-trait animal model. Heritability estimates for Y305, PL and AC were, respectively, 0.35, 0.07 and 0.10. Heritability estimates for PL and AC suggest small genetic variability to get genetic gains by direct selection for these traits, because they are influenced by decisions of voluntary and involuntary culling, being largely affected by factors related to the environment. It is difficult to measure these traits because it is necessary to evaluate culling of animals and causes of culling. The magnitude of the heritability estimate for Y305 evidences the existence of reasonable additive genetic variability, which allows efficiency by selecting for this trait. The genetic correlations between Y305 and PL was 0.02 and between Y305 and AC was 0.01, suggesting small genetic association between Y305 and longevity traits. In this case, the selection for Y305 is viable due to high heritability estimate and the favorable and almost null genetic correlation between Y305 and the longevity traits. Some studies have used to analyze longevity traits as threshold and since this trait has great economic importance, it

  1. Oocyte Pickup from Live Cows Through Laparoscopic Guided Aspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this experiment, the bovine follicular oocytes were aspirated from the ovaries of Chinese Holsteins with laparoscope made in China. The results were as following: for identifying the suitable negative aspiration pressure, six different pressures (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300mmHg)were tested. The aspiration pressure of 100mmHg was the best. Its oocyte recovery rate was 37. 2%, and G I , G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 89. 5%. The heifers were picked up by laparoscope once or twice a week. Each heifer was collected with 2. 4 oocytes once a week or 4. 4 oocytes twice a week.Its oocyte recovery rate was 48. 0% and the G Ⅰ ,G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 93. 5%. In addition, 1.9 oocytes were collected from each cow once a week or 5.4 oocytes from each cow twice a week. Its oocyte recovery rate was 51.7% and the G Ⅰ , G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 85. 1%. It showed that it was possible to pick up bovine oocyte twice a week. Two cows were picked up twice a week for several weeks(53 times). 268 follicles were aspirated(5.1 follicles per cow per time), and 141 oocytes were recovered(2.7 oocytes per cow per time). The oocyte recovery rate was 52.5%, and the G Ⅰ , G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 85. 1%. It was advisable to pick up oocytes twice a week continuously. Some cows in estrous cycles were superovulated with PMSG(500IU). Each of them could be recovered 2.3 follicles and 1.1 oocytes, the others were superovulated with FSH(0. 7mg) , each of them could be aspirated with 4.4 follicles and 2.3 oocytes. It was obvious that the effect of OPU(oocyte pick up) by superovulation with FSH was much better than that with PMSG. The best time for OPU with laparoscope was at the beginning of cow's estrous cycles. At the first day of their estrus, each of them could be averagely aspirated with 8 follicles and 5.7 oocytes.

  2. Reproductive performance of dairy cows managed with a program aimed at increasing insemination of cows in estrus based on increased physical activity and fertility of timed artificial inseminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Chandler, W C; Watters, R D

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows using a treatment (TRT) program for second and subsequent artificial insemination (AI) services aimed at (1) increasing AI upon estrus detection based on increased physical activity (AIAct) and (2) increasing fertility of timed AI (TAI) services for cows not AIAct through presynchronization of the estrous cycle and improved physiological milieu before TAI. Cows in the control (CON) group were managed with a program that combined AIAct and TAI after the Ovsynch protocol. After nonpregnancy diagnosis (NPD) by transrectal ultrasonography at 31 ± 3 d after AI, cows received the following treatments: (1) CON (n=634), AIAct any time after a previous AI and resynchronization with the Ovsynch-56 protocol (GnRH-7d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16 h-TAI) 1d after NPD, or (2) TRT (n = 616): cows with a corpus luteum (CL) ≥ 20 mm (TRT-CL) received a PGF2α injection 1d after NPD, whereas cows with no CL or a CL insemination after NPD were greater for cows in the TRT (17 d) than the CON (10 d) group, which coupled with similar fertility to AIAct, and TAI failed to improve overall reproductive performance. A low proportion of cows with a CL at NPD (65.2%) and a poor response to PGF2α may explain the poor estrus detection efficiency in the TRT group. We concluded that, when compared with a typical estrus detection and TAI program for cows failing to conceive to previous AI services, a program aimed at increasing the proportion of cows AIAct after NPD and fertility of TAI services increased the proportion of cows AIAct but failed to reduce days to pregnancy during lactation because of greater days to AI after NPD.

  3. Blood metabolites and hormone-based programmed breeding treatments in anovular lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zarkouny, S Z; Shaaban, M M; Stevenson, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were to (1) compare blood metabolites and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows not inseminated before (early) and after (late) 100 d in milk (DIM) because of prolonged anovulation or anestrus; and (2) evaluate reproductive responses of cows ≤100 DIM to GnRH+PGF(2α) treatments after a fixed-time artificial insemination (AI; Ovsynch) or after induced estrus (Select Synch). In blood samples collected before initiating hormone-based breeding programs, anovular cows ≤ 100 DIM had the greatest serum total protein and globulin concentrations and the lowest tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Anovular and ovular cows >100 DIM had the greatest serum urea concentrations. Ovaries in cows (n=40) >100 DIM were examined by transrectal ultrasonography, and those without a detectable corpus luteum (CL; anovular) were given GnRH and then PGF(2α) 7 d later (Select Synch), whereas cows with a CL (ovular) were given 2 PGF(2α) injections 12 d apart. Cows were inseminated at observed estrus after the second or only PGF(2α) injection. More ovular (79%; 15/19) than anovular cows (24%; 5/21) were detected in estrus. No differences were detected between ovular and anovular cows in DIM at first AI, conception rate to first AI, cumulative pregnancy rates, number of services per conception, or days open. Cows (n=93) ≤100 DIM were assigned randomly to 3 treatments: (1) control (n=20) AI at estrus; (2) GnRH and then PGF(2α) on 7d (Select Synch; n=42) and monitored for signs of estrus for 5d and AI accordingly; or (3) 2 GnRH injections 9 d apart with PGF(2α) given 48 h before second GnRH injection and AI at 16h after the second GnRH injection (Ovsynch; n=31). Among cows ≤100 DIM, controls had more days to first service (149±16 d) than Select Synch cows (117±7 d). Ovsynch cows had the fewest days to first service (84±10 d) compared with control (149±16 d) and Select Synch (117±7 d) cows. Conception rates in control (25%) and Select Synch (26.2%) cows did

  4. Matching forage systems with cow size and environment for sustainable cow-calf production in the southern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been increased interest in intensification of cow-calf production due to an increasing world population and red meat demand along with reductions in available grazing lands. Intensified production can come about by increasing fertilization, supplementation, or feeding of stored forages, bu...

  5. Effect of region, herd size, and milk production on reasons cows leave the herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J W; Ely, L O; Chapa, A M

    2000-12-01

    Dairy Herd Improvement Holstein herd summary records (n = 11,259) were obtained for the year ending 1998. Reasons cows reportedly left the herd based on termination codes were analyzed for the effect of region, herd size, and herd milk production level. Regions were: North, Midsouth, and South. Herd sizes were: small (25 to 99), low medium (100 to 149), high medium (150 to 299), and large (greater than or equal to 300 cows). Milk production levels were: low (less than 7258 kg), medium (7258 to 9072 kg), and high (greater than 9072 kg). The overall percentage of cows leaving the herd was higher in the Midsouth than the South and increased with herd size. Low producing herds reported a lower percentage of cows left than high producing herds. Herds in the South reported more cows leaving for reproduction, death, and low production and fewer leaving for mastitis. Herds in the North and Midsouth reported more cows leaving for injury/other and disease, respectively. Cows left herds for disease less frequently in the North. Large herds in the South had a higher percentage leaving for low production than any herd size group in the North. Small herds reported more cows leaving for reproduction and mastitis than high medium and low medium size herds. The percentage of cows leaving for feet and leg problems was lowest for small size herds. High producing herds reported more cows leaving for reproduction, mastitis, feet and legs and disease.

  6. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  7. Risk factors for digital dermatitis in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, J G C J; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M

    2005-09-30

    The presence of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows has increased considerably over the last 10 years in The Netherlands, resulting in a current prevalence of approximately 30% in cows kept in cubicle houses. Our objective was to evaluate a diversified sample of cow- and herd-related risk factors for DD in dairy cows housed in cubicle houses with different flooring systems. Associations were analysed in random-effects logistic-regression models using 2,134 cows (37 herds) and 2,892 cows (47 herds) in the pasture and housing studies, respectively. At cow-level, the odds of having DD were increased in the case of lower parity and lactation. Important risk factors at herd-level were: restricted grazing time, fast rise in concentrate amount after calving, feeding by-products, herd trimming only at long intervals, and introduction of dry cows into the lactating herd before calving. The odds for DD were lower if cows were housed on a slatted floor with manure scraper and provided long and wide cubicles, and if calves were reared in the dairy cows' accommodation.

  8. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis and intrauterine infections in repeat breeder cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Prunner, I; Wagener, K; Jaureguiberry, M; de la Sota, R L; Erber, R; Aurich, C; Ehling-Schulz, M; Drillich, M

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and the presence of common uterine pathogens in repeat breeder cows. A total of 121 cows with three or more consecutive artificial inseminations without conception and no clinical signs of disease were defined as repeat breeder cows and were enrolled in this trial. Intrauterine samples were collected with the cytobrush technique to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and bacteriologic infections. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma to assess ovarian activity. Furthermore, breed, parity, history of calving and postpartum uterine infection, clinical findings of transrectal palpation, and backfat thickness were analyzed as potential factors for the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows was 12.7%; but common uterine pathogens, Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, were found in only one and three cows, respectively. Ovarian activity was determined in 95.0% of all cows. Recorded variables had no effect on the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. In conclusion, subclinical endometritis and uterine infections linked to common pathogens were playing a minor role as a cause for repeat breeder cows in this study. Alternative reasons for failure to conceive in these cows are discussed.

  9. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R N; Cullor, J S; Jasper, D E; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M N

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical cases included 15 E. coli five Klebsiella pneumoniae, three K. oxytoca, three K. ozaenae, five Enterobacter aerogenes, three Serratia marcescens and one Serratia spp. Four control cows were culled, three of them because of chronic coliform mastitis and one because of postcoliform infection agalactia. Incidence rate of clinical gram-negative mastitis was 2.57% in vaccinated cows and 12.77% in unvaccinated cows. The estimated risk ratio, the measure of risk of having clinical gram-negative mastitis for vaccinated cows to unvaccinated cows, was 0.20 (p less than 0.005), indicating a strong relationship between vaccination and lack of clinical gram-negative mastitis. The results of this trial indicate that the administration of the E. coli J5 vaccine is protective against natural challenge to gram-negative bacteria, and reduces the incidence of clinical gram-negative mastitis in dairy cows during the first three months of lactation. PMID:2670166

  10. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  11. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO.

  12. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  13. Invited review: Matching forage systems with cow size and environment for sustainable cow-calf production in the southern region of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been increased interest in intensification of cow-calf production due to an increasing world population and red meat demand along with reductions in available grazing lands. Over the last 40 years, mature cow size has increased by over 30%, increasing their metabolizable energy requirement...

  14. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from periparturient dairy cows and cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.; Everts, R. R.; Houweling, M.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Stegeman, J. A.; Tielens, A. G. M.; Jorritsma, R.

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to investigate effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic receptor agonist) on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from late pregnant and recently calved dairy cows (n = 5) and cows with clinical ketosis (n =3). Incubation with 3.0 mmol/L beta-hydroxyb

  15. The body weight of the dairy cow. 1. Introductory study into the body weight changes in dairy cows as a management aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltz, E.; Devir, S.; Metz, J.H.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities to use the dairy cows' body weight (BW) and its changes for diagnostic and management purposes were studied. BW data of dairy cows were obtained during the day from visiting computer-controlled feeding stations. These data were analyzed on a daily and weekly basis in relation to ot

  16. APPLICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR PRE-MILKING TREATMENT OF COW UDDER AND DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICATION FOR POST-MILKING TREATMENT OF DUGS OF COW UDDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov V. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the main research results of investigation of the means of pre-milking and postmilking treatment of cow udder and dugs are presented. The treatment of cow udder dugs produces great effect on the milk quality, the incidence level of mastitis of cows in the herd, extension and pathogenic agents transmission from sick to healthy animals; and also udder treatment provides hygienic protection of udder dugs. Tree concentrations of detergent of chloride dioxide were tested. Whereof, dilution of detergent with concentration of 90 mg/l chloride dioxide proved effective disinfective effect in pre-milking treatment of udder dugs. The developed medication for post-milking treatment of cow udder dugs presented high preventive efficiency against mastitis and provided longer hygienic protection of cow udder dugs after milking

  17. Clinical manifestations of cow milk protein intolerance in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Marija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The disorder of cow milk protein intolerance is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations caused by hypersensitivity of type I, II, or IV, and occurs in 2-3% of children, mostly infants. Objective. The aim of this study was to present our experiences and observations of clinical signs and symptoms of cow milk protein intolerance in infants aged below 12 months. Method. The investigation was carried out on a sample of 55 infants, aged between 1.5-9 months (x=4.2l±1.25, who had cow milk protein intolerance. Diagnosis of illness was based on characteristic anamnestic, clinical, and laboratory parameters, as well as on an adequate patient's response to antigen elimination. Results. The clinical presentation of cow milk protein intolerance was dominated by cutaneous problems, found in 40/55 (72.73% infants, followed by digestive disorders, found in 31 (56.36%, while respiratory tract disorders were observed least frequently (14.55%. None of the patients developed anaphylactic shock. Changes involving only one system were found in 35 (63.64% patients; of these 20 (36.36% were cutaneous and 15 (27.27% digestive. Twenty (36.36% infants displayed multisystemic changes; of these 12 were cutaneus with digestive, 4 were cutaneus with respiratory, while 4 infants had cutaneous, digestive, and respiratory disorders. Of the 55 infants with cow milk protein intolerance, 26 (47.27% had urticaria, 22 (40.00% perioral erythema, 21 (38.18% diarrhoea (15 haemorrhagic, 6 non-haemorrhagic, 13 (23.64% vomiting, 12 (21.82% Quincke's oedema, 12 (21.82% eczema, 5 (9.09% obstructive bronchitis, while 3 (5.45% infants had laryngitis. In 5 (9.09% patients we found a significant body weight deficit and in 3 (5.45%, sideropenic anaemia, while longitudinal growth retardation was not registered in any of the patients. Conclusion. Our study showed that the disorder of cow milk protein intolerance predominantly involved cutaneous disorders as well

  18. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  19. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with the risk of nonpregnancy in cow-calf herds in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L; García Guerra, A

    2013-04-15

    To identify herd management and cow characteristics associated with the reproductive success of cow-calf herds in Western Canada, 33,391 beef cows were followed from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through pregnancy testing in 2002. Breeding management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score (BCS), and previous reproductive history, were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was measured in 205 herds in the fall of 2001 and again in 200 herds in the fall of 2002. Cows least likely to be pregnant in the fall of the year were 10 years old or older, exposed to a bull less than 84 days, had a BCS ≤5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, <5 of 9 before calving, and lost condition between calving and the start of the breeding season, or had a prebreeding BCS <5 of 9 with a loss of condition between breeding and pregnancy testing. Other factors identified that decreased the likelihood of pregnancy in at least one of the 2 years included being a heifer or being a cow exposed to breeding after her first calf, and using a single bull on breeding pasture. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were more likely to be pregnant than cows that were not vaccinated and bred on community pastures. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also less likely to be pregnant than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Calving-associated events such as twin birth, Cesarean section or malpresentation, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour after birth, or calving late after the start of the breeding season, were also associated with fewer pregnancies after accounting for all other factors.

  20. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  1. Attenuation of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Cow Urine Distillate in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M PGURURAJA; A B JOSHI; HIMANSHU JOSHI; D SATHYANARAYANA; E V S SUBRAHMANYAM; K S CHANDRASHEKHAR

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatoprotective activity in cow urine. Methods Effect of cow urine distillate on liver function was studied in vivo in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Hepatotoxicity was induced by a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 in olive oil (5 mL/kg i.p). Protective effect of cow urine distillate (in three dose levels) and standard drug Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) on liver function were studied in intoxicated rats. Parameters in the study included liver function tests and histological observations. Results The cow urine distillate decreased the levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, and total bilirubin in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05) as sylimarin. Conclusion The observed protective effects of cow urine distillate on liver function might be due to the presence of antioxidants in cow urine.

  2. Cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance in infancy. Some clinical, epidemiological and immunological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A

    1994-01-01

    Reproducible clinically abnormal reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP) may be due to the interaction between one or more milk proteins and one or more immune mechanisms, possibly any of the four basic types of hypersensitivity reactions. At present, evidence for type I, III and IV reactions against...... CMP has been demonstrated. Immunologically mediated reactions, mainly immediate IgE-mediated reactions are defined as cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Non immunologically reactions against CMP are defined as cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI). Many studies on "cow's milk allergy'" have...... allergenicity in some hypoallergenic formulae controlled clinical testing is necessary in each case before use. Goat's milk proteins share identity with CMP Raw untreated cow's milk and unhomogenized cow's milk is as allergenic as normal pasteurized and homogenized milk products. The prognosis of CMPA...

  3. Effect of Energy Intake during Dry Period on Production Performance of Postparturient Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-fei; WANG Zhe; NIU Shu-ling

    2004-01-01

    24 healthy periparturient cows were randomly allocated into three groups and fed 100% energy diet (NRC standard diets), 120% energy diet and 80% energy diet, respectively, beginning at 28 days prior to anticipated parturition. After parturition, all the cows were provided with the lactation ration ad libitum until the day 56 postpartum.The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of energy intake during the dry period on the production performance in the postpartum cows. The results indicated that the cows fed with high energy diet during the dry period had a lower dry material intake (DMI) and reduced milk production and a significant body weight (BW) loss compared with the cows fed with 80% energy diet and 100% energy diet, The results suggested that energy intake during the dry period was an important factor that influences and regulates DMI, milk production and energy equilibration of postparturient cows.

  4. Allergic reactions to raw, pasteurized, and homogenized/pasteurized cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Samuelsson, E G

    1988-01-01

    Five children aged 12-40 months with IgE-mediated adverse reactions to cow milk (immediate onset clinical pattern of cow milk allergy) were orally challenged double-blind in random order with three different milk preparations processed from the same batch of milk 1) raw untreated cow milk, 2......) pasteurized cow milk, 3) homogenized and pasteurized cow milk, and 4) Nutramigen (a commercial hypoallergenic infant formula based on hydrolysed casein) as placebo. Skin prick tests with the same preparations were also performed. On oral challenge the three different processed milk types provoked significant...... and similar allergic reactions in each child, and no adverse reactions followed the challenge with placebo (Nutramigen). Skin prick test with the same milk products were positive in all children and comparable to the results with an extract of purified raw cow milk protein (Soluprick), whereas Nutramigen did...

  5. Reuse of norgestomet implants in an eCG-based superovulation protocol administered to Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows

    OpenAIRE

    Sudano, Mateus Jose [UNESP; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz [UNESP; Sartori, Roberto; Machado, Rui

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the reuse of norgestomet implants in Nelore cows that were superstimulated with eCG. In a crossover design trial, eight cows were randomly divided into two experimental groups and twice superstimulated: Group 1 - half of the cows received a new norgestomet implant and 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) on Day 0; Group 2 - remaining cows received two once-used norgestomet implants and 2 mg EB also on Day 0. on Day 4 all cows received a single dose of 2000 IU eCG, and on Day 6 cow...

  6. The effect of farming system on dairy cow cleanliness in the UK and implications to udder health

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, K A; Mihm, M; Innocent, G.; Cripps, P.; McClean, W G; Howard, C. V; Grove-White, D.

    2006-01-01

    The cleanliness of dairy cows was assessed using a 20 point hygiene score system at different times in the year on 14 organic and 14 conventional farms in the UK. Overall, cows were dirtier during winter housing compared to summer grazing. Farming system had no effect on cow cleanliness when cows were at grass, but when housed in the winter, organic cows were more likely to be cleaner. There was a link between cow hygiene scores and milk hygiene, with herds having lower bulk tank somatic cell...

  7. Supplementation of cow milk naturally enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to growing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Nadine W.; Yoshimura, Emerson H.; Mareze-Costa, Cec?lia E.; Machado, Erica; Agustinho, Bruna C.; Pereira, Lucelia M.; Brito, M?rcia N.; Brito, Nilton A.; Zeoula,Lucia M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow?s diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enric...

  8. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshi Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs by time (week interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and −4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future.

  9. Relationships among Body Weight, Body Measurements and Estimated Feed Efficiency Characteristics in Holstein Friesian Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficient as smaller cows

  10. Influence of lipolysis and ketogenesis to metabolic and hematological parameters in dairy cows during periparturient period

    OpenAIRE

    Cincović R.M.; Belić Branislava; Radojičić Biljana; Hristov S.; Đoković R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of the metabolic profile and complete blood count in cows in the periparturient period on the basis of the intensity of lipolysis and ketogenesis (concentration of non esterified fatty acid - NEFA and betahydroxybutyrate - BHB). Based on median values of NEFA and BHB cows were divided into 3 groups: cows physiologically burdened with catabolism (NEFA and BHB levels above the median one week after part...

  11. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their dairy cows during summer. During grazing, the limited herbage intake is the main limitation of the dairy cows' production. This study examined opportunities for grass breeders to influence the quality of perennial ry...

  12. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to rations of pre- and postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, L H; Muller, L D; Wangsness, P J

    1980-12-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in elderly lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum and 60% corn silage:40% concentrate postpartum. On day 4 postpartum, cows were switched abruptly to the postpartum ration for 9 wk. Buffered rations contained .6% sodium bicarbonate prepartum and .7% postpartum. Daily dry matter intake as a percent of body weight for cows fed buffer postpartum (3.51%) was greater than for cows fed no buffer (3.04%) of buffer pre- and postpartum (3.14%). Average production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed buffer postpartum and buffer pre- and postpartum (31.9 kg/day and 31.7 kg/day) than for cows fed no buffer (28.9 kg/day). Milk fat tests were not different. Cows fed the buffered rations lost body weight between wk 1 and 9 as compared to a net gain for cows fed no buffer. Cows fed buffers consumed more dry matter during wk 1 than did cows fed no buffer. Samples of rumen fluid, feces, and serum showed few differences that could be attributed to treatments. Compared to controls, cows fed sodium bicarbonate adapted to rations more rapidly postpartum as indicated by increased feed intake during the first 2 wk and by increased milk production during the first 4 wk of the trial.

  13. Metabolic profiles in ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous dairy cows during the first follicular wave postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Chiho; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sasamoto, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Motozumi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2007-02-01

    Metabolic hormones affect ovarian function in the cow. However, the relationship between metabolic factors and ovarian function is not clear in the postpartum primiparous cow because they are still growing. The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail the time-dependent profile of the metabolic hormones, metabolites, and milk yields of ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous cows during the first follicular wave postpartum. We used 16 primiparous Holstein cows and obtained blood samples for the profiles of metabolites (glucose; non-esterified fatty acid, NEFA; ketone body; total cholesterol; and aspartate aminotransferase), metabolic hormones (growth hormone, GH; insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF-1; and insulin), and progesterone every other day from 1 to 21 days postpartum. In addition, all ovaries were observed using ultrasound. Dairy milk yield was recorded during the experimental period. In all cows, the first follicular wave postpartum was observed and 6 of the cows ovulated. The plasma glucose (Pketone bodies (P<0.0001) concentrations and daily milk yield (P<0.0001) were higher in the anovulatory cows compared to the ovulatory cows. However, the GH levels, which enhance lipolysis for milk production, insulin and other metabolites did not differ between the two groups. In conclusion, the present study suggests that anovulation of the dominant follicle during the first follicular wave postpartum in primiparous cows is induced by low IGF-1 levels that are similar to those of multiparous cows. In addition, anovulatory cows are likely to mobilize body fat stores for milk production more easily than ovulatory cows.

  14. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  15. The influence of heat stress on metabolic status of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Jožef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that high air temperature and humidity during the summer are the main factors which adversely affect both the health and production-reproductive performance of high yielding dairy cows. The resulting heath stress leads to a series of changes in endocrine regulation of homeostasis. The changes in hormonal status reflect in some way to the indicators of metabolic status of the cows. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of heat stress on metabolic status of cows. The experiment was carried out on 20 cows of Holstein-Friesian breed during the summer, in the period from 18th to 45th day of lactation. During the performance of the experiment, the value of heat index (THI was determined hourly and then the value of average morning (from 10 pm the previous day to 9 am the current day, afternoon (from 10 am to 9 pm the current day and all-day THI was calculated. Blood sampling was carried out on the 1st, 2nd, 8th, 11th, 14th, 18th, 25th, 29th and 37th day of the experiment, in the morning and the afternoon. On the basis of hourly THI values, whole experimental period was divided into three periods: period A during which the cows were exposed to a extreme high heat stress (THI≥78 at least 7 hours in 24 hours; period B during which the cows were exposed to a moderate heat stress (72≥THI≤78 at least 7 hours in 24 hours; period C during which the cows were not exposed to a heat stress (THI≤72 in 24 hours. The average daily THI in period A (73,25±0,89 was significantly higher (p<0,01, individually in regard to period B (71,45±0,96 and period C (65,41±2,09. THI was significantly higher in the period B than in the period C (p<0,01. Significantly lower blood glucose value (p<0,05 during the afternoon period in the cows exposed to the extreme heat stress (3,02±0,31 mmol/L in regard to the morning period (3,14±0,41 mmol/L points to the fact that in such conditions, metabolism redirects to use of glucose as an

  16. Technology for the fully automated milking of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gouws

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Since dairy farming is a very labour intensive, seven-days-per-week activity, increasing emphasis is being placed on the use of advanced technology in dairying throughout the world. Dairy mechanisation has been well established for many years, whereas dairy automation has only started to gain momentum fairly recently. An important milestone was the introduction of systems for automatic animal identification in the 1970’s. That paved the way for all further dairy automation activities. An analysis of the current status of the fully automated milking of cows shows that the automated attachment of a milking machine’s teat cups to a cow ’s teats is the most important task in dairying that remains to be automated.

  17. Study on Phospholipid Composition of Erythrocyte Membrane in Hypophosphatemic Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Fa-qing; XUAN Da-wei; XU Shi-Wen; WANG Zhen-yong

    2002-01-01

    The phospholipid constituents of the erythrocyte membrane of cows in hypophosophorus were detected with the field cases and the group comparison. The cows were divided into three groups: the hemoglobinuria group (HN), the hypophosphatemia group (HP) and the control group (CK). The content of the phospholipid constituent in HN and HP obviously changed: phosphatidylethaanolamine (PE) content in HN was significantly lower than that in HP and CK; but sphingomyline (SM) and phosphatidycholine (PC)+ phosphatidylserine (PS) content in HN were significantly higher than that in the two other groups; in comparison between HP and CK, PC + PS content was lower and SM content was higher in HP; significant positive correlation and negative correlation were observed between serum phosphorus and PE content, serum phosphorus and SM content respectively.

  18. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.

  19. [Prick tests for histamine and cow milk in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, F J; Jiménez, A

    1995-01-01

    Three hundred and one children were evaluated in six different rural areas in Tlaxcala, State (México). Through skin prick tests which included histamine, glycerine, cow's milk antigen and a drop fulfill a registration form including: personal data; personal and family atopic background; degree and frequency of gastrointestinal, respiratory and cutaneous diseases, as well as the child temperament. Besides, feeding history (length and type of breast-feeding). Six cases were found positive to cow's milk antigen (1.9%) by Prick test but none of them had showed signology related to (83%) were breast-fed at least for the first month of life. Histamine wheal size increased progressively up to eight months of age and reached a plateau.

  20. Effects of Cow's Milk on Reproduction in ICR Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU-XIA MA; NAOYUKI EBINE; KAZUO AOKI; MASAHIRO KUSUNOKI; JUNICHI MISUMI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Cow's milk on the reproduction in male mice. Methods Twenty-four male mice were divided randomly into two groups: milk group (M) and control group (C). Each mouse was given 10 mL milk per day from 4 to 16 weeks in the group M. At the age of 17 weeks, all the mice were sacrificed. Results Serum testosterone was decreased in the group M (P=0.037). No significant difference was found in weight of testes, seminal vesicle or adrenal gland of mice between the groups C and M. However, the weight of seminal vesicle decreased when expressed in g/100g body weight in the group M. Epididymal sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and sperm head number were not affected by milk. Conclusion Cow's milk has adverse effects on the reproductive system in ICR male mice. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific effects of milk on reproductive health.

  1. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  2. STUDIES REGARDING THE CONCEPTION RATES AT DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. PACALA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The conception rate is defined as the aptitude of a female to romaine pregnant after the first A.I. and represents the proportion between the number of pregnant cows at first A.I and the number of cows inseminated in that period. In our experiments of estrus induction and synchronization, in order to increase the pregnancy rates, we used the Ovsynch protocol and other protocols for PgF2α and GnRH. In order to establish the pregnancy rates, the number of females that have not return in heats after A.I. were taken in consideration. The conception rates were 45.5 – 52.6%. The estrus synchronization offers the possibility to increase the pregnancy rates at first service after calving and creates the possibility to inseminate at certain time without heat detection.

  3. Cows-feet soup: a rare cause of recurrent trichobezoar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Miles Finbar; Kamat, Sachin; Olagbaiye, Femi

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old Afro-Caribbean woman attended the emergency department with worsening dysphagia, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, shortness of breath and generalised weakness. She enjoyed preparing and eating cows-feet stew and preferred to cook the meat with the hair and skin intact. On admission she had a severe microcytic anaemia and was malnourished. Abdominal x-ray and CT revealed a large gastric bezoar. At gastrotomy a foul-smelling 2.42 kg mass of hair, leathery skin and altered food were evacuated from the lesser curvature of the stomach. She had undergone the same procedure 8 years earlier to remove a similar trichobezoar. Following psychiatric review it was deemed that the patient had no underlying psychiatric condition and had full insight into why her trichobezoar had re-occurred. She made a good postoperative recovery and stopped eating cows-feet stew.

  4. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...... for daily fat and protein corrected yield. Both traits were moderate to highly heritable and closely correlated (ra = 0.85). The two traits differed by milking efficiency being correlated to yield (ra = 0.48). Residual box time was closely correlated to milking time (ra = 0.93) compared to milking...

  5. Stability of plasma metabolites and hormones in parturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, V N; Phillips, R W

    1978-06-01

    Metabolic changes that accompany the transition from parturition to lactation in dairy cows were studied. To measure these changes, plasma samples were obtained from 20 mature Holstein-Friesian dairy cows 10 days before through 10 days after parturition. They were analyzed for glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), lactic acid, ketone bodies, glucocorticoids, insulin, and growth hormone concentration. Lactic acid and glucocorticoids remained constant during the experiment, except for the day of parturition itself. In the prepartum period, changes were not detected in concentrations of hormones (glucocorticoids, insulin, and growth hormone), whereas, plasma metabolites began changing prior to parturition. Most evident were prepartum increased in FFA, ketones, and glucose. Postpartum plasma glucose concentration rapidly returned to prepartum concentrations. Plasma concentration of FFA and ketone bodies remained elevated for longer periods.

  6. Vitamin D3 synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    with udder covers, horse blanket + udder cover (cows fitted with both horse blankets and udder covers), and natural (cows without any coverage fitted). The cows were let out to pasture daily between 1000 and 1500 h for 4 wk in July and August 2009. Blood samples were collected 15 times during the study...... inversely correlated to the body surface area covered. These results are consistent with findings in humans, wherein the vitamin D3 status of different individuals was inversely proportional to the amount of clothing worn during exposure to artificial sunlight. Hence, it appears that human clothing and cow...

  7. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H; Dick, C Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-07-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements included individual cow daily feed intakes, daily milk production, body weights, and monensin residues in composite milk samples from each cow. There were no detectable monensin residues (cows receiving a dose of 72 ppm monensin exhibited up to a 20% reduction in dry matter intake, and a 5% to 15% drop in milk production from the pre-challenge period. Cows receiving doses of 144 and 240 ppm monensin exhibited rapid decreases in feed intake of up to 50% by the 2nd d and milk production losses of up to 20% and 30%, respectively, within 4 d. Lactating cows receiving up to 4865 mg monensin per day had no detectable monensin residues (dairy cattle receiving monensin at recommended levels are safe for human consumption.

  8. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: reproduction, condition loss, plasma metabolites, and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, A M; McCormick, M E; Fernandez, J M; French, D D; Ward, J D; Beatty, J F

    2001-04-01

    An experiment was conducted over a 2-yr period to investigate the influence of grain crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) concentration on reproduction and energy status of dairy cows grazing annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and oats (Avena sativa). Holstein cows (n = 122) were blocked by calving group [partum (0 d postpartum) vs. postpartum (41 +/- 19 d postpartum at study initiation)] and assigned to grain supplements containing high CP [22.8% of dry matter (DM)], moderate CP (16.6%), or moderate CP (16.2%)] supplemented with RUP from blood meal and corn gluten meal. Postpartum condition loss was greater and first-service pregnancy rate was lower for partum-group cows receiving high CP grain supplements compared with control cows receiving moderate CP supplements. The RUP supplements reduced grain consumption, increased days to first estrus, and reduced first-service pregnancy rate of partum-group cows. The reproduction of postpartum group cows was unaffected by protein supplements. Plasma urea nitrogen was higher for cows fed high CP diets, but plasma ammonia nitrogen, glycated hemoglobin, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydoxybutyrate, glucose, and insulin concentrations were similar to cows fed moderate CP. Excess postpartum condition loss, coupled with inconsistent protein supplement effects on days to first service and first-service pregnancy rate, suggest that energy deprivation may have contributed to the low fertility experienced by grazing cows in this study.

  9. Identification Effects of Pedometer on Estrus of Holstein Cows during Peak Lactation Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Xiaoxin; Deng; Shuangyi; Liu; Wei; Wei; Xingyuan; Ai; Li

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The paper was to discuss identification effects of pedometer on estrus of Holstein cows during peak lactation period. [Method]The estrus of Holstein cows during peak lactation period were identified by manual observation and pedometer monitoring. [Result]Compared with manual observation,the detection rate of estrus in Holstein cows using pedometer monitoring was increased by 24. 01%,which reduced the labor cost and enhanced accuracy rate. [Conclusion]The research could provide reliable basis for estrus identification of cows.

  10. Serum Calcium Response Following Oral Zinc Oxide Administrations in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen RJ

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Six non-pregnant cows were allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised a pair of lactating cows, whereas groups 2 and 3 each comprised a pair of non-lactating cows. The cows in groups 1 and 2 were dosed intraruminally by stomach tube with zinc oxide at 120 mg Zn per kg of bodyweight at weekly intervals for a period of 33 days. Each cow received a total of 4 doses of zinc oxide. Group 3 served as non-treated control group. Blood samples were collected from all 6 cows daily. Serum was analysed for concentration of calcium. Within 12–24 h of each zinc oxide administration the serum calcium of the lactating cows dropped dramatically indicating the existence of an antagonistic effect between Zn and Ca. The first Zn induced hypocalcaemic episode in the lactating cows was followed by a rise in serum calcium to a level above the pre-dosing level and above the mean value of the control group. The depth of the hypocalcaemic response decreased with the number of zinc oxide dosings. This effect was explained as a response from the stimulation of the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. In the Zn dosed non-lactating cows responses were similar but less clear. The perspective of these findings is discussed in relation to resistance towards parturient hypocalcaemia.

  11. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees......The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...

  12. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  13. Welfare assessments based on lifetime health and production data in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter; Thomsen, Peter Thorup

    2011-01-01

    more than 22,000 L of milk. The medium number of treatments a cow had received for any disease was 2, but 10% of the cows had received more than 8 treatments for a disease. The study concluded that lifetime description provides a measure of disease occurrence that gives added value of ethical relevance...... or other condition affecting animal welfare is carried by a few individuals or is distributed more evenly. To illustrate this principle, the study obtained data on disease treatment records and production from 392,287 cows from the Danish Cattle Database. The average cow had lived for 5 years and produced...

  14. The balance between caseins and whey proteins in cow's milk determines its allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Villoslada, F; Olivares, M; Xaus, J

    2005-05-01

    Cow's milk allergy is quite common in the first years of human life. Protein composition plays an important role in this pathology, particularly the casein/whey protein ratio. It is known that milks from different species have different sensitization capacities although their protein sources are quite similar. Thus, the objective of this work was to compare the allergenicity of native cow's milk and milk with a modified ratio of casein and whey proteins in a murine model of atopy. Twenty-four Balb/c mice were orally sensitized to native cow's milk or modified cow's milk with a casein/whey protein ratio of 40:60. During the sensitization period, the number of mice suffering from diarrhea was significantly higher in the native cow's milk-sensitized group than in the modified milk-sensitized group. Once mice were killed, plasma histamine levels were shown to be significantly higher in native cow's milk-sensitized mice. In addition, cow's milk proteins induced a higher lymphocyte sensitization in the native milk-sensitized mice, with a significant increase in the specific proliferation ratio of these cells. These results suggest that the balance between caseins and whey proteins plays an important role in the sensitization capacity of cow's milk, and its modification might be a way to reduce the allergenicity of cow's milk.

  15. Metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles in cows from herds with high or low mastitis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtenius, K; Persson Waller, K; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Holtenius, P; Hallén Sandgren, C

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there were differences in metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles between cows in herds with high or low yearly mastitis incidence. In this study, 271 cows from 20 high yielding dairy herds were examined. According to the selection criteria, all herds had low somatic cell counts. Ten of the selected herds represented low mastitis treatment incidence (LMI) and ten herds had high mastitis treatment incidence (HMI). The farms were visited once and blood samples were taken from each cow that was in the interval from three weeks before to 15 weeks after parturition. The eosinophil count was significantly lower among cows from the HMI herds in the period from four weeks to 15 weeks after parturition. The plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin and urea did not differ between groups, but the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was significantly higher among HMI cows during the period three weeks after parturition. The concentration of the amino acid tryptophan in plasma was significantly lower among the HMI cows prior to parturition. Glutamine was significantly lower in cows from HMI herds during the first three weeks after parturition. Arginine was consistently lower in HMI cows, although the decrease was only significant during the period from four to fifteen weeks after parturition. The results suggest that there were differences in the metabolism and immune status between herds with high or low yearly mastitis treatment incidence indicating an increased metabolic stress in HMI cows.

  16. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Imhasly, S; Naegeli, H; Baumann, S.; von Bergen, M.; Luch, A; Jungnickel, H; Potratz, S; Gerspach, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the u...

  17. Comparative study of some local therapeutics for endometritis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Basheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 57 local breed cows suffering from various degrees of endometritis. The clinical examination included visual examination of vagina supported by uterine palpation per rectum; the laboratory examination included the bacterial isolation from the uterine swabs and histopathological examination of the uterine biopsies. Animals were randomly divided in to three groups of 15 cows each and 12 cows were considered as a control group received no treatment and observed for three consecutive estrous cycles. The first group was treated with a mixture of oxytetracycline (4 g and tylosin (2 g, second group was treated with cephquenome sulfate 0.5 g, and the third group was treated with lugol's solution (30 ml 2 %. These treatments were applied as a single intrauterine infusion and the clinical recovery was evaluated at the next estrous cycle by considering the absence of abnormal vagina discharge as an indicator of clinical recovery. Cows that showed clinical cure were inseminated artificially and the pregnancy diagnosis was preformed at least 75 days after insemination by rectal palpation. Retained placenta was the most important predisposing factor of endometritis 50.8 %, results of the bacterial examination demonstrated that E. coli was the most prevalence bacteria (27.4 %. Histopathological examination of uterine biopsy showed a high incidence ratio of chronic endometritis (42.1 %. Results of the treatment showed a higher response and conception rate in the second group (using of cephquenome 73.3 % and 63.3 %, respectively, followed by first group (using mixture of oxytetracycline and tylosin 60 % and 55.5 %, respectively, then the third group (using of lugol's solution 40 % and 50 %, respectively. The lowest cure and conception rates were observed in the control group 25 % and 33.3 %, respectively. This study pointed out a positive relationship between the nature of the vaginal discharge and each of the bacteriological

  18. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Radiša; Kirovski Danijela; Vujanac Ivan; Nešić Ksenija; Janevski Aleksandar; Marić Jovan; Kukrić Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving), puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving) and late lactation (200 to 300 days af...

  19. Paratuberculosis in breeding stock of red Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Radiša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes paratuberculosis in an isolated breeding herd of 25 high-yield dairy cows of the Red Holstein breed. The animals were examined clinically and then given the test for ldelayed type hypersensitivity and their blood serum was examined for the presence of specific antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. The clinical examination revealed that two cows exhibited symptoms of the disease that indicated an advanced stage of paratuberculosis. The following parameters were examined in the blood of the cows that showed clinical signs of the disease: leukocytes and erythrocytes count, concentrations of total proteins, albumin, iron, sodium, potassium, and activity of creatine kinase. The analysis of the red blood cell count revealed certain digressions that indicated the existence of hypochromic microcytic anaemia. The number of leukocytes was within the physiological values, but the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was disrupted and stood at almost 1:1. The results of the biochemical analyses of the blood serum of diseased cows indicated hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hypoferremia, hyposodiumaemia, hypokalemia, and increased activities of creatine kinase enzymes. A suspect reaction on the site of application of avian tuberculin was determined in two animals. Animals with clinical signs of the disease reacted negative to the test of delayed type hypersensitivity. The presence of specific antibodies against the cause of paratuberculosis was proven in four animals (16%, including two animals with clinical signs of the disease and one that had a suspect reaction on the site of application of avian tuberculin. Furthermore, one animal that died exhibited macroscopic and microscopic changes regarding the intensity and distribution of lesions, the type of cellular infiltrate, and the number of present acidresistent bacteria, and the changes were characterized as diffuse changes of multibacillary type. The cause of

  20. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuuren, van, Aico

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland managemen...

  1. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L

    2013-03-01

    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  2. Transcobalamin from cow milk: isolation and physico-chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    The concentration of endogenous cobalamin (Cbl) in cow milk was 3.3 nM while the Cbl-binding capacity was 0.05 nM. Both endogenous and newly added Cbl showed similar quantitative distribution between a 280 kDa protein complex (45%) and a 43 kDa Cbl-binder (55%). Long time incubation, as well as u...

  3. Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, M.C.J.; Hoek, MR; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    Doel van deze studie is om een inschatting te maken van de methaanproductie door melkkoeien vanaf 1990 tot nu. Tevens zijn de effecten van voer onderzochtThe aim of this study is to calculate methane production by dairy cows during the period 1990 till present. A dynamic mechanistic model of rumen fermentation and digestion will be used which represents the effect of detailed dietary characteristics on methane production

  4. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    OpenAIRE

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the o...

  5. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Vuuren, van, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland ...

  6. Genetic aspects of milk coagulation properties in Italian Holstein cows

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    G. Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the quota of national production of cow milk destined for cheese yield isabout 73% of total marketable milk (Osservatorio del latte, 2002. Hence, the improvement of renneting propertiesof milk is an important objective for the dairy sector. Favorable conditions of milk reactivity with rennet,curd formation rate and curd strength, as well as curd syneresis, have a positive effect on the wholecheese-making process and, later, on the ripening development of cheese.

  7. Maternal and reproductive performance of Brahman x Angus, Senepol x Angus, and Tuli x Angus cows in the subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W; Hammond, A C

    2004-09-01

    To determine the maternal and reproductive performance of F1 cows in the subtropics, 42 Brahman x Angus, 34 Senepol x Angus, and 50 Tuli x Angus cows were bred to Angus bulls to calve first and subsequently bred to Charolais bulls to calve as 3- to 8-yr-olds. Age at first calving did not differ among crossbred cows. Angus-sired calf birth weights were heavier (P Brahman x Angus or Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Angus-sired calves were heavier (P Brahman x Angus (213.5 kg) than either Senepol x Angus (194.9 kg) or Tuli x Angus (191.5 kg) cows. As 3- to 8-yr-old cows, calf birth weights were heavier (P Brahman x Angus but not Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Charolais-sired calves were heaviest (P Brahman x Angus cows (268.9 kg), lightest from Tuli x Angus cows (233.4 kg), and intermediate from Senepol x Angus cows (245.0 kg). Calf crop born and calf crop weaned were lowest (P Brahman x Angus (89.0 and 86.1%) and Tuli x Angus (94.7 and 86.5%) cows. Tuli x Angus cows tended (P Brahman x Angus cows but not Senepol x Angus cows. As 3- to 8-yr-olds, weaning weight per cow exposed was greatest (P Brahman x Angus (234.2 kg), least (P Brahman x Angus (42.2) and Tuli x Angus cows (40.7), and both were greater (P Brahman x Angus cows, except for lower calf survivability and weaning weight.

  8. Frequency of some acropodium diseases in dairy cows in Serbia

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    Milosavljević P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research included 520 dairy cows on 64 mini-farms in mountainous Serbian areas, with the goal to acquire an insight on acropodium diseases frequency in dairy cows, as well as distribution of hoof alterations. In 56.25% of farms, animals were kept tied in the stable, while 43.75% were grazing regularly or occasionally. Only 10.94% of farms were free of hoof acropodium alterations. Extremely bad hygienic conditions were noted in 18.75% of farms, where 74.01% of animals had acropodium lesions. Based on clinical analysis of 520 dairy cows, 388 of them were diagnosed with acropodium alternations: overgrown hooves (in 21.91% of animals, shoe-like hooves (7.22%, scissors-like (17.27% and spiral hooves (8.76%. Wounded acropodium skin was diagnosed in 1.8%, interdigital phlegmon in 9.02%, aseptic pododermatitis in 3.61%, digital dermatitis in 4.89%, interdigital dermatitis in 3.09%, hoof ulcer in 3.35%, interdigital blister in 4.89%, hollow hoof wall in 6.18%, horn wall rupture in 0.51%, heel abscess in 3.09%, tendovaginitis in 3.85% and crown joint displacement in 0.26% of animals. We found no pathological lesions of the acropodium in 132 animals (25.38%.

  9. Histopathologic findings in children diagnosed with cow's milk protein allergy.

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    Cervantes-Bustamante, R; Pedrero-Olivares, I; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Murillo-Márquez, P; Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Montijo-Barrios, E; Zárate-Mondragón, F; Cadena-León, J; Cazares-Méndez, M; López-Ugalde, M

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common cause of food allergy. The challenge test, either open or doubled-blind with a placebo control, is regarded as the criterion standard. Endoscopy and histologic findings are considered a method that can aid in the diagnosis of this entity. The aim of this study was to describe the histopathologic findings in children suspected of cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at our hospital. A descriptive, observational study was conducted on 116 children clinically suspected of presenting with cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. Upper endoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsies were performed and the findings were described. Of the 116 patients, 64 (55.17%) were girls and 52 (44.83%) were boys. The rectum was the site with the greatest presence of eosinophils per field in both groups, followed by the duodenum. In general, more than 15 eosinophils were found in 46% of the patients. Between 40 and 45% of the cases had the histologic criterion of more than 15 to 20 eosinophils per field and the rectosigmoid colon was the most affected site. Therefore, panendoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsy and eosinophil count are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

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    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  11. Comparison of systemic and intramammary dry cow treatments

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    G. Andres Contreras B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare four different dry cow treatments (DCT and establish their effectiveness in reducing intramammary infections (IIM. Materials and methods. DCTs included systemic tylosin (12g alone or accompanied by cefapirine intramammary infusions and or an internal teat sealant. A total number of 278 cows at the end of lactation period were randomly assigned to one of 4 dry cow treatment groups: CESE Group (n=89, intramammary cephapirin and teat sealant. TYCESE Group (n=84, intramammary cephapirin, tylosin 12 g intramuscular and teat sealant. TYSE Group (n=86, 12 g intramuscular tylosin and teat sealant; TY Group (n=76 12 g intramuscular tylosin only. Milk samples for culture were collected at dry-off and 1 and 2 weeks after calving. Somatic cell counts (SCC were taken from Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHI tests at dry-off, and the first two test days after calving. Results. Bacteria cure rate for Gram-positive intramammary infections (IMI for TYCESE group was 93.6%, CESE group 78.9%, TYSE group 88.2%, and TY group 78.1%. All four groups showed a decrease in the SCC upon the first and second test after calving. Conclusions. The use of systemic tylosin in combination with intramammary antibiotics increased DCT effectiveness improving the Gram-positive cure rate IMI. Furthermore, systemic tylosin alone plus teat sealant is as effective as cephapirin plus teat sealant when used as DCT.

  12. Penetrating anterior skull base fracture inflicted by a cow's horn

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    Adomas Bunevicius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Farm workers are at increased risk for animal-inflicted head injuries that are associated with significant morbidity and occasionally may be fatal. These injuries may cause permanent eye damage with or without concomitant skull base fracture. Here, we present a male farmer who suffered a cow attack that resulted in perforating orbital injury with comminuted frontobasal cranial fracture caused by a cow's horn. The next day, the patient developed nasal and orbital cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leak. Computed Tomography cisternography revealed CSF leakage to frontal and maxillary sinuses. The patient was treated using prophylactic antibiotic therapy, lumbar drainage, and underwent craniotomy for debridement and dural tear plastic. Post operative course was uneventful and there were no signs of CSF leak 1 year after the surgery. The case illustrates unusual injury inflicted by a cow's horn and underscores the importance of careful investigation for underlying skull base fracture and CSF leakage in patients sustaining perforating orbital injuries. Adequate and timely management of dural tears is associated with favorable outcomes.

  13. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

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    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  14. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

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    Santos Renato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report. Case presentation A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium. Conclusion Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts.

  15. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

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    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  16. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

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    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  17. EVALUATION OF CROSSBRED CALF AND COW TYPES; SUBJECTIVE TRAITS

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    Akin PALA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Data in this experiment consisted of birth weight, calving score, thickness and grade records of 600 crossbred calves. Angus, Brangus, and Gelbvieh sires were mated to purebred Hereford cows. Yearling and 2-yr-old Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters then were bred to Polled Hereford bulls (Data Set 2. Later-parity Angus-Hereford, Brangus-Hereford, and Gelbvieh-Hereford daughters were mated to Salers or Simmental sires (Data Set 3. The traits evaluated were birth weight, thickness and feeder grade of calves and degree of calving diffi culty. Calving diffi culty, grade, muscling or thickness evaluation is a subjective assessment. Progeny of Angus cattle were lighter at birth and were born easier than progeny of Brangus and Gelbvieh cattle. Angus-Hereford cows were more likely to have medium grade calves than Brangus-Hereford cows (odds ratio=1.69 and that was the only signifi cant difference for grade in all data sets. Brangus calves had thicker muscles than Angus and Gelbvieh calves. Adding Bos Indicus genes to a cross may increase birth weight, calving diffi culty and muscle thickness.

  18. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

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    A. Thalib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.

  19. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

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    Prodanović Radiša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving, puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving and late lactation (200 to 300 days after calving. Assessment of stereotypical behaviour (tongue rolling was carried out by the method of careful observation of all the tested animals 2 to 4 hours after morning feeding. Blood samples were taken by puncture of jugular vein from 8 cows out of each animal group. In these blood samples there was determined the concentration of glucose, beta hydroxy-butyric acid (BHBA, total protein (TP, albumin, urea, total bilirubin (TBI, Ca, P, and Mg as well as AST and ALT activities. During the period up to 40 days after calving (puerperium, behavioral disorder in the form of „tongue rolling“ was found out in 4 out of 30 observed animals (13.33%. Average concentrations of all the tested blood parameters during the drying period as well as in early and late lactation were within physiological values for cattle. During puerperium there were found significantly lower values of glycaemia, proteinemia, albuminemia, uremia and magnesiemia in regard to antepartal values (p<0.05, where the values of glycaemia and magnesiemia were below the physiological limit. A the same time, in this group of cows the values of TBI and AST activities were higher than physiological values. Frequent appearance of „tongue rolling“ phenomenon only among cows in the group with deviation of biochemical parameters values, points out to a possible connection between the stereotypical behaviour and biochemical composition of blood. It seems that hypomagnesiemia could be a significant etiopathogenetic factor causing the

  20. ANTIGENICITY OF COW'S MILK PROTEINS IN TWO ANIMAL MODELS

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    T.R. Neyestani

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Antigenicity of proteins found in cow's milk is age dependent. This is primarily due to infants possessing a more permeable intestinal wall than that in adults. Thus infants may acquire cow's milk allergy during their first year of life. While milk antigen specific IgE may cause allergy in susceptible subjects, there is some evidence indicating that milk antigen specific IgG may play some role in chronic disease development. The puropose of this study was to determine the antigenicity of cow's milk proteins in two animal models and to recommend the more sensitivie one, as an evaluation tool, to assess the antigenicity of a poteintial hypoallergenic formula. A crude extract of cow's milk was injected either to young male rabbits or BALB/C mice in four doses. Pure standard proteins of cow's milk were also injected to separate groups of animals to use their anti sera in later stages. The polyclonal pooled serum was then used to evaluate the antigenicity of the extract by indirect enzyme-linked immunossorbeni assay (LEISA. and Western blotting. Both the rabbit and BALB/C murine mode! demonstrated strong ELISA titres against casein and BSA proteins. However, the rabbit model also had a high antibody response against beta-lactoglobulin (/Mg. The lowest antibody response was found against alpha-kictalbumin («-la in both animal models and no response against immunoglobulins (Igs in either model. In Western blotting, rabbit antiserum showed four bands («-la, /Mg, caseins and BSA compared to two bands (caseins and BSA for mouse antiserum. Considering the allergenicity of these proteins in genetically prone subjects, it may be wise to exclude food sources of caseins as well as major whey proteins (BSA, from the diet of infants with a family history of atopy during the first year of life. The rabbit hyperimmunization model was more sensitive than the murine mode! in detecting antibodies against milk proteins. Thus, the rabbii model should be employed when

  1. Genomics of metabolic adaptations in the peripartal cow.

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    Loor, J J

    2010-07-01

    The peripartal period is characterized by dramatic alterations in metabolism and function of key tissues such as liver, adipose and mammary. Metabolic regulation relies partly on transcriptional control of gene networks, a collection of DNA segments, which interact with a transcription factor or nuclear receptor, as a mechanism controlling the concentration of key enzymes in cells. These 'global' interactions can govern the rates at which genes in the network are transcribed into mRNA. The study of the entire genome, sub-networks or candidate genes at the mRNA level encompasses the broad field of genomics. Genomics of peripartal metabolic adaptations has traditionally been focused on candidate genes and more recently, using microarrays, on the broader transcriptome landscape. The candidate gene approach has expanded our knowledge on the functional adaptations of ureagenesis, fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis, inflammation and growth hormone signaling in liver. More recent work with peripartal mammary tissue has used a gene network approach to study milk fat synthesis regulation as well as a candidate gene approach to study lipid transport, glucose uptake and inflammatory response. Network and pathway analysis of microarray data from cows fed different levels of dietary energy pre partum has revealed unique clusters encompassing functional categories including signal transduction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARγ) signaling, PPARα signaling, immune or inflammatory processes and cell death in subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as liver. Of interest from a nutritional perspective is the potential to alter PPARγ signaling in adipose and PPARα signaling in liver as a means to enhance insulin sensitivity as well as fatty acid oxidation post partum. Major advances in understanding the metabolic adaptations of peripartal cows will come from using a systems biology approach to integrate data generated at the m

  2. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  3. Some characteristics of primary and secondary oestrous signs in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, C; Nakao, T

    2005-04-01

    Shortened and weakened oestrous signs in dairy cows may cause a failure of oestrus detection and artificial insemination timing error leading to poor reproductive performance. The aims of this study were to investigate the duration of standing oestrus in high-producing dairy cows under a free stall system, to determine the duration of expression of secondary oestrous signs before and after standing oestrus (Expt 1) and to compare the duration and intensity of oestrus between cows and heifers (Expt 2). Cattle were checked for primary and secondary oestrous signs at an interval of 4 h. Heat detection aids were also used. In Expt 1, of 56 cows which were detected in oestrus, 36 cows (64.3%) showed standing oestrus and other 20 cows (36.6%) showed secondary oestrous signs only. Duration of the standing oestrus was 6.6 +/- 6.3 h on average (+/-SD), ranging between 2 and 32 h. The cows in standing oestrus showed secondary oestrous signs during a period from 9.6 +/- 8.1 h before onset of standing to 18.4 +/- 18.8 h after the end of standing oestrus. In the cows that did not show standing oestrus, expression of secondary oestrous signs were observed for 25.7 +/- 20.5 h, which was 7.5 h shorter than the average duration of oestrus in cows showing standing oestrus. In Expt 2, nine (82%) of the 11 lactating cows in oestrus showed standing, while all the 10 heifers exhibited standing oestrus. Average duration of standing oestrus was 6.4 +/- 4.3 h in cows and 6.2 +/- 3.9 h in heifers, respectively. It may be concluded that the duration of standing oestrus is substantially shortened in lactating dairy cows, and more than one-third of cows did not show standing oestrus. In cows showing standing oestrus, duration of expression of secondary oestrous signs before and after standing is not shortened. Duration of standing oestrus in heifers was as short as that in cows.

  4. The Influence of Cow Puerperal Infections Considering the Main Reproduction Indicators

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    Valeriu Caraba

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article it’s presenting results regarding the main reproduction indicators for German Spotted and Frizz Holstein. In stand to achieve this goal we fallow 3 main reproduction indicators to the cows with normal uterine involution and to the cows with puerperal infections: uterine repose (UR, Insemination index (Ig and gestation rate (G. Regarding the uterine repose we notice that there were no significantly differences between the two breeds for the cows with normal uterine involution, 114.00±8.80 days for German Spotted and 126.79±12.86 days for Frizz Holstein. For the cows with puerperal infections we notice very significant differences, 128.58±10.16 days for German Spotted and 184.27±12.68 days for Frizz Holstein. Regarding the number of insemination/gestation there were no significant differences between the cows with normal calving. In this way, the index/gestation was 1.45±0.11 for German Spotted and 1.57±0.17 for Frizz Holstein. For the cows with puerperal infections was a distinguished significant difference regarding the index/gestation, so we have 1.59±0.16 for German Spotted and 2.32±0.20 for Frizz Holstein. The pregnancy rate for the cows with normal uterine involution was 66% for German Spotted and 64% for Frizz Holstein. The gestation rate for Frizz Holstein was smaller for both categories (64% at the cows with normal uterine involution and 42% at the cows with puerperal infection. After that research we can conclude that, generally, the cows with post calving infections registered middle values for different reproduction indicators comparative with the healthy cows.

  5. Crude protein and rumen undergradable protein effects on reproduction and lactation performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M E; French, D D; Brown, T F; Cuomo, G J; Chapa, A M; Fernandez, J M; Beatty, J F; Blouin, D C

    1999-12-01

    We conducted a study to determine the effects of excess dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) on reproduction and lactation performance of Holstein cows. During each of three yearly replicates, cows were blocked by previous mature equivalent milk production and randomly assigned at calving (n = 47; partum group) or at 42 +/- 21 d postpartum (n = 134; postpartum group) to the following dietary treatments: 1) ryegrass pasture supplemented with a corn and soybean meal grain mix (high CP, moderate RUP); 2) ryegrass pasture mornings and corn silage evenings, supplemented with grain as in diet 1 (moderate CP, moderate RUP control diet), and 3) ryegrass pasture mornings and corn silage evenings, supplemented with a grain mix containing corn, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, and blood meal (moderate CP, high RUP). Dietary CP and RUP concentrations were approximately 23.1, 5.8; 17.7, 5.0; and 17.2, 6.8% of dry matter for diets 1 to 3, respectively. Plasma urea N concentrations were highest in cows fed diet 1 (25.0 mg/dl), intermediate in cows on diet 2 (20.1 mg/dl), and lowest in cows on diet 3 (18.5 mg/dl). Cows fed excess dietary protein (diet 1) exhibited lower first breeding pregnancy rates (24.1 vs. 41.0%) and lower overall pregnancy rates (53.4 vs. 75.4%) than did cows fed diet 2, increasing time nonpregnant by an average of 15.1 d per cow. Reproductive performance was similar between cows fed diets 2 and 3. Mean fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield was not affected by protein concentration (diet 1 vs. 2); however, partum group cows that received supplemental RUP (diet 3) produced more 3.5% FCM than controls in early lactation. Feeding grain diets that contained excess dietary protein impaired the reproductive performance of dairy cows grazing ryegrass.

  6. Evaluating two different evaporative cooling management systems for dairy cows in a hot, dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D P; Boland, M P; Kopel, E; Armstrong, D; Munyakazi, L; Godke, R A; Ingraham, R H

    1992-04-01

    Milk production, rectal temperature, live weight gain, reproductive performance, and weather data were obtained on 150 Holstein cows managed under two cooling systems on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia during the summer months. Cows were paired at the onset of the trial according to days postpartum, lactation number, and current milk production. Females were then allocated either to a system that forced air, precooled by evaporative cooling, over the cows or to a system that alternately showered a fine mist onto the surface of the cows and then forced air at ambient temperature over them. The cows receiving evaporative cooling and those with spray and fan cooling were on sand and on slatted concrete floor, respectively, during the periods of cooling. The onset of estrus was observed during the night when the cows preferred the unshaded corral. For the 120-d trial period, 84% (62 of 75) of the cows receiving evaporative cooling and 60% (44 of 75) of the cows receiving spray and fan cooling became pregnant. In the evaporative cooling system, the pregnancy rate per insemination was 35.2% (179 inseminations) versus 23.2% (194 inseminations) for spray and fan cooling. The mean postpartum interval to pregnancy was 117.6 d for the evaporative cooling cows and 146.7 d for spray and fan cooling cows. The evaporative cooling system, with its open shades and sand bedding, enhanced reproductive performance and milk production compared with that of cows cooled with a spray and fan system with slatted flooring in this hot climate.

  7. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. Animals A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. Methods Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. Results Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices (“Homeostasis Model Assessment” HOMA, “Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index” RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. Conclusion and clinical importance Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin. PMID:28107442

  8. Monitoring nonlactating cow intramammary infection dynamics using DHI somatic cell count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N B; Bennett, T B; Emery, K M; Nordlund, K V

    2002-05-01

    Although the nonlactating period presents a risk for intramammary infection, efficient systems to monitor infection status of recently calved cows have not been developed, and benchmarks for interpretation have not been established. Individual cow somatic cell count (SCC) data for the current and previous six monthly Dairy Herd Improvement milk tests and the last SCC of the previous lactation and first SCC of the current lactation were summarized for all milking cows in a selection of Wisconsin dairy herds. Prevalence of infection, herd new infection rate, fresh cow contribution to herd new infection rate, dry cow new infection rate, heifer new infection rate, and dry cow cure rate were estimated using a threshold of 200,000/ml. In 145 herds, mean (range) heifer new infection rate was 21.3% (0 to 58%). The cut-point for the 10th percentile of herds was 8%. Mean (range) dry cow new infection rate in cows that were uninfected at the last test before dry off was 22.4% (0 to 71%), and the cut-point for the 10th percentile of herds was 9%. Although nonlactating cow and heifer new infection rates increased with weighted 6-mo mean herd SCC, the between-herd variation was large, suggesting that on-farm factors are important in determining the rates of infection. In a subset of 51 Wisconsin dairy herds, significant monthly variation in weighted SCC, prevalence, herd new infection rate, and fresh cow contribution to herd new infection rate were detected. Elevations in SCC and prevalence of infection during the summer (July through September) were associated with significant increases in fresh cow and herd new infection rates.

  9. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  10. Behavior affected by routine oxytocin injection in crossbred cows in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Lammoglia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to determine the effect of routine intramuscular injection of oxytocin to induce milk ejection on behavior assessed in terms of stress and rectal temperature in crossbred cows (Bos indicus × Bos taurus in the tropics of Veracruz, México. Immediately after calving, cows were milked twice a day (n = 210 and randomly assigned to receive at each milking: 10 IU (0.5 mL of oxytocin intramuscularly (n = 70; 0.5 mL of saline solution intramuscularly (n = 70; or no injection (n = 70. The following behavioral indicators of stress were observed: trampling, kicking, tail movement, failure to eat, jumping to avoid injection, vocalization, urination, and defecation. After milking, rectal temperature (RT was measured. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and chi-square. There were no differences in terms of behavioral stress indicators or rectal temperature in cows injected with oxytocin or saline solution, but both groups had greater behavioral indicators of stress and RT compared with non-injected cows. Cows injected with oxytocin or saline solution manifested a higher percentage of animals that trampled (96.8%, kicked (32%, ceased eating (61.2%, moved the tail (81.2%, jumped (20.9% and avoided the injection (78.2%, compared with non-injected cows. Cows injected with oxytocin and saline solution had higher rectal temperature (39.13±0.08 ºC compared with non-injected cows (38.96±0.12 ºC. All injected cows had higher behavioral indicators of stress measurements and rectal temperature regardless of the solution, suggesting that cows injected routinely and intramuscularly do not become habituated to this, even though some cows were injected more than 600 times throughout lactation.

  11. New surgical technique to correct urovagina improves the fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, J V; Astiz, S; Elvira, L; López-Gatius, F

    2008-02-01

    Several surgical techniques have been proposed for the treatment of urovagina as a major cause of infertility in cows. However, so far no technique seems to be successful in all cases. Given that an incompetent or damaged constrictor vestibuli muscle is a feature of cows with urovagina, we hypothesized that surgical correction of urovagina by cerclage of the vestibulovaginal junction under the vaginal wall cranial to the urethral opening would prevent cranial flow of urine and improve fertility. Our study was performed on 39 non-pregnant lactating Holstein-Friesian cows suffering urovagina, with a vaginal content of urine exceeding 100mL and with evident incompetence of the constrictor vestibuli muscle. Cows were randomly assigned to a Control (untreated cows, n=20) or Experimental (n=19) group. An encircling polydioxanone suture was placed in the vaginal wall at the vestibulovaginal junction to create a vestibulovaginal cerclage in the Experimental cows. Surgery was observed to resolve urovagina in 17 (89.5%) of the 19 treated cows. Pregnancy was recorded in 7/20 (35%) and 14/19 (74%) cows in the Control and Experimental groups, respectively. Using logistic regression procedures and based on the odds ratio, we determined that cows undergoing surgical correction of urovagina were 5.2 times more likely to become pregnant than untreated cows (P=0.015). Our results suggest that vestibulovaginal junction cerclage prevents the cranial flow of urine and improves the function of the constrictor vestibuli muscle in cows suffering urovagina. They also indicate that, under these conditions, urovagina correction may dramatically increase fertility.

  12. Infants and children with cow milk allergy/intolerance. Investigation of the uptake of cow milk protein and activation of the complement system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, S; Høst, A; Teisner, B

    1990-01-01

    and up to 24 h after the start of the challenge. The cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) was determined in serum with ELISA (lower detection limit 0.3 micrograms/l). BLG was detectable in five children at low levels (below 2 micrograms/l). Analysis of the size distribution of the BLG by size......Seventeen children with challenge-verified cow milk allergy/intolerance (CMAI), age 3-78 months, median 12 months, were re-challenged with cow milk in increasing doses. All subjects developed symptoms, such as bronchospasm, rhinitis, diarrhoea, erythema or eczema. Blood samples were taken before...

  13. Dual purpose use of preterm piglets as a model of pediatric GI disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal complication in human neonates, yet the pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly understood. A fundamental approach to understanding the etiology and underlying biology of NEC is the use of in vivo experimental animal models, pri...

  14. Factor analysis for genetic evaluation of linear type traits in dual purpose breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Contiero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Type traits have become a selection goal in many breeder association due to the economic value recognised to some measurements. In dairy cattle, relationships of type with production (Veerkamp and Brotherstone, 1997; Kadarmideen and Wegmann, 2003 and/or with longevity (Larroque and Ducrocq, 2001; Vukasinovic et al., 2002 have been widely investigated in order to use type traits as predictors of herd life.

  15. SHIELDING ANALYSIS OF DUAL PURPOSE CASKS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL UNDER NORMAL STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAE-HUN KO

    2014-08-01

    The design of the cask is based on the safety requirements for normal storage conditions under 10 CFR Part 72. A radiation shielding analysis of the metal storage cask optimized for loading 21 design basis fuels was performed for two cases; one for a single cask and the other for a 2×10 cask array. For the single cask, dose rates at the external surface of the metal cask, 1m and 2m away from the cask surface, were evaluated. For the 2×10 cask array, dose rates at the center point of the array and at the center of the casks’ height were evaluated. The results of the shielding analysis for the single cask show that dose rates were considerably higher at the lower side (from the bottom of the cask to the bottom of the neutron shielding of the cask, at over 2mSv/hr at the external surface of the cask. However, this is not considered to be a significant issue since additional shielding will be installed at the storage facility. The shielding analysis results for the 2×10 cask array showed exponential decrease with distance off the sources. The controlled area boundary was calculated to be approximately 280m from the array, with a dose rate of 25mrem/yr. Actual dose rates within the controlled area boundary will be lower than 25mrem/yr, due to the decay of radioactivity of spent fuel in storage.

  16. Dual purpose use of preterm piglets as a model of pediatric GI disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterloo, Berthe C; Premkumar, Muralidhar; Stoll, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal complication in human neonates, yet the pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly understood. A fundamental approach to understanding the etiology and underlying biology of NEC is the use of in vivo experimental animal models, ...

  17. Property of Dual-purposed Maca Powder as Medicine and Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research property of maca and three plants' powders and process parameters of compound maca direct compression. [Method] Based on analysis data from SAS, bulk density, tap density, angle of repose and swelling of powders were studied as per single factor method and orthogonal exper- imental design. [Result] The test indicated that fillibilities of plant A and B, and maca powders are better and flowability plays an important role in fractional close of compound maca powder; plant A and B powders have a significant effect on bulk density of maca (P=0.0125), an extremely significant effect on swelling volume ratio (P=0.008 9) and little effect on tap density (g/ml); the optimal process condition of compound maca powder is as follows: A at 0.15 share; B at 0.10 share; C at 0.05 share; the optimal swelling volume ratio is at 2.459. [Conclusion] The technology is reasonable in formulation and satisfactory in fillibility, swelling ability, flowability, and it could serve as theoretical basis for the industrial production of maca tablets.

  18. A dual purpose universal influenza vaccine candidate confers protective immunity against anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Maria T; Li, Junwei; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Navarro, Ashley; Wu, Lihong; Yan, Yongyong; Zeng, Mingtao

    2017-03-01

    Preventive influenza vaccines must be reformulated annually because of antigen shift and drift of circulating influenza viral strains. However, seasonal vaccines do not always match the circulating strains, and there is the ever-present threat that avian influenza viruses may adapt to humans. Hence, a universal influenza vaccine is needed to provide protective immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses. We designed an influenza antigen consisting of three tandem M2e repeats plus HA2, in combination with a detoxified anthrax oedema toxin delivery system (EFn plus PA) to enhance immune responses. The EFn-3×M2e-HA2 plus PA vaccine formulation elicited robust, antigen-specific, IgG responses; and was protective against heterologous influenza viral challenge when intranasally delivered to mice three times. Moreover, use of the detoxified anthrax toxin system as an adjuvant had the additional benefit of generating protective immunity against anthrax. Hence, this novel vaccine strategy could potentially address two major emerging public health and biodefence threats. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A ferrite LTCC based dual purpose helical antenna providing bias for tunability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2015-03-30

    Typically, magnetically tunable antennas utilize large external magnets or coils to provide the magneto-static bias. In this work, we present a novel concept of combining the antenna and the bias coil in one structure. A helical antenna has been optimized to act as the bias coil in a ten layer ferrite LTCC package, thus performing two functions. This not only reduces the overall size of the system by getting rid of the external bias source but also eliminates demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-to-substrate interface), which reduces the required magneto-static field strength and makes the design efficient. RF choking inductor and DC blocking capacitor have been monolithically integrated as package elements to allow the magnetostatic and microwave excitation at the same time. The design has been optimized for its low frequency and high frequency performance in two different simulators. A measured tuning range of 10% is achieved at a center frequency of 13 GHz. The design is highly suitable for low cost, compact, light-weight and tunable microwave systems. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

  20. Dual Purpose Simulation: New Data Link Test and Performance Limit Testing of Currently Deployed Data Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    While the results of this paper are similar to those of [I], in this paper technical difficulties present in [I] are eliminated, producing better results, enabling one to more readily see the benefits of Prioritized CSMA (PCSMA). A new analysis section also helps to generalize this research so that it is not limited to exploration of the new concept of PCSMA. Commercially available network simulation software, OPNET version 7.0, simulations are presented involving an important application of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN), Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) over the Very High Frequency Data Link Mode 2 (VDL-2). Communication is modeled for essentially all incoming and outgoing nonstop air-traffic for just three United States cities: Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Detroit. The simulation involves 111 Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground stations, 32 airports distributed throughout the U.S., which are either sources or destinations for the air traffic landing or departing from the three cities, and also 1,235 equally equipped aircraft-taking off, flying realistic free-flight trajectories, and landing in a 24-hr period. Collision-less PCSMA is successfully tested and compared with the traditional CSMA typically associated with VDL-2. The performance measures include latency, throughput, and packet loss. As expected, PCSMA is much quicker and more efficient than traditional CSMA. These simulation results show the potency of PCSMA for implementing low latency, high throughput and efficient connectivity. Moreover, since PCSMA outperforms traditional CSMA, by simulating with it, we can determine the limits of performance beyond which traditional CSMA may not pass. So we have the tools to determine the traffic-loading conditions where traditional CSMA will fail, and we are testing a new and better data link that could replace it with relative ease. Work is currently being done to drastically expand the number of flights to make the simulation more representative of the National Aerospace System.

  1. Targeting pharmacoresistant epilepsy and epileptogenesis with a dual-purpose antiepileptic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeser, Anna; Dickhof, Gesa; Reitze, Margit; Uebachs, Mischa; Schaub, Christina; Pires, Nuno Miguel; Bonifácio, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício; Beck, Heinz

    2015-02-01

    In human epilepsy, pharmacoresistance to antiepileptic drug therapy is a major problem affecting a substantial fraction of patients. Many of the currently available antiepileptic drugs target voltage-gated sodium channels, leading to a rate-dependent suppression of neuronal discharge. A loss of use-dependent block has emerged as a potential cellular mechanism of pharmacoresistance for anticonvulsants acting on voltage-gated sodium channels. There is a need both for compounds that overcome this resistance mechanism and for novel drugs that inhibit the process of epileptogenesis. We show that eslicarbazepine acetate, a once-daily antiepileptic drug, may constitute a candidate compound that addresses both issues. Eslicarbazepine acetate is converted extensively to eslicarbazepine after oral administration. We have first tested using patch-clamp recording in human and rat hippocampal slices if eslicarbazepine, the major active metabolite of eslicarbazepine acetate, shows maintained activity in chronically epileptic tissue. We show that eslicarbazepine exhibits maintained use-dependent blocking effects both in human and experimental epilepsy with significant add-on effects to carbamazepine in human epilepsy. Second, we show that eslicarbazepine acetate also inhibits Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels, which have been shown to be key mediators of epileptogenesis. We then examined if transitory administration of eslicarbazepine acetate (once daily for 6 weeks, 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) after induction of epilepsy in mice has an effect on the development of chronic seizures and neuropathological correlates of chronic epilepsy. We found that eslicarbazepine acetate exhibits strong antiepileptogenic effects in experimental epilepsy. EEG monitoring showed that transitory eslicarbazepine acetate treatment resulted in a significant decrease in seizure activity at the chronic state, 8 weeks after the end of treatment. Moreover, eslicarbazepine acetate treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mossy fibre sprouting into the inner molecular layer of pilocarpine-injected mice, as detected by Timm staining. In addition, epileptic animals treated with 150 mg/kg, but not those that received 300 mg/kg eslicarbazepine acetate showed an attenuated neuronal loss. These results indicate that eslicarbazepine potentially overcomes a cellular resistance mechanism to conventional antiepileptic drugs and at the same time constitutes a potent antiepileptogenic agent. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dual-purpose self-deliverable lunar surface PV electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jack H.; Harris, David W.; Cross, Eldon R.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    A safe haven and work supported PV power systems on the lunar surface will likely be required by NASA in support of the manned outpost scheduled for the post-2000 lunar/Mars exploration and colonization initiative. Initial system modeling and computer analysis shows that the concept is workable and contains no major high risk technology issues which cannot be resolved in the circa 2000 to 2025 timeframe. A specific selection of the best suited type of electric thruster has not been done; the initial modeling was done using an ion thruster, but Rocketdyne must also evaluate arc and resisto-jets before a final design can be formulated. As a general observation, it appears that such a system can deliver itself to the Moon using many system elements that must be transported as dead payload mass in more conventional delivery modes. It further appears that a larger power system providing a much higher safe haven power level is feasible if this delivery system is implemented, perhaps even sufficient to permit resource prospecting and/or lab experimentation. The concept permits growth and can be expanded to include cargo transport such as habitat and working modules. In short, the combined payload could be manned soon after landing and checkout. NASA has expended substantial resources in the development of electric propulsion concepts and hardware that can be applied to a lunar transport system such as described herein. In short, the paper may represent a viable mission on which previous investments play an invaluable role. A more comprehensive technical paper which embodies second generation analysis and system size will be prepared for near-term presentation.

  3. Dual Purpose Landscaping Tools: Small Extra Dimensions in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polchinski, Joseph; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    We propose a class of AdS/CFT dual pairs which have small internal dimensions on the gravity side. Starting from known Freund-Rubin AdS/CFT dual pairs, we use 7-branes to nearly cancel the curvature energy of the internal dimensions while maintaining their stabilization. This leads to a new corner of the landscape - a class of AdS solutions with a hierarchically large AdS radius - with a dual field theory given (implicitly) by the infrared limit of a concrete brane construction involving D3-branes, 7-branes, and curvature. We first construct a class of hierarchical AdS5/CFT4 dual pairs with a simple formula for the number of degrees of freedom which we interpret in the dual QFT. We then generalize these to AdS4/CFT3 duals, and suggest extensions of the method to obtain de Sitter solutions.

  4. Generator, mechanical, smoke: For dual-purpose unit, XM56, Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Moore, E.B. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Bowers, J.F. (Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is planning to perform a field test of the XM56 smoke generator at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. The XM56, enabling the use of fog oil in combination with other materials, such as graphite flakes, is part of an effort to improve the efficiency of smoke generation and to extend the effectiveness of the resulting obscurant cloud to include the infrared spectrum. The plan field operation includes a road test and concurrent smoke- generation trials. Three M1037 vehicles with operation XM56 generators will be road-tested for 100 h. Smoke will be generated for 30 min from a single stationary XM56 four times during the road test, resulting in a total of 120 min of smoke generation. The total aerial release of obscurant materials during this test is expected to be 556 kg (1,220 lb) of fog oil and 547 kg (1,200 lb) of graphite flakes. This environmental assessment has evaluated the consequences of the proposed action. Air concentrations and surface deposition levels were estimated using an atmospheric dispersion model. Degradation of fog oil and incorporation of graphite in the soil column will limit the residual impacts of the planned action. No significant impacts to air, water, and soil quality are anticipated. risks to the environment posed by the proposed action were determined to be minimal or below levels previously found to pose measurable impacts. Cultural resources are present on YPG and have been identified in adjacent areas; therefore, off-road activities should be preceded by a cultural resource survey. A Finding of No Significant Impact is recommended. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  5. The use of Na+ and K+ ion concentrations as potential diagnostic indicators of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wahid Haron; Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah; Abdulnasir Tijjani; Yusuf Abba; Lawan Adamu; Konto Mohammed; Aisyah Munira Mohammed Amir; Mohammad Abubakar Sadiq; Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions in milk of lactating dairy cows with and without subclinical mastitis as putative indicators for detecting subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven lactating dairy cows were screened for the evidence of subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT). The lactating dairy cows were categorized as CMT-Positive (CMT-P; n=20) and CMT-Negative (CMT-N; n=1...

  6. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow...

  7. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  8. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...

  9. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows was a...

  10. Potential metabolic pathways associated with differences in weight maintenance and gain in mature cow skeletal and adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed costs are the greatest expenditure for beef cow operations. During the production year of a cow, the majority of nutrients are used to support maintenance. Differences in feedstuff utilization and metabolism can impact the ability of the cow to meet maintenance requirements. The objective of th...

  11. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  12. Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, van der S.G.A.; Houweling, M.; Bouman, Marina; Koets, A.P.; Tielens, A.G.M.; Nielen, M.; Jorritsma, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when administered to propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis was defined by depressed feed intake and milk production, and a maximal score for acetoacetate in urine. All cows received 250 mL oral propylene

  13. Breed and winter nutrition effects on diet digestibility and intake of cows grazing bahiagrass pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter feed comprises one of the largest costs for cattle production. This study was initiated to evaluate two winter nutrition programs for cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum nutatum) pastures in central Florida. Purebred Angus, Brahman, or Romosinuano cows (30/breed), aged 3 to 13 yrs, were assig...

  14. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula

  15. Ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentration and inflammatory response during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2007-02-01

    The effects of grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in lactating dairy cows on free ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and indicators of inflammation were determined. Four mid lactation dairy cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows and used in a repeated switchover design. During each period, SARA was induced in 2 animals for 5 subsequent days by replacing 25% of their total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with a concentrate made of 50% wheat and 50% barley. The other 2 cows acted as controls and were fed a total mixed ration diet in which 44% of dry matter was concentrate. On average, inducing SARA did not affect milk composition, increased the duration of rumen pH below 5.6 from 187 to 309 min/d, and increased free ruminal LPS concentration from 24,547 endotoxin units (EU)/mL to 128,825 EU/mL. Averaged across treatments, milk fat yield and milk protein yield were 0.66 and 1.00 kg/d, respectively. Rumen pH and milk fat data suggest that control cows also experienced ruminal acidosis, albeit a milder form of this disease than SARA cows. Serum LPS concentration in both control and SARA cows was less than the detection limit of inflammation including haptoglobin, fibrinogen, serum copper, or white blood cells. These results suggest that grain-induced SARA in mid lactation dairy cows increases the lysis of gram-negative bacteria and activates an inflammatory response.

  16. Case report: clinical and postmortem findings in four cows with rib fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Warislohner, Sonja; Hetzel, Udo; Nuss, Karl

    2017-02-06

    Published reports of rib fractures in adult cattle are limited to the occurrence of chronic rib swellings caused by calluses, which are unremarkable from a clinical standpoint, whereas studies identifying clinical signs of rib fractures were not found in a literature search. This report describes the clinical and postmortem findings in four cows with rib fractures. The 13th rib was fractured in three cows and the 11th rib in the remaining cow; three fractures were on the right and one on the left side. Clinical and postmortem findings varied considerably, and percussion of the rib cage elicited a pain response in only one cow. One cow had generalised peritonitis because of perforation of the rumen by the fractured rib. One cow was recumbent because of pain and became a downer cow, and two other cows had bronchopneumonia, which was a sequel to osteomyelitis of the fracture site in one. In the absence of a history of trauma, the diagnosis of rib fracture based on clinical signs alone is difficult. Although rib fractures undoubtedly are very painful, the four cases described in this report suggest that they are difficult to diagnose in cattle because associated clinical signs are nonspecific.

  17. Final follicular maturation in the cow and its effects on the developmental potential of the oocyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, Elizabeth Erica van de

    2001-01-01

    The use of assisted reproduction techniques can generate up to 27 (superovulation, SO) or 50 (in vitro embryo production, IVP) calves per cow per year instead of only one calf per cow per year after normal mating. That is due to the possibility to use more than one oocyte per estrous cycle; namely o

  18. The influence of dietary Ascophyllum nodosum on haematologic parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Florou-Paneri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Ascophyllum nodosum, an edible brown macroalga, on some haematologic parameters of dairy cows. Nineteen clinically healthy Holstein cows, an average 4.3 years old, were divided into two groups for 49 days. Ten cows received control diet (roughages and concentrate while the concentrate of 9 cows was additionally supplemented with 80 g A. nodosum/cow/day. Average daily milk production (controls 39.6 kg/cow; A. nodosum 40.2 kg/cow, milk protein and fat were not affected by the alga supplementation. Glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white/red blood cells were evaluated in weekly blood samples. It was seen that A. nodosum increased blood glucose and decreased sorbitol dehydrogenase compared to controls, without any adverse effects on the other examined parameters. Consequently, A. nodosum may be suggested as a functional ingredient in dairy cow nutrition, improving energy utilization and expressing hepatoprotective effect.

  19. Characterizing the spatial and temporal activities of free-ranging cows from GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic tracking provides a unique way to document animal behavior on a continuous basis. This manuscript describes how uncorrected 1 s GPS fixes can be used to characterize the rate of cow travel (m·s-1) into stationary, foraging and walking activities. Cows instrumented with GPS devices were ...

  20. Effect of shade on various parameters of Friesian cows in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sleep than cows without access to shade. Different .... Comparison of the total daily feeding times of dairy cows is ... great influence on the duration of feeding times. Rate of feeding is ..... two major peaks in eating activity at sunrise and sunset,.

  1. Stochastic modeling to determine the economic effects of blanket, selective, and no dry cow therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    In many countries, blanket dry cow therapy (DCT) is the standard way to dry off cows. Because of concerns about antibiotic resistance, selective DCT is proposed as an alternative. The economic consequences of different types of DCT were studied previously, but variation between input traits and diff

  2. Liver protein expression in dairy cows with high liver triglycerides in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben;

    2012-01-01

    in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with a low or high liver TG content. The liver proteome analysis indicated that a high liver TG content in early lactation dairy cows is associated with increased oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidative stress, and urea synthesis...

  3. Fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin in plasma and milk from dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, A Davasaz; Batavani, R A; Rezaei, S Asri; Ahmadi, M

    2008-02-15

    The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT) were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0) and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk) or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s). The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p0.05), but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (pmastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (pmastitis in dairy cows.

  4. Long-term survival of a cow with cervical ectopia cordis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Sugiyama, Masanori; Niho, Keeko; Sato, Reiichiro; Arai, Sachiko; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Ito, Seigo; Muto, Makoto; Suganuma, Tsunenori; Wakao, Yoshito; Wada, Yasunori

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the long-term survival of a calf with cervical ectopia cordis that grew normally, became pregnant, and calved normally. The cow showed normal cardiac function and absence of peripheral circulation abnormalities. This paper documents antemortem characteristics of the affected cow.

  5. Hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate does not reduce rumen lipopolysacharide concentrations in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakorn, C.; Everts, H.; Vlaeminck, B.; Doekes, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) to reduce the concentrations of free lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid of cows was investigated. Six, rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry cows were randomly assigned to three experimental rations in a study with

  6. Energy sources in low intake supplements on the productive and reproductive performance of Zebu cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcondes de Godoy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous zebu cows supplemented on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with supplements of low intake composed of different energy sources in the postpartum period. Sixty cow-calf pairs were divided into three treatments, a standard mineral salt supplement, a supplement based on ground corn and another containing protected fat, under the same conditions of pasture. The cows had an average initial age of 36 months and 295.9 ± 20 kg of initial body weight. The evaluation period lasted from November 2006 to May 2007, the 24 days after delivery until weaning of calves to 192 days of age. Cows fed the supplement based on ground corn (351 g day-1 and protected fat (357 g day-1 showed a similar increase in body weight, which was higher in relation cows fed with the mineral mixture (179 g day-1. Mineral mixture supplementation resulted in body condition score loss of cows between 80 and 136 days after calving. Cows fed energy supplements of low consumption produced more milk, weaned heavier calves and showed higher pregnancy rate than those fed only with the mineral mixture. The use of 3% calcium salts of fatty acids in energy supplements of low consumption did not alter the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous Zebu cows.

  7. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Laar, van H.; Pellikaan, W.F.; St-Pierre, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 b

  8. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are

  9. [Life-threatening injuries of the subcutaneous ventral abdominal veins in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B; Muggli, E; Schmid, T; Nuss, K

    2011-05-01

    Injuries of the superficial veins on the ventral abdomen of dairy cows can result in life-threatening haemorrhage. Treatment of these injuries can be difficult because of the characteristics of the veins. Five cows aged 6.5 to 12 years were referred to the Animal Hospitale Zurich, because of intermittent haemorrhage from a ventral abdominal vein. Four of the cows were near term and one had calved two weeks before referral. Intermittent bleeding was seen from the highly convoluted and dilated subcutaneous tributaries to the cranial superficial epigastric vein (milk vein). The haematocrit of 2 cows was markedly lower than normal. Emergency slaughter of one of the cows was carried out because of advanced age. The other 4 cows were sedated and after application of local anaesthetic, the wounds were debrided and sutured. Two of the cows required a blood transfusion before being operated. There were no postoperative complications. This type of injury seems to occur predominantly in pluriparous dairy cows close to term, in which the tributaries to the milk vein have undergone varicose changes. Treatment should consist of surgical resection of the injured tissue and suturing of the venous wall, subcutaneous tissues and skin.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  11. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P subtilis natto improves milk production and milk components yield, decreases SCC and promotes the growth of total ruminal bacteria, proteolytic and amylolytic bacteria, which indicate that B. subtilis natto has potential to be applied as a probiotic for dairy cows.

  12. Relationships between transition period diet, metabolic parameters and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpakumara, P G A; Gardner, N H; Reynolds, C K; Beever, D E; Wathes, D C

    2003-10-01

    Cows in severe negative energy balance after calving have reduced fertility, mediated by metabolic signals influencing the reproductive system. We hypothesised that transition diet could alter metabolic status after calving, and thus influence fertility. Multiparous dairy cows were assigned to four transition groups 6 weeks pre-calving and fed: (a) basal control diet (n = 10); (b) basal diet plus barley (STARCH, n = 10); (c) basal diet plus Soypass (high protein, HiPROT, n = 11); or (d) no transition management (NoTRANS, n = 9). All cows received the same lactational diet. Blood samples, body weights and condition scores (BCS) were collected weekly. Fertility parameters were monitored using milk progesterone profiles and were not affected by transition diet. Data from all cows were then combined and analysed according to the pattern of post-partum ovarian activity. Cows with low progesterone profiles had significantly lower insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin concentrations accompanied by reduced dry matter intakes (DMIs), BCS and body weight. Cows with prolonged luteal activity (PLA) were older and tended to have lower IGF-I. Analysis based on the calving to conception interval revealed that cows which failed to conceive (9/40) also had reduced IGF-I, BCS and body weight. Fertility was, therefore, decreased in cows which were in poor metabolic status following calving. This was reflected in reduced circulating IGF-I concentrations and compromised both ovarian activity and conception. There was little effect of the transition diets on these parameters.

  13. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive

  14. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  15. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Felber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 from ruminants contributes one third to global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analysers the instrumentation at many flux sites have been amended for these gases. However the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatial and temporal uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d−1 managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to two orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head−1 d−1 (best guess of this study correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows to determine CH4 emissions of grazing cows if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  16. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1) gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows.

  17. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  18. Bull fertility evaluations for Angus service sires bred to Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic evaluation of service-sire fertility implemented in August 2008, is based on data from the most recent 4 years, conventional-semen breedings up to 7 services, and cow parities 1 through 5. Many US dairy cows are now being bred to Angus sires because beef pric...

  19. Effects of a single glucocorticoid injection on propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, van der S.G.A.; Houweling, M.; Bouman, Marina; Koets, A.P.; Tielens, A.G.M.; Nielen, M.; Jorritsma, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when administered to propylene glycol-treated cows with clinical ketosis. Clinical ketosis was defined by depressed feed intake and milk production, and a maximal score for acetoacetate in urine. All cows received 250 mL oral propylene

  20. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be predicted as ear