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Sample records for flax shives derived

  1. Application of partial least-squares regression to near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic determination of shive content in flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Miryeong; Barton, Franklin E; Morrison, Wiley H; Archibald, Douglas D

    2003-05-01

    Shive, the nonfiberous core portion of the stem, in flax fiber after retting is related to fiber quality. The objective of this study is to develop a standard calibration model for determining shive content in retted flax by using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Calibration samples were prepared by manually mixing pure, ground shive and pure, ground fiber from flax retted by three different methods (water, dew, and enzyme retting) to provide a wide range of shive content from 0 to 100%. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used to generate a calibration model, and spectral data were processed using various pretreatments such as a multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), normalization, derivatives, and Martens' Uncertainty option to improve the calibration model. The calibration model developed with a single sample set resulted in a standard error of 1.8% with one factor. The best algorithm was produced from first-derivative processing of the spectral data. MSC was not effective processing for this model. However, a big bias was observed when independent sample sets were applied to this calibration model to predict shive content in flax fiber. The calibration model developed using a combination sample set showed a slightly higher standard error and number of factors compared to the model for a single sample set, but this model was sufficiently accurate to apply to each sample set. The best algorithm for the combination sample set was generated from second derivatives followed by MSC processing of spectral data and from Martens' Uncertainty option; it resulted in a standard error of 2.3% with 2 factors. The value of the digital second derivative centered at 1674 nm for these spectral data was highly correlated to shive content of flax and could form the basis for a simple, low-cost sensor for the shive or fiber content in retted flax.

  2. Optimization of Phenolic Compounds Extraction from Flax Shives and Their Effect on Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Czemplik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the most effective technique for extraction of phenolics present in flax shives and to assess their effect on human fibroblasts. Flax shives are by-products of fibre separation, but they were found to be a rich source of phenolic compounds and thus might have application potential. It was found that the optimal procedure for extraction of phenolics was hydrolysis enhanced by the ultrasound with NaOH for 24 h at 65°C and subsequent extraction with ethyl acetate. The influence of the flax shives extract on fibroblast growth and viability was assessed using the MTT and SRB tests. Moreover, the influence of flax shives extract on the extracellular matrix remodelling process was verified. The 20% increase of the viability was observed upon flax shives extract treatment and the decrease of mRNA collagen genes, an increase of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression, and reduction in levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 10, and suppressor of cytokinin signaling 1 mRNA were observed. Alterations in MCP-1 mRNA levels were dependent on flax shives extract concentration. Thus, we suggested the possible application of flax shives extract in the wound healing process.

  3. Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kelly; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol

  4. Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ross

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4

  5. Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from flax shives by pressurized low-polarity water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Mazza, G

    2006-10-04

    Pressurized low-polarity water (PLPW) extraction of phenolic compounds from flax shive was investigated using statistically based optimization and the "one-factor-at-a-time" method. Extraction variables examined using central composite design (CCD) included temperature, flow rate, and NaOH concentration of the extracting water. Extraction of phenolic compounds including p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone, and feruric acid was affected by temperature and NaOH concentration; and extraction of all phenolic compounds, except ferulic acid, increased with temperature and NaOH concentration of the extracting water. Flow rate had little effect on concentration of phenolic compounds at equilibrium, but the extraction rate at the early phase was higher for higher flow rates. The mechanism of PLPW extraction of flax shive phenolics was also investigated using a two-site kinetic model and a thermodynamic model. To determine the extraction mechanism, flow rate was varied from 0.3 to 4.0 mL/min while temperature and NaOH concentration were fixed at 180 degrees C and 0.47 M, respectively. The flow rate tests showed the extraction rates of total phenolic (TP) compounds increased with flow rate and can be described by a thermodynamic model. The results from the thermodynamic model demonstrated that a K(D) value of 30 agreed with the experimental data in the flow rate range of 0.3-4.0 mL/min. When the effect of the three independent variables was evaluated simultaneously using CCD, a maximum TP concentration of 5.8 g/kg of dry flax shive (DFS) was predicted from the combination of a high temperature (230.5 degrees C), a high initial concentration of NaOH (0.63 M), and a low flow rate (0.7 mL/min). Maximum TP concentration of 5.7 g/kg of DFS was obtained from extraction conditions of 180 degrees C, 0.3 or 0.5 mL/min, and 0.47 M NaOH at equilibrium. A second-order regression model generated by CCD predicted a maximum TP concentration of 5.8 g

  6. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxia; Huang, Guohe; An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  7. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxia [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Huang, Guohe, E-mail: huang@iseis.org [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying [Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Zhang, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Liu, Xia [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  8. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxia; Huang, Guohe; An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xia

    2017-05-01

    From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  9. Plant factors influencing enzyme retting of fiber and seed flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D E; Morrison, W H; Rigsby, L L; Dodd, R B

    2001-12-01

    Retting, which is the microbial activity through which bast fibers are released from nonfiber tissues, is the limiting factor in flax processing. The objective of this work is to identify chemical and structural characteristics in a variety of fiber and seed flax types that influence enzyme retting in a recently developed method. Analyses of flax retted in a series of tests, including two enzyme rettings in some cases, indicated that lignin did not limit the separation of fibers from shive and showed that pectinases in enzyme-retting mixtures could ret fiber and seed flax. However, mature stems, such as that in flax produced for seed, had greater amounts of cutin and wax in the cleaned fiber product, suggesting that the cuticle could be a greater antiquality factor in seed versus fiber flax. With seed flax, the fraction of finer fibers produced during retting was significantly lower than with fiber flax. Results indicated that enzyme retting could be used to obtain flax fibers from seed flax stem residues and add value to this agricultural material.

  10. Linen most useful: perspectives on structure, chemistry, and enzymes for retting flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Danny E

    2013-01-01

    The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. The importance and mechanism of Ca(2+) chelators with pectinases in retting are described. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases. Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns. Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated.

  11. Dietary flax oil rich in α-linolenic acid reduces renal disease and oxylipin abnormalities, including formation of docosahexaenoic acid derived oxylipins in the CD1-pcy/pcy mouse model of nephronophthisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Gabbs, Melissa; Ravandi, Amir; Nagao, Shizuko; Aukema, Harold M

    2015-03-01

    The CD1-pcy/pcy mouse model of nephronophthisis displays reduced renal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and alterations in renal cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase oxylipins derived from n-6 fatty acids. Since dietary flax oil ameliorates disease progression, its effect on renal fatty acids and oxylipins was examined. Sixteen weeks of feeding resulted in reduced disease progression and enrichment of renal phospholipid α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid, reduction in arachidonic acid (AA), but no change in linoleic acid (LA) or DHA. In diseased kidneys, flax oil feeding mitigated the elevated levels of renal cyclooxygenase derived oxylipins formed from AA and the lowered lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 derived oxylipins formed from ALA and DHA. Increased DHA oxylipins occurred with flax feeding despite not altering DHA levels. Dietary flax oil may therefore reduce disease progression via mitigation of oxylipin abnormalities. This study also provides evidence of in vivo ALA conversion to DHA in amounts necessary to restore DHA oxylipin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of lignin in isolated flax fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W H; Himmelsbach, D S; Akin, D E; Evans, J D

    2003-04-23

    The chemistry of pure flax fibers, free of contaminating nonfiber components, has not been determined. Fibers from the center sections of the stem of seed and fiber flax (Linum usitatissium L.), which had been retted after soaking in water and removal of the epidermis by hand, underwent chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Wet chemical analysis showed only trace indications of aromatics and no long chain fatty acids or alcohols in fibers. Pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (PyMS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) showed only trace amounts of aromatic constituents that could be attributed to the presence of lignin. Mid-infrared (Mid-IR) and Raman spectroscopy of these fibers showed no aromatic compounds present. This study suggests that earlier work reporting the presence of lignin ranging from 1 to 4% may be the result of residual shive or epidermis/cuticle material remaining after the retting process which may be responsible for the favorable properties desired by the composites industry.

  13. Byssinosis Prevalence and Flax Processing*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhuys, A.; Hartogensis, F.; Korfage, H. J. H.

    1963-01-01

    Previous evidence suggested that byssinosis in flax workers is caused by the inhalation of dust of biologically retted flax. In the present study no cases of byssinosis were found among workers in a flax plant which produces yarn by chemical degumming instead of biological retting. The absence of byssinosis in this plant could not be attributed to differences in the quantities of dust developed as compared with the conventional retting procedure. These findings support the view that the agent in flax dust which causes symptoms of byssinosis originates during biological retting of flax and is absent from unretted flax. Chemical degumming of flax appears to be superior to biological retting procedures with respect to the health of the workers. PMID:14072625

  14. Histo-anatomic Aspects on Zea Mays L. Influenced by Hemp Shives Polyphenolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Tănase

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant kingdom is an inexhaustible source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant character. It is known that, natural polyphenols are essential compounds in stimulating plant growth and development. The aim of this study was to identify the internal structure changes in maize (Zea mays L. seedlings, under the influence of hemp shives polyphenolic extract. Hemp shives polyphenolic extract was characterized in terms of the total content of polyphenols and individual content by HPLC. Germination tests were carried out going through a standard procedure. In order to perform the histo-anatomical characterization, the vegetal material was fixed and preserved in alcohol 70%, following to be cut by hand microtome. The sections obtained were stained using double staining reagents: green - iodine and ruthenium red. It was observed, compared with the control, that hemp shives polyphenolic extract determines a good development of the root hairs and increase leading bundles number and central vessels metaxylem. Hemp shives polyphenolic extract in lower concentrations has positive effects on developed process of Zea mays L. plants that can be attributed to bioregulation properties.

  15. Deciphering the Responses of Root Border-Like Cells of Arabidopsis and Flax to Pathogen-Derived Elicitors1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as “border-like cells.” Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells. PMID:24130195

  16. Flax-retting by polygalacturonase-containing enzyme mixtures and effects on fiber properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jeff D; Akin, Danny E; Foulk, Jonn A

    2002-08-28

    Enzyme-retting of flax was accomplished via individual treatment with four polygalacturonase (PGase) containing solutions of various fungal sources and the resulting fibers were characterized. The retting solutions were equilibrated to contain 2.19 U of PGase activity as determined via a dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reducing sugar assay. As compared with the buffer control, treatment with the various enzyme solutions increased the yield of fine fibers. Treatment with Aspergillus niger PGase resulted in a 62% increase in fine fiber yield as compared with the buffer control and fiber strength did not statistically differ (PRetting via PGases of Rhizopus origin produced the weakest fibers. These results illustrate that the crude PGases differ in their ability to ret flax and that under the defined experimental conditions the A. niger PGase is a better retting agent. Light microscopy demonstrated the ability of all enzymes to separate fiber from shive and epidermal tissues. Enzyme profiles of the solutions were determined via viscometric assays. Pectinolytic activity was the predominant activity of all enzymes tested. Activity against carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was a minor component of all solutions except A. niger PGase for which no activity was detected.

  17. Overview on establishing flax industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available has bedding and fillers as end products. However the challenges that are met during the establishment of a flax industry are the development of economic viable models, human capacity development and local and overseas markets....

  18. Flavonoid engineering of flax potentiate its biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescha Anna

    2011-01-01

    significant decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds was detected. Conclusions All analysed products from generated transgenic plants were enriched with antioxidant compounds derived from phenylopropanoid pathway Thus the products provide valuable source of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignan for biomedical application. The compounds composition and quantity from transgenic plants was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Thus the infrared spectroscopy appeared to be suitable method for characterization of flax products.

  19. Mechanical Properties and Weathering Behavior of Polypropylene-Hemp Shives Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ionel Popa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the obtaining and the characterization of composites with polypropylene matrix and hemp shives as filler in different ratios and containing poly(propylene-co maleic anhydride (MAH-PP 3% wt as compatibility agent. The weathering behavior of the composite enclosing 60% hemp shives, performed after the exposure to UV radiations at different exposure times, was evaluated. The changes in the chemical and morphological structures were investigated by FT-IR and RAMAN spectroscopies and AFM microscopy. The mechanical characteristics of the composites were determined before and after an artificial aging process, and they are within the limits of the values reported for polyolefin-based composites and materials with natural fillers. During the accelerated weathering process, the correlation between the chemical degradation of the main components of the composite and the modification of the mechanical properties after the process of aging has been observed.

  20. The influence of partial replacement of hemp shives by expanded perlite on physical properties of hemp-lime composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyski, Przemysław; Widomski, Marcin

    2017-07-01

    The use of waste plants in building materials production is consistent with the principles of sustainable development, including waste management, CO2 balance, biodegradability of the material e.g. after building demolition. The porous structure of plant materials determines their usability as the insulation materials. An example of plant applicable in the construction industry is the industrial hemp. The shives are produced from the wooden core of the hemp stem as lightweight insulating filler in the composite based on lime binder. The discussed hemp-lime composite, due to the presence of lightweight, porous organic aggregates exhibits satisfactory thermal insulation properties and is used as filling and insulation of walls (as well as roofs and floors) in buildings of the wooden frame construction. The irregular shape of shives and their low density causes nonhomogenous compaction of composite and the formation of voids between the randomly arranged shives. In this paper the series of hemp-lime composites were tested. Apart from hemp shives, an additional aggregate - expanded perlite was used as a fine, lightweight, thermal insulating filler. Application of the additional aggregate was aimed to fill the voids between hemp shives and to investigate its influence on the physical properties of composite: apparent density, total porosity, water absorption and thermal conductivity.

  1. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Bazela, Karolina; Szopa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation an...

  2. Aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Thygesen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    are well predicted by the model. The back-calculated effective stiffness and failure stress of the flax fibres are in the ranges 56-60 GPa and 515-730 MPa, respectively. Finally, the model is used for parametric analysis and overall guidelines for the comparisons between tensile performance of flax fibre......The potential of biocomposites in engineering applications is demonstrated by using aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites as a materials model system. The failure stress of flax fibres is measured by tensile testing of single fibres and fibre bundles. For both fibre configurations, it is found...... that failure stress is decreased by increasing the tested fibre volume. Based on two types of flax fibre preforms: carded sliver and unidirectional non-crimp fabric, aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites were fabricated with variable fibre content. The volumetric composition and tensile properties...

  3. Application of Electro-Technologies in Processing of Flax Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Vijaya Raghavan; Denis Rho; Gopu R. Nair

    2013-01-01

    Flax fibers used for various applications are obtained from flax stems. Retting followed by drying and mechanical separation leads to the production of fibers. This review article discusses the application of electro-technologies in the production of bast fibers from the flax stem. In these technologies, flax stems harvested from the field are subjected to microwave assisted retting, followed by electro–osmotic dewatering which reduces the water content of the stems. Dewatered stems are trans...

  4. Biochemical, mechanical, and spectroscopic analyses of genetically engineered flax fibers producing bioplastic (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Skórkowska-Telichowska, Katarzyna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Maczka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The interest in biofibers has grown in recent years due to their expanding range of applications in fields as diverse as biomedical science and the automotive industry. Their low production costs, biodegradability, physical properties, and perceived eco-friendliness allow for their extensive use as composite components, a role in which they could replace petroleum-based synthetic polymers. We performed biochemical, mechanical, and structural analyses of flax stems and fibers derived from field-grown transgenic flax enriched with PHB (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate). The analyses of the plant stems revealed an increase in the cellulose content and a decrease in the lignin and pectin contents relative to the control plants. However, the contents of the fibers' major components (cellulose, lignin, pectin) remain unchanged. An FT-IR study confirmed the results of the biochemical analyses of the flax fibers. However, the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibers differed from that in the control, and a significant increase in the number of hydrogen bonds was detected. The mechanical properties of the transgenic flax stems were significantly improved, reflecting the cellulose content increase. However, the mechanical properties of the fibers did not change in comparison with the control, with the exception of the fibers from transgenic line M13. The generated transgenic flax plants, which produce both components of the flax/PHB composites (i.e., fibers and thermoplastic matrix in the same plant organ) are a source of an attractive and ecologically safe material for industry and medicine. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol.

  5. Influence of the physical structure of flax fibres on the mechanical properties of flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bos, H.L.; Kemenade, van M.J.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the physical structure of flax fibres on the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) composites. Due to their composite-like structure, flax fibres have relatively weak lateral bonds which are in particular present in flax fibres that are often used in

  6. Strength variability of single flax fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Chinga-Carrasco, G.; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2011-01-01

    (linear and nonlinear) of the fibres are found to be correlated with the amount of defects. The linear stress–strain curves tend to show a higher tensile strength, a higher Young’s modulus, and a lower strain to failure than the nonlinear curves. Finally, the fibres are found to fracture by a complex......Due to the typical large variability in the measured mechanical properties of flax fibres, they are often employed only in low grade composite applications. The present study aims to investigate the reasons for the variability in tensile properties of flax fibres. It is found that an inaccuracy...

  7. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  8. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Qiu, Shuqing; Stone, Sandra L; Tibiche, Chabane; Cram, Dustin; Alting-Mees, Michelle; Nowak, Jacek; Cloutier, Sylvie; Deyholos, Michael; Bekkaoui, Faouzi; Sharpe, Andrew; Wang, Edwin; Rowland, Gordon; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-04-29

    Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise even low-expressed genes such as

  9. Sequence characterized markers for flax seed authentication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2009), s. 206-213 ISSN 0251-0952 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/03/0019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : SCAR markers * cultivar identification * flax seed Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.503, year: 2009

  10. Thermal properties of flax fiber scoured by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of flax roves untreated and treated were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermal gravity analyzer (TGA in order to understand their thermal behavior in more detail and to evaluate the effect of scouring processing on the thermal behavior. Flax roves were treated with six kinds of methods including biological scouring, one bath, two bath, bleaching, alkali scouring and industry chemical scouring as standards. Results showed that all treatments improved thermal stability of flax roves. The results indicated that glass transition temperature (Tg decreased after scouring besides the sample by directly bleaching. It is more difficult to determine the endothermic peak of flax treated by chemical scouring in industry because it takes a very flat course. A distinct endothermic peak was observed for the untreated flax rove, while a distinct exothermic peak in different temperature interval was revealed for other four treated flax rove samples. For TGA analysis, thermal degradation of flax roves studied consists of three regions of the initial, main, and char decomposition, and the third stage consists of secondary weight loss and carbonization for flax roves with biological scouring, one-bath and two-bath. Besides, different residue left indicates that the bio-scoured flax roves are lost with volatile products and does not contribute to char formation. These results provide valuable preferences for mechanism and top value added application of bio-scouring in flax roves.

  11. Design of sustainable industrial scale biocatalysis based flax retting process

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, P. (Pramod); Gooijer, H. (Henk); Naik, N. (Nirali)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this applied research is to design a sustainable industrial scale enzyme based flax retting process. A systematic approach has been adopted. The screening and selection of enzymes for flax retting has been carried out. Alkaline pectinase has been identified as the most appropriate enzyme for the flax retting purpose. Optimisation of process parameters has been carried out using alkaline pectinase, non-ionic surfactants and chelating agents in terms of concentration of enzyme and ot...

  12. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates th...

  13. Application of Electro-Technologies in Processing of Flax Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax fibers used for various applications are obtained from flax stems. Retting followed by drying and mechanical separation leads to the production of fibers. This review article discusses the application of electro-technologies in the production of bast fibers from the flax stem. In these technologies, flax stems harvested from the field are subjected to microwave assisted retting, followed by electro–osmotic dewatering which reduces the water content of the stems. Dewatered stems are transferred to a microwave chamber for further drying, thus retted stems are obtained for further processing.

  14. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available loadings the friction between the fibres may also contribute to the fracture process. This results in lower energy dissipation and hence impact strength decreases. 5. Chemical Modification of Nonwovens 5.1 Zein modification of flax nonwovens Zein... Damping is an important parameter related to the study of dynamic behaviour of fibre reinforced composite material. The major contribution to damping in composite is due to (a) nature of matrix and fibre (b) nature of interphase (c) frictional damping...

  15. Enzyme-retting of flax and characterization of processed fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D E; Foulk, J A; Dodd, R B; McAlister, D D

    2001-08-23

    Enzyme-retting formulations consisting of Viscozyme L, a pectinase-rich commercial enzyme product, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were tested on Ariane fiber flax and North Dakota seed flax straw residue. Flax stems that were crimped to disrupt the outer layers were soaked with various proportions of Viscozyme-EDTA solutions, retted, and then cleaned and cottonized with commercial processing equipment. Fiber properties were determined and crude test yarns were made of raw and Shirley cleaned flax fibers and cotton in various blend levels. Cleaned fibers were obtained from both seed and fiber flax types, but with variations due to treatment. Retting formulations produced fibers having different properties, with enzyme levels of 0.3% (v/v as supplied) giving finer but weaker fibers than 0.05% regardless of EDTA level. Experimental yarns of blended flax and cotton fibers varied in mass coefficient of variation, single end strength, and nep imperfections due to sample and formulation. With cost and fiber and yarn quality as criteria, results established a range in the amounts of components comprising retting formulations as a basis for further studies to optimize enzyme-retting formulations for flax. Under conditions examined herein, Viscozyme L at 0.3% (v/v) plus 25 mM EDTA produced the best test yarns and, therefore, established a base for future studies to develop commercial-grade, short staple flax fibers for use in textiles.

  16. Compressive behaviour of unidirecterional flax fibre reinforced composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Molenveld, K.; Teunissen, W.; Wingerde, van A.M.; Delft, van D.R.V.

    2004-01-01

    The compressive strength of unidirectional flax fibre epoxy composites was studied. The compressive strength is influenced negatively by the presence of kink bands in the flax fibres. Improvement of the adhesion between the fibres and the epoxy resin can be achieved easily by removing the thin wax

  17. Impact of secondary metabolites and related enzymes in flax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in various physiological defenses including secondary metabolites, proline, total soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes were investigated in leaves and stems of 18 flax lines either resistant or susceptible to powdery mildew. The results showed that the total alkaloids content in flax stems was significantly ...

  18. Design of sustainable industrial scale biocatalysis based flax retting process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, P. (Pramod); Gooijer, H. (Henk); Naik, N. (Nirali)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this applied research is to design a sustainable industrial scale enzyme based flax retting process. A systematic approach has been adopted. The screening and selection of enzymes for flax retting has been carried out. Alkaline pectinase has been identified as the most appropriate enzyme

  19. Improvement of adventitious root formation in flax using hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takáč, Tomáš; Obert, Bohuš; Rolčík, Jakub; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-09-25

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of oil and fiber. In vitro manipulations of flax are used for genetic improvement and breeding while improvements in adventitious root formation are important for biotechnological programs focused on regeneration and vegetative propagation of genetically valuable plant material. Additionally, flax hypocotyl segments possess outstanding morphogenetic capacity, thus providing a useful model for the investigation of flax developmental processes. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and auxin with respect to reprogramming flax hypocotyl cells for root morphogenetic development. Exogenous auxin induced the robust formation of adventitious roots from flax hypocotyl segments while the addition of hydrogen peroxide further enhanced this process. The levels of endogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) were positively correlated with increased root formation in response to exogenous auxin (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; NAA). Histochemical staining of the hypocotyl segments revealed that hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase, but not superoxide, were positively correlated with root formation. Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that endogenous levels of hydrogen peroxide were controlled by peroxidases during root formation from hypocotyl segments. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide positively affected flax adventitious root formation by regulating the endogenous auxin levels. Consequently, this agent can be applied to increase flax regeneration capacity for biotechnological purposes such as improved plant rooting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinct effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex on the renal oxylipin profile in models of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassy, Jessay G; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Ravandi, Amir; Zhou, Jing; Aukema, Harold M

    2017-08-01

    Oxylipins are bioactive lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are important regulators of kidney function and health. Targeted lipidomic analyses of renal oxylipins from four studies of rodent models of renal disease were performed to investigate the differential effects of dietary flax compared to fish oil, soy protein compared to casein, and sex. Across all studies, dietary fish oil was more effective than flax oil in reducing n-6 PUFA derived oxylipins and elevating eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derived oxylipins, whereas dietary flax oil resulted in higher α-linolenic acid (ALA) oxylipins. Dietary soy protein compared to casein resulted in higher linoleic acid (LA) derived oxylipins. Kidneys from females had higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA) oxylipins, but similar or lower levels of oxylipins from other PUFA. Modulation of the oxylipin profile by diet and sex may help elucidate their effects on renal physiology and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Bazela, Karolina; Szopa, Jan

    2012-12-10

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation and migration, and looked at the effect on a human skin model. Moreover, we verified its activity against bacteria of clinical relevance. The GT flax used in this study is characterized by overexpression of the glucosyltransferase gene derived from Solanum sogarandinum. Five GT seedcake preparations were generated. Their composition was assessed using ultra pressure liquid chromatography and confirmed using the UPLC-QTOF method. For the in vitro evaluation, the influence of the GT seedcake preparations on normal human dermal fibroblast proliferation was assessed using the MTT test and the wound scratch assay. A human skin model was used to evaluate the potential for skin irritation. To assess the antimicrobial properties of GT preparations, the percentage of inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. The GT seedcake extract had elevated levels of phenylopropanoid compounds in comparison to the control, non-transformed plants. Significant increases in the content of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, and their glucoside derivatives, kaempferol, quercitin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) were observed in the seeds of the modified plants. The GT seedcake preparations were shown to promote the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts and the migration of fibroblasts in the wound scratch assay. The superior effect of GT seedcake extract on fibroblast migration was observed after a 24-hour treatment. The skin irritation test indicated that GT seedcake

  2. Novel Hybrid Flax Reinforced Supersap Composites in Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchun Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flax fibre bio-epoxy composites have not found many commercial uses in structural applications on account of their lack of cost efficiency and high susceptibility to environmental changes. Non-woven flax mats were subjected to alkali, acetylation, silane and enzymatic treatment, and then combined with untreated unidirectional (UD flax fabrics to make hybrid flax bio-epoxy composites. Mechanical and environmental resistance (aging tests were performed on the treated flax fibres. The glass transition temperature was detected at about 75 °C with little effect of treatments. Untreated composites were found to have a tensile strength of 180 MPa while no significant improvement was observed for any of the treatments, which are also not environmentally friendly. The amiopropyltriethoxysilane (APS composites after Xenon aging, retained the tensile strength of 175 MPa and a modulus of 11.5 GPa, while untreated composites showed 35% reduction in elastic modulus.

  3. Effect of gamma rays on yield , fiber and seed characteristics of flax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.A.

    1980-01-01

    The present investigation deals with effect of radiation on flex in two main experiments . In the first one which could be considered as a pilot experiment, the seeds of giza-4 (the dominating local variety of flax) were irradiated with gamma ray doses ranging from 2.5 to 200 Kr to find out the suitable doses for a long - term program of mutation breeding in flax. The finding of such preliminary program could be summarized in the following: a) A dose of 100 kr affected the germination rate and inhibited the growth of flax plants. b) A dose of 200 kr was shown to be a lethal one under the conditions of this experiment. c) Some deviations in plant and yield characteristics than the normal type ( i . e., plant and yield characteristics of Gaza 4) were observed at relatively low doses. These deviations were tested in the M2 generation . True mutations (i.e., deviations that proved to breed true) were selected and their seeds (M2- derived lines were tested in M3 generation). Data about these M2 -derived lines when tested in the M3 generation will be summarized with the data of the main experiment

  4. Ventilatory impairment from pre-harvest retted flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, J P; Langlands, J H; Lowry, R C

    1986-12-01

    A new method of retting flax recently developed to suit the United Kingdom climate has allowed the reintroduction of flax growing to this country. The weed killer glyphosate is sprayed on the crop which then rets before harvesting six weeks later. The acute bronchoconstrictor responses of 11 normal subjects to dust from dew retted and from pre-harvest retted flaxes were compared in a double blind crossover fashion. There were no significant differences in the dust levels nor in the size of the dust particles in the experimental dust room. The decreases in pulmonary function after six hours of dust inhalation were significantly larger after pre-harvest retted flax dust than after dew retted flax dust (delta FEV1, -0.21 and -0.40 1; delta MEF50, -0.72 and -1.211/s; delta sGaw (specific airway conductance), -0.17 and -0.65 kPa/s for dew retted and pre-harvest retted respectively). The subjects also reported more symptoms after inhaling pre-harvest retted flax dust. It is concluded that the acute bronchoconstrictor response to flax dust is increased by pre-harvest retting, suggesting an increased risk of byssinosis.

  5. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait.

  6. Role of Polysaccharides on Mechanical and Adhesion Properties of Flax Fibres in Flax/PLA Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijo Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alkali and enzymatic treatments on flax fibre morphology, mechanical, and adhesion properties was investigated. The multilength scale analysis allows for the correlation of the fibre's morphological changes induced by the treatments with mechanical properties to better explain the adherence properties between flax and PLA. The atomic force microscopy (AFM images revealed the removal of primary layers, upon treatments, down to cellulose microfibrils present in the secondary layers. The variation in mechanical properties was found to be dependent, apart from the crystalline content, on interaction between cellulose microfibrils and encrusting polysaccharides, pectins and hemicelluloses, in the secondary layers. Finally, microbond tests between the modified fibres and PLA emphasize the important role of the outer fibre's surface on the overall composite properties. It was observed here that gentle treatments of the fibres, down to the oriented microfibrils, are favourable to a better adherence with a PLA drop. This paper highlights the important role of amorphous polymers, hemicellulose and pectin, in the optimisation of the adhesion and mechanical properties of flax fibres in the biocomposite.

  7. Importance of galacturonic Acid in controlling the retting of flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, J A; De França, F P

    1967-05-01

    The empirical test was compared with the determination of pH, total acidity, and galacturonic acid (GA) as methods for establishing the termination time of the retting process in flax. The GA dosage was the best method for determining the end point of this process by distinctly dividing the phases of retting and over-retting in the bacterial loosening of flax fiber. This end point is critical in the production of standard fibers for the weaving industry.

  8. New biocomposites based on bioplastic flax fibers and biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Zuk, Magdalena; Kaczmar, Jacek; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Ptak, Maciej; Szopa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A new generation of entirely biodegradable and bioactive composites with polylactic acid (PLA) or poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) as the matrix and bioplastic flax fibers as reinforcement were analyzed. Bioplastic fibers contain polyhydroxybutyrate and were obtained from transgenic flax. Biochemical analysis of fibers revealed presence of several antioxidative compounds of hydrophilic (phenolics) and hydrophobic [cannabidiol (CBD), lutein] nature, indicating their high antioxidant potential. The presence of CBD and lutein in flax fibers is reported for the first time. FTIR analysis showed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the constituents in composite PLA+flax fibers which were not detected in PCL-based composite. Mechanical analysis of prepared composites revealed improved stiffness and a decrease in tensile strength. The viability of human dermal fibroblasts on the surface of composites made of PLA and transgenic flax fibers was the same as for cells cultured without composites and only slightly lower (to 9%) for PCL-based composites. The amount of platelets and Escherichia coli cells aggregated on the surface of the PLA based composites was significantly lower than for pure polymer. Thus, composites made of PLA and transgenic flax fibers seem to have bacteriostatic, platelet anti-aggregated, and non-cytotoxic effect. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  9. Flax - Evaluation of composite flour and using in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of yellow and brown linseed, differing in granulation, were tested in form of wheat flour composites (additions 2.5% and 5.0% by using the Farinograph, the Extensigraph and the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA apparatuses. Additions of brown and yellow flax fibre significantly affected Falling Number and Zeleny test values. Curves of farinograph were differed according to flax fibre type - finer flax (better terminology granulation meant somewhat stronger negative changes in dough stability and dough softening degree. Results of extensigraph test demonstrated changes in dough elasticity and extensibility due to lowering of gluten protein content. Appearance of the RVA profiles was verifiably different, reflecting diverse wheat and flax polysaccharides, added dietary fibre type and its granulation. Due to that, bread volume and shape was lowered up to one-half in case of golden flax composites. Similar tendencies with smaller negative influence caused the brown linseed. Fibre from flax is used for technical (textile use, but linseed dietary fibre addition affected quality of laboratory prepared cut-off biscuits and dried pasta differently, showing a dependence on the fibre type, granulation as well as addition level. Sensory profiles of all mentioned product types were acceptable.

  10. Economic interpretation of sustainable development of the flax complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the definition of the notions “stability” and “stable development”, and analyzes the factors influencing the development stability. We suggest the definition of the flax complex stable development and its assessment. We also examine the factors causing the flax complex functioning instability. An integral index was proposed to determine the stability of flax complex; this index takes into account the rate of growth (or decline of major products manufacturing, commodities, profits from product sales, accounts receivable and accounts payable, investments into fixed capital, labor productivity, coefficient of manufacturing capacity utilization and updating of the basic funds. The paper deals with the problems of its development and modern state of flax sub-complex of agroindustrial complex, as well as with the matters of disproportions between the complex’s branches. It covers the causes of tolling schemes of flax processing businesses work and therole of thestatein native market of flax products formation. The necessity of industry diversification and innovation development is substantiated.

  11. Study of flax hybrid preforms reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, B. A

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the thermal, viscoelastic and mechanical behaviour of flax preform hybrid composites. • The thermal stability of the matrix decrease with increasing volume fraction of flax preforms. • The effect of number of preform layers and the lay-up architecture were studied.. • Morphological study on the fractured surface of the composite laminate is carried out. - Abstracts: This study investigates the thermal, mechanical and thermomechanical properties of flax hybrid preform reinforced epoxy composites. Flax plain weave fabric and 1 × 1 weft rib knitted structures were together used as reinforcements and the composites were produced using hand lay-up technique. Specimen preparation and testing were carried out as per ASTM standards. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a decrease in thermal stability of the matrix polymer with the incorporation of flax hybrid preform. The dynamic mechanical analysis revealed a shift in the T g with the addition of flax hybrid preforms. Mechanical data obtained showed that tensile strength and stiffness is a product of the fibre/matrix synergy, whereas the compressive strength and stiffness are contributed by the reinforcing matrix. Additionally, investigation show that laminate with knitted preform as skin layer exhibits superior mechanical properties. However, improved tensile properties at lower fibre volume fraction, reinforces the opinion that hybrid preform composites can offer significant benefits in terms of performance, weight and overall cost. The failure mechanism was analysed, by scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  12. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of a Polylactic Acid/Flax Fiber Biocomposite by WPU, WPU/Starch, and TPS Polyurethanes Using Coupling Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczi, N.; Sedlarik, V.; Kucharczyk, P.; Riegel, E.

    2018-01-01

    This work is addressed to the synthesis of bio-based polymers and investigation of their application in a flax-fiber-reinforced polylactic acid. Polyurethane polymers were synthesized from polyphenyl-methane-diisocyanate, poly (ethylene oxide) glycol, and ricinoleic acid, and their structure was examined by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was established that the introduction of flax fibers and different compatibilizers into the polymers improved their mechanical properties. A vinyl-trimetoxy-silane and polyalkenyl-polymaleic-anhydride derivative with a high acid number produced the best effect on the properties, but samples without additives had the highest water absorption capacity. SEM micrographs showed a good correlation between the morphology of fracture structure of the composites and the mechanical properties of flax fibers.

  13. Flame retardant treated flax fibre reinforced phenolic composites: Ageing and thermal characteristics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molaba, TP

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flax composites were prepared from flax fabric and phenolic resin. Chemical treatments were imparted to the fabric to improve adhesion between the fabric and the phenolic matrix. Diammonium phosphate was applied to improve...

  14. Characterization of the dynamic behaviour of flax fibre reinforced composites using vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hafidi, Ali; Birame Gning, Papa; Piezel, Benoit; Fontaine, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    Experimental and numerical methods to identify the linear viscoelastic properties of flax fibre reinforced epoxy (FFRE) composite are presented in this study. The method relies on the evolution of storage modulus and loss factor as observed through the frequency response. Free-free symmetrically guided beams were excited on the dynamic range of 10 Hz to 4 kHz with a swept sine excitation focused around their first modes. A fractional derivative Zener model has been identified to predict the complex moduli. A modified ply constitutive law has been then implemented in a classical laminates theory calculation (CLT) routine.

  15. Recent Development of Flax Fibres and Their Reinforced Composites Based on Different Polymeric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh Abhyankar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes flax fibre reinforced polymeric composites with recent developments. The properties of flax fibres, as well as advanced fibre treatments such as mercerization, silane treatment, acylation, peroxide treatment and coatings for the enhancement of flax/matrix incompatibility are presented. The characteristic properties and characterizations of flax composites on various polymers including polypropylene (PP and polylactic acid, epoxy, bio-epoxy and bio-phenolic resin are discussed. A brief overview is also given on the recent nanotechnology applied in flax composites.

  16. Polygalacturonase is the key component in enzymatic retting of flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Henriksson, G; Johansson, G

    2000-07-28

    Seven commercial enzyme mixtures were tested for their ability to perform retting of flax (i.e. to separate flax fibers by partly removal of middle lamella) and were assayed for hydrolysis of xylan, cellulose and four kinds of pectin. The only activity that showed correlation to the ability to perform retting was the degradation of low esterfied pectin. A purified Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase was also shown to be able to perform retting. From this data it is hypothesized that degradation of the smooth regions (i.e. non-methylated polygalacturonase) in the middle lamella pectin is the most important step in enzymatic retting.

  17. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. FLAX: Flexible and Open Corpus-Based Language Collections Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Alannah; Wu, Shaoqun; Marín, María José

    2015-01-01

    In this case study we present innovative work in building open corpus-based language collections by focusing on a description of the opensource multilingual Flexible Language Acquisition (FLAX) language project, which is an ongoing example of open materials development practices for language teaching and learning. We present language-learning…

  19. Mechanical properties of short-flax-fibre reinforced compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Müssig, J.; Oever, van den M.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical properties of flax/polypropylene compounds, manufactured both with a batch kneading and an extrusion process were determined and compared with the properties of Natural fibre Mat Thermoplastic (NMT) composites. The fibre length and width distributions of the fibres from the compounds

  20. Ex-post assessment of genetically modified, low level presence in Canadian flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Helen M; Lamb, Eric G; Smyth, Stuart J

    2017-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of flaxseed. In 2009, DNA from deregistered genetically modified (GM) CDC Triffid was detected in a shipment of Canadian flaxseed exported to Europe, causing a large decrease in the amount of flax planted in Canada and a major shift in export markets. The flax industry in Canada undertook major changes to ensure the removal of transgenic flax from the supply chain. To demonstrate compliance, Canada adopted a protocol involving testing grain samples (post-harvest) using an RT-PCR test for the construct found in CDC Triffid. Efforts to remove the presence of GM flax from the value chain included reconstituting major flax varieties from GM-free plants. The reconstituted varieties represented the majority of planting seed in 2014. This study re-evaluates GM flax presence in Canadian grain stocks for an updated dataset (2009-2015) using a previously described simulation model to estimate low-level GM presence. Additionally, losses to the Canadian economy resulting from the reduction in flax production and export opportunities, costs associated with reconstituting major flax varieties, and testing for the presence of GM flax along the flax value chain are estimated.

  1. Graft copolymerization of MMA onto flax under different reaction conditions: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA onto flax fiber was carried-out under different reaction condition such as in air (IA, under pressure (UP and under the influence of micro-wave radiations (MWR. Maximum percentage grafting (41.7% has been observed in case of graft copolymerization carried-out in air at 55°C followed by grafting under pressure (36.4% at 0.8 MPa and under the influence of microwave radiations (24.6% at 210 W microwave power. Graft copolymers were characterized with FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal analysis (TGA/DTA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Thermal stability of flax decreases on grafting under different reaction conditions. In case of XRD studies, cellulose crystals are better oriented in flax fiber followed by Flax-g-poly(MMA-MWR, Flax-g-poly(MMA-UP and Flax-g-poly(MMA-IA.

  2. Fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of flax fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Asian, Mustafa; Lilholt, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibre composites possess a number of special microstructural characteristics, which need to be documented to aid in the further development of these materials. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy, fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of aligned f...... novel observations, measurements and interpretations to be used in the further analysis and understanding of the properties of natural fibre composites. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Natural fibre composites possess a number of special microstructural characteristics, which need to be documented to aid in the further development of these materials. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy, fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of aligned...... flax fibre/thermoplastic composites are presented. The findings are presented in relation to the three operational parts in composites: fibres, matrix and fibre/matrix interface. For the flax fibres, the striated structure on the fibre surface is shown to consist of cellulose macrofibrils oriented...

  3. Properties and performance of flax yarn/thermoplastic polyester composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    and transverse directions are well simulated by rule of mixtures models. In the axial direction, at a fiber volume fraction of 0.50, the experimental tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress are 32 GPa and 350 MPa, respectively. In comparison, for glass fiber composites at a fiber volume fraction of 0.......50, the tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress are calculated to be 38 GPa and 1800 MPa, respectively. The flax yarn composites show better specific tensile modulus than the glass fiber composites with values of 23 GPa/g/cm3 and 20 GPa/g/cm3, respectively. An analysis of data from previous studies...... of unidirectional natural fibre composites demonstrates comparatively good reinforcement efficiency of the flax yarn fibers with an effective tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress of the fibers in the area of 70 GPa and 800 MPa, respectively. Altogether, it is demonstrated that composites with high...

  4. Flax fabric reinforced arylated soy protein composites: A brittle-matrix behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biocomposites were successfully prepared by the reinforcement of soy protein isolate (SPI) with different weight fractions of woven flax fabric. The flax-fabric-reinforced SPI-based composites were then arylated with 2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyethanoic...

  5. Influence of the degree of retting of flax fibers on the tensile properties of single fibers and short fiber/polypropylene composites

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Nicolas; Mouret, Nicolas; Davies, Peter; Baley, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The flax quality required for composite applications is not yet well established. Retting is one of the steps that are not well defined for these applications, and is a critical parameter during flax production. In this study, the influence of the degree of retting of flax on the properties of short flax fiber/polypropylene composites has been assessed. First, the degree of retting of gradually retted flax was measured by both qualitative and quantitative experimental techniques. In addition,...

  6. Chemical composition of components comprising bast tissue in flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W H; Akin, D E

    2001-05-01

    Components from the bast region of flax (Linum usitatissium) were removed by hand from seed flax and fiber flax and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Stems soaked in water were separated by hand into an outer layer, which consisted of epidermis with cuticle and parenchyma cells, and fiber bundles. Each of the two fractions were evaluated for chemical markers that could be used to predict the degree of retting and possibly fiber quality. The outer layer was subsequently treated with a mixed enzyme preparation to remove the carbohydrate portion, thus providing another fraction consisting primarily of cuticle. Four main constituent groups were investigated: dihydroxy fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids and alcohols, sterols, and aromatics. Long-chain fatty acids and alcohols located in the outer layer accounted for 80-92% of the total found in both fractions. Aromatics and sterols in the outer layer accounted for 29--72 and 27--67%, respectively, of the total and do not appear to be a reliable marker for the degree of retting. The best markers for retting were the dihydroxy fatty acids, of which 98--99% were accounted for in the outer layer. The main dihydroxy fatty acids were a mixture of 8,16- and 9,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acids and represented 87--89% of the total dihydroxy fatty acids measured. As a constituent of cuticle, this compound may serve as an excellent marker for indicating the degree of retting as well as a possible marker for fiber quality because this compound is almost always exclusively associated with the outer layer and not the fiber.

  7. Characterization, Long-Term Behavior Evaluation and Thermomechanical Properties of Untreated and Treated Flax Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ali

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the usage of natural fiber reinforced composites in more advanced structural applications. Consequently, the need for improving their mechanical properties as well as service life and long-term behavior modeling and predictions has arisen. In a step towards further development of these materials, in this study, two newly developed biobased resins, derived from soybean oil, methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate and double methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate are combined with untreated and alkaline treated flax fiber to produce novel biocomposites. Vinyl ester reinforced with flax fiber is used as control in addition to comparing properties of biobased composites against commercial pultruded composites. Effects of alkaline treatment of flax fiber as well as addition of 1% acrylic resin to vinyl ester and the two mentioned biobased resins on mechanical properties are studied. Properties are evaluated in short-term and also, after being exposed to accelerated weathering (i.e. UV and moisture). Moreover, long-term creep of these novel biobased composites and effect of fiber and matrix treatment on viscoelastic behavior is investigated using Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle. Based on the results of this study, the TTS provides an accelerated method for evaluation of mechanical properties of biobased composites, and satisfactory master curves are achieved by use of this principle. Also, fiber and matrix treatments were effective in increasing mechanical properties of biobased composites in short-term, and treatments delayed the creep response and slowed the process of creep in composites under study in the steady state region. Overall, results of this study reveal the successful production of biocomposites having properties that meet or exceed those of conventional pultruded members while maintaining high biocontent. Composites using treated flax fiber and newly developed resins showed less

  8. Optimum processing parameters for the fabrication of twill flax fabric-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhudi, Nurul Zuhairah Mahmud; Minhat, Mulia; Shamsuddin, Mohd Hafizi; Isa, Mohd Dali; Nur, Nurhayati Mohd

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, natural fabric thermoplastic composites such as flax have received much attention due to its attractive capabilities for structural applications. It is crucial to study the processing of flax fabric materials in order to achieve good quality and cost-effectiveness in fibre reinforced composites. Though flax fabric has been widely utilized for several years in composite applications due to its high strength and abundance in nature, much work has been concentrated on short flax fibre and very little work focused on using flax fabric. The effectiveness of the flax fabric is expected to give higher strength performance due to its structure but the processing needs to be optimised. Flax fabric composites were fabricated using compression moulding due to its simplicity, gives good surface finish and relatively low cost in terms of labour and production. Further, the impregnation of the polymer into the fabric is easier in this process. As the fabric weave structure contributes to the impregnation quality which leads to the overall performance, the processing parameters of consolidation i.e. pressure, time, and weight fraction of fabric were optimized using the Taguchi method. This optimization enhances the consolidation quality of the composite by improving the composite mechanical properties, three main tests were conducted i.e. tensile, flexural and impact test. It is observed that the processing parameter significantly affected the consolidation and quality of composite.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Water Retted and Non-retted Flax Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax stems of Modran variety were subjected to water retting under laboratory conditions and its physical properties were compared with non-retted fibers. Physical properties including percentage of impurities, weighted average length, linear density, tenacity and elongation were analyzed and the results were compared. The analysis of retted and non-retted flax fibers showed that retting is the most important step in the processing of flax fibers and it directly affects quality attributes like strength, fineness, and homogeneity. Scanning Electron microscope images of fibers were also analyzed and the retted fibers showed much cleaner surface when compared to decorticated non-retted fibers.

  10. Wetting behavior of flax fibers as reinforcement for polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranberri-Askargorta, Ibon; Lampke, Thomas; Bismarck, Alexander

    2003-07-15

    The wetting behavior of several flax (cellulose as reference) and polypropylene fibers is characterized by measuring the wetting rates (penetration velocities) of a series of liquids using the capillary rise technique. This present paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the complex nature of natural fibers and their surface properties. The fiber surface tensions are estimated from plots of the normalized wetting rate as a function of the surface tension of the liquids assuming, in analogy to Zisman's method, that the maximum of the normalized wetting rate corresponds to the solid surface tension. The estimated surface tensions of the investigated flax fibers indicate that all the fibers are quite "hydrophobic." The method used to separate the fibers from the rest of the plants has a large influence on the estimated fiber surface tensions. In the case of polypropylene (PP) fibers, the estimated surface tension corresponds well with literature data. Grafting small amounts of maleic acid anhydrite (MAH) onto the PP surfaces will not affect the wetting behavior and, therefore, the surface tension, whereas grafting larger amounts (10 wt%) of MAH causes the polymer surface tension to increase significantly. Additional pH-dependent zeta-potential measurements show that even the "pure" PP-fibers contain acidic surface functions, possibly due to further processing at elevated temperatures (thermal degradation or other aging processes).

  11. Improvement of Aluminum-Air Battery Performances by the Application of Flax Straw Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, Ekaterina; Gelman, Danny; Belopukhov, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Groysman, Alec; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-08-23

    The effect of a flax straw extract on Al corrosion inhibition in a strong alkaline solution was studied by using electrochemical measurements, weight-loss analysis, SEM, and FTIR spectroscopy. Flax straw extract added (3 vol %) to the 5 m KOH solution to act as a mixed-type Al corrosion inhibitor. The electrochemistry of Al in the presence of a flax straw extract in the alkaline solution, the effect of the extract on the Al morphology and surface films formed, and the corrosion inhibition mechanism are discussed. Finally, the Al-air battery discharge capacity recorded from a cell that used the flax straw extract in the alkaline electrolyte is substantially higher than that with only a pure alkaline electrolyte. This improved sustainability of the Al anode is attributed to Al corrosion inhibition and, consequently, to hydrogen evolution suppression. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Colour of flax fibres in regard to different pretreatment and dyeing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fakin, Darinka; Ojstršek, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to compare the colour of different pretreated (alkaline, acidic and enzymatic) and dyed (conventional and ultrasonic-assisted) flax fibres, to establish the impact of various parameters on dyeing kinetics. Flax fibres were dyed using two direct dyes of different chemical structures and molecular mass. Diffusion profiles were established by the application of Fick's Law and dyeing behaviour was studied by means of online spectrophotometry. Finally, the dyed ...

  13. Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, Danny E.

    2012-01-01

    The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emph...

  14. Effect of consolidation pressure on volumetric composition and stiffness of unidirectional flax fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Mehmood, S.; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Unidirectional flax/polyethylene terephthalate composites are manufactured by filament winding, followed by compression moulding with low and high consolidation pressure, and with variable flax fibre content. The experimental data of volumetric composition and tensile stiffness are analysed...... assemblies. A characteristic microstructural feature is observed near the transition stage, the so-called local structural porosity, which is caused by the locally fully compacted fibres. At the transition fibre weight fraction, which determines the best possible combination of high fibre volume fraction...

  15. [Post-photosynthetic use of labeled assimilates in fiber flax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikov, V I; Avvakumova, N Iu; Bakirova, G G

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of 14C in various tissues of fiber flax was assayed 1, 17, and 21 days after 30-min assimilation of 14CO@2 by the whole rapidly growing plant. Polymeric photosynthetic products were largely hydrolyzed in the 14C-donor part of the shoot and the hydrolysates were transported upward. The content of 14C in pigments and lipids of the donor leaves (that absorbed 14CO2) was significantly higher than that in the 14C-acceptor ones. An additional nitrogen feeding decreased the labeled sucrose: hexose ratio and inhibited transport of the assimilates from both 14C-donor and acceptor leaves. 14C transported to the shoot tip was largely used for synthesis of poorly soluble proteins (extractable with alkali and Triton X-100) in the acceptor tissues. In the donor part of the shoot, particularly in the bast, cellulose was mainly synthesized from the "new" assimilates.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of drought induced gene expression changes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Prasanta K; Cao, Yongguo; Jailani, Abdul K; Gupta, Payal; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Rai, Rhitu; Sharma, Rinku; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Abdin, Malik Z; Yadava, Devendra K; Singh, Nagendra K; Singh, Jas; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Deyholos, Mike; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Datla, Raju

    2014-01-01

    A robust phenotypic plasticity to ward off adverse environmental conditions determines performance and productivity in crop plants. Flax (linseed), is an important cash crop produced for natural textile fiber (linen) or oilseed with many health promoting products. This crop is prone to drought stress and yield losses in many parts of the world. Despite recent advances in drought research in a number of important crops, related progress in flax is very limited. Since, response of this plant to drought stress has not been addressed at the molecular level; we conducted microarray analysis to capture transcriptome associated with induced drought in flax. This study identified 183 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with diverse cellular, biophysical and metabolic programs in flax. The analysis also revealed especially the altered regulation of cellular and metabolic pathways governing photosynthesis. Additionally, comparative transcriptome analysis identified a plethora of genes that displayed differential regulation both spatially and temporally. These results revealed co-regulated expression of 26 genes in both shoot and root tissues with implications for drought stress response. Furthermore, the data also showed that more genes are upregulated in roots compared to shoots, suggesting that roots may play important and additional roles in response to drought in flax. With prolonged drought treatment, the number of DEGs increased in both tissue types. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR, thus supporting the suggested functional association of these intrinsic genes in maintaining growth and homeostasis in response to imminent drought stress in flax. Together the present study has developed foundational and new transcriptome data sets for drought stress in flax.

  17. Respiratory changes in two groups of flax workers with different exposure pattern 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuškin, E.; Valić, F.

    1973-01-01

    Zuskin, E., and Valić, F. (1973).Thorax, 28, 579-583. Respiratory changes in two groups of flax workers with different exposure pattern. A high mean total concentration of flax particles (16·9 mg/m3), of which about 20% were of respirable size, caused a high prevalence of bysinosis (69·9%) in 55 non-smoking female workers exposed to biologically retted flax over an average period of 11 years. A significant mean FEV1·0 decrease over the first work shift after the weekend break was recorded in both byssinotics and non-byssinotics but was more pronounced in the former. The mean acute FEV1·0 reductions over a work shift were smaller on the third than on the first day in the week. Significant decreases in FEV1·0 and in maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% of vital capacity over the Monday work shift were recorded in a group of 17 seasonal male workers who had been exposed to flax for only two to three months each year for no more than three years. A high prevalence of chronic cough, chronic sputum production, and chronic bronchitis was found in the female flax workers, especially among the byssinotics. PMID:4784378

  18. Modification of flax fibres by radiation induced emulsion graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawia, Rihab Musaad; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Nor Hasimah; Ripin, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Flax fibres were modified by radiation induced graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by pre-irradiation method in an emulsion medium. The effect of reaction parameters on the degree of grafting (DOG) such as concentration of bleaching agent, absorbed dose, monomer concentration, temperature and reaction time were investigated. The DOG was found to be dependent on the investigated parameters. The incorporation of poly(GMA) grafts in the bleached flax fibres was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural and mechanical changes were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mechanical tester, respectively. The results revealed that reacting bleached flax fibres irradiated with 20 kGy with 5% GMA emulsion containing 0.5% polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) surfactant at 40 °C for 1 h led to a maximum DOG of 148%. The grafted fibres showed sufficient mechanical strength and hydrophobicity which make them promising precursors for development of adsorbents after appropriate chemical treatments. - Highlights: • Flax fibers were modified by radiation induced emulsion grafting of GMA. • Bleaching with 0.7 wt% Na-chlorite was essential for achieving high DOGs. • Effect of reaction parameters on the degree of grafting were established. • The incorporation of poly-GMA grafts was proved by SEM, FTIR and XRD. • The obtained poly-GMA grafted flax fibers have potential for adsorbent making.

  19. Emulsions Made of Oils from Seeds of GM Flax Protect V79 Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Skorkowska-Telichowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and hydrophilic phenolic compounds are components of flax oil that act as antioxidants. We investigated the impact of flax oil from transgenic flax in the form of emulsions on stressed Chinese hamster pulmonary fibroblasts. We found that the emulsions protect V79 cells against the H2O2 and the effect is dose dependent. They reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and protected genomic DNA against damage. The rate of cell proliferation increased upon treatment with the emulsions at a low concentration, while at a high concentration it decreased significantly, accompanied by increased frequency of apoptotic cell death. Expression analysis of selected genes revealed the upregulatory impact of the emulsions on the histones, acetylases, and deacetylases. Expression of apoptotic, proinflammatory, and anti-inflammatory genes was also altered. It is thus suggested that flax oil emulsions might be useful as a basis for biomedical products that actively protect cells against inflammation and degeneration. The beneficial effect on fibroblast resistance to oxidative damage was superior in the emulsion made of oil from transgenic plants which was correlated with the quantity of antioxidants and squalene. The emulsions from transgenic flax are promising candidates for skin protection against oxidative damage.

  20. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Woven and nonwoven flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA biocomposites were prepared with amphiphilic additives as accelerator for biodegradation. The prepared composites were buried in farmland soil for biodegradability studies. Loss in weight of the biodegraded composite samples was determined at different time intervals. The surface morphology of the biodegraded composites was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results indicated that in presence of mandelic acid, the composites showed accelerated biodegradation with 20–25% loss in weight after 50–60 days. On the other hand, in presence of dicumyl peroxide (as additive, biodegradation of the composites was relatively slow as confirmed by only 5–10% loss in weight even after 80–90 days. This was further confirmed by surface morphology of the biodegraded composites. We have attempted to show that depending on the end uses, we can add different amphiphilic additives for delayed or accelerated biodegradability. This work gives us the idea of biodegradation of materials from natural fiber reinforced PLA composites when discarded carelessly in the environment instead of proper waste disposal site.

  1. [Metabolism of labeled exogenous glucose in fiber flax tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikov, V I; Avvakumova, N Iu; Bakirova, G G; Khamidullina, L A

    2005-01-01

    A labeled glucose solution was introduced into cut fiber flax plants (45-50 cm high) using a special unit under a pressure of 0.1 atm for 30 min, 1, and 2 h. The highest quantities of labeled carbon were revealed in the woody tissue. Sucrose made up a considerable proportion in low molecular weight products of [ [2-14C]-glucose transformation (23.5%). Metabolism of labeled glucose in the leaves exposed to sunlight yielded a set of metabolites similar to products of 14CO2 photoassimilation. In the shade, the pattern of 14C distribution in labeled compounds of the water/alcohol soluble fraction remained similar in mature leaves, while in juvenile leaves, 14C content decreased in sucrose and increased in organic and amino acids. In the shade, the incorporation of 14C into starch and hot water soluble polysaccharides increased at the expense of the acetone fraction (lipids and pigments), water/salt soluble proteins, and cellulose. Low light conditions increased the radioactivity ratio of sparingly soluble (KOH and Triton X-100 soluble) proteins to albumins and globulins. We propose that the synthesis of components of the photosynthetic apparatus in juvenile leaves is directly powered by photosynthesis and the photosynthesis of glucose and the polymers compete for ATP energy. Appearance of sucrose in the woody tissue is due to its release from the phloem to the stem apoplast and the radial transfer to the xylem, where it is transported to the upper shoot with the transpiration flow.

  2. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP. The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxseed varieties, ranging between 531.44 mg g-1 of lipids in brown perilla, 539.07 mg g-1 of lipids in white perilla, and 544.85 mg g-1 of lipis in chia seed. The antioxidant capacity of the seeds, evaluated with ABTS•+, DPPH• , and FRAP methods, showed that brown perilla had greater antioxidant capacity when compared with white perilla, flax, and chia seeds.

  4. The effects of corn zein protein coupling agent on mechanical properties of flax fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Ryan John

    In the field of renewable materials, natural fiber composites demonstrate the capacity to be a viable structural material. When normalized by density, flax fiber mechanical properties are competitive with E-glass fibers. However, the hydrophilic nature of flax fibers reduces the interfacial bond strength with polymer thermosets, limiting composite mechanical properties. Corn zein protein was selected as a natural bio-based coupling agent because of its combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. Zein was deposited on the surface of flax, which was then processed into unidirectional composite. The mechanical properties of zein treated samples where measured and compared against commonly utilized synthetic treatments sodium hydroxide and silane which incorporate harsh chemicals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were also used to determine analyze zein treatments. Results demonstrate the environmentally friendly zein treatment successfully increased tensile strength 8%, flexural strength 17%, and shear strength 30% compared to untreated samples.

  5. Manufacturing Flax Fibre-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites by Hot-Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Marc; Jayaraman, Krishnan

    The renewable characteristic of natural fibres, such as flax, and the recyclable nature of thermoplastic polymers, such as polypropylene, provide an attractive eco-friendly quality to the resulting composite materials. Common methods for manufacturing natural fibre-reinforced thermoplastic composites, injection moulding and extrusion, tend to degrade the fibres during processing. Development of a simple manufacturing technique for these composites, that minimises fibre degradation, is the main objective of this study. Flax fibres were conditioned, cut into lengths ranging from 1 mm to 30 mm with scissors and a pelletiser, and shaped into randomly oriented mats using a drop feed tower. Polypropylene in sheet form, was added to the fibres to furnish polypropylene/flax/polypropylene sandwiches with a fibre mass fraction of 25%, which were then consolidated by the hot pressing technique. Tensile, flexural and impact properties of these composite sheets were determined as functions of fibre length and processing temperature.

  6. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Cement Composites Reinforced with Flax Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Claramunt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a process to produce high-performance cement-based composites reinforced with flax nonwoven fabrics, analyzing the influence of the fabric structure—thickness and entanglement—on mechanical behavior under flexural and tensile loadings. For this purpose, composite with flax nonwoven fabrics with different thicknesses were first prepared and their cement infiltration was evaluated with backscattered electron (BSE images. The nonwoven fabrics with the optimized thickness were then subjected to a water treatment to improve their stability to humid environments and the fiber-matrix adhesion. For a fixed thickness, the effect of the nonwoven entanglement on the mechanical behavior was evaluated under flexural and direct tension tests. The obtained results indicate that the flax nonwoven fabric reinforcement leads to cement composites with substantial enhancement of ductility.

  7. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Cement Composites Reinforced with Flax Nonwoven Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Josep; Ventura, Heura; Fernández-Carrasco, Lucía J; Ardanuy, Mònica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a process to produce high-performance cement-based composites reinforced with flax nonwoven fabrics, analyzing the influence of the fabric structure—thickness and entanglement—on mechanical behavior under flexural and tensile loadings. For this purpose, composite with flax nonwoven fabrics with different thicknesses were first prepared and their cement infiltration was evaluated with backscattered electron (BSE) images. The nonwoven fabrics with the optimized thickness were then subjected to a water treatment to improve their stability to humid environments and the fiber-matrix adhesion. For a fixed thickness, the effect of the nonwoven entanglement on the mechanical behavior was evaluated under flexural and direct tension tests. The obtained results indicate that the flax nonwoven fabric reinforcement leads to cement composites with substantial enhancement of ductility. PMID:28772573

  8. Engineering of PHB synthesis causes improved elastic properties of flax fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Zebrowski, Jacek; Starzycki, Michał; Oszmiański, Jan; Szopa, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Flax stem is a source of fiber used by the textile industry. Flax fibers are separated from other parts of stems in the process called retting and are probably the first plant fibers used by man for textile purposes (1). Nowadays flax cultivation is often limited because of its lower elastic property compared to cotton fibers. Thus the goal of this study was to increase the flax fiber quality using a transgenic approach. Expression of three bacterial genes coding for beta-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and PHB synthase (phb C) resulted in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation in the plant stem. PHB is known as a biodegradable thermoplastic displaying chemical and physical properties similar to those of conventional plastics (i.e., polypropylene). The fibers isolated from transgenic flax plants cultivated in the field and synthesizing PHB were then studied for biomechanical properties. All measured parameters, strength, Young's modulus, and energy for failure of flax fibers, were significantly increased. Thus the substantial improvement in elastic properties of fibers from the transgenic line has been achieved. Since the acetyl CoA, substrate for PHB synthesis, is involved not only for energy production but also for synthesis of many cellular constituents, the goal of this study was also the analysis of those metabolites, which interfere with plant physiology and thus fiber quality. The analyzed plants showed that reduction in lignin, pectin, and hemicellulose levels resulted in increased retting efficiency. A significant increase in phenolic acids was also detected, and this was the reason for improved plant resistance to pathogen infection. However, a slight decrease in crop production was detected.

  9. Catalytic subcritical water liquefaction of flax straw for high yield of furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, Inibehe; Ibrahim, Hussameldin; Thring, Ron; Idem, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial interest in the application of biomass as a renewable fuel or for production of chemicals. Flax straw can be converted into valuable chemicals and biofuels via liquefaction in sub-critical water. In this study, the yield of furfural and the kinetics of flax straw liquefaction under sub-critical water conditions were investigated using a high-pressure autoclave reactor. The liquefaction was conducted in the temperature range of 175–325 °C, pressure of 0.1 MPa–8 MPa, retention time in the range of 0 min–120 min, and flax straw mass fraction (w F ) of 5–20 %. Also, the effect of acid catalysts on furfural yield was studied. The kinetic parameters of flax straw liquefaction were determined using nonlinear regression of the experimental data, assuming second-order kinetics. The apparent activation energy was found to be 27.97 kJ mol −1 while the reaction order was 2.0. The optimum condition for furfural yield was at 250 °C, 6.0 MPa, w F of 5% and 0 retention time after reaching set conditions. An acid catalyst was found to selectively favour furfural yield with 40% flax straw conversion. - Highlights: • Flax straw liquefaction in subcritical water. • Creation of a reaction pathway that can be used to optimized furfural production. • Acid catalyst selectively favoured furfural yield with respect to other liquid products. • At the highest process temperature of 325 °C, a carbon conversion of 40% was achieved. • Activation energy and reaction order was 28 kJ/mol and 2.0 respectively

  10. Apparent interfacial shear strength of short-flax-fiber/starch acetate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersons, J.; Modniks, J.; Joffe, R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with an indirect industry-friendly method for identification of the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a fully bio-based composite. The IFSS of flax fiber/starch acetate is evaluated by a modified Bowyer and Bader method based on an analysis of the stress-strain curve of a short...... IFSS of flax/starch acetate is within the range of 5.5-20.5 MPa, depending on composition of the material. The IFSS is found to be greater for composites with a higher fiber loading and to decrease with increasing content of plasticizer. The IFSS is equal or greater than the yield strength of the neat...

  11. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisner, Marta; Kulma, Anna; Zebrowski, Jacek; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Arendt, Malgorzata; Starzycki, Michal; Szopa, Jan

    2014-02-20

    In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production).Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the "bona-fide" CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber's tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants' development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and organization of cellulose and pectin

  12. The effect of processing on defects and tensile strength of single flax fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Mehmood, Shahid; Madsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This study is to investigate the influence of consecutive processing steps on the defects and the tensile strength of single flax fibres. It was found that each processing step leads to an increasing number of defects and larger defect sizes, as well as decreasing tensile strength of the fibres....

  13. Experimental studies of flax-containing nonwoven fabric properties as a filter material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirova, L. F.; Shtabnova, V. L.; Litunov, S. N.; Filkin, N. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    Nonwoven fabric (it consists of 50 % of modified flax fiber and a structure obtained by knitting the fabric with the scrim fibers) was examined. Air permeability, dust permeability, wind resistance and tensile strength at parameter range characteristic for industrial premises were determined. Findings support the use of the fabric as a filter material for filter elements.

  14. Effects of dietary fish oil and flax seed on cholesterol and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the supplementation of different levels of fish oil (FO) and flax seed (FS) in the diets of layers on the content of egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol, blood parameters, egg production and egg quality criteria. In the experiment, a total of 120 Isa-White laying hens of 34 weeks of ...

  15. Analysis of retted and non retted flax fibres by chemical and enzymatic means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooney, C.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Schols, H.A.; Jong, de E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Flax fibres (Linum usitatissimum L.) were subjected to chemical and enzymatic analysis in order to determine the compositional changes brought about by the retting process and also to determine the accessibility of the fibre polymers to enzymatic treatment. Chemical analysis involved subjecting both

  16. Insertion of reamplification round into ISSR-PCR protocol brings new flax fingerprinting patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2003), s. 743-748 ISSN 1425-8153 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/00/0075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : flax * genetic research * PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.455, year: 2003

  17. Flax fiber reinforced PLA composites: studies on types of PLA and different methods of fabrication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available in the last decade. It is well known that natural fiber reinforced PLA composites can be prepared by solution casting cum compression molding and injection molding methods. The authors have prepared flax fiber reinforced PLA (procured from Cereplast Ltd...

  18. Improved method for fibre content and quality analysis and their application to flax genetic diversity investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bas, N.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Melis, C.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation for fibre content and quality in a breeding selection program is time consuming and costly. Therefore, this study aims to develop a method for fast and reproducible fibre content analysis on small flax straw samples. A protocol has been developed and verified with fibre screening methods

  19. Cultivation of flax in spoil-bank clay: Mycorrhizal inoculation vs. high organic amendments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Sudová, Radka; Gryndler, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 6 (2008), s. 872-877 ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * compost * flax Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.284, year: 2008

  20. Thermal behavior of flax and jute reinforced in matrix acrylic composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samal, Sneha Manjaree; Stuchlík, M.; Petrikova, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : flax * jute * acrylic resin * composite * DMA * TG * FTIR Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2016

  1. The influence of gamma irradiation on natural dyeing properties of cotton and flax fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirila, Laura; Popescu, Alina; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Stanculescu, Ioana; Moise, Valentin Ioan

    2018-04-01

    Fabrics made of 100% cotton and 100% flax respectively were exposed at ambient temperature to gamma radiation doses, from 5 to 40 kGy, using a Co-60 research irradiator. After the irradiation treatment the fabrics were subjected to dyeing process with Itodye Nat Pomegranate commercial natural dye. The influence of gamma irradiation treatment on the physical-mechanical properties, dyeing and surface morphology of natural fibres were investigated. Gamma ray treatment of 40 kGy was the most effective in the case of fabrics made from 100% cotton, enhancing the colour strength as evidenced by K/S value. The results obtained from the mechanical properties of fabrics made of 100% flax indicated that the dose of 40 kGy leads to a decrease of tensile strength up of to 41.5%. Infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor chemical and structural changes in cellulosic fibres induced during processing. Crystallinity indices calculated from various bands ratio showed insignificant variations for cotton and small variations in the case of flax. The surface morphology of irradiated cotton fabrics did not show significant changes even at the highest dose of 40 kGy, while the low doses applied on flax fabrics led to an appearance of small changes of surface morphology. The gamma irradiation increased the uptake of natural dyes on natural cellulosic fibres.

  2. Computer image analysis of seed shape and seed color for flax cultivar description

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesnerová, Dana; Wiesner, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2008), s. 126-135 ISSN 0168-1699 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/03/0019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : image analysis * cultivar description * flax Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.273, year: 2008

  3. Pectinmethylesterases (PME) and pectinmethylesterase inhibitors (PMEI) enriched during phloem fiber development in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Latorre, David; Deyholos, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Flax phloem fibers achieve their length by intrusive-diffusive growth, which requires them to penetrate the extracellular matrix of adjacent cells. Fiber elongation therefore involves extensive remodelling of cell walls and middle lamellae, including modifying the degree and pattern of methylesterification of galacturonic acid (GalA) residues of pectin. Pectin methylesterases (PME) are important enzymes for fiber elongation as they mediate the demethylesterification of GalA in muro, in either a block-wise fashion or in a random fashion. Our objective was to identify PMEs and PMEIs that mediate phloem fiber elongation in flax. For this purpose, we measured transcript abundance of candidate genes at nine different stages of stem and fiber development and found sets of genes enriched during fiber elongation and maturation as well as during xylem development. We expressed one of the flax PMEIs in E. coli and demonstrated that it was able to inhibit most of the native PME activity in the upper portion of the flax stem. These results identify key genetic components of the intrusive growth process and define targets for fiber engineering and crop improvement.

  4. Effect of water absorption on mechanical properties of flax fibre reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Guduri, BBR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutched and line flax fibres, with mean linear density of about 19.5 decitex, were utilized for this study. Mechanical properties of fibre and resin were measured for assessing their contribution in the composite matrix. Polypropylene (PP)/ short...

  5. Occurrence of cell-specific galactan is coinciding with bast fiber developmental transition in flax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Sal'nikov, V.V.; Pavlencheva, N.V.; Gur'janov, O.P.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Bast fiber peels of developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) stem contain tissue-specific soluble (1 --> 4)-beta-galactan. The occurrence and localization of this polymer have been investigated at various stages of bast fiber development. Tissue-specific galactan (molecular mass >2000 kDa)

  6. Report of a Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, N.; Pavelek, M.; Maggioni, L.; Lipman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the newly established ECPGR Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp), in the framework of Sugar, Starch and Fibre Crops Network, met for the first time at Wageningen, the Netherlands on 14–16 June 2006. Fifteen participants from the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia,

  7. Lignin deficiency in transgenic flax resulted in plants with improved mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Starzycki, Michał; Zebrowski, Jacek; Oszmiański, Jan; Szopa, Jan

    2007-03-10

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a very important source of natural fibres used by the textile industry. Flax fibres are called lignocellulosic, because they contain mainly cellulose (about 70%), with hemicellulose, pectin and lignin. Lignin is a three-dimensional polymer with a high molecular weight, and it gives rigidity and mechanical resistance to the fibre and plant. Its presence means the fibres have worse elastic properties than non-lignocellulosic fibres, e.g. cotton fibres, which contain no lignin. The main aim of this study was to produce low-lignin flax plants with fibres with modified elastic properties. An improvement in the mechanical properties was expected. The used strategy for CAD down-regulation was based on gene silencing RNAi technology. Manipulation of the CAD gene caused changes in enzyme activity, lignin content and in the composition of the cell wall in the transgenic plants. The detected reduction in the lignin level in the CAD-deficient plants resulted in improved mechanical properties. Young's modulus was up to 75% higher in the generated transgenic plants (CAD33) relative to the control plants. A significant increase in the lignin precursor contents and a reduction in the pectin and hemicellulose constituents was also detected. A decrease in pectin and hemicellulose, as well as a lower lignin content, might lead to improved extractability of the fibres. However, the resistance of the transgenic lines to Fusarium oxysporum was over two-fold lower than for the non-transformed plants. Since Fusarium species are used as retting organisms and had been isolated from retted flax, the increased sensitivity of the CAD-deficient plant to F. oxysporum infection might lead to improved flax retting.

  8. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  9. The use of wet-laid techniques to obtain flax nonwovens with different thermoplastic binding fibers for technical insulation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fages, E.; Cano, M. A.; Gironés, S.; Boronat Vitoria, Teodomiro; Fenollar Gimeno, Octavio Ángel; Balart Gimeno, Rafael Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the wet-laid technique has been used to obtain flax nonwovens thermally bonded with different contents of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and bicomponent polyamide 6/copolyamide (PA6/CoPA) fibers in the 10-30 wt.% range. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to evaluate the formation of interlock points through melted polymer and flax fibers. Volume porosity has been estimated through determination of thickness and surface mass. Tensile strength and elongation at break have been de...

  10. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp ...... these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species....

  11. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kostyn, Anna; Kulma, Anna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Prescha, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. ...

  12. Identification and retting efficiencies of fungi isolated from dew-retted flax in the United States and europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, G; Akin, D E; Hanlin, R T; Rodriguez, C; Archibald, D D; Rigsby, L L; Eriksson, K L

    1997-10-01

    Seven strains of filamentous fungi and one yeast were isolated from flax that was dew retted in the United States. These filamentous fungi were subcultured to purity and identified, and six appear not to have been reported earlier as isolates from dew-retted flax. Five of the purified U.S. strains, two fungi isolated from flax that was dew retted in Europe, and a laboratory culture of Aspergillus sojae were tested for their ability to ret flax stems. The monocultures were evaluated for the degree of retting, fiber strength, dry weight loss, and tactile response (i.e., feel of softness) as reflected in the retted fiber. Structural modifications of representative samples of the retted flax were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. All of the filamentous fungi were able to carry out some retting, whereas the isolated yeast could not. All organisms produced pectinases when they were cultivated in shake flasks on ball-milled flax as the sole carbon source. Some fungi also produced cellulases, mannanases, and xylanases. Rhizomucor pusillus and Fusarium lateritium were noteworthy as retting organisms by their high level of pectinase activity, ability to attack noncellulosic cell types without attacking cellulose, capacity to penetrate the cuticular surface of the stem, and efficient fiber release from the core. The results indicated that these organisms deserve further study as potential organisms for retting of bast fibers in industrial applications.

  13. UGT74S1 is the key player in controlling secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) formation in flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; You, Frank M; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-02-02

    Flax lignan, commonly known as secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG), has recently been reported with health-promoting activities, including its positive impact in metabolic diseases. However, not much was reported on the biosynthesis of SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) until lately. Flax UGT74S1 was recently reported to sequentially glucosylate SECO into SMG and SDG in vitro. However, whether this gene is the only UGT achieving SECO glucosylation in flax was not known. Flax genome-wide mining for UGTs was performed. Phylogenetic and gene duplication analyses, heterologous gene expression and enzyme assays were conducted to identify family members closely related to UGT74S1 and to establish their roles in SECO glucosylation. A total of 299 different UGTs were identified, of which 241 (81%) were duplicated. Flax UGTs diverged 2.4-153.6 MYA and 71% were found to be under purifying selection pressure. UGT74S1, a single copy gene located on chromosome 7, displayed no evidence of duplication and was deemed to be under positive selection pressure. The phylogenetic analysis identified four main clusters where cluster 4, which included UGT74S1, was the most diverse. The duplicated UGT74S4 and UGT74S3, located on chromosomes 8 and 14, respectively, were the most closely related to UGT74S1 and were differentially expressed in different tissues. Heterologous expression levels of UGT74S1, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 proteins were similar but UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 glucosylation activity towards SECO was seven fold less than UGT74S1. In addition, they both failed to produce SDG, suggesting neofunctionalization following their divergence from UGT74S1. We showed that UGT74S1 is closely related to two duplicated genes, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 which, unlike UGT74S1, failed to glucosylate SMG into SDG. The study suggests that UGT74S1 may be the key player in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in flax although its closely related genes may also contribute to a minor extent in supplying

  14. The Effects of Iron Filling On Some Mechanical and Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Adajineh; 2008). The suitability of bagasse and other lignocellulosic residues, such as flax shives, rape straw, reed, sunflower, seek husks, and groundnut shells, such as raw material for particleboards was studied. The physical properties of boards ...

  15. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  16. Flax stems: from a specific architecture to an instructive model for bioinspired composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baley, Christophe; Goudenhooft, Camille; Gibaud, Marianne; Bourmaud, Alain

    2018-01-10

    The present paper proposes to carefully study and describe the reinforcement mechanisms within a flax stem, which is an exceptional natural model of composite structure. Thanks to accurate microscopic investigations, with both optical and SEM method, we finely depicted the flax stem architecture, which can be view as a composite structure with an outer protection, a unidirectional ply on the periphery and a porous core; each component has a specific function, such as mechanical reinforcement for the unidirectional ply and the porous core. The significant mechanical role of fibres was underlined, as well as their local organisation in cohesive bundles, obtained because of an intrusive growth and evidenced in this work through nanomechanical AFM measurement and 3D reconstruction. Following a biomimetic approach, these data provide a source of inspiration for the composite materials of tomorrow. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Flammability and thermal properties studies of nonwoven flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, M. F. Ahmad; Salim, M. S.; Akil, H. M.; Ishak, Z. A. Mohd.

    2017-12-01

    In the pursuit of green and more sustainable product, natural fibre reinforced composites originating from renewable resources has gained interest in recent years. These natural fibres exhibit good mechanical properties, low production costs, and good environmental properties. However, one of the disadvantages of natural fibre reinforced composites is their high flammability that limits their application in many fields. Within this research, the effect of sodium silicate on the flammability and thermal properties of flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites has been investigated. Sodium silicate is applied as binder and flame retardant system in impregnation process of the natural flax fiber mats. The addition of sodium silicate significantly improved the flame retardant efficiency but reduced the degree of crosslinking of the composites.

  18. Effect of Chemical Treatments on Flax Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites on Tensile and Dome Forming Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentian; Lowe, Adrian; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Tensile tests were performed on two different natural fibre composites (same constituent material, similar fibre fraction and thickness but different weave structure) to determine changes in mechanical properties caused by various aqueous chemical treatments and whether any permanent changes remain on drying. Scanning electronic microscopic examinations suggested that flax fibres and the flax/polypropylene interface were affected by the treatments resulting in tensile property variations. The ductility of natural fibre composites was improved significantly under wet condition and mechanical properties (elongation-to-failure, stiffness and strength) can almost retain back to pre-treated levels when dried from wet condition. Preheating is usually required to improve the formability of material in rapid forming, and the chemical treatments performed in this study were far more effective than preheating. The major breakthrough in improving the formability of natural fibre composites can aid in rapid forming of this class of material system. PMID:25789505

  19. Bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting with Bacillus cereus HDYM-02

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Zhao; Pengfei Liu; Chao Pan; Renpeng Du; Wenxiang Ping; Jingping Ge

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were jointly used to reveal the bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting. The inoculation of Bacillus cereus HDYM-02 decreased bacterial richness and diversity. This inoculum led to the replacement of Enterobacteriaceae by Bacillaceae. The level of aerobic Pseudomonadaceae (mainly Azotobacter) and anaerobic Clostridiaceae_1 gradually increased and decreased, respectively...

  20. Tannin-based flax fibre reinforced composites for structural applications in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Abhyankar, H.; Nassiopoulos, E.; Njuguna, J.

    2012-09-01

    Innovation is often driven by changes in government policies regulating the industries, especially true in case of the automotive. Except weight savings, the strict EU regulation of 95% recyclable material-made vehicles drives the manufactures and scientists to seek new 'green materials' for structural applications. With handing at two major drawbacks (production cost and safety), ECHOSHELL is supported by EU to develop and optimise structural solutions for superlight electric vehicles by using bio-composites made of high-performance natural fibres and resins, providing enhanced strength and bio-degradability characteristics. Flax reinforced tannin-based composite is selected as one of the candidates and were firstly investigated with different fabric lay-up angles (non-woven flax mat, UD, [0, 90°]4 and [0, +45°, 90°, -45°]2) through authors' work. Some of the obtained results, such as tensile properties and SEM micrographs were shown in this conference paper. The UD flax reinforced composite exhibits the best tensile performance, with tensile strength and modulus of 150 MPa and 9.6 MPa, respectively. It was observed that during tension the oriented-fabric composites showed some delamination process, which are expected to be eliminated through surface treatment (alkali treatment etc.) and nanotechnology, such as the use of nano-fibrils. Failure mechanism of the tested samples were identified through SEM results, indicating that the combination of fibre pull-out, fibre breakage and brittle resins failure mainly contribute to the fracture failure of composites.

  1. Tannin-based flax fibre reinforced composites for structural applications in vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J; Abhyankar, H; Nassiopoulos, E; Njuguna, J

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is often driven by changes in government policies regulating the industries, especially true in case of the automotive. Except weight savings, the strict EU regulation of 95% recyclable material-made vehicles drives the manufactures and scientists to seek new 'green materials' for structural applications. With handing at two major drawbacks (production cost and safety), ECHOSHELL is supported by EU to develop and optimise structural solutions for superlight electric vehicles by using bio-composites made of high-performance natural fibres and resins, providing enhanced strength and bio-degradability characteristics. Flax reinforced tannin-based composite is selected as one of the candidates and were firstly investigated with different fabric lay-up angles (non-woven flax mat, UD, [0, 90°] 4 and [0, +45°, 90°, −45°] 2 ) through authors' work. Some of the obtained results, such as tensile properties and SEM micrographs were shown in this conference paper. The UD flax reinforced composite exhibits the best tensile performance, with tensile strength and modulus of 150 MPa and 9.6 MPa, respectively. It was observed that during tension the oriented-fabric composites showed some delamination process, which are expected to be eliminated through surface treatment (alkali treatment etc.) and nanotechnology, such as the use of nano-fibrils. Failure mechanism of the tested samples were identified through SEM results, indicating that the combination of fibre pull-out, fibre breakage and brittle resins failure mainly contribute to the fracture failure of composites.

  2. Radiation-grafting of flame retardants on flax fabrics - A comparison between different flame retardant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marie; Sonnier, Rodolphe; Otazaghine, Belkacem; Ferry, Laurent; Aubert, Mélanie; Tirri, Teija; Wilén, Carl-Eric; Rouif, Sophie

    2018-04-01

    Three unsaturated compounds bearing respectively phosphate, aryl bromide and sulfenamide moieties were used as flame retardants (FR) for flax fabrics. Due to the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds, radiation-grafting was considered to covalently bond these FR onto fiber structure. Grafting efficiency and location of FR molecules were investigated by weight measurements and SEM-EDX observations. Flammability and especially self-extinguishment were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry and a non-standardized fire test already used in previous studies. All FRs were able to diffuse into elementary fiber bulk. Nevertheless only the phosphonated monomer (noted FR-P) was significantly grafted onto flax. Self-extinguishment was obtained for fabrics containing at least around 0.5 wt% of phosphorus. On the contrary the FR content of flax fibers after radiation-grafting procedure and washing was negligible for FR-S and FR-Br, evidencing that these molecules have not been grafted upon irradiation. Moreover, the combination of these molecules prevents the radiation-grafting of other molecules which showed good grafting rate when used alone.

  3. Composite Materials Based on Hemp and Flax for Low-Energy Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyski, Przemysław; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2017-05-07

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement used as additives. The analysis involved evaluation of such properties as porosity, density, thermal conductivity, absorptivity, permeability, as well as compressive and flexural strength. Depending on the quantity of the filler, the properties of the composite changed. This, in turn, enabled to evaluate whether the utilized composite met the thermal requirements established for low-energy buildings. Afterwards, the obtained data were cross-referenced with the results gathered in the case of a room built of autoclaved aerated concrete. In order to prevent reaching the critical surface humidity, the internal surface temperature had to be calculated. Moreover, the chances of interstitial condensation occurring in the wall made of the analyzed lime-flax-hemp composite were determined as well. The study showed that the composite exhibits low strength, low density, low thermal conductivity, and high absorptivity. The external walls made of the lime-flax-hemp composite receive a limited exposure to condensation, but not significant enough to constitute any threat. The requirements established for low-energy buildings can be met by using the analyzed composite.

  4. Improving retting of fibre through genetic modification of flax to express pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musialak, Magdalena; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Starzycka, Eligia; Szopa, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a raw material used for important industrial products. Linen has very high quality textile properties, such as its strength, water absorption, comfort and feel. However, it occupies less than 1% of the total textile market. The major reason for this is the long and difficult retting process by which linen fibres are obtained. In retting, bast fibre bundles are separated from the core, the epidermis and the cuticle. This is accomplished by the cleavage of pectins and hemicellulose in the flax cell wall, a process mainly carried out by plant pathogens like filamentous fungi. The remaining bast fibres are mainly composed of cellulose and lignin. The aim of this study was to generate plants that could be retted more efficiently. To accomplish this, we employed the novel approach of transgenic flax plant generation with increased polygalacturonase (PGI ) and rhamnogalacturonase (RHA) activities. The constitutive expression of Aspergillus aculeatus genes resulted in a significant reduction in the pectin content in tissue-cultured and field-grown plants. This pectin content reduction was accompanied by a significantly higher (more than 2-fold) retting efficiency of the transgenic plant fibres as measured by a modified Fried's test. No alteration in the lignin or cellulose content was observed in the transgenic plants relative to the control. This indicates that the over-expression of the two enzymes does not affect flax fibre composition. The growth rate and soluble sugar and starch contents were in the range of the control levels. It is interesting to note that the RHA and PGI plants showed higher resistance to Fusarium culmorum and F. oxysporum attack, which correlates with the increased phenolic acid level. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that over-expression of the A. aculeatus genes results in flax plants more readily usable for fibre production. The biochemical parameters of the cell wall components indicated that

  5. [The fatty acid composition of ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivated in Georgia and its byological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakilashvili, B Iu; Zurabashvili, D Z; Turabelidze, D G; Shanidze, L A; Parulava, G K

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was individual quantitatively and qualitatively determination of fatty acids in ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.), cultivated in Georgia. The neutral lipids extracts were fractionated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (PTC-1, Waters) with refractory detector R-401. Analitical column (150,0x3,0 mm) was filled with reversphase Bondopak C18). Software OASIS-740 is used. The correction retention times of each fatty acids is compared with comformity standard. The investigation showed that in flax seed oil linoleic (31,3±2,1 mg%) and linolenic (40,2±2,9 mg%) acids were predominant and together constitute principal basic of research composition. The flax seed oil contained also palmitic and stearic acids in less quantitaty.

  6. Estimation of optimum operating parameters of UASB reactor treating flax retting wastewater by kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Ukita, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Imai, T. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan); Fukagawa, M. [Ube Technical College, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    1995-08-21

    A laboratory study was used to develop a simplified kinetic model, to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to provide rational design parameters for a pilot plant treating flax retting wastewater by means of the simulation of optimal operation of the UASB reactor. The results indicated that the developed model can be used predicatively for assessing plant performance and when the concentration of the influent is at the range of 5.5-7.3gCOD/l, the concentration of the hard-biodegradable materials is 0.46 gCOD/l. 14 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  8. Effect of Fungal Deterioration on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp and Flax Natural Fiber Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Bryn; Pakpour, Sepideh; Kazemian, Negin; Klironomos, John; Stoeffler, Karen; Rho, Denis; Denault, Johanne; Milani, Abbas S

    2017-10-31

    The development and application of bio-sourced composites have been gaining wide attention, yet their deterioration due to the growth of ubiquitous microorganisms during storage/manufacturing/in-service phases is still not fully understood for optimum material selection and design purposes. In this study, samples of non-woven flax fibers, hemp fibers, and mats made of co-mingled randomly-oriented flax or hemp fiber (50%) and polypropylene fiber (50%) were subjected to 28 days of exposure to (i) no water-no fungi, (ii) water only and (iii) water along with the Chaetomium globosum fungus. Biocomposite samples were measured for weight loss over time, to observe the rate of fungal growth and the respiration of cellulose components in the fibers. Tensile testing was conducted to measure mechanical properties of the composite samples under different configurations. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize fungal hyphal growth on the natural fibers, as well as to observe the fracture planes and failure modes of the biocomposite samples. Results showed that fungal growth significantly affects the dry mass as well as the tensile elastic modulus of the tested natural fiber mats and composites, and the effect depends on both the type and the length scale of fibers, as well as the exposure condition and time.

  9. Analysis of fiber content in flax stems by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, F E; Akin, D E; Morrison, W H; Ulrich, A; Archibald, D D

    2002-12-18

    The conventional means of measuring the fiber content of flax is time-consuming and laborious, and the results obtained vary with the analysis technique used. The plant tissues must first be "retted", a process by which the fibers are separated from the rest of the stem, either by indigenous organisms in the soil when the stems are left in the field or by water (anerobic bacteria) or enzymatic retting. The fiber content is then determined by mechanical or manual separation. In this study, fiber content of flax stems was measured rapidly and objectively by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using whole pieces of stem in a large cell, in reflectance mode. Compared to the conventional method, the standard error of performance of the NIRS method was between 0.96 and 1.45% (dry matter basis), depending on the model and data processing used. NIRS calibrations were generated by hand separation of fiber from water-retted specimens. The water retting procedure takes several days to complete and requires considerable trained labor to complete the hand separation step. The NIRS procedure was conducted on pieces of stem to simulate measurement in the field.

  10. Bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting with Bacillus cereus HDYM-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Liu, Pengfei; Pan, Chao; Du, Renpeng; Ping, Wenxiang; Ge, Jingping

    2016-09-02

    High-throughput sequencing and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were jointly used to reveal the bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting. The inoculation of Bacillus cereus HDYM-02 decreased bacterial richness and diversity. This inoculum led to the replacement of Enterobacteriaceae by Bacillaceae. The level of aerobic Pseudomonadaceae (mainly Azotobacter) and anaerobic Clostridiaceae_1 gradually increased and decreased, respectively. Following the addition of B. cereus HDYM-02, the dominant groups were all degumming enzyme producers or have been proven to be involved in microbial retting throughout the entire retting period. These results could be verified by the metabolite changes, either degumming enzymes or their catalytic products galacturonic acid and reducing sugars. The GC-MS data showed a clear separation between flax retting with and without B. cereus HDYM-02, particularly within the first 72 h. These findings reveal the important bacterial groups that are involved in fiber retting and will facilitate improvements in the retting process.

  11. Fish oil in various doses or flax oil in pregnancy and timing of spontaneous delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, V.K.; Hansen, Harald S.; Østerdal, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    treatment. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort. Sample: A total of 3098 women allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Methods: The six intervention groups were offered fish oil capsules in doses of 0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid per......Objectives: To test the earlier suggested hypothesis that intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish oil may delay the timing of spontaneous delivery and to test if alpha-linolenic acid, provided as flax oil capsules, shows the same effect. Design: Randomised controlled trial including women...... day or 2.2 g of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) per day from week 17-27 of gestation until delivery. Main outcome measures: Timing of spontaneous delivery. Results: No differences in timing of spontaneous delivery was detected in the fish oil groups or the flax oil group, compared with the control group...

  12. In vivo analysis of covering materials composed of biodegradable polymers enriched with flax fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredes, Tomasz; Schönitz, Sandra; Gedrange, Tomasz; Stepien, Lukas; Kozak, Karol; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of bioactive composites with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) as the matrix, reinforced with bioplastic flax fibers, on the surrounding muscle tissue. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers from genetically modified plants producing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified plants (PLA-wt, PCL-wt) were placed subcutaneous on the M. latissimus dorsi for four weeks. The analysis of histological samples revealed that every tested material was differently encapsulated and the capsule thickness is much more pronounced when using the PCL composites in comparison with the PLA composites. The encapsulation by connective tissue was significantly reduced around PCL-transgen and significantly increased in the cases of PLA-transgen and PLA-wt. In the collected muscle samples, the measured protein expression of CD45, lymphocyte common antigen, was significantly increased after the use of all tested materials, with the exception of pure PCL. In contrast, the protein expression of caveolin-1 remained unchanged after treatment with the most examined materials. Only after insertion of PLA-wt, a significant increase of caveolin-1 protein expression was detected, due to the improved neovascularization. These data support the presumption that the new bioactive composites are biocompatible and they could be applicable in the medical field to support the regenerative processes.

  13. Effect of Fungal Deterioration on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp and Flax Natural Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Crawford

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of bio-sourced composites have been gaining wide attention, yet their deterioration due to the growth of ubiquitous microorganisms during storage/manufacturing/in-service phases is still not fully understood for optimum material selection and design purposes. In this study, samples of non-woven flax fibers, hemp fibers, and mats made of co-mingled randomly-oriented flax or hemp fiber (50% and polypropylene fiber (50% were subjected to 28 days of exposure to (i no water-no fungi, (ii water only and (iii water along with the Chaetomium globosum fungus. Biocomposite samples were measured for weight loss over time, to observe the rate of fungal growth and the respiration of cellulose components in the fibers. Tensile testing was conducted to measure mechanical properties of the composite samples under different configurations. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize fungal hyphal growth on the natural fibers, as well as to observe the fracture planes and failure modes of the biocomposite samples. Results showed that fungal growth significantly affects the dry mass as well as the tensile elastic modulus of the tested natural fiber mats and composites, and the effect depends on both the type and the length scale of fibers, as well as the exposure condition and time.

  14. Water Absorption Behaviour and Its Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Flax Fibre Reinforced Bioepoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable development, considerable interest is being shown in the use of natural fibres like as reinforcement in polymer composites and in the development of resins from renewable resources. This paper focuses on eco-friendly and sustainable green composites manufacturing using resin transfer moulding (RTM process. Flax fibre reinforced bioepoxy composites at different weight fractions (40 and 55 wt% were prepared in order to study the effect of water absorption on their mechanical properties. Water absorption test was carried out by immersion specimens in water bath at room temperature for a time duration. The process of water absorption of these composites was found to approach Fickian diffusion behavior. Diffusion coefficients and maximum water uptake values were evaluated; the results showed that both increased with an increase in fibre content. Tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens were evaluated and compared to dry composite specimens. The results suggest that swelling of flax fibres due to water absorption can have positive effects on mechanical properties of the composite material. The results of this study showed that RTM process could be used to manufacture natural fibre reinforced composites with good mechanical properties even for potential applications in a humid environment.

  15. Low-Frequency Noise Reduction by Earmuffs with Flax Fibre-Reinforced Polypropylene Ear Cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yinn Leng Ang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soldiers and supporting engineers are frequently exposed to high low-frequency (<500 Hz cabin noise in military vehicles. Despite the use of commercial hearing protection devices, the risk of auditory damage is still imminent because the devices may not be optimally customised for such applications. This study considers flax fibre-reinforced polypropylene (Flax-PP as an alternative to the material selection for the ear cups of commercial earmuffs, which are typically made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS. Different weaving configurations (woven and nonwoven and various noise environments (pink noise, cabin booming noise, and firing noise were considered to investigate the feasibility of the proposed composite earmuffs for low-frequency noise reduction. The remaining assembly components of the earmuff were kept consistent with those of a commercial earmuff, which served as a benchmark for results comparison. In contrast to the commercial earmuff, the composite earmuffs were shown to be better in mitigating low-frequency noise by up to 16.6 dB, while compromising midfrequency acoustical performance. Consequently, the proposed composite earmuffs may be an alternative for low-frequency noise reduction in vehicle cabins, at airports, and at construction sites involving heavy machineries.

  16. Turnover of galactans and other cell wall polysaccharides during development of flax plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Lozovaya, V.V.; Carpita, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the synthesis and turnover of cell wall polysaccharides of the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant during development of the phloem fibers. One-month-old flax plants were exposed to a 40-min pulse with 14CO2 followed by 8-h, 24-h, and 1-month periods of chase with ambient CO2, and radioactivity in cell wall sugars was determined in various plant parts. The relative radioactivity of glucose in noncellulosic polysaccharides was the highest compared with all other cell wall sugars immediately after the pulse and decreased substantially during the subsequent chase. The relative radioactivities of the other cell wall sugars changed with differing rates, indicating turnover of specific polysaccharides. Notably, after 1 month of chase there was a marked decrease in the proportional mass and total radioactivity in cell wall galactose, indicating a long-term turnover of the galactans enriched in the fiber-containing tissues. The ratio of radiolabeled xylose to arabinose also increased during the chase, indicating a turnover of arabinose-containing polymers and interconversion to xylose. The pattern of label redistribution differed between organs, indicating that the cell wall turnover processes are tissue- and cell-specific

  17. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergfjord, Christian, E-mail: christian.bergfjord@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Holst, Bodil, E-mail: bodil.holst@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  18. Enhanced impact properties of cementitious composites reinforced with pultruded flax/polymeric matrix fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi El-Messiry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC has become increasingly applied in civil engineering in the last decades. Natural fiber fabric reinforced cement composites are considered to prevent damage resulting from an impact loading on the cementite plate. Flax woven fabric that has a high energy absorption capability was chosen. To increase the interfacial shear properties, the fabric was pultruded with different matrix properties that affect the strength and toughness of the pultruded fabric. In this study, three fabric structures are used to increase the anchoring of the cement in the fabric. The compressive strength and the impact energy were measured. The results revealed that pultruded fabric reinforced cement composite (PFRC absorbs much more impact energy. PFRC under impact loading has more micro cracks, while plain cement specimen shows brittle failure. The compressive test results of PFRC indicate that flax fiber fabric polymer enhanced compressive strength remarkably. Fiber reinforcement is a very effective in improving the impact resistance of PFRC. The study defines the influence factors that control the energy dissipation of the composite, which are the hardness of the polymer and the fabric cover factor. Significant correlation between impact energy and compressive strength was proved.

  19. SEQUENCING OF FLAX LIS-1 INSERTION SITE IN THE ALBIDUM GENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology of identifying the insertion site of LIS-1-1 (Linum Insertion Sequence 1 element in flax Albidum variety when growing under the in vitro combined with environmental stress conditions. Abiotic stress was induced by a reduced nutrient content in a growth medium. The LIS-1 insertion site amplification was reaLIS-1ed using the forward LIS-L: 5'-GGG CAG TTT AAC TGT AAC GAA - 3 'and revers LIS-R: 5'-GCT TGG ATT TAG ACT TGG CAA C - 3' primers by PCR. PCR product was sequenced by direct sequencing method to proove the nucleotide sequence for matching with database LIS-1 sequence. A comparison has been matched with the sequence of the amplified segment in the database for all nucleotides except the 11-position in the 5'-3 ' direction, where instead of the three adenine pair is a couple in the Albidum variety. Changes caused by mobile elements or insertion sequences result in common flax in variability that can be used for the purposes of development of effective marker identification or environment based markers development.

  20. Pressure impact of autoclave treatment on water sorption and pectin composition of flax cellulosic-fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix, S; Colasse, L; Morvan, C; Lebrun, L; Marais, S

    2014-02-15

    The tensile properties of flax fibres might permit them to be used in composites as reinforcement in organic resin, as long as their mechanical properties are reproducible and their water sorption are reduced. In this study, to minimise the variability of mechanical properties, several samples of flax fibres were blended as a non-woven fabric. In order to reduce the water absorption of this non-woven technical fibres, an autoclave treatment was performed which was expected to remove the pectins and then to reduce the water sorption on their negative charges. The impact of autoclave pressure (0.5, 1 and 2 bars) on water sorption was investigated by using a gravimetric static equilibrium method. The Park model based on the three sorption modes: Langmuir, Henry's law and clustering, was successfully used to simulate the experimental sorption data. The lowest pressure treatments impacted only the Langmuir contribution while the 2 bar autoclave-treatment positively impacted the water resistance in the core of fibres by reducing Henry's absorption rate. This was shown to be related to the chemical modifications at the surface and in the core of fibres. A schematic model is presented relating the water sorption and the pectic composition of the fabric. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Flax-Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Laminates for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pitarresi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the experimental mechanical characterisation of a natural flax fibre reinforced epoxy polymer composite. A commercial plain woven quasi-unidirectional flax fabric with spun-twisted yarns is employed in particular, as well as unidirectional composite panels manufactured with three techniques: hand-lay-up, vacuum bagging and resin infusion. The stiffness and strength behaviours are investigated under both monotonic and low-cycle fatigue loadings. The analysed material has, in particular, shown a typical bilinear behaviour under pure traction, with a knee yield point occurring at a rather low stress value, after which the material tensile stiffness is significantly reduced. In the present work, such a mechanism is investigated by a phenomenological approach, performing periodical loading/unloading cycles, and repeating tensile tests on previously “yielded” samples to assess the evolution of stiffness behaviour. Infrared thermography is also employed to measure the temperature of specimens during monotonic and cyclic loading. In the first case, the thermal signal is monitored to correlate departures from the thermoelastic behaviour with the onset of energy loss mechanisms. In the case of cyclic loading, the thermoelastic signal and the second harmonic component are both determined in order to investigate the extent of elastic behaviour of the material.

  2. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergfjord, Christian; Holst, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC 2 O 4 ) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  3. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Community Dynamics by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) Metabarcoding during Flax Dew-Retting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemiel, Christophe; Grec, Sébastien; Hawkins, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Flax dew-retting is a key step in the industrial extraction of fibers from flax stems and is dependent upon the production of a battery of hydrolytic enzymes produced by micro-organisms during this process. To explore the diversity and dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities involved in this process we applied a high-throughput sequencing (HTS) DNA metabarcoding approach (16S rRNA/ITS region, Illumina Miseq) on plant and soil samples obtained over a period of 7 weeks in July and August 2014. Twenty-three bacterial and six fungal phyla were identified in soil samples and 11 bacterial and four fungal phyla in plant samples. Dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes (bacteria) and Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota (fungi) all of which have been previously associated with flax dew-retting except for Bacteroidetes and Basidiomycota that were identified for the first time. Rare phyla also identified for the first time in this process included Acidobacteria, CKC4, Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and TM6 (bacteria), and Chytridiomycota (fungi). No differences in microbial communities and colonization dynamics were observed between early and standard flax harvests. In contrast, the common agricultural practice of swath turning affects both bacterial and fungal community membership and structure in straw samples and may contribute to a more uniform retting. Prediction of community function using PICRUSt indicated the presence of a large collection of potential bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing backbones and side-chains of cell wall polysaccharides. Assignment of functional guild (functional group) using FUNGuild software highlighted a change from parasitic to saprophytic trophic modes in fungi during retting. This work provides the first exhaustive description of the microbial communities involved in flax dew-retting and will provide a valuable benchmark in future studies aiming to evaluate

  4. Identification and functional characterization of a flax UDP-glycosyltransferase glucosylating secoisolariciresinol (SECO) into secoisolariciresinol monoglucoside (SMG) and diglucoside (SDG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Kaushik; Selvaraj, Kumarakurubaran; McCallum, Jason; Kirby, Chris W; Sweeney-Nixon, Marva; Cloutier, Sylvie J; Deyholos, Michael; Datla, Raju; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2014-03-28

    Lignans are a class of diphenolic nonsteroidal phytoestrogens often found glycosylated in planta. Flax seeds are a rich source of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignans. Glycosylation is a process by which a glycosyl group is covalently attached to an aglycone substrate and is catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Until now, very little information was available on UGT genes that may play a role in flax SDG biosynthesis. Here we report on the identification, structural and functional characterization of 5 putative UGTs potentially involved in secoisolariciresinol (SECO) glucosylation in flax. Five UGT genes belonging to the glycosyltransferases' family 1 (EC 2.4.x.y) were cloned and characterized. They fall under four UGT families corresponding to five sub-families referred to as UGT74S1, UGT74T1, UGT89B3, UGT94H1, UGT712B1 that all display the characteristic plant secondary product glycosyltransferase (PSPG) conserved motif. However, diversity was observed within this 44 amino acid sequence, especially in the two peptide sequences WAPQV and HCGWNS known to play a key role in the recognition and binding of diverse aglycone substrates and in the sugar donor specificity. In developing flax seeds, UGT74S1 and UGT94H1 showed a coordinated gene expression with that of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) and their gene expression patterns correlated with SDG biosynthesis. Enzyme assays of the five heterologously expressed UGTs identified UGT74S1 as the only one using SECO as substrate, forming SECO monoglucoside (SMG) and then SDG in a sequential manner. We have cloned and characterized five flax UGTs and provided evidence that UGT74S1 uses SECO as substrate to form SDG in vitro. This study allowed us to propose a model for the missing step in SDG lignan biosynthesis.

  5. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Community Dynamics by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS Metabarcoding during Flax Dew-Retting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Djemiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax dew-retting is a key step in the industrial extraction of fibers from flax stems and is dependent upon the production of a battery of hydrolytic enzymes produced by micro-organisms during this process. To explore the diversity and dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities involved in this process we applied a high-throughput sequencing (HTS DNA metabarcoding approach (16S rRNA/ITS region, Illumina Miseq on plant and soil samples obtained over a period of 7 weeks in July and August 2014. Twenty-three bacterial and six fungal phyla were identified in soil samples and 11 bacterial and four fungal phyla in plant samples. Dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes (bacteria and Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota (fungi all of which have been previously associated with flax dew-retting except for Bacteroidetes and Basidiomycota that were identified for the first time. Rare phyla also identified for the first time in this process included Acidobacteria, CKC4, Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and TM6 (bacteria, and Chytridiomycota (fungi. No differences in microbial communities and colonization dynamics were observed between early and standard flax harvests. In contrast, the common agricultural practice of swath turning affects both bacterial and fungal community membership and structure in straw samples and may contribute to a more uniform retting. Prediction of community function using PICRUSt indicated the presence of a large collection of potential bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing backbones and side-chains of cell wall polysaccharides. Assignment of functional guild (functional group using FUNGuild software highlighted a change from parasitic to saprophytic trophic modes in fungi during retting. This work provides the first exhaustive description of the microbial communities involved in flax dew-retting and will provide a valuable benchmark in future studies aiming

  6. Properties of compression moulded new fully biobased thermoset composites with aligned flax fibre textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, Th.; Bierer, M.; Natter, E.

    2011-01-01

    mechanical performance and excellent fire resistance. In the present study, aligned natural fibre textiles, randomly oriented natural fibre textiles and glass fibre textiles have been hand laid up and impregnated with the furan resin to form prepregs. After precuring, the prepregs were consolidated......The development of aligned natural fibre reinforced composites utilising biobased thermosets is an essential step towards the manufacture of ecofriendly composite systems. In many cases, the matrix system, which is usually oil based in nature, is disregarded. Therefore, a new fully biobased...... thermoset composite with aligned flax fibre textiles was developed using a bioderived matrix resin. The thermoset furan resin has recently received interest due to its good environmental profile containing no petrochemicals, using water as solvent and biomass as raw material. The new resin also shows good...

  7. Fatigue behaviour of uni-directional flax fibre/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueki, Yosuke; Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study related to the fatigue behaviour of natural fibre-reinforced composites was conducted to expand their range of product applications. A uni-directional flax-epoxy composite was fabricated and several conditions of tension-tension fatigue tests were performed. During fatigue testing......, the composite showed an increase of stiffness, a typical observation for natural fibre-reinforced composites, and this was found to be accompanied by accumulation of residual strain. A clear linear relationship was found between the stiffening effect and the residual strain. In addition, it was revealed...... that the fatigue behaviour was clearly influenced by the frequency of cyclic loading. Lower frequencies induced more significant stiffening and shorter fatigue life. These results suggest that fatigue damaging is progressing simultaneously with the stiffening effect in natural fibre-reinforced composites...

  8. A flax-retting endopolygalacturonase-encoding gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhizhuang; Wang, Shaozhao; Bergeron, Hélène; Zhang, Jianchun; Lau, Peter C K

    2008-11-01

    A polygalacturonase from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae strain sb (NRRL 29086), previously shown to be effective in the retting of flax fibers, was shown by the analysis of its reaction products on polygalacturonic acid to be an endo-type. By zymogram analysis, the enzyme in the crude culture filtrate appeared as two active species of 37 and 40 kD. The endopolygalacturonase-encoding gene was cloned in Escherichia coli and its translated 383-amino acid sequence found to be identical to that of a presumed exopolygalacturonase found in R. oryzae strain YM9901 and 96% identical to a hypothetical protein (RO3G_04731.1) in the sequenced genome of R. oryzae strain 99-880. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of an unique cluster of Rhizopus polygalacturonase sequences that are separate from other fungal polygalacturonases. Conservation of 12 cysteines appears to be a special feature of this family of Rhizopus polygalacturonase sequences.

  9. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  10. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, F.; Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N.; Sannino, A.; Pollini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag 2 O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed

  11. Nanostructural Biochemical Modification Of Flax Fiber In The Processes Of Its Preparation For Spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koksharov Sergey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The elaborated principles of nanoengineering of linen textile materials implement the techniques of spatially localized effects of protein catalysts on polymeric cellulose companions with selective splitting of impurity compounds without damaging technologically necessary nano-sized formations of binders in the fiber structure. The ranges of optimal values of the residual content in flax fiber prepared for spinning are identified on the basis of the analysis of the successive stages of enzymatic and peroxide treatments contribution to the breakdown of polymers and the differentiation of the influence of impurities on the yarn technological properties. The recommended level of residual pectin, lignin and hemicellulose (wt. % is: after enzymatic treatment P1 = 1,0±0,1; L1 = 3,9±0,3; Hc1 = 11,0±1,0; after peroxide bleaching P2 = 0,4±0,05; L2 = 2,3±0,3; Hc2 = 7,5±0,5. The required level of fiber structural modification at the stage of preparing roving for spinning can be achieved through use of protein catalysts whose globule size is 50...100 nm. The use of enzymes with these dimensional characteristics helps to ensure breaking of polymer adhesives on the surface of incrusts and in the areas of intercellular formations, which hinder fiber crushing, without damaging nano-sized binding fractions. The implementation of this method contributes to a significant improvement in the uniformity of structural and physical and mechanical properties of flax yarn. Increase in yarn fineness and strength properties of semi-finished products, as well as improvement of deformation properties and reduction of yarn breakages during the spinning processes are achieved.

  12. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, F., E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Sannino, A.; Pollini, M. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag{sub 2}O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed.

  13. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  14. Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA, specific gravity (SG, coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE, flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively.

  15. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Y. Yurkevich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase (CesA multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1, 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum. Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas in reduce drought stress damage in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadeh, Saeedeh; Pirzad, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively). A factorial (three factors) experiment was conducted for 2 years (2014-2015) based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Urmia University, Urmia, located at North-West of Iran (37° 39' 24.82″ N44° 58' 12.42″ E). Water deficit decreased biomass, showing that flax was sensitive to drought, and AM root colonization improved the performance of the plant within irrigation levels. In all inoculated and non-inoculated control plants, leaf chlorophyll decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Water deficit-induced oxidative damage (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage) were significantly reduced in dual colonized plants. All enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids) antioxidants were reduced by water-limiting irrigation. Dual inoculated plants with AM plus Pseudomonas accumulated more enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants than plants with bacterial or fungal inoculation singly. Dual colonized plants significantly decreased the water deficit-induced glycine betaine and proline in flax leaves. These bacterial-fungal interactions in enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense of flax plants demonstrated equal synergism with both AM fungi species. In conclusion, increased activity of enzymatic antioxidants and higher production of non

  17. The result of sunflower and flax breeding in the Agricultural and Technological Research Center Zaječar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Agricultural & Technological Research Centar in Zajecar the work on improvement of sunflower were initiated in 1980s. Besides improvement, in relation to the main components of yield and high genetic potential for yield in improvement programmes of consuming genotypes of sunflower, there are some specific aims, such as: increasing the of 1000 seeds, reducing the portion of a shell, uniformity of the seed color and size. The latest achievements of the sunflower improvement carried out in the Centre in Zajecar are: obtaining the consuming-type hybrid PROTEINAC 94 (released in 1998, the hybrid JUNIOR (released in 2001, and the synthetic protein cultivar ZENIT (released in 2003. At the start of the 1990s, it was initiated the work on researching the agronomic characteristics of the existing assortment of oil-flax, as well as on preparation for plant improvement is to obtain high-yielding cultivars of brown and yellow seed color that can be used both for oil extraction and for consummation. During the research, a certain number of lines of oil-flax with positive characteristics were created. In 2003 the flax cultivar with the yellow color of seed, ZLATKO, was released. .

  18. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kostyn, Anna; Kulma, Anna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Prescha, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification. PMID:26347154

  19. PART I. STUDY REGARDING THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE BIOSCOURING TREATMENT IN ULTRASOUND ON 60 % COTTON + 40 % COTTONISED FLAX MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUSTIANU Monica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past years the commercial products for the bioscouring treatment were usually dedicated only for 100 % cotton or only for 100% lignocelluloses fabrics. The development of hemp/cotton or flax/cotton mixtures fabrics leds to the necessity of finding of the most apropiate products that could be used for different enzymatic treatments on these types of fabrics.The usage of the commercial product SERA ZYME C-PE for bioscouring treatment in ultrasound conditions on 60 % cotton + 40 % cottonised flax was studied in this work. The optimization of the Bioscouring treatment in ultrasound on 60 % cotton + 40 % hemp materials using the same commercial product was previous published. In order to assess more accurately the influence of some process parameters of the bioscouring treatment in a mathematical modeling of the process was made and a central compound rotatable program with two independent variable: x1 - the concentration of enzyme (% and x 2 - treatment time (minutes was used. The independent variable considered was y 1 – the weight loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of cottonised flax/cotton mixtures for the same conditions of bioscouring treatment used as for hemp/cotton mixtures.

  20. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Styrczewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD, phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification.

  1. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kostyn, Anna; Kulma, Anna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Prescha, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification.

  2. Fibres from flax overproducing β-1,3-glucanase show increased accumulation of pectin and phenolics and thus higher antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, in order to improve the resistance of flax plants to pathogen infection, transgenic flax that overproduces β-1,3-glucanase was created. β-1,3-glucanase is a PR protein that hydrolyses the β-glucans, which are a major component of the cell wall in many groups of fungi. For this study, we used fourth-generation field-cultivated plants of the Fusarium -resistant transgenic line B14 to evaluate how overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene influences the quantity, quality and composition of flax fibres, which are the main product obtained from flax straw. Results Overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase did not affect the quantity of the fibre obtained from the flax straw and did not significantly alter the essential mechanical characteristics of the retted fibres. However, changes in the contents of the major components of the cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin) were revealed. Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene resulted in higher cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin contents and a lower lignin content in the fibres. Increases in the uronic acid content in particular fractions (with the exception of the 1 M KOH-soluble fraction of hemicelluloses) and changes in the sugar composition of the cell wall were detected in the fibres of the transgenic flax when compared to the contents for the control plants. The callose content was lower in the fibres of the transgenic flax. Additionally, the analysis of phenolic compound contents in five fractions of the cell wall revealed important changes, which were reflected in the antioxidant potential of these fractions. Conclusion Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene has a significant influence on the biochemical composition of flax fibres. The constitutive overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase causes a decrease in the callose content, and the resulting excess glucose serves as a substrate for the production of other polysaccharides. The monosaccharide excess redirects the phenolic

  3. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini = Aspecten van de resistentie in vezel- en olievlas (Linum usitatissimum) tegen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity

  4. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging property of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) isolated from flax-seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K

    1997-03-01

    Recently there has been a moderate resurgence in the use of flax-seed in a variety of ways including bread. The scientific basis of its use is very limited. There is some claim for beneficial effects in cancer and lupus nephritis. These claims could be due to its ability to scavenge oxygen radicals. However, its antioxidant activity is not known. Recently a method has been developed to isolate secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from defatted flax-seed in large quantity (patent pending). We investigated the ability of SDG to scavenge .OH using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. .OH was generated by photolysis of H2O2 (1.25-10.0 mumoles/ml) with ultraviolet light and was trapped with salicylic acid which is hydroxylated to produce .OH-adduct products 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA. H2O2 produced a concentration-dependent .OH as estimated by 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA. A standard curve was constructed for known concentrations of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA against corresponding area under the peaks which then was used for measurement of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA generated by UV irradiation of H2O2 in the presence of salicylic acid. SDG in the concentration range of 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 2000 micrograms/ml (36.4, 72.8, 145.6, 364.0, 728.0, 1092.0, 1456.0 and 2912.0 microM respectively) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the formation of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA, the inhibition being 4 and 4.65% respectively with 25 micrograms/ml (36.4 microM) and 82 and 74% respectively with 2000 micrograms/ml (2912.0 microM). The decrease in .OH-adduct products was due to scavenging of .OH and not by scavenging of formed 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA. SDG prevented the lipid peroxidation of liver homogenate in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range from 319.3-2554.4 microM. These results suggest that SDG scavenges .OH and therefore has an antioxidant activity.

  5. Study of the time varying properties of flax fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochioiu, Constantin; Chettah, Ameur; Piezel, Benoit; Fontaine, Stéphane; Gheorghiu, Horia-Miron

    2018-02-01

    Bio materials have seen an increase of interest from the scientific community and the industry as a possible future generation of mass produced materials, some of the main arguments being their renewability, low production costs and recyclability. The current work is focused on the experimental data required for the viscoelastic characterization of a composite material. Similar work has been conducted on different types of composite materials by Tuttle and Brinson [1] who verified for a carbon epoxy laminate the possibility of long term predicament of creep. Nordin et al [2] studied paper impregnated with phenol-formaldehyde under compression. Muliana [3] conducted experiments on E-glass/vinyl ester materials. Behavior characterization was based on a model presented by Schapery [4]. The main objective of this work is to understand the mechanical behaviors of bio-laminates structures subjected to long and severe operating conditions. The studied material is a bio composite laminate consisting in long flax fibers embedded in an epoxy resin system. The laminates were obtained from pre-impregnated unidirectional fibers, which were cured though a thermo-compression cycle followed by a post curing cycle. Test specimens were cut down to sizes, with the help of an electric saw. The concerned fiber direction was 0° with sample dimensions of 250x25x2 mm. First, testing consisted in quasi static mechanical tests. Second, to characterize linear viscoelastic behavior of the bio-laminates, creep - recovery tests with multiple load levels have been performed for the chosen fiber direction.

  6. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, F; Picca, R A; Sportelli, M C; Cioffi, N; Sannino, A; Pollini, M

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag2O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal shock cycling effect on the mechanical behavior of epoxy matrix-woven flax fabric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, G. C.; Chalkias, D. A.; Koutsomitopoulou, A. F.

    2018-02-01

    Thermal fatigue occurs in many engineering constructions, made of polymeric composites, during several applications. Due to the structural heterogeneity of composite materials the fatigue damage after large cyclic temperature variation is complex. It is important to examine thermal fatigue, studying the parameters affecting the process and if possible, describe their effect through mathematical equations in order to predict the properties degradation of the fatigued composites. In the present investigation epoxy matrix-woven flax fabric composites were fabricated and subsequently submitted to thermal shock cycling. Next, their mechanical behavior was studied through quasi-static 3-point bending tests. Thermal shock cycling experiments, of a maximum number of 200 thermal cycles, were performed, each cycle consisted of a 10 minutes exposure of composite specimens in an oven at 50 °C, followed by an abrupt exposure of the same specimens in a freezer for another 10 minutes at -20 °C. From the entire study, it was found that there is a certain number of cycles above which damage increases rapidly, reaching a plateau where saturation of micro-damage is attained. Finally, it is worth to mentioning that all experimental results were accurately predicted by applying the RPM model (Residual Property Model), a semi-analytical predictive model developed by the corresponding author.

  8. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC. The effects of operating condition on Fenton oxidation process such as hydrogen peroxide and iron concentration were investigated. In addition, kinetic study of the adsorption process was elaborated. The obtained results indicated that degradation of organic matters follows a pseudo-first order reaction with regression coefficient of 0.98. The kinetic model suggested that the rate of reaction was highly affected by the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the results indicated that the treatment module was very efficient in removing the organic and inorganic pollutants. The average percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solid (TSS, oil, and grease was 98.60%, 86.60%, and 94.22% with residual values of 44, 20, and 5 mg/L, respectively. The treated effluent was complying with the National Regulatory Standards for wastewater discharge into surface water or reuse in the retting process.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifying Candidate Genes Influencing Important Agronomic Traits of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Using SLAF-seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongwei; Dai, Zhigang; Yang, Zemao; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Debao; Yang, Xue; Zhang, Liguo; Tang, Qing; Su, Jianguang

    2018-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important cash crop, and its agronomic traits directly affect yield and quality. Molecular studies on flax remain inadequate because relatively few flax genes have been associated with agronomic traits or have been identified as having potential applications. To identify markers and candidate genes that can potentially be used for genetic improvement of crucial agronomic traits, we examined 224 specimens of core flax germplasm; specifically, phenotypic data for key traits, including plant height, technical length, number of branches, number of fruits, and 1000-grain weight were investigated under three environmental conditions before specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was employed to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for these five agronomic traits. Subsequently, the results were used to screen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and candidate genes that exhibited a significant correlation with the important agronomic traits. Our analyses identified a total of 42 SNP loci that showed significant correlations with the five important agronomic flax traits. Next, candidate genes were screened in the 10 kb zone of each of the 42 SNP loci. These SNP loci were then analyzed by a more stringent screening via co-identification using both a general linear model (GLM) and a mixed linear model (MLM) as well as co-occurrences in at least two of the three environments, whereby 15 final candidate genes were obtained. Based on these results, we determined that UGT and PL are candidate genes for plant height, GRAS and XTH are candidate genes for the number of branches, Contig1437 and LU0019C12 are candidate genes for the number of fruits, and PHO1 is a candidate gene for the 1000-seed weight. We propose that the identified SNP loci and corresponding candidate genes might serve as a biological basis for improving crucial agronomic flax traits. PMID:29375606

  10. Comparison of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety in healthy individuals: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuksan, V; Choleva, L; Jovanovski, E; Jenkins, A L; Au-Yeung, F; Dias, A G; Ho, H V T; Zurbau, A; Duvnjak, L

    2017-02-01

    Flax and Salba-chia seeds have risen in popularity owing to their favorable nutrient composition, including a high fiber content. Despite having comparable nutritional profiles, preliminary observations suggest differences in gelling properties, an attribute that may alter the kinetics of food digestion. Thus, we compared the effect of two seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety scores. Fifteen healthy participants (M/F: 5/10; age: 23.9±3 years; BMI: 22.2±0.8 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to receive a 50 g glucose challenge, alone or supplemented with either 25 g ground Salba-chia or 31.5 g flax, on three separate occasions. Blood glucose samples and satiety ratings were collected at fasting and over 2-h postprandially. In addition, in vitro viscosity of the beverages was assessed utilizing standard rheological methodology. Both Salba-chia and flax reduced blood glucose area under the curve over 120 min by 82.5±19.7 mmol/l (Pchia reduced peak glucose (-0.64±0.24 mmol/l; P=0.030) and increased time to peak (11.3±3.8 min; P=0.015) compared with flax. Salba-chia significantly reduced the mean ratings of desire to eat (-7±2 mm; P=0.005), prospective consumption (-7±2 mm; P=0.010) and overall appetite score (-6±2 mm; P=0.012), when compared with flax. The viscosity of Salba-chia, flax and control was 49.9, 2.5, and 0.002 Pa·s, respectively. Despite the similarities in nutritional composition, Salba-chia appears to have the ability to convert glucose into a slow-release carbohydrate and affect satiety to a greater extent than flax, possibly due to the higher fiber viscosity. Incorporation of either flax or Salba-chia into the diet may be beneficial, although use of Salba-chia may confer additional benefit.

  11. Role of ascorbic acid and α tocopherol in alleviating salinity stress on flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat Sh. Sadak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the environmental challenges in the world affecting on several physiological processes and the most limiting factor of plant productivity and quality. Two pot experiments were conducted at the wire house of National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt during two successive seasons of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to assess the efficiency of two antioxidant vitamins (ascorbic acid at 1.13 and 2.27 mM or α tocopherol at 0.46 and 0.93 mM and/or salinity stress at (0.0, 3.08, 6.16, 9.23 ds/m on photosynthetic pigments, protein, carbohydrate, minerals, oil contents and yield as well as fatty acids composition of the yielded oils of three flax cultivars (Sakha 3, Giza 8 and Ariane. The data revealed that salinity stress caused significant and gradual decreases in total photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total proteins and the uptake of Mg, K, Ca and P in the leaves of three flax cultivars with increasing salinity levels (3.08, 6.16, 9.23 ds/m. Otherwise, significant and gradual increase appeared in both Na and Cl. Ascorbic acid and α tocopherol at different concentrations caused significant increases in photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and protein contents in the leaves of flax plants irrigated either with tap water or saline solution as compared with their corresponding controls. Exogenous application of ascorbic and α tocopherol at different concentrations exhibited decreases in Na and Cl whereas increases appeared in Mg, K, Ca and P relative to their corresponding control. Ascorbic acid (1.13 and 2.27 mM and α tocopherol (0.46 and 0.93 mM caused marked increases in yield and yield attributes of three flax cultivars either in plants irrigated with tap water or saline solution as compared to corresponding control. Ascorbic acid effects were more pronounced than α tocopherol effects. In addition, the higher level of two vitamins was more pronounced than the lower level. Regarding plants irrigated

  12. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, cv. Hermes: Contribution of the basal stem compared to the root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douchiche, Olfa, E-mail: olfa.douchiche@hotmail.fr [Laboratory Glyco-MEV EA 4358, IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaiebi, Wided [Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Morvan, Claudine, E-mail: claudine.morvan@univ-rouen.fr [Laboratory PBS-UMR 6270 CNRS, FR 3038, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd accumulated in stem bottom part exceeded the defined hyperaccumulator threshold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No toxic symptoms occurred and TI of all growth parameters ranged between 0.7 and 1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high level of Zn, Mn and Cu may contribute to the absence of chlorosis in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd/Ca synergistic effect observed in the stem may alleviate Cd toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hermes variety accumulated more Cd than the other flax varieties ever described. - Abstract: The potential of mature flax plants (cv. Hermes) to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) was studied to determine which part of the plant would be the key organ for phytoremediation purposes. After 4 month-growth on sand substrate containing 0.1 mM Cd in a greenhouse, the roots and stems were separated and the stems were divided into three parts. The effects of Cd were studied on growth parameters, histology and mineral nutrition. No visible toxic symptoms were observed. Tolerance-index values calculated from growth parameters and nutrients remained relatively high, allowing the development of the plant until maturity and formation of seeds. The roots and bottom stem accumulated the highest quantity of Cd (750 and 360 mg/kg dry matter), values which largely exceeded the threshold defined for hyperaccumulators. On the other hand, basal stem had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = 32) and translocation factor TF Prime (2.5) but a low TF (0.5), indicating that this basal part would play a major role in phytoremediation (phytostabilization rather than phytorextraction). Therefore, the high tolerance to Cd and accumulation capacity make possible to grow Hermes flax on Cd-polluted soils.

  13. Induced Mutagenesis in UGT74S1 Gene Leads to Stable New Flax Lines with Altered Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourlaye Fofana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flax secoisolariciresinol (SECO diglucoside (SDG lignan is an emerging natural product purported to prevent chronic diseases in humans. SECO, the aglycone form of SDG, has shown higher intestinal cell absorption but it is not accumulated naturally in planta. Recently, we have identified and characterized a UDP-glucosyltransferase gene, UGT74S1, that glucosylates SECO into its monoglucoside (SMG and SDG forms when expressed in yeast. However, whether this gene is unique in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in planta is unclear. Here, we report on the use of UGT74S1 in reverse and forward genetics to characterize an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS mutagenized flax population from cultivar CDC Bethune and consisting of 1996 M2 families. EMS mutagenesis generated 73 SNP variants causing 79 mutational events in the UGT74S1 exonic regions of 93 M2 families. The mutation frequency in the exonic regions was determined to be one per 28 Kb. Of these mutations, 13 homozygous missense mutations and two homozygous nonsense mutations were observed and all were transmitted into the M3 and M4 generations. Forward genetics screening of the population showed homozygous nonsense mutants completely lacking SDG biosynthesis while the production of SMG was observed only in a subset of the M4 lines. Heterozygous or homozygous M4 missense mutants displayed a wide range of SDG levels, some being greater than those of CDC Bethune. No additional deleterious mutations were detected in these mutant lines using a panel of 10 other genes potentially involved in the lignan biosynthesis. This study provides further evidence that UGT74S1 is unique in controlling SDG formation from SECO and this is the first report of non-transgenic flax germplasm with simultaneous knockout of SDG and presence of SMG in planta.

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of enzymatic flax retting: Factor analysis of FT-IR and FT-Raman data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, D. D.; Henrikssen, G.; Akin, D. E.; Barton, F. E.

    1998-06-01

    Flax retting is a chemical, microbial or enzymatic process which releases the bast fibers from the stem matrix so they can be suitable for mechanical processing before spinning into linen yarn. This study aims to determine the vibrational spectral features and sampling methods which can be used to evaluate the retting process. Flax stems were retted on a small scale using an enzyme mixture known to yield good retted flax. Processed stems were harvested at various time points in the process and the retting was evaluated by conventional methods including weight loss, color difference and Fried's test, a visual ranking of how the stems disintegrate in hot water. Spectroscopic measurements were performed on either whole stems or powders of the fibers that were mechanically extracted from the stems. Selected regions of spectra were baseline and amplitude corrected using a variant of the multiplicative signal correction method. Principal component regression and partial least-squares regression with full cross-validation were used to determine the spectral features and rate of spectral transformation by regressing the spectra against the retting time in hours. FT-Raman of fiber powders and FT-IR reflectance of whole stems were the simplest and most precise methods for monitoring the retting transformation. Raman tracks the retting by measuring the decrease in aromatic signal and subtle changes in the C-H stretching vibrations. The IR method uses complex spectral features in the fingerprint and carbonyl region, many of which are due to polysaccharide components. Both spectral techniques monitor the retting process with greater precision than the reference method.

  16. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Miguel Galindo-González

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars (CDC Bethune and Lutea, showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time-course at 2, 4, 8 and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI. While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signalling, activation of pathogenesis-related (PR genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these several key genes, that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase (RIPK; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113 and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3; the flavonoid

  17. Characterization and transcript profiling of the pectin methylesterase (PME) and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) gene families in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Latorre, David; Deyholos, Michael K

    2013-10-30

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyze the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans in the cell wall; their activity is regulated in part by pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). PME activity may result in either rigidification or loosening of the cell wall, depending on the mode of demethylesterification. The activity of PMEs in the middle lamella is expected to affect intrusive elongation of phloem fibers, and their adhesion to adjacent cells. Length and extractability of phloem fibers are qualities important for their industrial uses in textiles and composites. As only three flax PMEs had been previously described, we were motivated to characterize the PME and PMEI gene families of flax. We identified 105 putative flax PMEs (LuPMEs) and 95 putative PMEIs (LuPMEIs) within the whole-genome assembly. We found experimental evidence for the transcription of 77/105 LuPMEs and 83/95 LuPMEIs, and surveyed the transcript abundance of these in 12 different tissues and stages of development. Six major monophyletic groups of LuPMEs could be defined based on the inferred relationships of flax genes and their presumed orthologs from other species. We searched the LuPMEs and LuPMEIs for conserved residues previously reported to be important for their tertiary structure and function. In the LuPMEs, the most highly conserved residues were catalytic residues while in the LuPMEIs, cysteines forming disulfude bridges between helices α2 and α3 were most highly conserved. In general, the conservation of critical residues was higher in the genes with evidence of transcript expression than in those for which no expression was detected. The LuPMEs and LuPMEIs comprise large families with complex patterns of transcript expression and a wide range of physical characteristics. We observed that multiple PMEs and PMEIs are expressed in partially overlapping domains, indicative of several genes acting redundantly during most processes. The potential for functional redundancy was

  18. Economic production and processing of agricultural fibre plants for high quality applications in automotive, building and furniture industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecenka, R.; Furll, C.; Gusovius, H.J. [Leibniz Inst. for Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The demand for high-quality fibres and shives from hemp and flax as an alternative raw material for the automotive and building industry is increasing. Fibres are used primarily for composite reinforcement instead of synthetic fibres. Shives are used for animal bedding, but processing trials in wood industry for the production of low weight particle boards from shives are also very promising. Fibre producers require experience in cultivation and harvesting as well as modern processing technologies in order to supply flax fibres or shives at competitive prices under the changing conditions of international raw material markets. A complete processing line has been developed, installed and tested at the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering (ATB) to study all the processing stages of fibre production. The new ATB line can produce high quality fibres and shives from retted and unretted hemp, flax and oilseed flax straw without technical changes of the machine line. The ATB pilot plant has been operated by a cooperation of farmers since 2008. Experience from industrial operation has been used to develop a modern fibre processing line with a throughput of up to 5 t per h hemp straw in only one short line.

  19. Pyrolysis of flax straw: Characterization of char, liquid, and gas as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushar, Mohammad Shahed Hasan Khan

    The demand for energy continues to outstrip its supply and necessitates the development of renewable energy options. Biomass has been recognized as a major renewable energy source to supplement the declining fossil fuel source of energy. It is the most popular form of renewable energy and, currently, biofuel production is becoming more promising. Being carbon neutral, readily available, and low in sulphur content makes biomass a very promising source of renewable energy. In the present research, both the isothermal and non-isothermal pressurized pyrolysis of flax straw is studied for the first time. In case of isothermal pyrolysis, the influence of pyrolysis temperature and reaction time on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature was varied between 300 and 500°C. The reaction time was varied from 15 to 60 min. The char yield was found to decrease as pyrolysis temperature and reaction time increased. The char structure and surface morphology were thoroughly investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The degree of porosity and graphitization increased as pyrolysis temperature and time increased. In fact, the experiment performed at 500°C for 1h duration did not yield any char; only residual ash could be obtained. The TPO studies on the char samples corroborated the XRD findings and showed the presence of two types of carbon, namely, amorphous filamentous carbon and graphitic carbon. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the char was performed to gain an understanding of combustion kinetics and reactivity. It implied that the reactivity of the char decreases as temperature increases, and this finding is well supported by the TPO, TGA, SEM, and XRD characterization data. Furthermore, an empirical global model was devised based on the power law to estimate activation energy and other kinetic parameters. For the non-isothermal pressurized

  20. Analysis of retted and non retted flax fibres by chemical and enzymatic means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, C; Stolle-Smits, T; Schols, H; de Jong, E

    2001-08-23

    Flax fibres (Linum usitatissimum L.) were subjected to chemical and enzymatic analysis in order to determine the compositional changes brought about by the retting process and also to determine the accessibility of the fibre polymers to enzymatic treatment. Chemical analysis involved subjecting both retted and non retted fibres to a series of sequential chemical extractions with 1% ammonium oxalate, 0.05 M KOH, 1 M KOH and 4 M KOH. Retting was shown to cause minimal weight loss from the fibres but caused significant changes to the pectic polymers present. Retted fibres were shown to have significantly lower amounts of rhamnogalacturonan as well as arabinan and xylan. In addition the average molecular mass of the pectic extracts was considerably lowered. Enzyme treatment of the 1 M KOH extracts with two different enzymes demonstrated that the non retted extract contained a relatively high molecular weight xylan not found in the retted extract. Treatment of the 1 M KOH extracts and the fibres with Endoglucanase V from Trichoderma viride demonstrated that while this enzyme solubilised cellulose as well as xylan and xyloglucan oligomers from the extract, it had limited access to these polymers on the fibre. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the material solubilised from the extract suggested that the xylan was randomly substituted with 4-O-methyl glucuronic acid moieties. The xyloglucan was shown to be of the XXXG type and was substituted with galactose and fucose units. The enzyme treatments of the fibres demonstrated that the xylan and xyloglucan polymers in the fibres were not accessible to the enzyme but that material which was entrapped by the cellulose could be released by the hydrolysis of this cellulose.

  1. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

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    Demetrio Gonzalez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1 and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1 soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn; Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil. The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk.

  2. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, D.; Almendros, P.; Alvarez, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1) and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1) soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn); Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM) yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn) was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils) and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil). The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk. (Author)

  3. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedrange, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions. PMID:27597965

  4. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt, were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions.

  5. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kunath, Franziska; Gedrange, Tomasz; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions.

  6. Influence of genotype, growth regulators, sucrose level and preconditioning of donor plants on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbulis, Natalija; Blinstrubiene, Ausra; Sliesaravicius, A; Venskutoniene, Egidija

    2005-01-01

    The effect of genotype, growth regulators and preconditioning of donor plants on callus induction in anther culture of flax was investigated. Anthers were cultured on modified MS medium supplemented with five different combinations of plant growth regulators. The results suggested that specific combinations of growth regulators must be designed for each genotype. Major differences between the present results and previous reports are discussed. The influence of sucrose concentration was also investigated. For flax cultivar, 'Mikael', callus induction was higher in medium supplemented with 1 mg l(-1) BAP and 2 mg l(-1) 2,4D containing 6% sucrose, while this combination of growth regulators significantly increased callogenesis in cultivars 'Lirina', 'Barbara' and 'Szaphir' when supplemented with 9% or 12% sucrose. The preconditioning of donor plants influenced callogenesis in subsequently isolated anthers. Anthers from donor plants grown at a lower temperature (18/14 degrees C) significantly increased callus induction over those from plants grown at a higher temperature (22/18 degrees C), although each genotype still required optimization of growth regulator combinations in the induction medium. Only 'Mikael' regenerated shoots when the callus was from induction medium supplemented with 2 mg I(-1) BAP and 1 mg l(-1) NAA.

  7. The use of phosphomannose isomerase selection system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco and flax aimed for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Jitka; Sura-De Jong, Martina; Fišer, Jiří; Tupá, Kateřina; Vrbová, Miroslava; Griga, Miroslav; Macek, Tomáš; Žiarovská, Jana

    2017-05-04

    A plant selection system based on the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker is often used to avoid selection using antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, pmi gene is endogenous in several plant species and therefore difficult to use in such cases. Here we evaluated and compared Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Linum usitatissimum breeding line AGT-952 (without endogenous pmi gene) and Nicotiana tabacum var. WSC-38 (with endogenous pmi gene). Transformation was evaluated for vectors bearing transgenes that have the potential to be involved in improved phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Tobacco regenerants selection resulted in 6.8% transformation efficiency when using a medium supplemented with 30 g/L mannose with stepwise decrease of the sucrose concentration. Similar transformation efficiency (5.3%) was achieved in transformation of flax. Relatively low selection efficiency was achieved (12.5% and 34.8%, respectively). The final detection of efficient pmi selection was conducted using PCR and the non-endogenous genes; pmi transgene for flax and todC2 transgene for tobacco plants.

  8. Removal of fiber from vines by solid state fermentation/enzymatic degradation: a comparison of flax and kudzu retting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, R D; Prokop, A; Bajpai, R K

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic data describing the decomposition of the outer sheath of kudzu vines (undergoing a solid fermentation process in a glass beaker of soil) have been analyzed to determine the two constants, K(m)/S(o) and V/S(o), where S(o) is the initial substrate concentration, K(m) the Michaelis constant, and V the maximum product rate. The kinetic data are expressed by a simple time-varying desheathing index, obtained from the number of spatula scrapings required to reach the desired hard cellulosic fibers (vascular bundles) of the plant. A simple relationship between the desheathing index, D.I. and the dimensionless product concentration, P/S(o), is proposed to relate the D.I. data and enzyme kinetic concentration data. Thus, the Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic parameters can be estimated from easily obtained physical (non-chemical data; the D.I.(t) measurements). This low energy process for processing vines into valuable fibers is similar to the traditional microbial method for recovering flax fibers for linen cloth, by retting of the flax plant vines, except there is no unbound liquid water present in the soil medium.

  9. The wahakura: a qualitative study of the flax bassinet as a sleep location for New Zealand Māori infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Sally; Stockdale-Frost, Ariana; Rolls, Rangihaanu; Tipene-Leach, David

    2015-05-01

    The wahakura (flax bassinet) is presently being distributed as a safe infant sleeping device amongst New Zealand Māori, where sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI) rates are high. It is promoted as mitigating bedsharing risk by providing a separate infant sleeping surface. This study aimed to understand exactly what factors determine the apparent acceptability of the wahakura as an infant sleeping device to Māori mothers and other key Māori community stakeholders. The qualitative study used face-to-face, semi-structured interviews, following Māori cultural protocols, to explore the experiences and views of 12 Māori mothers and 10 key informants who had wahakura experience. We employed purposeful sampling of participants and thematic analysis of data. The practical appeal of the wahakura related to its portability, the enabling of bedsharing and easier breastfeeding. Considerable cultural and spiritual appeal was related to its native flax composition and traditional origin. Health professionals found it useful to engage Māori women antenatally. The study affirmed the acceptance of the wahakura as a culturally initiated endeavour, meaningfully engaging Māori mothers and families in SUDI risk mitigation. It has the potential to capitalise on the benefits of bedsharing to enhance infant wellbeing while also safeguarding them from harm.

  10. Experimental Analysis of Repaired Masonry Elements with Flax-FRCM and PBO-FRCM Composites Subjected to Axial Bending Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Cevallos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the construction industry, the use of natural fabrics as a reinforcement for cement-based composites has shown great potential. The use of these sustainable composites to provide strengthening or repair old masonry structures that exhibit structural problems mainly due to a poor tensile strength of the mortar/brick joints is revealed to be a promising area of research. One of the most significant load conditions affecting the mechanical response of masonry structures occurs when axial bending loads are applied on the resistant cross-section. In this study, three different types of masonry elements were built using clay bricks and a lime-based mortar. After 28 days, the samples were subjected to concentric and eccentric compressive loads. In order to produce significant bending effects, the compressive loads were applied with large eccentricity, and a sudden failure characterized the behavior of the unreinforced masonry (URM elements. The tested masonry specimens were repaired using fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM composites produced using bi-directional flax and polyparaphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO fabrics. The mechanical behavior of the URM and repaired samples was compared in terms of load-displacement and moment-curvature responses. Furthermore, the results achieved using flax-FRCM composites were compared with those of using PBO-FRCM composites.

  11. No evidence of hypoglycemia or hypotension in older adults during 6 months of flax lignan supplementation in a randomized controlled trial: a safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinsky, Jennifer; Glew, Riley A; Cornish, Stephen M; Whiting, Susan J; Thorpe, Lilian U; Alcorn, Jane; Paus-Jenssen, Lisa; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2013-06-01

    The natural health product, BeneFlax, is a standardized flaxseed [Linum usitatissimum L. (Linaceae)] lignan enriched product with evidence of product quality and known quantity of the bioactive component, lignan. The acceptance of this natural health product for its various health benefits requires greater evidence of its safety in the general population. We determined whether flaxseed lignan causes clinical hypoglycemia or hypotension in healthy older adults as an important aspect of safety. Participants aged 49-87 years were randomized in a double-blind trial to receive flaxseed lignan (543 mg/day in BeneFlax) or placebo while completing a 6-month walking program. The 94 participants who completed the study were stratified by age (Controlling for sex and body mass index covariates resulted in no observed differences between plasma glucose or blood pressure measurements between treatment or age groups (p > 0.05). No incidents of hypoglycemia or hypotension were observed during BeneFlax treatment, suggesting that 543 mg falls at or below the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL). These data suggest the flaxseed lignan product BeneFlax does not pose a risk of hypoglycemia or hypotension in healthy adults aged 49-87 years.

  12. Zapobieganie infekcji glebowej lnu przez grzyby z rodzaju Fusarium za pomocą zaprawiania nasion [Seed dressing with fungicides a protection against soil borne Fusarium wilt of flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zarzycka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed dressing with systemic fungicides decreased flax infection by soil borne Fusarium. The yield of strow, seed and fibre from treated plants was higher than from untreated plants. The weather conditions and degree of soil infection with Fusarium influenced on the effect of seed dressing.

  13. Construction of an SNP-based high-density linkage map for flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liuxi; Gao, Fengyun; Siqin, Bateer; Zhou, Yu; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Flax is an important crop for oil and fiber, however, no high-density genetic maps have been reported for this species. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a high-resolution strategy for large scale de novo discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, SLAF-seq was employed to develop SNP markers in an F2 population to construct a high-density genetic map for flax. In total, 196.29 million paired-end reads were obtained. The average sequencing depth was 25.08 in male parent, 32.17 in the female parent, and 9.64 in each F2 progeny. In total, 389,288 polymorphic SLAFs were detected, from which 260,380 polymorphic SNPs were developed. After filtering, 4,638 SNPs were found suitable for genetic map construction. The final genetic map included 4,145 SNP markers on 15 linkage groups and was 2,632.94 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.64 cM between adjacent markers. To our knowledge, this map is the densest SNP-based genetic map for flax. The SNP markers and genetic map reported in here will serve as a foundation for the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), map-based gene cloning and marker assisted selection (MAS) for flax.

  14. Effects of floral honey and pressed flax seeds on intensity of yogurt aroma, sweetness and sour taste of yogurts during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Remeňová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate chosen sensory properties of yogurts without any additions of honey and pressed flax seeds (K and with the different addition of floral honey (1, 3 and 5% and with the same addition (0.5% of pressed flax seeds (PA, PB and PC during storage. These samples were analysed during 14 days of storage at cooling temperature (6 ±1 °C. Sensory properties - intensity of yogurt aroma, sweetness and sour taste were evaluated. Sensory evaluation was carried out in the 1st, 7th and 14th day following the yogurts production. The control samples had the most significant yogurt aroma this sample had also the highest sour taste and the lowest sweet taste throughout the storage. In all of analysed samples, the sourest taste was observed 14th day of storage. The sweet taste of yogurts with honey addition increased compared to control samples however the sweetest taste of samples with addition of honey was 1st day following the yogurt production. Optimum sweetness was determined with the samples of yogurts containing 5% of floral honey. Floral honey added into the yogurts has positive effect on their sensory properties. The pressed flax seeds have no effect on sensory properties of yogurts. The enrichment of yogurts with honey and pressed flax seeds is high recommended because they have a lot of beneficial nutritional properties and improve the sensory quality of the final product.

  15. The LuWD40-1 gene encoding WD repeat protein regulates growth and pollen viability in flax (Linum Usitatissimum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    Full Text Available As a crop, flax holds significant commercial value for its omega-3 rich oilseeds and stem fibres. Canada is the largest producer of linseed but there exists scope for significant yield improvements. Implementation of mechanisms such as male sterility can permit the development of hybrids to assist in achieving this goal. Temperature sensitive male sterility has been reported in flax but the leakiness of this system in field conditions limits the production of quality hybrid seeds. Here, we characterized a 2,588 bp transcript differentially expressed in male sterile lines of flax. The twelve intron gene predicted to encode a 368 amino acid protein has five WD40 repeats which, in silico, form a propeller structure with putative nucleic acid and histone binding capabilities. The LuWD40-1 protein localized to the nucleus and its expression increased during the transition and continued through the vegetative stages (seed, etiolated seedling, stem while the transcript levels declined during reproductive development (ovary, anthers and embryonic morphogenesis of male fertile plants. Knockout lines for LuWD40-1 in flax failed to develop shoots while overexpression lines showed delayed growth phenotype and were male sterile. The non-viable flowers failed to open and the pollen grains from these flowers were empty. Three independent transgenic lines overexpressing the LuWD40-1 gene had ∼80% non-viable pollen, reduced branching, delayed flowering and maturity compared to male fertile genotypes. The present study provides new insights into a male sterility mechanism present in flax.

  16. The Influence of Agroclimatic Factors on the Formation of Oil Content In Flax Seeds in the North of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gordeyeva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the promising oil crops in the north of Kazakhstan. Over the last 10 years, the total area under this crop in the region has increased fourteen-fold, since flax is a very plastic crop for steppe and dry steppe conditions, and oil seeds are in high demand in the world market. Flaxseed oil, due to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, occupies one of the first positions among other edible vegetable oils. Depending on environmental conditions, the oil content of the crop may vary from 36.4% to 52.0%, while, as noted by many researchers, the change in oil content depends on genotypic characteristics. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the influence of the genotype and climatic conditions of cultivation on fat biosynthesis in flax seeds in the context of the dry steppe zone of Northern Kazakhstan on dark chestnut soils of the Akmola region. Field experiments were conducted in 2015-2017 with the study of nine oil flaxseed cultivars (of mid-season varieties sown on May 20 at the seeding rate of 7 million seeds/ha based on the traditional technology of cultivation recommended for the region. Climatic parameters were taken into account according to the meteorological service data. Fat content was determined by the extraction method using a Soxhlet apparatus in accordance with GOST (All-Union State Standard 10857-64, and moisture content was determined by the thermogravimetric method according to the National Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2.195-2010, for recalculation of oil content for absolutely dry matter. It was found that the formation of oil depends on climatic parameters and on the sum of active temperatures during the ripening period, in particular. The evaluation of plasticity and stability of the cultivars (genotypes showed that VNIIMK 620, Lirina, Karabalyksky 7 can be considered highly valuable cultivars and Severny, Biryuza, Kazar, Ilyich – valuable cultivars in terms of oil content

  17. The active component in the flax-retting system of the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae sb is a family 28 polygalacturonase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Henriksson, Hongbin; Szabo, Istvan J; Henriksson, Gunnar; Johansson, Gunnar

    2005-10-01

    The zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae sb is a very efficient organism for retting of flax, the initial microbiological step in the process of making linen. An extracellular polygalacturonase, when isolated could perform retting, and therefore probably is the key component in the retting system of R. oryzae. This was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme has a molecular mass of 37,436 Da from mass spectrometric determination, an isoelectric point of 8.4, and has non-methylated polygalacturonic acid as its preferred substrate. Peptide sequences indicate that the enzyme belongs to family 28, in similarity with other polygalacturonases (EC. 3.2.1.15). It contains, however an N-terminal sequence absent in other fungal pectinases, but present in an enzyme from the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. The biochemical background for the superior retting efficiency of R. oryzae sb is discussed.

  18. Two rhamnogalacturonide tetrasaccharides isolated from semi-retted flax fibers are signaling molecules in Rubus fruticosus L. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinand, E; Excoffier, G; Liénart, Y; Vignon, M R

    1997-01-01

    Water extraction of semi-retted flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber bundles yielded a mixture of pectic oligosaccharides and two acidic rhamnogalacturonide tetrasaccharides that were separated by size-exclusion chromatography. One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry experiments indicated that the two tetrasaccharides have a common primary structure, i.e. alpha-D-delta GalpA(1-->2)-alpha-L- Rhap(1-->4)-alpha-D-GalpA-(1-->2)-L-alpha,beta-Rhap, with a rhamnopyranose as terminal reducing end, and a 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranosiduronic acid at the nonreducing end. However, the two tetrasaccharides differ by an acetyl group located at the O-3 position of the internal galacturonic acid residue. These two tetrasaccharides induce the activation of D-glycohydrolases of Rubus fructicosus L. cells or protoplasts within minutes. PMID:9342877

  19. Identification of true microstructure of composites based on various flax fibre assemblies by means of three-dimensional tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miettinen, Arttu; Joffe, Roberts; Pupure, Liva

    2015-01-01

    and three-dimensional image analysis are demonstrated in this work. The methods are applied to flax fibre composites made from three different kinds of pre-forms. Microstructural parameters estimated with the methods are used in micromechanical models for the stiffness of the composite. Comparison between......Lately it has been demonstrated that natural fibres may be an environmentally superior alternative for, e.g., glass fibres. In order to estimate properties of composite materials made of natural fibres, models designed for synthetic fibres are often used. The models usually do not account...... for irregularities in the material, e.g., suboptimal fibre orientation due to the twisting angle of fibres in yarns. Use of models without taking those features into account might lead to unreliable results. Methods to quantify the microstructural properties of natural fibre composites with X-ray microtomography...

  20. Can Plant-Based Natural Flax Replace Basalt and E-Glass for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Tubular Energy Absorbers? A Comparative Study on Quasi-Static Axial Crushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plant-based natural fibers to substitute glass fibers as reinforcement of composite materials is of particular interest due to their economic, technical, and environmental significance. One potential application of plant-based natural fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composites is in automotive engineering as crushable energy absorbers. Current study experimentally investigated and compared the energy absorption efficiency of plant-based natural flax, mineral-based basalt, and glass FRP (GFRP composite tubular energy absorbers subjected to quasi-static axial crushing. The effects of number of flax fabric layer, the use of foam filler and the type of fiber materials on the crashworthiness characteristics, and energy absorption capacities were discussed. In addition, the failure mechanisms of the hollow and foam-filled flax, basalt, and GFRP tubes in quasi-static axial crushing were analyzed and compared. The test results showed that the energy absorption capabilities of both hollow and foam-filled energy absorbers made of flax were superior to the corresponding energy absorbers made of basalt and were close to energy absorbers made of glass. This study, therefore, indicated that flax fiber has the great potential to be suitable replacement of basalt and glass fibers for crushable energy absorber application.

  1. Application of biomass-derived flexible carbon cloth coated with MnO2 nanosheets in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuijian; Chen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Successful application of inexpensive energy storage devices lies in the exploitation of fabrication approaches that are based on cost-efficient materials and that can be easily scaled up. Here, inexpensive textile weaved by natural flax fiber is selected as raw material in preparing flexible and binder-free electrode material for supercapacitors. Although carbon fiber cloth obtained from the direct carbonization of flax textile exhibits a low specific capacitance of 0.78 F g-1, carbon fiber cloth electrode shows a very short relaxation time of 39.1 m s and good stability with almost 100% capacitance retaining after 104 cycles at 5 A g-1. To extend the application of the resulting carbon cloth in supercapacitor field, a layer of MnO2 nanosheets is deposited on the surface of carbon fiber via in situ redox reaction between carbon and KMnO4. The specific capacitance of MnO2 reaches 683.73 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and still retains 269.04 F g-1 at 300 A g-1, indicating the excellent rate capacitance performance of the carbon cloth/MnO2 hybrids. The present study shows that carbon cloth derived from flax textile can provide a low-cost material platform for the facile, cost-efficient and large scale fabrication of binder-free electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  2. [Dynamics of ultrastructure changes in sheet plate fiber flax with braking transport assimilate by nitrate-anion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrakhimov, F A; Batasheva, S N; Bakirova, G G; Chikov, V I

    2008-01-01

    Changes in leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure under nitrate feeding into the apoplast of common flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) in the form of 50 mM KNO3 solution were studied. In 30 min after the beginning of nitrate feeding through the transpiration water stream, swelling of mitochondrial and microbodies, clarification of their matrices, and curling of dictyosome discs into annular structures were observed. These events characterized symplastic domain formed by mesophyll, bundle sheath and phloem parenchyma cells, and were not found in companion cell-sieve element complex. Simultaneously, formation of large central vacuoles in companion cells was noted. Restoration of organelle structures in assimilating cells and phloem parenchyma in 1-2 h after treatment was accompanied by enhancement of morphological changes in phloem elements and companion cells and signs of plasmolysis in the mesophyll cells. It was supposed that the two-phase character of changes in leaf organelle ultrastructure and photosynthesis might reflect duality of leaf cell response to nitrate ion. The rapid alterations of the structure can be coupled with direct influence of the anion on cell metabolism and(or) with signal-regulatory functions of oxidized nitrogen forms, while the slower ones reflect the result of suppression of photoassimilate export from leaves by the anion.

  3. Determination of phenolic acids in seeds of black cumin, flax, pomegranate and pumpkin and their by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimer-Malešević Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten phenolic acids, contained in the seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., flax (Linum usitatissimum L., pomegranate (Punica granatum L. and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and their oil industry by-products, separated into the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound forms, were quantitatively analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. The chromatographic data were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA model with three principal components (PC1-PC2-PC3 fitted well with 12 examined plant samples, allowing their division into groups according to their origin. The total phenolic variables could be represented by two PCs and for the pattern recognition of the analysed samples, 13 phenolic variables are sufficient, including: free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms of gallic and syringic acids, free vanillic, insoluble bound p-coumaric, esterified p-hydroxybenzaldehide, and free and insoluble-bound forms of p-hydroxybenzoic and trans-synapic acids. This might have potential application in simplified screening of phenolic compounds in seeds and their oil industry by-products or in food component analysis or authenticity detection in such plant materials.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  4. Transfer of near-infrared calibration model for determining fiber content in flax: effects of transfer samples and standardization procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Miryeong; Barton, Franklin E; Himmelsbach, David S

    2007-04-01

    The transfer of a calibration model for determining fiber content in flax stem was accomplished between two near-infrared spectrometers, which are the same brand but which require a standardization. In this paper, three factors, including transfer sample set, spectral type, and standardization method, were investigated to obtain the best standardization result. Twelve standardization files were produced from two sets of the transfer sample (sealed reference standards and a subset of the prediction set), two types of the transfer sample spectra (raw and preprocessed spectra), and three standardization methods (direct standardization (DS), piecewise direct standardization (PDS), and double window piecewise direct standardization (DWPDS)). The efficacy of the model transfer was evaluated based on the root mean square error of prediction, calculated using the independent prediction samples. Results indicated that the standardization using the sealed reference standards was unacceptable, but the standardization using the prediction subset was adequate. The use of the preprocessed spectra of the transfer samples led to the calibration transfers that were successful, especially for the PDS and the DWPDS correction. Finally, standardization using the prediction subset and their preprocessed spectra with DWPDS correction proved to be the best method for transferring the model.

  5. Effect of flax seeds and date palm leaves extracts on serum concentrations of glucose and lipids in alloxan diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelgassim, Abuelgassim O

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effect of Flax Seeds (FS) and Date Palm Leaves (DPL) extracts on the concentration of serum glucose and lipids in alloxan diabetic rats. Rats were divided into six groups, normal control rats (without treatment with either FS or DPL), normal control rats treated with either FS or DPL extract for four weeks, diabetic control rats and diabetic rats treated with either FS or DPL extract for four weeks. The concentration of glucose in diabetic rats treated with FS (D+FS) for four weeks was significantly decreased from 17.20 +/- 2.33 to 8.14 +/- 0.54 mmol L(-1) (p DPL extract showed significant decrease by 40 and 31% respectively in the fourth week. Also, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration was significantly decreased after two weeks of treatment (p DPL extract significantly decreased serum concentration of TC and LDL-C. Present findings suggest that both of FS and DPL extracts could have a protective effect against diabetes complications as well as against hyperlipidemia through improvement of lipid profile.

  6. Effects of Wet/Dry-Cycling and Plasma Treatments on the Properties of Flax Nonwovens Intended for Composite Reinforcing

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    Heura Ventura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the effects of different treatments on flax nonwoven (NW fabrics which are intended for composite reinforcement. The treatments applied were of two different kinds: a wet/dry cycling which helps to stabilize the cellulosic fibers against humidity changes and plasma treatments with air, argon and ethylene gases considering different conditions and combinations, which produce variation on the chemical surface composition of the NWs. The resulting changes in the chemical surface composition, wetting properties, thermal stability and mechanical properties were determined. Variations in surface morphology could be observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed significant changes to the surface chemistry for the samples treated with argon or air (with more content on polar groups on the surface and ethylene plasma (with less content of polar groups. Although only slight differences were found in moisture regain and water retention values (WRV, significant changes were found on the contact angle values, thus revealing hydrophilicity for the air-treated and argon-treated samples and hydrophobicity for the ethylene-treated ones. Moreover, for some of the treatments the mechanical testing revealed an increase of the NW breaking force.

  7. Changes in the distribution of Zn applied as a mixture of synthetic chelating agents in two successive flax crops grown in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Obrador, A.; Alvarez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for normal crop growth and Zn deficiencies can severely impair crops. The aging of this metal in soils could cause a change in its availability. Over time, the most labile forms of Zn could therefore undergo reductions in both their activity and extractability, as they change to more stable forms. The speciation of metal plays a fundamental role in the way in which transfers between different soil compartments take place and soil minerals migrate toward plants. Sequential extraction is considered an appropriate way to evaluate the different forms and associations of metals present in soil. The objective of this study was to determine the changes that took place in Zn fractions in soil during two successive flax crops to which a synthetic chelate had been applied. An experiment was conducted in a Typic Calcixerept [pHw (1/2.5, w/v), 8.2; oxidizable organic carbon 0.75%]. Before the first flax crop, this soil was treated with a synthetic chelate, Zn-DTPA-EDTA-HEDTA (Zn-D-H-E) [Zn-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Zn-DTPA), Zn-N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate (Zn-HEDTA), Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA)], applied at different rates [0 (nil-Zn), 5 and 10 mg Zn kg-1 soil]. The distribution of the Zn fractions was estimated by selective sequential extraction. The different geochemical compartments targeted were: water soluble (WS), exchangeable (EXC), carbonate bound (CAR), easily reducible Zn or Mn oxide bound (MnOX), oxidable (OM), Fe oxide bound (FeOX) and residual (RES). The results obtained showed the evolution of the distribution of Zn in the soil during two successive flax crops. Statistical interactions between the flax crop and treatment were obtained for Zn associated with WS, EXC, CAR and OM fractions. The Zn concentration associated with the most labile form (WS) only showed a significant decrease with Zn-D-H-E applied at the rate of 10 mg kg-1. The Zn concentration associated with the EXC form showed

  8. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease.

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    Tamio Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD.

  9. Induced Mutagenesis inUGT74S1Gene Leads to Stable New Flax Lines with Altered Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; Somalraju, Ashok; McCallum, Jason; Main, David; Deyholos, Michael K; Rowland, Gordon G; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Flax secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG) lignan is an emerging natural product purported to prevent chronic diseases in humans. SECO, the aglycone form of SDG, has shown higher intestinal cell absorption but it is not accumulated naturally in planta . Recently, we have identified and characterized a UDP-glucosyltransferase gene, UGT74S1 , that glucosylates SECO into its monoglucoside (SMG) and SDG forms when expressed in yeast. However, whether this gene is unique in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in planta is unclear. Here, we report on the use of UGT74S1 in reverse and forward genetics to characterize an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenized flax population from cultivar CDC Bethune and consisting of 1996 M2 families. EMS mutagenesis generated 73 SNP variants causing 79 mutational events in the UGT74S1 exonic regions of 93 M2 families. The mutation frequency in the exonic regions was determined to be one per 28 Kb. Of these mutations, 13 homozygous missense mutations and two homozygous nonsense mutations were observed and all were transmitted into the M3 and M4 generations. Forward genetics screening of the population showed homozygous nonsense mutants completely lacking SDG biosynthesis while the production of SMG was observed only in a subset of the M4 lines. Heterozygous or homozygous M4 missense mutants displayed a wide range of SDG levels, some being greater than those of CDC Bethune. No additional deleterious mutations were detected in these mutant lines using a panel of 10 other genes potentially involved in the lignan biosynthesis. This study provides further evidence that UGT74S1 is unique in controlling SDG formation from SECO and this is the first report of non-transgenic flax germplasm with simultaneous knockout of SDG and presence of SMG in planta .

  10. Chitinase-like (CTL and cellulose synthase (CESA gene expression in gelatinous-type cellulosic walls of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. bast fibers.

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    Natalia Mokshina

    Full Text Available Plant chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14 and chitinase-like (CTL proteins have diverse functions including cell wall biosynthesis and disease resistance. We analyzed the expression of 34 chitinase and chitinase-like genes of flax (collectively referred to as LusCTLs, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 19 (GH19. Analysis of the transcript expression patterns of LusCTLs in the stem and other tissues identified three transcripts (LusCTL19, LusCTL20, LusCTL21 that were highly enriched in developing bast fibers, which form cellulose-rich gelatinous-type cell walls. The same three genes had low relative expression in tissues with primary cell walls and in xylem, which forms a xylan type of secondary cell wall. Phylogenetic analysis of the LusCTLs identified a flax-specific sub-group that was not represented in any of other genomes queried. To provide further context for the gene expression analysis, we also conducted phylogenetic and expression analysis of the cellulose synthase (CESA family genes of flax, and found that expression of secondary wall-type LusCESAs (LusCESA4, LusCESA7 and LusCESA8 was correlated with the expression of two LusCTLs (LusCTL1, LusCTL2 that were the most highly enriched in xylem. The expression of LusCTL19, LusCTL20, and LusCTL21 was not correlated with that of any CESA subgroup. These results defined a distinct type of CTLs that may have novel functions specific to the development of the gelatinous (G-type cellulosic walls.

  11. Effect of Pre-nutrion of Flax Seed Oil (Linum Usitatissimum on the amount of Cerebral ischemic lesion and motor nerve disorders in animal model rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Hosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Stroke is the third death agent (factor in industrial countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. With regard to high content of antioxidant materials in flax seed oil like &alpha-linolenic acid, lignan as well as phenolic combinations like secoisolarisirsinol (SDG, this study performed for studding relationship between of cerebral ischemic lesion and motor-nerve disorders in model of stroke in rat. Methods: in the study, 35 male mice from strain Wistar divided to 5 groups. The groups included control, sham and 3 experimental groups. They received doses 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg from flax seed oil orally. By gavage for 30 days two control and sham groups received aqua distillate (distil water. Two hours after the last gavaged dose, overly group with 7 pieces operated for measurement of the amount of cerebral lesion and motor-nerve disorders. (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model. Middle cerebral Artery Occlusion by the model resulted in local ischemic stroke in animal. Data analyzed by software SPSS, test ANOVA and disorders by test mann-Whitney. Findings: Average of records of motor-nerve disorders decreased significantly in group with dose 0.5 and 0.75 using flax seed oil (P<0.05. The amount of cerebral ischemic lesion in doses 0.5 and 0.75 than to control group is indicated meaning full different, but percent of the total cerebral lesion in control group in compared group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaningful different. Percent of the amount of ischemic lesion in region penumbra in group 0.75 and 0.5 than to control group is indicated meaningful different, but percent of the amount of lesion in region penumbra in control group in compared region penumbra in group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaning full different. Results: Findings of the study indicated that flax seed oil, particular in doses 0.5 and 0.75 resulted to decrease of the amount of cerebral ischemic lesion and decrease of motor-nerve disorders in

  12. The test of Tensile Properties and Water Resistance of a Novel Cross-linked Starch Prepared by Adding Oil-Flax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dawei; Wang, Rui

    2017-12-01

    In this study, to solve the poor water resistance and the low mechanical properties of starch, a mixed-starch composite matrix which including glycerol, sorbitol, and urea, were prepared via single-crew extrusion, then adding oil-flax to improve its physical mechanical and used to a source of biodegradable plastics material. The composite matrix was systematically characterized using various analytic tools including XRD, SEM and TG. The composite showed a maximum tensile strength of 18.11Mpa and moisture absorption 17.67%, while the original starch matrix was only 12.51 Mpa and 24.98%, respectively.

  13. Bioproductive parameters and fatty acids profile of the meat from broilers treated with flax meal and grape seeds meal

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    Margareta OLTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The 3-week feeding trial was conducted on 120, Cobb 500 chicks (14 days assigned to two groups (C, E. Compared to C diet formulation (corn, wheat, soybean meal and flax meal as basic ingredients, E diet formulation also included 3% grape seeds meal as natural antioxidant. The feed intake and the gains were not significantly (P>0.05 different between groups. Six broilers/group were slaughtered in the end of the trial and 6 samples of breast and thigh meat/group were formed and assayed for the feeding value. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was significantly (P≤0.05 higher in group E than in group C, both for the chicken breast: 32.6±0.87g (E vs 29.29±0.96 g/100 g total fatty acids (C, and in the thigh: 37.68±2.07g (E vs 29.58±1.16 g/100g total fatty acids (C. The content of alfa linolenic acid (ALA was significantly (P≤0.05 higher also in group E, both in the breast meat: 0.99±0.02g (E vs 0.89±0.34g/100g total fatty acids (C, and in the thigh meat: 1.20±0.07g (E vs 0.90±0.0g/100g total fatty acids (C. The omega-3 PUFA content was the highest in the breast meat sample, 2.19±0.07g/100g total fatty acids (E, with no significant (P>0.05 differences between groups.

  14. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF ULTRASOUND IN BIOSCOURING TREATMENT OF 50 % OF FLAX + 50 % OF COTTON FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOCHIA Mihaela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Study on the influence of ultrasound in Bioscouring treatment of 50 % of flax + 50 % of cotton fabric was made. The role of the Bioscouring treatment was the removing of natural cellulose attendants such as: pectin, hemicelluloses, waxes, extractable substances, etc. The cleaning treatment was carried out with a commercial enzymatic product called Beisol PRO (which consists of a mixture of enzymes pectinases, in water at a 20:1 liquid to fabric ratio and a temperature of 55 0C, in the presence of a complexing agent (2 g/L EDTA and a washing agent (0.5 % Denimcol Wash RGN. The effect of the enzyme mixture was intensified by ultrasound at a frequency of 45 kHz in an ultrasonic bath Elmasonic X-tra basic 2500 from Elma Company, Germany, leading to the improvement of the process and better properties for treated material. The experiments were conducted after a central, rotatable second order compound program with two independent variables: enzyme concentration (concentrations between 1-3% o.w.f and treatment time (15-55 minutes. Treated samples were analyzed for weight loss, hydrophilicity, whiteness index, yellowness index, crystallinity, tensile strength, elongation at break, scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM, CIELAB color system analysis of the samples dyed with alizarin and ruthenium red dyes. The results showed that the bioscouring process performed in the presence of ultrasound has been effective at a lower enzyme concentration and a lower duration of the treatment, thereby reducing the costs and the possibility of degradation of the treated material.

  15. An autoactive mutant of the M flax rust resistance protein has a preference for binding ATP, whereas wild-type M protein binds ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon J; Sornaraj, Pradeep; deCourcy-Ireland, Emma; Menz, R Ian; Kobe, Bostjan; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N; Anderson, Peter A

    2011-08-01

    Resistance (R) proteins are key regulators of the plant innate immune system and are capable of pathogen detection and activation of the hypersensitive cell death immune response. To understand the molecular mechanism of R protein activation, we undertook a phenotypic and biochemical study of the flax nucleotide binding (NB)-ARC leucine-rich repeat protein, M. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in flax cotyledons, site-directed mutations of key residues within the P-loop, kinase 2, and MHD motifs within the NB-ARC domain of M were shown to affect R protein function. When purified using a yeast expression system and assayed for ATP and ADP, these mutated proteins exhibited marked differences in the quantity and identity of the bound nucleotide. ADP was bound to recombinant wild-type M protein, while the nonfunctional P-loop mutant did not have any nucleotides bound. In contrast, ATP was bound to an autoactive M protein mutated in the highly conserved MHD motif. These data provide direct evidence supporting a model of R protein function in which the "off" R protein binds ADP and activation of R protein defense signaling involves the exchange of ADP for ATP.

  16. Effect of Dose and Administration Period of Seed Cake of Genetically Modified and Non-Modified Flax on Selected Antioxidative Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2015-06-23

    Flaxseed cake containing antioxidants is a valuable dietary component. Its nutritional effect may be diminished by the presence of anti-nutrients. The work was aimed at determining the effect of different contents of flaxseed cake in diets and their administration period on the development of rats and selected parameters of their health status. Diets with 15% and 30% addition of genetically modified (GM) flax seed cake with enhanced synthesis of polyphenols, as well as Linola non-GM flax were administered in short-term (33 days) and long-term (90 days) experiments. The 30% addition of flaxseed cake reduced digestibility of dietary nutrients, GM flaxseed cake lowered body weight gains. The relative weight of selected organs, hematological blood markers and serum activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT) were not affected. Flaxseed cake consumption reduced serum concentration of albumins and increased globulins. Administration of 30% flaxseed cake improved plasma total antioxidant status and 30% GM flaxseed cake lowered liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes, glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver concentration of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine were not changed. Most morphometric parameters of the small intestine did not differ between feeding groups. The administration of diets with 30% addition of flaxseed cake for 90 days improved the antioxidant status in rats.

  17. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene Suppression in Flax Leads to Changes in Wall Synthesis and Sensing Genes, Cell Wall Chemistry and Stem Morphology Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Magdalena; Działo, Magdalena; Richter, Dorota; Dymińska, Lucyna; Matuła, Jan; Kotecki, Andrzej; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In flax, CHS down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but plant growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing. This was accompanied by increased levels of cellulose and hemicellulose. CHS-reduced flax also showed significant changes in morphology and arrangement of the cell wall. The stem tissue layers were enlarged averagely twofold compared to the control, and the number of fiber cells more than doubled. The stem morphology changes were accompanied by reduction of the crystallinity index of the cell wall. CHS silencing induces a signal transduction cascade that leads to modification of plant metabolism in a wide range and thus cell wall structure. PMID:27446124

  18. A comparative study on cellulose nanocrystals extracted from bleached cotton and flax and used for casting films with glycerol and sorbitol plasticisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszár, Emilia; Nagy, Sebestyén

    2017-10-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films. Results revealed that the type of plasticiser determined the morphology and the optical and tensile properties of films. The best quality CNC film with an averaged thickness of 50μm was obtained with 20% sorbitol from cotton-CNC. It was proved that behaviour of sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers in CNC films was very similar to that reported previously for starch films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sistema radicular do fórmio, sisal e bambu imperial Root systems of new zealand flax, sisal, and imperial bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem os resultados de estudos preliminares sôbre o sistema radicular do fórmio (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine e bambu .imperial (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. ,& C, Riv.. Concluem, que o sistema radicular do fórmio é relativamente raso, o do sisal bastante superficial é o do bambu imperial se limitada às primeiras carnadas do solo.Results of preliminary studies on root-systems of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine, and imperial bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. & C. Riv. plants by the method of soil block, are apresented and discussed by the authors. According to local soil conditions, it is concluded that the root-system of New Zealand flax is relatively superficial, with the main concentration of roots in the 12 in. soil top layer. In sisal, the root-systems of the three plants investigated were found to occur in the soil surface layer, with more of 90% of the roots in the top 6 in. Finally, in the imperial bamboo clump atudied, the main concentration of roots was found in the layer 6-12 in. deep.

  20. Effect of Dose and Administration Period of Seed Cake of Genetically Modified and Non-Modified Flax on Selected Antioxidative Activities in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Matusiewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed cake containing antioxidants is a valuable dietary component. Its nutritional effect may be diminished by the presence of anti-nutrients. The work was aimed at determining the effect of different contents of flaxseed cake in diets and their administration period on the development of rats and selected parameters of their health status. Diets with 15% and 30% addition of genetically modified (GM flax seed cake with enhanced synthesis of polyphenols, as well as Linola non-GM flax were administered in short-term (33 days and long-term (90 days experiments. The 30% addition of flaxseed cake reduced digestibility of dietary nutrients, GM flaxseed cake lowered body weight gains. The relative weight of selected organs, hematological blood markers and serum activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT were not affected. Flaxseed cake consumption reduced serum concentration of albumins and increased globulins. Administration of 30% flaxseed cake improved plasma total antioxidant status and 30% GM flaxseed cake lowered liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes, glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver concentration of 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine were not changed. Most morphometric parameters of the small intestine did not differ between feeding groups. The administration of diets with 30% addition of flaxseed cake for 90 days improved the antioxidant status in rats.

  1. Characterization of mucilage polysaccharides, arabinogalactanproteins and cell-wall hemicellulosic polysaccharides isolated from flax seed meal: A wealth of structural moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sayani; Paynel, Florence; Morvan, Claudine; Lerouge, Patrice; Driouich, Azeddine; Ray, Bimalendu

    2013-04-02

    The present study aimed at analyzing the structural features of seed mucilage and cell-wall polysaccharides which accounted for 41% of the mass of flax meal (FM). A combination of high molar-mass mucilage-like polysaccharides (rhamnogalacturonan and arabinoxylan) was released from FM in water, together with arabinogalactan proteins and glucans. About half of FM homogalacturonans was extracted using a calcium chelator and boiling water. Hemicellulosic xyloglucans and xylans were further extracted with 1M KOH, in ∼13% FM-sugars yield. Structural characterization of the xyloglucan using specific enzyme hydrolysis, ion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy showed the presence of XXXG type xyloglucan, but also that of XXGG-structure, possibly characteristic of flax seeds. Hydrolysis of xylans with endo-(1→4)-β-D-xylanase, and analysis of the neutral and acidic oligosaccharides by MALDI-TOF-MS showed that xylan consisted of β-(1→4)-linked-D-xylopyranose backbone with some zones (DP 5-7) substituted with 4-O-MeGlcA\\GlcA\\Glc residues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does the oxidation of methionine residue precede the inactivation of the trypsin inhibitor (LUTI in germinating seeds of common flax (Linum usitatissimum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antitrypsin activity in germinating common seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum was investigated. At the early stage of germination an increase in antitrypsin activity was observed, followed by its decrease during the development of the seedlings. From 6-day-old seedlings a trypsin inhibitor (gerLUTI was purified. The purification procedure involved fractionation of proteins from seedling homogenate with alcohol and successive chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 on immobilised methylchymotrypsin in the presence of 5 M NaCl, and finally on a C18 column in RP-HPLC. The gerLUTI migrated in SDS PAGE as a single band, but in mass spectroscopy analysis it exhibited the presence of at least three forms with molecular masses of 7654 ± 3 Da, 7668/7670 ± 3 Da, and 7687 ± 3 Da. The preparation of LUTI isolated from resting seeds contained only one form, with a molecular mass of 7655 ± 3 Da. LUTI and gerLUTI differed also in methionine contents. LUTI contained two methionine residues, whereas in gerLUTI only a trace of methionine was detected. The obtained results might suggest that during flax seeds germination the inhibitor molecules undergo selective modification, e.g. oxidation at methionine residues, before being degraded by proteolytic enzymes.

  3. Oligodeoxynucleotides Can Transiently Up- and Downregulate CHS Gene Expression in Flax by Changing DNA Methylation in a Sequence-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Dzialo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase (CHS has been recognized as an essential enzyme in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway. Apart from the leading role in the production of phenolic compounds with many valuable biological activities beneficial to biomedicine, CHS is well appreciated in science. Genetic engineering greatly facilitates expanding knowledge on the function and genetics of CHS in plants. The CHS gene is one of the most intensively studied genes in flax. In our study, we investigated engineering of the CHS gene through genetic and epigenetic approaches. Considering the numerous restrictions concerning the application of genetically modified (GM crops, the main purpose of this research was optimization of the plant's modulation via epigenetics. In our study, plants modified through two methods were compared: a widely popular agrotransformation and a relatively recent oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN strategy. It was recently highlighted that the ODN technique can be a rapid and time-serving antecedent in quick analysis of gene function before taking vector-mediated transformation. In order to understand the molecular background of epigenetic variation in more detail and evaluate the use of ODNs as a tool for predictable and stable gene engineering, we concentrated on the integration of gene expression and gene-body methylation. The treatment of flax with a series of short oligonucleotides homologous to a different part of CHS gene isoforms revealed that those directed to regulatory gene regions (5′- and 3′-UTR activated gene expression, directed to non-coding region (introns caused gen activity reduction, while those homologous to a coding region may have a variable influence on its activity. Gene expression changes were accompanied by changes in its methylation status. However, only certain (CCGG motifs along the gene sequence were affected. The analyzed DNA motifs of the CHS flax gene are more accessible for methylation when located within a Cp

  4. Morphological composition of web-break inducing shives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Web-breaks during paper production cause a serious inconvenience in production process and increase cost of production. Earlier studies indicate that web breaks occur at tensions far below the ultimate tensile strength values determined by tensile testing in the laboratory. It was also reported that most of the web-breaks ...

  5. Lipophilic extractives from several nonwoody lignocellulosic crops (flax, hemp, sisal, abaca) and their fate during alkaline pulping and TCF/ECF bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela; del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The fate of lipophilic extractives from several nonwoody species (flax, hemp, sisal and abaca) used for the manufacturing of cellulose pulps, was studied during soda/anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and totally chorine free (TCF) and elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleaching. With this purpose, the lipophilic extracts from the raw materials and their unbleached and bleached industrial pulps, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aldehydes, hydroxyfatty acids and esterified compounds such as ester waxes, sterol esters and alkylferulates strongly decreased after soda/AQ pulping while alkanes, alcohols, free sterols and sterol glycosides survived the cooking process. Among the lipophilic extractives that remained in the unbleached pulps, some amounts of free sterols were still present in the TCF pulps whereas they were practically absent in the ECF pulps. Sterol glycosides were also removed after both TCF and ECF bleaching. By contrast, saturated fatty acids, fatty alcohols and alkanes were still present in both bleached pulps.

  6. Intramolecular interaction influences binding of the Flax L5 and L6 resistance proteins to their AvrL567 ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ravensdale

    Full Text Available L locus resistance (R proteins are nucleotide binding (NB-ARC leucine-rich repeat (LRR proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum that provide race-specific resistance to the causal agent of flax rust disease, Melampsora lini. L5 and L6 are two alleles of the L locus that directly recognize variants of the fungal effector AvrL567. In this study, we have investigated the molecular details of this recognition by site-directed mutagenesis of AvrL567 and construction of chimeric L proteins. Single, double and triple mutations of polymorphic residues in a variety of AvrL567 variants showed additive effects on recognition strength, suggesting that multiple contact points are involved in recognition. Domain-swap experiments between L5 and L6 show that specificity differences are determined by their corresponding LRR regions. Most positively selected amino acid sites occur in the N- and C-terminal LRR units, and polymorphisms in the first seven and last four LRR units contribute to recognition specificity of L5 and L6 respectively. This further confirms that multiple, additive contact points occur between AvrL567 variants and either L5 or L6. However, we also observed that recognition of AvrL567 is affected by co-operative polymorphisms between both adjacent and distant domains of the R protein, including the TIR, ARC and LRR domains, implying that these residues are involved in intramolecular interactions to optimize detection of the pathogen and defense signal activation. We suggest a model where Avr ligand interaction directly competes with intramolecular interactions to cause activation of the R protein.

  7. Apparent digestibility of wheat bran and extruded flax in horses determined from the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, M; Miraglia, N; Peiretti, P G; Bergero, D

    2012-02-01

    Several studies have reported data on comparisons between two methods: the total collection of feces and the internal markers method. The aim of this study was to assess the apparent digestibility of two concentrates and to compare the apparent digestion coefficients using the total collection of feces and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as the internal marker method. In 2009, six adult geldings aged between 3 and 11 years, with an average weight per trial of 543, 540 and 542 kg, respectively, were used to determine the apparent digestibility by means of three in vivo digestibility trials on hay, hay plus wheat bran (60 : 40) and hay plus extruded flax (80 : 20). Feces were collected over a 6-day period with a previous 14-day adaptation period. The three digestibility trials were carried out to determine the digestion coefficients of the three diets and, indirectly, of the two concentrates. The digestion coefficients of the diets were determined for the dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy, whereas the apparent digestion coefficients of the same parameters were calculated for wheat bran and extruded flax, by calculating the difference from the previous results. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test for paired samples. The digestion coefficients obtained were similar when the total collection of feces and the AIA method were used. Higher data variability, confirmed by a greater standard deviation, was observed using the AIA method to estimate the apparent digestion coefficients. It can be concluded that the use of AIA as an internal marker in digestibility trials on average leads to values similar to those obtained with the total collection of feces and can therefore be considered a less-expensive method to determine apparent digestion coefficients. Nevertheless, the total collection of feces should still be considered the best choice to determine the digestibility of some specific feedstuffs.

  8. Histidine 352 (His352 and tryptophan 355 (Trp355 are essential for flax UGT74S1 glucosylation activity toward secoisolariciresinol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Ghose

    Full Text Available Flax secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG lignan is a natural phytoestrogen for which a positive role in metabolic diseases is emerging. Until recently however, much less was known about SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG biosynthesis. Lately, flax UGT74S1 was identified and characterized as an enzyme sequentially glucosylating secoisolariciresinol (SECO into SMG and SDG when expressed in yeast. However, the amino acids critical for UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase activity were unknown. A 3D structural modeling and docking, site-directed mutagenesis of five amino acids in the plant secondary product glycosyltransferase (PSPG motif, and enzyme assays were conducted. UGT74S1 appeared to be structurally similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana UGT72B1 model. The ligand docking predicted Ser357 and Trp355 as binding to the phosphate and hydroxyl groups of UDP-glucose, whereas Cys335, Gln337 and Trp355 were predicted to bind the 7-OH, 2-OCH3 and 17-OCH3 of SECO. Site-directed mutagenesis of Cys335, Gln337, His352, Trp355 and Ser357, and enzyme assays revealed an alteration of these binding sites and a significant reduction of UGT74S1 glucosyltransferase catalytic activity towards SECO and UDP-glucose in all mutants. A complete abolition of UGT74S1 activity was observed when Trp355 was substituted to Ala355 and Gly355 or when changing His352 to Asp352, and an altered metabolite profile was observed in Cys335Ala, Gln337Ala, and Ser357Ala mutants. This study provided for the first time evidence that Trp355 and His352 are critical for UGT74S1's glucosylation activity toward SECO and suggested the possibility for SMG production in vitro.

  9. Expression of heterologous lycopene β-cyclase gene in flax can cause silencing of its endogenous counterpart by changes in gene-body methylation and in ABA homeostasis mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boba, Aleksandra; Kostyn, Kamil; Preisner, Marta; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2018-03-21

    Previously we described flax plants with expression of Arabidopsis lycopene β-cyclase (lcb) gene in which decreased expression of the endogenous lcb and increased resistance to fungal pathogen was observed. We suggested that co-suppression was responsible for the change. In this study we investigated the molecular basis of the observed effect in detail. We found that methylation changes in the Lulcb gene body might be responsible for repression of the gene. Treatment with azacitidine (DNA methylation inhibitor) confirmed the results. Moreover, we studied how the manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway increased ABA level in these plants. We suggest that elevated ABA levels may be responsible for the increased resistance of the flax plants to pathogen infection through activation of chitinase (PR gene). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Bon Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM. A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW of 552.2 kg were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB, flax seed (FS, or Sunflower seed (SS groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05. Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm was greater (p0.05 scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been caused by increases in flavor related amino acids such as methionine, glutamic acid and α-AAA and peptides, anserine and carnosine, and their complex reactions.

  11. Antioxidants and dairy production: the example of flax Antioxidantes e produção leiteira: o exemplo da linhaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène V. Petit

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reports on the main problems decreasing productivity of dairy cows (e.g. fatty liver syndrome and poor fertility and how antioxidants could enhance it. High producing dairy cows are prone to oxidative stress, and the situation can be exacerbated under certain environmental, physiological, and dietary conditions. Antioxidants have important effects on the expression of genes involved in the antioxidant status, which may enhance animal health and reproduction. Moreover, antioxidants may contribute to decrease the incidence of spontaneous oxidized flavour in milk enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Plant lignans are strong antioxidants and flax is the richest source of plant lignans. Flax lignans are converted in the mammalian lignans enterolactone and enterodiol. The main mammalian lignan in milk is enterolactone and flax lignans are converted in enterolactone mainly under the action of ruminal microbiota. Therefore, ruminal microbiota may be the most important flora to target for plant lignan metabolism in order to increase concentration of mammalian lignan antioxidants in milk of dairy cows. However, more research is required to improve our knowledge on metabolism of other antioxidants in dairy cows and how they can contribute in decreasing milk oxidation.O artigo aborda os principais problemas na diminuição da produtividade de vacas leiteiras (por exemplo, síndrome do fígado gorduroso e baixa fertilidade e como antioxidantes podem melhorá-los. Vacas de alta produção são propensas ao estresse oxidativo, e a situação pode ser exacerbada sob certas condições ambientais, fisiológicas e de alimentação. Os antioxidantes têm importantes efeitos na expressão de genes envolvidos no status antioxidante, o qual pode melhorar a saúde animal e a reprodução. Além disso, os antioxidantes podem contribuir na diminuição da incidência de oxidação espontânea no leite enriquecido com ácidos graxos poli

  12. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1998-01-01

    The target of the project was to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non-economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In fluid bed combustion 10-30 % addition of rape seed straw and reed canary grass, which have high ash melting point, seems to be less problematic compared to other straw species, which are used for example in Denmark. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agro fibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. The laboratory results show that a good quality pulp can be produced to be mixed with conventional wood fibres, the quality of flax pulp is even better compared to conventional pulp. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion. (orig.)

  13. Coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary nutrients from broiler feeds that include oil industry by-products (rapeseeds, grapes, buckthorn, flax and pumpkin meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.

  14. Effect-directed analysis of cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils by planar chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-11-15

    Cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils are healthy oils for human consumption as these are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive phytochemicals. However, bioactive information on the food intake side is mainly focused on target analysis. For more comprehensive information with regard to effects, single bioactive compounds present in the seed oil extracts were detected by effect-directed assays, like bioassays or an enzymatic assay, directly linked with chromatography and further characterized by mass spectrometry. This effect-directed analysis is a streamlined method for the analysis of bioactive compounds in the seed oil extracts. All effective compounds with regard to the five assays or bioassays applied were detected in the samples, meaning also bioactive breakdown products caused during oil processing, residues or contaminants, aside the naturally present bioactive phytochemicals. The investigated cold-pressed oils contained compounds that exert antioxidative, antimicrobial, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and estrogenic activities. This effect-directed analysis can be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food to obtain profound effect-directed information on the food intake side. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  16. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  17. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  18. THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE RODICA. D.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  19. Financial derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Koutný, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  20. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren......Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...

  1. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management......""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...

  2. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  3. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    , postgraduate qualification or MBA programme. This book also caters for practicing managers and executives who need to understand current developments in global derivatives markets and require cutting-edge insight on strategic risk management issues. Dr Torben Juul Andersen is currently Associate Professor...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...

  4. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  5. Electricity derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Barone-Adesi, Giovanni; Gigli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose an algorithm for pricing derivatives written on electricity in an incomplete market setting. A discrete time model for price dynamics which embodies the main features of electricity price revealed by simple time series analysis is considered. We use jointly Binomial and Monte Carlo methods for pricing under a risk-neutral measure of which we prove the existence.

  6. dione derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dione derivatives via de-Boc and cyclization reaction in modest yield. Spectroscopic (1H, 13C NMR, and Mass) and analytical techniques have been used to identify and confirm the structure of the products. Keywords. Triflic anhydride; Boc anhydride; Negishi coupling; acid-amine coupling; cyclization reaction; cytotoxicity ...

  7. Dimension and deriving manner for derived quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhixiang

    1993-01-01

    Most physical quantities we are interested in are derived from some directly measured physical quantities. To obtain correct least-square result in derived quantity space, one must pay attention to inconsistencies problem to avoid ppp phenomenon in generating derived quantities and their covariance matrix. The situation is complicated by the problems of dimension and deriving manner for derived quantities. Some more general problems, which are independent of ppp, are discussed

  8. Use of eco-friendly epoxy resins from renewable resources as potential substitutes of petrochemical epoxy resins for ambient cured composites with flax reinforcements

    OpenAIRE

    Bertomeu Perelló, David; García Sanoguera, David; Fenollar Gimeno, Octavio Ángel; Boronat Vitoria, Teodomiro; Balart Gimeno, Rafael Antonio

    2012-01-01

    [EN] In the last years, some high renewable content epoxy resins, derived from vegetable oils, have been developed at industrial level and are now commercially available; these can compete with petroleum-based resins as thermoset matrices for composite materials. Nevertheless, due to the relatively high cost in comparison to petroleum-based resins, their use is still restricted to applications with relatively low volume consumption such as model making, tuning components, nautical parts, spec...

  9. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  10. Generalized Riemann derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Radulescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by Marshall Ash in 1966, the study of generalized Riemann derivative draw significant attention of the mathematical community and numerous studies where carried out since then. One of the major areas that benefits from these developments is the numerical analysis, as the use of generalized Riemann derivatives leads to solving a wider class of problems that are not solvable with the classical tools. This article studies the generalized Riemann derivative and its properties and establishes relationships between Riemann generalized derivative and the classical one. The existence of classical derivative implies the existence of the Riemann generalized derivative, and we study conditions necessary for the generalized Riemann derivative to imply the existence of the classical derivative. Furthermore, we provide conditions on the generalized Riemann derivative that are sufficient for the existence of the classical derivative.

  11. Cloning and characterization of the first GH10 and GH11 xylanases from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhizhuang; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Lau, Peter C K

    2014-10-01

    The only available genome sequence for Rhizopus oryzae strain 99-880 was annotated to not encode any β-1,4-endoxylanase encoding genes of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 or 11. Here, we report the identification and cloning of two such members in R. oryzae strain NRRL 29086. Strain 29086 was one of several selected fungi grown on wheat or triticale bran and screened for xylanase activity among other hydrolytic actions. Its high activity (138 U/ml) in the culture supernatant led to the identification of two activity-stained proteins, designated Xyn-1 and Xyn-2 of respective molecular masses 32,000 and 22,000. These proteins were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. The specific activities of Xyn-1 and Xyn-2 towards birchwood xylan were 605 and 7,710 U/mg, respectively. Kinetic data showed that the lower molecular weight Xyn-2 had a higher affinity (K m=3.2 ± 0.2 g/l) towards birchwood xylan than Xyn-1 by about 4-fold. The melting temperature (T m) of the two proteins, estimated to be in the range of 49.5-53.7 °C indicated that they are rather thermostable proteins. N-terminal and internal peptide sequences were obtained by chemical digestion of the purified xylanases to facilitate cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, and sequencing of the respective gene. The cloned Rhizopus xylanases were used to demonstrate release of xylose from flax shives-derived hemicellulose as model feedstock. Overall, this study expands the catalytic toolbox of GH10 and 11 family proteins that have applications in various industrial and bioproducts settings.

  12. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  13. The Ungraded Derived Category

    OpenAIRE

    Stai, Torkil Utvik

    2012-01-01

    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  14. Higher derivative mimetic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic gravity in the presence of classified higher derivative terms which can make the mimetic perturbations stable. We show that the quadratic higher derivative terms which are independent of curvature and the cubic higher derivative terms which come from curvature corrections are sufficient to remove instabilities in mimetic perturbations. The classified higher derivative terms have the same dimensions but they contribute differently in the background and perturbed equations. Therefore, we can control both the background and the perturbation equations allowing us to construct the higher derivative extension of mimetic dark matter and the mimetic nonsingular bouncing scenarios. The latter can be thought as a new higher derivative effective action for the loop quantum cosmology scenario in which the equations of motion coincide with those suggested by loop quantum cosmology. We investigate a possible connection between the mimetic cosmology and the Randall-Sundrum cosmology.

  15. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    are known as futures, forwards, options and swaps. Derivatives are traded for the purpose of hedging financial or business risk, speculating in future spot prices and taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities. This market has increased tremendously in recent years. The term derivative is not used......The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...

  16. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  17. Numerical derivation in optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, J.; Salhi, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Newton's method for function minimization possesses an outstanding property. Its final quadratic convergence under very weak hypothesis, but also some drawbacks, among which (i) the possibility of non convergence when starting far from the solution sought and (ii) the necessity of computing (and then programming) the first and second partial derivatives. We show in this paper how to avoid both difficulties, assuming however that the first partial derivatives are computed by exact formulae. The second partial derivatives are computed by central differences of first derivatives. The difference step h is calculated so as to establish a trade-off between accuracy and computation speed. Encouraging numerical experiments support the proposed method [fr

  18. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives a...

  19. The Dangers of Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    Heavy investment in derivatives, whose value derives from the price movement of some underlying security, has meant heavy losses for some colleges and universities despite the fact that institutional investors are required to assure that they understand the risks of such investment. (MSE)

  20. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  1. Retting of Flax by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De França, F P; Rosemberg, J A; De Jesus, A M

    1969-01-01

    In this study, retting was carried out by Aspergillus niger. The pH, galacturonic acid (GA), and total reducing sugar were determined; the end point was identified by the classic empirical processes and by the maximal GA content of the retting water. The process gave clear and resistent fibers, and the retting time was similar to that of current industrial processes with bacterial enzymes. Control of total acidity was not required, since the pH remained close to neutrality throughout the entire process.

  2. Flax reinforced thermoset composites from polyfurfuryl alcohol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available originating from renewable saccharidic biomass. Controlled polymerization of PFA (viscosity of 560 ± 10 cts at 25°C) was carried out under mechanical stirring using p-toulene sulphonic acid (0.3 phr) as a catalyst at 45-50°C for 30 min. Thermal stability...

  3. Retting of Flax by Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    De França, F. P.; Rosemberg, J. A.; De Jesus, A. M.

    1969-01-01

    In this study, retting was carried out by Aspergillus niger. The pH, galacturonic acid (GA), and total reducing sugar were determined; the end point was identified by the classic empirical processes and by the maximal GA content of the retting water. The process gave clear and resistent fibers, and the retting time was similar to that of current industrial processes with bacterial enzymes. Control of total acidity was not required, since the pH remained close to neutrality throughout the entire process. PMID:16349835

  4. The azobenzene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ionica; Radulescu, Cristiana; Poinescu, Aurora Anca; Anghelina, Florina Violeta; Bunghez, Raluca; Ion, Rodica-Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Azobenzene derivatives constitute a group of dyes which have photochromic properties and have been investigated as promising systems for diverse applications in the unconventional optic area, their properties can be moulded with help of light.

  5. ASTEROID LIGHTCURVE DERIVED DATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of published rotational parameters derived from lightcurve data for asteroids, based on the Warner et al. (2009) Asteroid Lightcurve Database....

  6. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  7. Granin-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troger, Josef; Theurl, Markus; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Pasqua, Teresa; Tota, Bruno; Angelone, Tommaso; Cerra, Maria C; Nowosielski, Yvonne; Mätzler, Raphaela; Troger, Jasmin; Gayen, Jaur R; Trudeau, Vance; Corti, Angelo; Helle, Karen B

    2017-07-01

    The granin family comprises altogether 7 different proteins originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system and elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The family is dominated by three uniquely acidic members, namely chromogranin A (CgA), chromogranin B (CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII). Since the late 1980s it has become evident that these proteins are proteolytically processed, intragranularly and/or extracellularly into a range of biologically active peptides; a number of them with regulatory properties of physiological and/or pathophysiological significance. The aim of this comprehensive overview is to provide an up-to-date insight into the distribution and properties of the well established granin-derived peptides and their putative roles in homeostatic regulations. Hence, focus is directed to peptides derived from the three main granins, e.g. to the chromogranin A derived vasostatins, betagranins, pancreastatin and catestatins, the chromogranin B-derived secretolytin and the secretogranin II-derived secretoneurin (SN). In addition, the distribution and properties of the chromogranin A-derived peptides prochromacin, chromofungin, WE14, parastatin, GE-25 and serpinins, the CgB-peptide PE-11 and the SgII-peptides EM66 and manserin will also be commented on. Finally, the opposing effects of the CgA-derived vasostatin-I and catestatin and the SgII-derived peptide SN on the integrity of the vasculature, myocardial contractility, angiogenesis in wound healing, inflammatory conditions and tumors will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  9. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  10. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  11. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective an...

  12. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...

  13. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...] Counterparty exposure management. [cir] Evaluating liquidity risk. Conduct: [cir] Collateral [cir] Accounting... rate risk. This proposed rule applies to federal credit unions and any federally insured, state... derivatives transactions \\1\\ for the purpose of mitigating interest rate risk (IRR). This proposed authority...

  14. Oxalic acid pretreatment for mechanical pulping greatly improves paper strength while maintaining scattering power and reducing shives and triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Swaney; Masood Akhtar; Eric Horn; Michael Lentz; John Klungness; Marc Sabourin

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new technology based on a mild chemical pretreatment process prior to mechanical pulping. Chips are treated with a dilute solution of oxalic acid (OA) for only 10 minute at 130°C, in a typical example. The properties of the pulp produced by this OA process are quite different from those obtained via conventional chemical pretreatments,...

  15. Studies on derivative fluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jinzhang; He Jiang; Wang Xiwen; Wang Zheming; Bai Guangbi

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the derivative spectrofluorimetric determination of trace amounts of Sm, Eu and Tb as their ternary complexes with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and diphenylguanidine. These ternary complexes show excitation bands at 345 nm for Sm and Eu and 350 nm for Tb, and fluorescence bands at 645 nm for Sm, 614 nm for Eu and 545 nm for Tb. A mixture of Sm, Eu and Tb can be determined by second-derivative spectrofluorimetry. The calibration graphs are linear over the range 10-100 p.p.m. for Sm, 0.5-50 p.p.m. for Eu and 100-1000 p.p.m. for Tb. (author)

  16. Insulin-derived amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashdeep Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is the term for diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble polymeric protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Insulin-derived amyloidosis is a rare, yet significant complication of insulin therapy. Insulin-derived amyloidosis at injection site can cause poor glycemic control and increased insulin dose requirements because of the impairment in insulin absorption, which reverse on change of injection site and/or excision of the mass. This entity should be considered and assessed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, in patients with firm/hard local site reactions, which do not regress after cessation of insulin injection at the affected site. Search strategy: PubMed was searched with terms "insulin amyloidosis". Full text of articles available in English was reviewed. Relevant cross references were also reviewed. Last search was made on October 15, 2014.

  17. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  18. Computation of Mie derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bowler, Nicola

    2013-07-10

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the derivatives of Mie scattering coefficients with respect to the electrical radius of the spherical scattering particle, and to the relative permittivity and permeability of both the particle and the surrounding medium. Their corresponding approximate expressions are developed to avoid numerical overflow based on the logarithmic derivative of Riccati-Bessel functions. The analytical expressions have been verified by comparing their results with those calculated by analytical expressions developed by Mathematica. Compared with the numerical derivative, the analytical expressions and approximate expressions show a higher accuracy and are 2.0 and 2.8 times, respectively, faster in the case of a single magnetodielectric sphere. Generally, for spheres with an electrical radius in a large range, the approximate expressions can yield acceptable accuracy and computation time up to a high order. This work can be used in the design of nonmetallic metamaterials, and in the retrieval of aerosol properties from remote sensing data. An example calculation is given for the design of an optical, all-dielectric, mu-negative metamaterial consisting of a simple cubic array of tellurium nanoparticles.

  19. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  20. Characterisation of Flax Fibres and Flax Fibre Composites. Being cellulose based sources of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa

    a transition value, as predicted by the volumetric composition model. This leads furthermore to a scatter in the experimental data of stiffness at high fibre weight fractions. The qualitative analysis of the composite cross sections by microscopy also shows that the low and high pressure composites have......Cellulosic fibres, like wood and plant fibres, have the potential for use as load-bearing constituents in composite materials due to their attractive properties such as high stiffness-to-weight ratio that makes cellulosic fibre composites ideal for many structural applications. There is thus...... a growing interest among composite manufacturers for such low-cost and low-weight cellulosic fibre composites. In addition, wood and plant fibre based composites with thermoplastic polymeric matrices are recyclable, and they are cost attractive alternatives to oil based fibre reinforced polymer composites...

  1. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...... agreements, means of evaluating perform-ance, and so on — can be designed to encourage forms of proxy-entrepreneurship that increase firm value while discouraging actions that destroy value. Building on key ideas from the entrepreneurship literature, Austrian economics, and the economic theory of the firm we...

  2. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.

  3. In defense of derivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  4. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives ...... were identified with 50-fold selectivity for recombinant NR2C/D-containing receptors over NR2A/B containing receptors. These compounds represent a new class of noncompetitive subunit-selective NMDA receptor antagonists.......We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives...... is noncompetitive and voltage-independent, suggesting that this family of compounds does not exert action on the agonist binding site of the receptor or block the channel pore. The compounds described here resemble CP-465,022 ((S)-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-[2-(6-diethylaminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-vinyl]-6-fluoro-3H...

  5. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  6. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  7. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  8. Metal borohydrides and derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paskevicius, Mark; Haarh Jepsen, Lars; Schouwink, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    review new synthetic strategies along with structural, physical and chemical properties for metal borohydrides, revealing a number of new trends correlating composition, structure, bonding and thermal properties. These new trends provide general knowledge and may contribute to the design and discovery......A wide variety of metal borohydrides, MBH4, have been discovered and characterized during the past decade, revealing an extremely rich chemistry including fascinating structural flexibility and a wide range of compositions and physical properties. Metal borohydrides receive increasing interest...... major classes of metal borohydride derivatives have also been discovered: anion-substituted compounds where the complex borohydride anion, BH4 -, is replaced by another anion, i.e. a halide or amide ion; and metal borohydrides modified with neutral molecules, such as NH3, NH3BH3, N2H4, etc. Here, we...

  9. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  10. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol

  11. Development of credit derivatives trading

    OpenAIRE

    Kunovjánek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on the structure and development of credit derivatives market. The thesis provides a basic summary for insight into credit derivatives market. The first part deals with general specifications of derivatives, their structure, functions and relevant categorization. The main chapter is dedicated to the most frequently used variants of credit derivatives, namely, credit default swap, total return swap and credit-linked note. Predominantly traded credit default swap ...

  12. Synthesis of Glucose Spiropiperazinone Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiļjevs, D

    2013-01-01

    Piperazinone derivatives аге noticeable peptidometics; therefore, they сап replace peptides, such as RGD and Leu-enkephalin in different biological processes. Some piperazinone derivatives are anticoagulants, others act like neurotransmitters. Herein, we report an approach for the synthesis of поуеl piperazinone ring containing spiro-derivatives of glucose.

  13. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  14. Hyperlanguage, derivation and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marta Furlanetto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as its background a research on the trends of derivation in cultivated Brazilian Portuguese, whose partial results have allowed a reflection on the synthesis-theme: the functioning of a hyperlanguage. A hyperlanguage (notion developed by Sylvain Auroux, serves subjects, spatially and temporally, with certain linguistic capacities, immersed in a world in which there are, among other things, technical artifacts as grammars and dictionaries, which have a descriptive, but also a normative role. The result is a constant dispute between stabilization and destabilization (centripetal and centrifugal forces, in Bakhtin. By also using the play structure/event, according to the discursive semantics by Michel Pêcheux, my goal is to further reflect on the issues raised, approaching the historical-discursive provisionality of the identities in the production of meaning effects. From the practical standpoint, I point to the emergence of heterogeneous genres, as those which exploit humor, with indefinite authorship, and I propose the discursive reading of a sample.

  15. Derivative spectrophotometry of cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of derivative spectrophotometry is briefly described, and derivative absorption spectra are presented for samarium, cobalt, and commercial Sm-Co alloys. It is shown that the use of derivative spectrophotometry not only improves the accuracy and selectivity of element determinations but also simplifies the analysis of alloys. Results of a statistical evaluation of the metrological characteristics of the analytical procedure described here are presented. 8 references

  16. Push-outs of derivations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B containing A as an ideal, thereby exploiting (or establishing) hereditary properties. This is usually done using ... space X [Bl, G2], it is exploited that derivations can be extended to the Banach alge- bra B(X) of all ... A derivation is inner if it is of the form a ↦→ a.x − x.a for some x ∈ X. The vector space of all derivations D: A ...

  17. [Urine derivation after radical cystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarabák, J; Zachoval, R; Vik, V

    2014-01-01

    Radical cystectomy, performed both for the treatment of cancer and other conditions, needs to be followed by ensuring the derivation of urine. The aim of this work is to summarize the possibilities of urine derivation after cystectomy, their advantages, disadvantages and long-term results. A review article summarising relevant literature and the team of authors own experience. This work compares advantages and risks of different types of urine derivation following radical cystectomy.

  18. derivatives: Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    traced to or were inspired by natural products.1 These include natural products, natural product derivatives, synthetic compounds with natural product derived phar- macophores and synthetic compounds designed on the basis of knowledge gained from a natural product.2. Similarly, isocoumarins are an important class of.

  19. Tame-wild dichotomy for derived categories

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkert, Viktor I.; Drozd, Yuriy A.

    2003-01-01

    We prove that every finite dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field is either derived tame or derived wild. The proof is based on the technique of matrix problems (boxes and reduction algorithm). It implies, in particular, that any degeneration of a derived wild algebra is derived wild; respectively, any deformation of a derived tame algebra is derived tame.

  20. Jordan-H\\"older theorems for derived categories of derived discrete algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yongyun

    2015-01-01

    For any positive integer $n$, $n$-derived-simple derived discrete algebras are classified up to derived equivalence. Furthermore, the Jordan-H\\"older theorems for all kinds of derived categories of derived discrete algebras are obtained.

  1. Therapeutic Versatility of Resveratrol Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Waqas; Zhou, Zhongqin; Deng, Sa; Ma, Xiaodong; Ma, Xiaochi; Li, Chuangang; Shu, Xiaohong

    2017-10-29

    Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, exhibits a remarkable range of biological activities, such as anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. However, the therapeutic application of resveratrol was encumbered for its low bioavailability. Therefore, many researchers focused on designing and synthesizing the derivatives of resveratrol to enhance the bioavailability and the pharmacological activity of resveratrol. During the past decades, a large number of natural and synthetic resveratrol derivatives were extensively studied, and the methoxylated, hydroxylated and halogenated derivatives of resveratrol received particular more attention for their beneficial bioactivity. So, in this review, we will summarize the chemical structure and the therapeutic versatility of resveratrol derivatives, and thus provide the related structure activity relationship reference for their practical applications.

  2. Deriving belief operators from preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.

    2000-01-01

    A belief operator derived from preferences is presented. It generalizes ‘belief with probability1’ to incomplete preferences and satisfies minimal requirements for belief operators under weak conditions.

  3. Elementary derivation of Kepler's laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1995-02-01

    A simple derivation of all three so-called Kepler Laws is presented in which the orbits, bound and unbound, follow directly and immediately from conservation of energy and angular momentum. The intent is to make this crowning achievement of Newtonian Mechanics easily accessible to students in introductory physics courses. The method is also extended to simplify the derivation of the Rutherford Scattering Law. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  4. Derivatives Trading and Negative Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Spamann, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This paper exposits a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities with their corporate control rights for the sole purpose of reducing the corporations value and gaining on a net short position created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position. The large trader requires no private information beyond its own trades. The problem i...

  5. Push-outs of derivations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extension as a limit of operators b ↦→ D(ba) − b.D(a), a ∈ A in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations ...

  6. Electricity derivatives and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, S.J. [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0205 (United States); Oren, S.S. [Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Electricity spot prices in the emerging power markets are volatile, a consequence of the unique physical attributes of electricity production and distribution. Uncontrolled exposure to market price risks can lead to devastating consequences for market participants in the restructured electricity industry. Lessons learned from the financial markets suggest that financial derivatives, when well understood and properly utilized, are beneficial to the sharing and controlling of undesired risks through properly structured hedging strategies. We review different types of electricity financial instruments and the general methodology for utilizing and pricing such instruments. In particular, we highlight the roles of these electricity derivatives in mitigating market risks and structuring hedging strategies for generators, load serving entities, and power marketers in various risk management applications. Finally, we conclude by pointing out the existing challenges in current electricity markets for increasing the breadth, liquidity and use of electricity derivatives for achieving economic efficiency. (author)

  7. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  8. Relieving of Misconceptions of Derivative Concept with Derive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Ozturk, Mesut; Ocal, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine students' learning levels in derivative subjects and their misconceptions. In addition, this study aims to compared to the effects of the computer based instruction and traditional instruction in resolving these misconceptions. For this purpose, 12th grade 70 students were chosen from high schools in Agri…

  9. Synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlyanoi, V.N.; Aleksandrov, A.M.; Kukhar', V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the synthesis and properties of 2-phosphadamantane derivatives. For the synthesis of 2-phosphaadamantane derivatives they decided to use the methodology of the synthesis of 2-thiaadamantane. The IR spectra were determined on CHCl 3 solutions with a Specord 711R spectrometer, the PMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-467 (60 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (200 MHz) spectrometers, external standard hexamethyldisiloxane, the 31 P NMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-487 C (30 MHz) and Bruker WP-200 (81 MHz) spectrometers, external standard 85% phosphoric acid, and the mass spectra were determined on an MS-1302 spectrometer

  10. Derived equivalences for group rings

    CERN Document Server

    König, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.

  11. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  12. Development of a biotechnological process for the production of high quality linen fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Juárez, Ana Gabriela; Rost, Gernot; Heitmann, Uwe; Heger, Egon; Müller, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    A novel biotechnological process for the production of high-quality flax fibers was developed. In this process, decorticated fibers from green flax were washed with 0.5% soda solution and treated with the pectinolytic strain Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius PB94A. Before drying the fibers, they were treated with the textile softener Adulcinol BUN. If the fibers contained contaminant shives, a bleaching step with hydrogen peroxide was performed before the softener treatment. In experiments where fibers were treated by the new process, and in which the bacterial solutions were reused seven times, the fiber quality was similar in all batches. The resolution of the treated fibers was 2.7 ± 0.4 and the fineness was 11.1 ± 1.1 dtex, while the starting material had a resolution of 7.3 and a fineness of 37 dtex. The new biotechnological treatment eliminates the weather-associated risks of the traditional fiber retting completely and produces consistently high-quality fibers that can be used to produce fine linen yarns.

  13. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125 I. (author)

  14. Antileishmanial activity of polycyclic derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarciron M.E.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available 33 polycyclic derivatives have been studied and tested on Leishmania donovani and L. major promastigotes. Their antileishmanial activity was assessed in vitro and an assay of their cytotoxicity was realized on human myelomonocytic cell line. The reference molecules used in the assays were amphotericin B and pentamidine. Among the compounds tested, 29 possess an antileishmanial activity; 25 of those were more active against L. donovani than amphotericin B, and nine were as effective as amphotericin B against L. major. Many synthesized derivatives were more active against L.donovani than against L. major. The cytotoxicity studies have shown that among the thirty-three derivatives tested, 12 molecules have an IC50 towards THP-1 cells about equal than that reference drugs, the 21 other derivatives are much less toxic. A 3D QSAR study was undertaken and has permitted to predict activity against L. donovani and L. major and to highlight critical area to optimize activity against the two species.

  15. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...

  16. Derivation of Schwinger variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmytkowski, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present systematic derivations of bilinear and fractional Schwinger variational principles for matrix elements of a generalized transition operator in the context of quantum mechanical potential scattering. The employed method is based on a generalization of the method of Lagrange multipliers

  17. First derivative potentiometric and spectrophotometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sets out to provide simple, inexpensive and sensitive analytical techniques for the assay of cimetidine in tablet dosage forms using first derivative potentiometric and UV-spectrophotometric techniques, with a view to providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analytical methods. Ten brands of cimetidine tablets ...

  18. Alchemical derivatives of reaction energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Daniel; Henkelman, Graeme; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

    2010-08-01

    Based on molecular grand canonical ensemble density functional theory, we present a theoretical description of how reaction barriers and enthalpies change as atoms in the system are subjected to alchemical transformations, from one element into another. The change in the energy barrier for the umbrella inversion of ammonia is calculated along an alchemical path in which the molecule is transformed into water, and the change in the enthalpy of protonation for methane is calculated as the molecule is transformed into a neon atom via ammonia, water, and hydrogen fluoride. Alchemical derivatives are calculated analytically from the electrostatic potential in the unperturbed system, and compared to numerical derivatives calculated with finite difference interpolation of the pseudopotentials for the atoms being transformed. Good agreement is found between the analytical and numerical derivatives. Alchemical derivatives are also shown to be predictive for integer changes in atomic numbers for oxygen binding to a 79 atom palladium nanoparticle, illustrating their potential use in gradient-based optimization algorithms for the rational design of catalysts.

  19. Radiological protection optimization using derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Acosta Perez, C. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a different approach related to the integral cost-benefit and extended cost-benefit analysis used in the decision-aiding techniques. In the ICRP publication 55 the annual protection cost is envisaged as a set of points, each of them representing an option, linked by a straight line. The detriment cost function is considered a linear function whose angular coefficient is determined by the alpha value. In this paper the uranium mine example considered in the ICRP publication 55 was used. But the potential curve was introduced both in the integral cost benefit analysis and in the extended cost-benefit analysis, which the individual dose distribution attribute is added. The result was obtained using derivatives. The detriment cost, Y, is not necessary because the alpha value is known. The Y derivative dS/dY is the alpha value itself and so, the attention is directed to the derivative -dX/dS on the points that, along with the alpha value, present the optimum option. The results makes clear that the prevailing factor in the optimum option selection is the alpha value imputed, and those a single alpha value, as suggested now, probably as little efficiency on the optimization process. Obtaining a curve for the alpha value and using the derivative technique introduced in this paper, the analytical solution is more convenient and reliable compared to the one used now. (authors)

  20. Novel bisstyryl derivatives of bakuchiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Mallepally V; Thota, Niranjan; Sangwan, Payare L

    2010-01-01

    Novel bisstyryl derivatives of bakuchiol using Heck coupling reaction as the key step were synthesized and screened against a panel of six oral cavity pathogens for their antimicrobial activity. Four compounds (9-12) showed two to fourfold and four to eightfold better activity (MIC 0.25-16 microg...

  1. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new, simple, rapid, wide applicable range and reliable second derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of cyclophosphamide (CP) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Calibration graph is linear in the concentration range of 25 - 200 μg/ml of CP with 10 μg/ml of detection limit and ...

  2. Therapeutic Versatility of Resveratrol Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Waqas Nawaz; Zhongqin Zhou; Sa Deng; Xiaodong Ma; Xiaochi Ma; Chuangang Li; Xiaohong Shu

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, exhibits a remarkable range of biological activities, such as anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. However, the therapeutic application of resveratrol was encumbered for its low bioavailability. Therefore, many researchers focused on designing and synthesizing the derivatives of resveratrol to enhance the bioavailability and the pharmacological activity of resveratrol. During the past decades, a large number of natural a...

  3. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemn

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... olanzapine in pharmaceutical formulation.Int.J.ChemTech. Res.2(1):756-761. Stanisz B, Paszun S, Lesniak M (2009). Validation of UV derivative spectrophotometric method for determination of benazepril hydrochloride in tablets and evaluation of its stability.ActaPoloniaePharmaceutica-Drug Research.

  4. Higher-derivative generalization of conformal mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovsky, Oleg

    2017-08-01

    Higher-derivative analogs of multidimensional conformal particle and many-body conformal mechanics are constructed. Their Newton-Hooke counterparts are derived by applying appropriate coordinate transformations.

  5. Derivatives in energy project finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

  6. Position Estimation Using Image Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Daniele; deDilectis, Francesco; Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an image processing algorithm to process Moon and/or Earth images. The theory presented is based on the fact that Moon hard edge points are characterized by the highest values of the image derivative. Outliers are eliminated by two sequential filters. Moon center and radius are then estimated by nonlinear least-squares using circular sigmoid functions. The proposed image processing has been applied and validated using real and synthetic Moon images.

  7. Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like amoption based on gold, when national currency has a great float.Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.

  8. Derived equivalences induced by good silting complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Breaz, Simion; Modoi, George Ciprian

    2017-01-01

    Consider a (possibly big) silting object $U$ in a derived category over a (dg-)algebra $A$. Under some fairly general appropriate hypotheses, we show that it induces derived equivalences between the derived category over $A$ and a localization of the derived category of dg-endomorphism algebra $B$ of $U$. If, in addition, $U$ is small then this localization is the whole derived category over $B$.

  9. Deformable fractional derivative and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Priyanka; Zulfeqarr, Fahed; Ujlayan, Amit

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce an application of recently proposed deformable derivative which is equivalent to ordinary derivative in the sense that one implies other. The deformable derivative is defined using limit approach as ordinary derivative. Thus it could also be regarded as fractional derivative. The simple nature of this definition allows us for the extension of some classical theorems in calculus like the Rolles, Mean Value and Extended Mean Value theorems. As a theoritical application some fractional differentiable equations are solved.

  10. Development trends of the international derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    Motorniuk, U.; Terebukh, M.; Kharchuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    The factors forming international derivatives market trends are researched in this article. The history of the formation of the global derivatives market was analyzed, in particular, events which have led to the growth of the derivatives market. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transformation of its structure, observed in recent years. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transf...

  11. Bacteria responsible for the retting of Brazilian flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, J A

    1965-11-01

    Twenty-two species of bacteria were isolated from Linum usitatissimum stored for retting. Achromobacter parvulus, Clostridium beijerinckii, C. saprogenes, C. saccharoacetoperbutylicum, C. perenne, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its achromogenic variety are retting agents. The last species mentioned performs the retting in only 72 hr. This is the first time A. parvulus has been shown to be a retting agent.

  12. Preparation, characterization and functional properties of flax seed protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Pratibha; Dowling, Kim; McKnight, Stafford; Barrow, Colin J; Wang, Bo; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-04-15

    Flaxseed protein isolate (FPI) was extracted from flaxseeds, and its amino acid composition and functional properties (solubility, thermal stability, emulsifying properties and electrostatic charge density, water holding and fat absorption capacities) were determined. The highest purity of FPI (90.6%) was achieved by extraction at 60°C. FPI had a low lysine to arginine ratio of 0.25, which is desired in heart-healthy foods and infant formulas. The denaturation temperature of FPI was 105°C. FPI had the highest emulsion activity index (375.51 m(2)/g), highest emulsion stability index (179.5 h) and zeta potential (-67.4 mV) when compared to those of other commonly used proteins, such as sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), gelatin (Gel) and soy protein isolate (SPI). The average emulsion droplet size of emulsions stabilized by these proteins was in the order SC

  13. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available , the composites showed accelerated biodegradation with 20–25% loss in weight after 50–60 days. On the other hand, in presence of dicumyl peroxide (as additive), biodegradation of the composites was relatively slow as confirmed by only 5–10% loss in weight even...

  14. Iron and iron derived radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fast! Think small! In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  16. Resorcinol derivatives from Ardisia maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Wu, Feng-E

    2007-01-01

    Besides a series of known sterols and triterpenoids, a new resorcinol (1) and a known resorcinol (2) have been isolated from ethanol extract of Ardisia maculosa for the first time. The structures of these resorcinol derivatives were elucidated as 2-methyl-5-(Z-heptadec-8-enyl) resorcinol and 5-Z-heptadec-8-enyl) resorcinol by HRESI-MS, NMR ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC) experiments. In our in vitro assay, compounds 1 and 2 showed no antimicrobial activities, however, compound 2 exhibited cytotoxity activity against human cancer cell line with GI(50) value of 2.14 x 10(- 4) mmol/ml.

  17. Radioiodination of C60 derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuguo; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Qingnuan; Li Wenxin

    2001-01-01

    The water-soluble C 60 derivative was iodo-labelled radioactively with Iodogen method. The labelled yield was measured by Silica GF254 TLC. The effects of pH value, time, temperature and the amount of Iodogen on the labelled yield were studied. 125 I-C 60 (OH) x O y was purified by Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and then the stability of 125 I-C 60 (OH) x O y was examined. The results showed that the radiochemical purity of 125 I-C 60 (OH) x O y solution with 2% benzylalcohol remained 82.7% after 43h

  18. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  19. Derivative Kernels: Numerics and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahdi S; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N

    2017-10-01

    A generalized framework for numerical differentiation (ND) is proposed for constructing a finite impulse response (FIR) filter in closed form. The framework regulates the frequency response of ND filters for arbitrary derivative-order and cutoff frequency selected parameters relying on interpolating power polynomials and maximally flat design techniques. Compared with the state-of-the-art solutions, such as Gaussian kernels, the proposed ND filter is sharply localized in the Fourier domain with ripple-free artifacts. Here, we construct 2D MaxFlat kernels for image directional differentiation to calculate image differentials for arbitrary derivative order, cutoff level and steering angle. The resulted kernel library renders a new solution capable of delivering discrete approximation of gradients, Hessian, and higher-order tensors in numerous applications. We tested the utility of this library on three different imaging applications with main focus on the unsharp masking. The reported results highlight the high efficiency of the 2D MaxFlat kernel and its versatility with respect to robustness and parameter control accuracy.

  20. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC

  1. Derivative Sign Patterns in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Given a function defined on a subset of the plane whose partial derivatives never change sign, the signs of the partial derivatives form a two-dimensional pattern. We explore what patterns are possible for various planar domains.

  2. fq-Derivations of G-Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Al-Kadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of fq-derivation as a new derivation of G-algebra. For an endomorphism map f of any G-algebra X, we show that at least one fq-derivation of X exists. Moreover, for such a map, we show that a self-map dqf of X is fq-derivation of X if X is an associative medial G-algebra. For a medial G-algebra X, dqf is fq-derivation of X if dqf is an outside fq-derivation of X. Finally, we show that if f is the identity endomorphism of X then the composition of two fq-derivations of X is a fq-derivation. Moreover, we give a condition to get a commutative composition.

  3. Surprising Results Using Calculators for Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Albert; Kahan, Jeremy

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to answer and generalize the question: When is the numerical derivative obtained on the graphing calculator greater than the actual derivative, and when is it smaller? Discusses symmetric difference. (MKR)

  4. Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.

  5. Cytotoxicity study of pyrazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Binta Ahasan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrazolone heterocyclic compound, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one 2(a was synthesized by condensation reaction between ethyl acetoacetate and phenyl hydrazine and was converted into their corresponding heterocyclic derivatives 2(b to 2(f2 . Their cytotoxicity effects were measured by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among them the compounds 2(b , 2(f1 , and 2(f2 were highly active according to IC50 values 19.50, 19.50 and 20 ppm respectively. The rest of compounds 2(a , 2(c , 2(d1 , and 2(d2 having IC50 values 38, 33.50, 37.50, 36, 37.50 and 36 ppm in that order, were moderately active.

  6. Cytotoxicity study of pyrazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Binta Ahasan and Md. Rabiul Islam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrazolone heterocyclic compound, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one 2(a was synthesized by condensation reaction between ethyl acetoacetate and phenyl hydrazine and was converted into their corresponding heterocyclic derivatives 2(b to 2(f2. Their cytotoxicity effects were measured by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among them the compounds 2(b, 2(f1, and 2(f2 were highly active according to IC50 values 19.50, 19.50 and 20 ppm respectively. The rest of compounds 2(a, 2(c, 2(d1, and 2(d2 having IC50 values 38, 33.50, 37.50, 36, 37.50 and 36 ppm in that order, were moderately active.

  7. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  9. Polymer-Derived Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    SiC-based ceramic fibers are derived from polycarbosilane or polymetallocarbosilane precursors and are classified into three groups according to their chemical composition, oxygen content, and C/Si atomic ratio. The first-generation fibers are Si-C-O (Nicalon) fibers and Si-Ti-C-O (Tyranno Lox M) fibers. Both fibers contain more than 10-wt% oxygen owing to oxidation during curing and lead to degradation in strength at temperatures exceeding 1,300°C. The maximum use temperature is 1,100°C. The second-generation fibers are SiC (Hi-Nicalon) fibers and Si-Zr-C-O (Tyranno ZMI) fibers. The oxygen content of these fibers is reduced to less than 1 wt% by electron beam irradiation curing in He. The thermal stability of these fibers is improved (they are stable up to 1,500°C), but their creep resistance is limited to a maximum of 1,150°C because their C/Si atomic ratio results in excess carbon. The third-generation fibers are stoichiometric SiC fibers, i.e., Hi-Nicalon Type S (hereafter Type S), Tyranno SA, and Sylramic™ fibers. They exhibit improved thermal stability and creep resistance up to 1,400°C. Stoichiometric SiC fibers meet many of the requirements for the use of ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature structural application. SiBN3C fibers derived from polyborosilazane also show promise for structural applications, remain in the amorphous state up to 1,800°C, and have good high-temperature creep resistance.

  10. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  11. 40 CFR 721.5913 - Phenothiazine derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenothiazine derivative. 721.5913... Substances § 721.5913 Phenothiazine derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenothiazine derivative (PMN P-96-813) is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1820 - Bisphenol derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bisphenol derivative. 721.1820 Section... Substances § 721.1820 Bisphenol derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol derivative (PMN No. P-92-509) is...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9658 - Thiadiazole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thiadiazole derivative. 721.9658... Substances § 721.9658 Thiadiazole derivative. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a thiadiazole derivative (PMN P-94-1631) is subject to...

  14. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative...

  15. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a) Persons need not possess original classification authority to derivatively classify information based on source...

  16. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is defined... already classified, and marking the newly developed material consistent with the classification markings...

  17. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Intelligence. (4) When determining the most restrictive declassification instruction among multiple source... shall appear as: Derived From: Multiple Sources (ii) The derivative classifier shall include a listing... derivatively classified on the basis of a source document that is itself marked “Multiple Sources” shall cite...

  18. 12 CFR 563.172 - Financial derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... underlying assets, indices, or reference rates. The most common types of financial derivatives are futures, forward commitments, options, and swaps. A mortgage derivative security, such as a collateralized mortgage... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial derivatives. 563.172 Section 563.172...

  19. Deriving the bond pricing equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the recent focus on Eurozone debt crisis and the credit rating downgrade not only of US debt, but that of other countries and many UK major banking institutions, this paper aims to explain the concept of bond yield, its different measures and bond pricing equation. Yields on capital market instruments are rarely quoted on the same basis, which makes direct comparison between different as investment choices impossible. Some debt instruments are quoted on discount basis, whilst coupon-bearing ones accrue interest differently, offer different compounding opportunities, have different coupon payment frequencies, and manage non-business day maturity dates differently. Moreover, rules governing debt vary across countries, markets and currencies, making yield calculation and comparison a rather complex issue. Thus, some fundamental concepts applicable to debt instrument yield measurement, with focus on bond equation, are presented here. In addition, bond equation expressed in annuity form and used to apply Newton-Raphson algorithm to derive true bond yield is also shown.

  20. The estimation of derived limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.; Bryant, P.M.; Clarke, R.H.; Morley, F.

    1979-08-01

    In practical radiation protection, it is often necessary to calculate limits of intake of radionuclides associated with various quantities; such limits are needed, for example, to assess the adequacy of the control of environmental contamination. In publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), these limits, when related to the basic limits of dose-equivalent by a defined model, are referred to as Derived Limits (DLs). In the present report the principles to be adopted by the Board in calculating DLs to be recommended for general application within the United Kingdom are outlined. DLs will be recommended for a wide range of radionuclides and for circumstances relevant to the workplace, and, more frequently, the general environment. The latter will include DLs in foodstuffs and associated environmental materials, such as soil and grass, and DLs for discharges from stacks. DLs will be related to dose equivalents for workers or members of the public for stochastic or non-stochastic effects as appropriate. Consideration will be given to relevant data on radiosensitivity, metabolism and dosimetry for children and to the physicochemical forms of radionuclides. (author)

  1. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  2. Speeding up Derivative Configuration from Product Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Heradio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To compete in the global marketplace, manufacturers try to differentiate their products by focusing on individual customer needs. Fulfilling this goal requires that companies shift from mass production to mass customization. Under this approach, a generic architecture, named product platform, is designed to support the derivation of customized products through a configuration process that determines which components the product comprises. When a customer configures a derivative, typically not every combination of available components is valid. To guarantee that all dependencies and incompatibilities among the derivative constituent components are satisfied, automated configurators are used. Flexible product platforms provide a big number of interrelated components, and so, the configuration of all, but trivial, derivatives involves considerable effort to select which components the derivative should include. Our approach alleviates that effort by speeding up the derivative configuration using a heuristic based on the information theory concept of entropy.

  3. Perturbative reduction of derivative order in EFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, Dražen

    2018-02-01

    Higher derivative corrections are ubiquitous in effective field theories, which seemingly introduces new degrees of freedom at successive orders. This is actually an artefact of the implicit local derivative expansion defining effective field theories. We argue that higher derivative corrections that introduce additional degrees of freedom should be removed and their effects captured either by lower derivative corrections, or special combinations of higher derivative corrections not propagating extra degrees of freedom. Three methods adapted for this task are examined and field redefinitions are found to be most appropriate. First order higher derivative corrections in a scalar tensor theory are removed by field redefinition and it is found that their effects are captured by a subset of Horndeski theories. A case is made for restricting the effective field theory expansions in principle to only terms not introducing additional degrees of freedom.

  4. Conformable derivative approach to anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. W.; Yang, S.; Zhang, S. Q.

    2018-02-01

    By using a new derivative with fractional order, referred to conformable derivative, an alternative representation of the diffusion equation is proposed to improve the modeling of anomalous diffusion. The analytical solutions of the conformable derivative model in terms of Gauss kernel and Error function are presented. The power law of the mean square displacement for the conformable diffusion model is studied invoking the time-dependent Gauss kernel. The parameters related to the conformable derivative model are determined by Levenberg-Marquardt method on the basis of the experimental data of chloride ions transportation in reinforced concrete. The data fitting results showed that the conformable derivative model agrees better with the experimental data than the normal diffusion equation. Furthermore, the potential application of the proposed conformable derivative model of water flow in low-permeability media is discussed.

  5. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  6. Derivative markets in emerging economies: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Atılgan, Yiğit; Atilgan, Yigit; Demirtaş, Özgür; Demirtas, Ozgur; Şimşek, Koray Deniz; Simsek, Koray Deniz

    2016-01-01

    We review the literature on derivatives in emerging markets. This young but booming literature appears to be concentrated on a few countries, but is quite rich in terms of subject coverage. We classify these topics based on the generally recognized functions of derivative markets and restrict the review to the set of top journals in finance and those that specialize on emerging markets or derivatives.

  7. Transchromosomally derived Ig heavy chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, K.L.; Kingzette, M.; Crane, M.A. [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-15

    During an immune response, activated B cells undergo isotype switching and begin to express isotypes other than IgM and IgD. Isotype switching occurs when downstream C{gamma}, C{alpha}, or C{epsilon} genes are rearranged into the S{mu} chromosomal region, resulting in the deletion of the region in between. These rearrangements usually occur in cis, i.e., intrachromosomally. In previous studies, we analyzed allotypic specificities of rabbit secretory IgA and identified a substantial number of IgA heavy chains with V{sub h} and C{alpha} allotypes that were encoded by V{sub h} and C{alpha} genes in trans. In those studies, however, we could not determine whether the trans association of V{sub H} and C{alpha} occurred during VDJ gene rearrangement or during isotype switching. Here, we cloned rabbit cDNA which encodes these trans IgA heavy chains and determined the chromosomal origin of the V{sub H}, J{sub H}, and C{alpha} regions. To determine whether the trans association occurred during VDJ gene rearrangement, we analyzed the nucleotide polymorphism of the J{sub H} region and the V{sub H} allotype encoded by the cDNA. We found that the V{sub H} and J{sub H} genes used in the VDJ gene rearrangements were from the same chromosome, indicating that the V{sub H}, D, and J{sub H} gene rearrangements occurred in cis. Furthermore, we analyzed the DNA polymorphisms of J{sub H} and C{alpha} and showed that the VDJ and C{alpha} genes encoding the trans IgA molecules were derived from different parental chromosomes. We suggest that the trans association occurred during isotype switching. This study shows that V{sub H} and C{sub H} can associate transchromosomally as part of a normal immune response. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  8. OLS ANALOG DERIVED LIGHTNING V11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OLS Analog Derived Lightning dataset consists of global lightning signatures from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System...

  9. Heteropolyacids in synthesis of benzoyl hydrazone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodeh Sadjadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Keggin type of heteropolyacids as green reusable and efficient catalyst was used in the synthesis of benzoyl hydrazones from reaction of benzoic acid hydrazide and aldehyde and ketone derivatives. The synthesis of N-acetyl and N-benzoyl derivatives has also been performed by the reaction of obtained benzoyl hydrazones with acylcholorides in presence of this kind of heteropolyacids.

  10. Molecular dynamics of a proguanil derivative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    ABSTRACT. Proguanil is a prophylactic antimalarial drug t stopping the malaria parasites from reprod molecular dynamics of a derivative of Progua benzene ring of the molecule of Proguanil derivative. The molecular geometries of chemical calculations at the Restricted Hatre. 31G(d,p) and 6-31++G. Also, Density Func.

  11. "Nonmorphological Derivations" and the Four Main English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the problem of "nonmorphological derivations" in English and its consequences for pedagogical lexicography, i.e. learner's dictionaries. The term "nonmorphological derivation" refers to cases such as sun — solar, moon — lunar, cat — feline, and in general to all cases where instead of, or in addition ...

  12. Synthesis of Lipophilic Guanine N-9 Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Michael C; Pedersen, Pernille L; Löffler, Philipp M G

    2017-01-01

    the synthesis of five new guanine-N9 derivatives bearing alkyl chains with different attachment chemistries, exploiting a synthesis pathway that allows a flexible choice of hydrophobic anchor moiety. In this study, these guanine derivatives were functionalized with C10 chains for insertion into decanoic acid...

  13. Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.

    In chapter

  14. Few Fractional Order Derivatives and Their Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an introductory development of fractional order derivatives and their computations. Historical development of fractional calculus is discussed. This paper presents how to obtain computational results of fractional order derivatives for some elementary functions. Computational results are illustrated in tabular and graphical…

  15. Stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R. H.; Ardiyanti, A. R.; Wildschut, J.; Oasmaa, A.; Heeres, H. J.

    BACKGROUND: Biomass is the only renewable feedstock containing carbon, and therefore the only alternative to fossil-derived crude oil derivatives. However, the main problems concerning the application of biomass for biofuels and bio-based chemicals are related to transport and handling, the limited

  16. Understanding the Derivative through the Calculus Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eric; Tallman, Michael; Byerley, Cameron; Thompson, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Typical treatments of the derivative do not clearly convey the idea that the derivative function represents the original function's rate of change. Revealing the relationship between a function and its rate-of-change function for static values of "x" does not facilitate productive ways of thinking about generating the rate-of-change function or…

  17. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct from “original” classification is the determination that information is in substance the same as...

  18. 46 CFR 503.55 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 503.55 Section 503.55... Security Program § 503.55 Derivative classification. (a) In accordance with Part 2 of Executive Order 12958... developed material consistent with the classification markings that apply to the source information, is...

  19. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as the...

  20. 17 CFR 200.506 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 200...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Classification and Declassification of National Security Information and Material § 200.506 Derivative classification. Any document that includes paraphrases...

  1. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6... classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating or... with the classification of the source material. Duplication or reproduction of existing classified...

  2. "Nonmorphological Derivations" and the Four Main English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: This article addresses the problem of "nonmorphological derivations" in English and its consequences for pedagogical lexicography, i.e. learner's dictionaries. The term "nonmorpholo- gical derivation" refers to cases such as sun — solar, moon — lunar, cat — feline, and in general to all cases where instead of, ...

  3. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters......, and validate the final force field, Alternatives to force field derivation are discussed briefly....

  4. Weyl and Marchaud Derivatives: A Forgotten History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Ferrari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we recall the contribution given by Hermann Weyl and André Marchaud to the notion of fractional derivative. In addition, we discuss some relationships between the fractional Laplace operator and Marchaud derivative in the perspective to generalize these objects to different fields of the mathematics.

  5. Weyl and Marchaud derivatives: a forgotten history

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we recall the contribution given by Hermann Weyl and André Marchaud to the notion of fractional derivative. In addition, we discuss some relationships between the fractional Laplace operator and Marchaud derivative in the perspective to generalize these objects to different fields of the mathematics.

  6. The Option Value in Timing Derivative Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Feico; van der Heijden, T.G.E.; Werker, Bas

    Risk-neutral traders executing derivative trades on behalf of portfolio managers maximize their expected profit compared to trading at pre-determined times by timing trades, using the quickly changing risk exposures of derivative baskets. The optimal order submission strategy is a sequence of stop

  7. Heteropolyacids in synthesis of benzoyl hydrazone derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keggin type of heteropolyacids as green reusable and efficient catalyst was used in the synthesis of benzoyl hydrazones from reaction of benzoic acid hydrazide and aldehyde and ketone derivatives. The synthesis of N-acetyl and N-benzoyl derivatives has also been performed by the reaction of obtained benzoyl ...

  8. Derivatives and the non-executive director

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Nat, M.; Buckley, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Do non-executive directors have the wherewithal to overview a corporation's integrity, quality of performance and management in the area of derivatives policy? In a survey of the understanding and monitoring of derivatives in a small sample of quoted companies, we found disturbing levels of

  9. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  10. Drug laws and the 'derivative' problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Leslie A; Ujváry, István; Brandt, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a 'derivative' is used widely in chemistry, where its precise meaning depends on the circumstances. However, numerous examples of derivative also occur in domestic drugs legislation, some of which stem from the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. There is a commonly held view that only 'first-order' derivatives should be considered: substances that can be created from a parent structure in a single chemical reaction. In other words, 'derivatives of derivatives' are excluded. However, some substances related to ecgonine (e.g. 2-carbomethoxytropinone) are clearly convertible to cocaine, even though this may require more than one reaction step. It follows that 2-carbomethoxytropinone is a controlled drug, a situation that most chemists would regard as perverse. A more extreme example of the complexity of 'derivative' is shown by the conversion of thebaine to buprenorphine. Even though this requires six or more stages, the US Drug Enforcement Administration successfully argued in a 1986 case that for the purposes of the Controlled Substances Act, the number of steps required was irrelevant; buprenorphine was a derivative of thebaine. Because the term derivative is rarely defined in statutes, the legal status of some substances, such as 2-bromo-LSD, is uncertain. Although a number of definitions of derivative can be found in the chemical literature, no single definition is adequate to describe all situations where it occurs in legislation. Unless qualified, it is suggested that the term derivative should be avoided in any future legislation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid...

  12. Four New Citrinin Derivatives from a Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. Fungal Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mei; Lu, Chun; Xu, Qing; Song, Si; Hu, Zhi; Zheng, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Four new citrinin derivatives, including two citrinin dimers and two citrinin monomer derivatives, were isolated and identified from a marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. ML226 along with six known related compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The new compounds showed modest cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 cell line and weak antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  13. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  14. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  15. Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha

    2013-01-01

    a new restriction in the arbitrage free model by setting upper bounds on the Sharpe ratios (SRs) of the assets. The potential prices that are eliminated represent unreasonably good deals. The constraint on the SR translates into a constraint on the stochastic discount factor. Thus, tight pricing bounds......We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...... in a consistent way. Finally, we numerically analyse the behaviour of the good deal pricing bounds....

  16. Derived Categories and Zero-Brane Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We define a particular class of topological field theories associated to open strings and prove the resulting D-branes and open strings form the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves. This derivation is a variant of some ideas proposed recently by Douglas. We then argue that any 0-brane on any Calabi-Yau threefold must become unstable along some path in the Kahler moduli space. As a byproduct of this analysis we see how the derived category can be invariant under a birational transformation.

  17. Particle production in higher derivative theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker cosmological model during the early stages of the universe is analysed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The universe has been considered as an open thermodynamic system where particle production ...

  18. Battery failure model derived from flaw theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, I.

    1981-01-01

    A previously derived failure model for battery lifetime is discussed in terms of growth rate of the flaw, distribution of flaw sizes, and number of flaws. Equations are presented for determining the failure model for a nickel cadmium battery.

  19. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  20. SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED FLAVONE DERIVATIVES AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    results showed that this skeletal framework exhibited marked potency as antimicrobial agents. KEY WORDS. KEY WORDS: Chalcone ... It showed significant role in pharmaceutical effects [1] including leishmanicidal activity, oviposter ... new substituted flavone derivative as potent antimicrobial agent. EXPERIMENTAL.

  1. Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Graphene Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    The work presented in this PhD thesis can be divided into two main categories: 1) Syn-thesis and Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of graphene derivatives and 2) Application and characterization of graphene derivatives as an interface material in molecular electron-ics. While the first category could...... be divided further, the synthesis and Langmuir-Blodgett results are intertwined in such a way that it would be more confusing to pre-sent them separately. The Langmuir-Blodgett deposition also played a crucial, but more isolated, part in the investigation of graphene derivatives as interface material....... Solution processable graphene in the form of chemically derived graphene has been synthesized through the modified Hummers method with subsequent reduction into reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The completeness of oxidation, the effect of the refinement steps and the reduction of the graphene oxide...

  2. Generalized Back Propagation for Training Pattern Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří

    1994-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (1994), s. 91-98 ISSN 1210-0552 Grant - others:ALTEC(XE) IC-1000 Keywords : back propagation * smoothness constraints * multi-layered network * expert system * explicite kulle * trainning pattern derivatives * generalization

  3. Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Onomura, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.

  4. Proteomics Applications in Dental Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Tian, Weidong; Song, Jinlin

    2017-07-01

    At present, the existence of a variety of dental derived stem cells has been documented. These cells displayed promising clinical application potential not only for teeth and its surrounding tissue regeneration, but also for other tissues, such as nerve and bone regeneration. Proteomics is an unbiased, global informatics tool that provides information on all protein expression levels as well as post-translational modification in cells or tissues and is applicable to dental derived stem cells research. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made to study the global proteome, secrotome, and membrane proteome of dental derived stem cells. Here, we present an overview of the proteomics studies in the context of stem cell research. Particular attention is given to dental derived stem cell types as well as current challenges and opportunities. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1602-1610, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Synthesis and reactions of ferrocene derived hydroxymethyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    racemic phosphines and their sulphides having hydroxymethyl and morpholinomethyl substituents on the phosphorus. Use of ferrocene-derived hydroxymethyl phosphine sulphide as a potential precursor for making organometallic spirocyclic compounds with inorganic heterocycles is studied. Reference. 1. Goodwin N J ...

  6. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  7. An application of the Ruscheweyh derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyoshi Owa

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Dαf(z be the Ruscheweyh derivative defined by using the Hadamard product of f(z and z/(1−z1+α. Certain new classes Sα* and Kα are introduced by virtue of the Ruscheweyh derivative. The object of the present paper is to establish several interesting properties of Sα* and Kα. Further, some results for integral operator Jc(f of f(z are shown.

  8. Computer derivation of some dolphin echolocation signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, R A

    1971-09-03

    Recent advances in radar theory have given rise to a straightforward method of sonar signal design. The method involves computer maximization of a signal-to-interference ratio. The procedure has been used to derive sonar signals that can accurately measure target velocity. When two dolphins were placed in a situation conducive to the utilization of such signals, their waveforms were similar to those that had been theoretically derived.

  9. Higher-derivative Lee-Wick unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    We consider gauge coupling unification in Lee-Wick extensions of the Standard Model that include higher-derivative quadratic terms beyond the minimally required set. We determine how the beta functions are modified when some Standard Model particles have two Lee-Wick partners. We show that gauge coupling unification can be achieved in such models without requiring the introduction of additional fields in the higher-derivative theory and we comment on possible ultraviolet completions.

  10. Financial derivatives in power marketing: The basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, V.C.; Ghosh, K.

    1996-01-01

    With the ongoing changes in the power industry worldwide, electricity is beginning to be traded like other commodities. The use of financial derivative instruments in power markets is on the rise. The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of these derivatives in risk management which is vital for survival in the increasingly competitive industry. Starting with the familiar cash markets, the paper discusses the basics of futures, options, and swap markets as applied to electric energy trading

  11. Power cocentralizing generalized derivations on prime rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ring it follows that [R,R] ⊆ L. This follows from pp. 4–5 in [6], Lemma 2 and Proposition 1 in [4] and Theorem 4 in [8]. 2. The case of inner generalized derivations on prime rings. We dedicate this section to prove the theorem in case both the generalized derivations. H and G are inner, that is there exist b, c, p, q ∈ U such that ...

  12. Molluscicidal and trypanocidal activities of lapachol derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A F; Ferraz, P A; de Abreu, F C; Chiari, E; Goulart, M O; Sant'Ana, A E

    2001-02-01

    The activity of the potassium salt of lapachol against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata and its egg masses was tested. The obtained IC50 values (2.70 ppm and 1.43 ppm, respectively) are indicative of a strong activity. Lapachol derivatives were also assayed against infective trypomastigote blood forms of T. cruzi and the triacetoxy derivative of reduced lapachol showed relevant trypanocidal activity, killing 95.7% of the parasites at the concentration of 42 microg/mL.

  13. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...

  14. Synthesis of Pharmacological Heterocyclic Derivatives Based Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Refat; Fadda, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of chromenopyrimidine derivatives and the related fused system carried out by the reaction of chromene derivative 1 with various reagents under suitable reaction conditions. Condensation of stearoyl chloride with these heterocycles, then, propoxylated the products using propylene oxide to produce surface active agents having a twofold capacity as surface and antimicrobial dynamic specialists which may be served in the production of medications, pesticides, beautifying agents or may be utilized as an antimicrobial. Some of the surface properties and antimicrobial activity were resolved.

  15. A note on derivations in semiprime rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vukman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove in this note the following result. Let n>1 be an integer and let R be an n!-torsion-free semiprime ring with identity element. Suppose that there exists an additive mapping D:R→R such that D(xn=∑j=1nxn−jD(xxj−1 is fulfilled for all x∈R. In this case, D is a derivation. This research is motivated by the work of Bridges and Bergen (1984. Throughout, R will represent an associative ring with center Z(R. Given an integer n>1, a ring R is said to be n-torsion-free if for x∈R, nx=0 implies that x=0. Recall that a ring R is prime if for a,b∈R, aRb=(0 implies that either a=0 or b=0, and is semiprime in case aRa=(0 implies that a=0. An additive mapping D:R→R is called a derivation if D(xy=D(xy+xD(y holds for all pairs x,y∈R and is called a Jordan derivation in case D(x2=D(xx+xD(x is fulfilled for all x∈R. Every derivation is a Jordan derivation. The converse is in general not true. A classical result of Herstein (1957 asserts that any Jordan derivation on a prime ring with characteristic different from two is a derivation. A brief proof of Herstein's result can be found in 1988 by Brešar and Vukman. Cusack (1975 generalized Herstein's result to 2-torsion-free semiprime rings (see also Brešar (1988 for an alternative proof. For some other results concerning derivations on prime and semiprime rings, we refer to Brešar (1989, Vukman (2005, Vukman and Kosi-Ulbl (2005.

  16. Structures of engineered Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuyer, Geoffrey; Stancombe, Patrick; Chaddock, John A.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structures of engineered C. botulinum neurotoxin–SNARE derivatives have been and exhibit strong stability of the LHn fragment. Targeted secretion inhibitors (TSIs) are a new class of engineered biopharmaceutical molecules derived from the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). They consist of the metalloprotease light chain (LC) and translocation domain (Hn) of BoNT; they thus lack the native toxicity towards motor neurons but are able to target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins. These functional fragment (LHn) derivatives are expressed as single-chain proteins and require post-translational activation into di-chain molecules for function. A range of BoNT derivatives have been produced to demonstrate the successful use of engineered SNARE substrate peptides at the LC–Hn interface that gives these molecules self-activating capabilities. Alternatively, recognition sites for specific exoproteases can be engineered to allow controlled activation. Here, the crystal structures of three LHn derivatives are reported between 2.7 and 3.0 Å resolution. Two of these molecules are derivatives of serotype A that contain a SNARE peptide. Additionally, a third structure corresponds to LHn serotype B that includes peptide linkers at the exoprotease activation site. In all three cases the added engineered segments could not be modelled owing to disorder. However, these structures highlight the strong interactions holding the LHn fold together despite the inclusion of significant polypeptide sequences at the LC–Hn interface

  17. Resolution enhancement in second-derivative spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Mirosław A

    2015-01-01

    Derivative spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the resolution enhancement in infrared, near-infrared, Raman, ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Despite its great significance in analytical chemistry, not all aspects of the applications of this method have been explored as yet. This is the first systematic study of the parameters that influence the resolution enhancement in the second derivative spectra. The derivative spectra were calculated with the Savitzky-Golay method with different window size (5, 15, 25) and polynomial order (2, 4). The results obtained in this work show that the resolution enhancement in the second derivative spectra strongly depends on the data spacing in the original spectra, window size, polynomial order, and peak profile. As shown, the resolution enhancement is related to variations in the width of the peaks upon the differentiation. The present study reveals that in order to maximize the separation of the peaks in the second derivative spectra, the original spectra should be recorded at high resolution and differentiated using a small window size and high polynomial order. However, working with the real spectra one has to compromise between the noise reduction and optimization of the resolution enhancement in the second derivative spectra.

  18. Quadratic forms and Clifford algebras on derived stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzosi, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to quadratic structures in derived algebraic geometry. We define derived n-shifted quadratic complexes, over derived affine stacks and over general derived stacks, and give several examples of those. We define the associated notion of derived Clifford algebra, in all these contexts, and compare it with its classical version, when they both apply. Finally, we prove three main existence results for derived shifted quadratic forms over derived stacks, define ...

  19. Introduction of Credit Derivatives and Valuation of Credit Default Swap

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Lu

    2006-01-01

    The credit derivative market was established at the beginning of the 1990s since the emergence of credit derivatives fits the rapid development of the whole derivatives market. However, compare to other derivative market, this market is still small and incomplete. As with other derivatives, credit derivatives can be used to either take more risk or hedge it, hence various credit derivatives instruments are accepted and widely used by market participants such as banks, insurance companies, etc...

  20. Analytic computation of energy derivatives - Relationships among partial derivatives of a variationally determined function

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H. F.; Komornicki, A.

    1986-01-01

    Formulas are presented relating Taylor series expansion coefficients of three functions of several variables, the energy of the trial wave function (W), the energy computed using the optimized variational wave function (E), and the response function (lambda), under certain conditions. Partial derivatives of lambda are obtained through solution of a recursive system of linear equations, and solution through order n yields derivatives of E through order 2n + 1, extending Puley's application of Wigner's 2n + 1 rule to partial derivatives in couple perturbation theory. An examination of numerical accuracy shows that the usual two-term second derivative formula is less stable than an alternative four-term formula, and that previous claims that energy derivatives are stationary properties of the wave function are fallacious. The results have application to quantum theoretical methods for the computation of derivative properties such as infrared frequencies and intensities.

  1. Four New Citrinin Derivatives from a Marine-Derived Penicillium sp. Fungal Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Hui Zheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new citrinin derivatives, including two citrinin dimers and two citrinin monomer derivatives, were isolated and identified from a marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. ML226 along with six known related compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. The new compounds showed modest cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 cell line and weak antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Numerical derivative techniques for trajectory optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Wayne P.

    1990-01-01

    The adoption of robust numerical optimization techniques in trajectory simulation programs has resulted in powerful design and analysis tools. These trajectory simulation/optimization programs are widely used, and a representative list includes the GTS system, the POST program, and newer collocation methods such as OTIS and FONPAC. All of these programs rely on optimization algorithms which require objective function and constraint gradient data during the iteration process. However, most trajectory optimization problems lack simple analytical expressions for these derivatives. In the general case a function evaluation involves integrating aerodynamic, propulsive, and gravity forces over multiple trajectory phases with complex control models. With the newer collocation methods, the integration is replaced by defect constraints and cubic approximations for the state. While analytic gradient expressions can sometimes be derived for trajectory optimization problems, the derivation is cumbersome, time consuming, and prone to mistakes. Fortunately, an alternate method exists for the gradient evaluation, namely finite difference approximations. In this paper some finite difference gradient techniques developed for use with the GTS system are presented. These techniques include methods for computing first and second partial derivatives of single and multiple sets of functions. A key feature of these methods is an error control mechanism which automatically adjusts the perturbation size to obtain accurate derivative values.

  3. Multiscale analysis of the CMB temperature derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Caballero, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.

    2017-02-01

    We study the Planck CMB temperature at different scales through its derivatives up to second order, which allows one to characterize the local shape and isotropy of the field. The problem of having an incomplete sky in the calculation and statistical characterization of the derivatives is addressed in the paper. The analysis confirms the existence of a low variance in the CMB at large scales, which is also noticeable in the derivatives. Moreover, deviations from the standard model in the gradient, curvature and the eccentricity tensor are studied in terms of extreme values on the data. As it is expected, the Cold Spot is detected as one of the most prominent peaks in terms of curvature, but additionally, when the information of the temperature and its Laplacian are combined, another feature with similar probability at the scale of 10o is also observed. However, the p-value of these two deviations increase above the 6% when they are referred to the variance calculated from the theoretical fiducial model, indicating that these deviations can be associated to the low variance anomaly. Finally, an estimator of the directional anisotropy for spinorial quantities is introduced, which is applied to the spinors derived from the field derivatives. An anisotropic direction whose probability is <1% is detected in the eccentricity tensor.

  4. PROCEDURES FOR THE DERIVATION OF EQUILIBRIUM ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document describes procedures to derive concentrations for 32 nonionic organic chemicals in sediment which are protective of the presence of freshwater and marine benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it accounts for the varying biological availability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms. EqP can be used to calculate ESBs for any toxicity endpoint for which there are water-only toxicity data; it is not limited to any single effect endpoint. For the purposes of this document, ESBs for 32 nonionic organic chemicals, including several low molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic compounds, pesticides, and phthalates, were derived using Final Chronic Values (FCV) from Water Quality Criteria (WQC) or Secondary Chronic Values (SCV) derived from existing toxicological data using the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLI) or narcosis theory approaches. These values are intended to be the concentration of each chemical in water that is protective of the presence of aquatic life. For nonionic organic chemicals demonstrating a narcotic mode of action, ESBs derived using the GLI approach specifically for fres

  5. A New Truncated M-Fractional Derivative Type Unifying Some Fractional Derivative Types with Classical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanterler da C. Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a truncated $M$-fractional derivative type for $\\alpha$-differentiable functions that generalizes four other fractional derivatives types recently introduced by Khalil et al., Katugampola and Sousa et al., the so-called conformable fractional derivative, alternative fractional derivative, generalized alternative fractional derivative and $M$-fractional derivative, respectively. We denote this new differential operator by $_{i}\\mathscr{D}_{M}^{\\alpha,\\beta }$, where the parameter $\\alpha$, associated with the order of the derivative is such that $ 0 <\\alpha<1 $, $\\beta>0$ and $ M $ is the notation to designate that the function to be derived involves the truncated Mittag-Leffler function with one parameter.The definition of this truncated $M$-fractional derivative type satisfies the properties of the integer-order calculus. We also present, the respective fractional integral from which emerges, as a natural consequence, the result, which can be interpreted as an inverse property. Finally, we obtain the analytical solution of the $M$-fractional heat equation and present a graphical analysis.

  6. Adaptive synchronization of the complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua, E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teachers' College, Hubei 442000 (China); Zhou Wuneng, E-mail: wnzhou@163.co [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Fang Jian' an [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun Wen [School of Mathematics and Information, Yangtze University, Hubei Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2010-04-05

    This Letter investigates the synchronization of a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, adaptive synchronization criteria are obtained. Analytical result shows that under the designed adaptive controllers, a general complex dynamical network with non-derivative and derivative coupling can asymptotically synchronize to a given trajectory, and several useful criteria for synchronization are given. What is more, the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. Finally, simulations results show the method is effective.

  7. 32 CFR 2400.14 - Use of derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of derivative classification. 2400.14... SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.14 Use of derivative classification. (a) Derivative... person who applies derivative classification markings believes that the paraphrasing, restating, or...

  8. Gateaux and Frechet Derivative in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Linear spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, B.; Samanta, T. K.; Bera, U. K.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitionistic Fuzzy derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are defined and a few of their properties are studied. The relation between Intuitionistic Fuzzy Gateaux derivative and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Fr\\'{e}chet derivative are emphasized.

  9. Synthesis of azido derivatives of mucobromic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mbebe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucobromic acid is a highly reactive multicentered molecule. It was converted to its corresponding but unstable diazido derivative by reaction with two equivalents of sodium azide. The resultant 3,4-diazido-5-hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one was obtained in moderate yield (42% but decomposed readily even at low temperatures. Its more stable analogue 3,4-diazido-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one was obtained in excellent yield after reacting 5-methoxy-3,4-dibromofuranone with two equivalents of sodium azide. The 4,5-dibromopyridazinones which are in effect masked mucobromic acid derivatives, underwent nucleophilic substitution reactions with various nucleophiles, including azides and afforded corresponding azidopyridazinones in good yields. The synthesized azido-furanone and pyridazinone derivatives are earmarked for click reactions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i1.17

  10. Additive derivations on algebras of measurable operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayupov, Sh.A.; Kudaybergenov, K.K.

    2009-08-01

    Given a von Neumann algebra M we introduce the so-called central extension mix(M) of M. We show that mix(M) is a *-subalgebra in the algebra LS(M) of all locally measurable operators with respect to M, and this algebra coincides with LS(M) if and only if M does not admit type II direct summands. We prove that if M is a properly infinite von Neumann algebra then every additive derivation on the algebra mix(M) is inner. This implies that on the algebra LS(M), where M is a type I ∞ or a type III von Neumann algebra, all additive derivations are inner derivations. (author)

  11. Dielectric transition of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiangling; Su, Shi; Abbot, Andrew M; Ye, Haitao; Zhou, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric behavior of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers formed at different carbonization temperatures was investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The impedance data are presented in the form of Cole–Cole plots and four equivalent electrical circuits are derived. It is found that by increasing carbonization temperature from 500 to 800 °C, a strong capacitive element in the parallel equivalent circuit is transformed into an inductive element, while the contact resistance and parallel resistance are significantly decreased. Along with the morphological and chemical structural evolution, respectively witnessed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the dielectric transition deduced from the transformation of electrical circuits can be correlated to the proposed microstructural changes of polyacrylonitrile derived carbon nanofibers and the interaction/interference among them. (paper)

  12. Analytics of Quinine and its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluska, Mariusz; Marciniuk-Kluska, Anna; Prukała, Dorota; Prukała, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a synthesis and analysis of the most important information on quinine and its derivatives, which are still very important in the treatment of malaria. The analysis of stereoisomers of quinine and its derivatives was conducted using two techniques, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Particularly noteworthy is the technique used for the determination of isotachophoresis, referred to as one of the so-called green chemistry techniques. Particular attention was paid to properties and the use of quinine and its derivatives in the treatment of malaria. The analytical part will supplement knowledge about quinidine, quinine, and cinchonidine, and will contribute to the growth of research on the so-much-needed drugs against malaria.

  13. Azobenzene derivatives carrying a nitroxide radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Shin'ichi; Fujino, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Satoko; Akutsu, Hiroki; Yamada, Jun-ichi; Gurman, Vladimir S; Kh Vorobiev, Andrey

    2007-03-16

    Several trans-azobenzene derivatives carrying a nitroxide (aminoxyl) radical (2a, 6a-12a) were prepared, and their photoisomerization reactions to the corresponding cis-isomers were investigated. Although no fruitful results could be obtained for the photoisomerizations of the derivatives with para-subsituents (9a-12a), the unsubstututed derivatives at the para-position (2a, 6a, 7a, 8a) were found to show photoisomerizations by irradiation to give the corresponding cis-isomers (2b, 6b, 7b, 8b), being isolated as relatively stable solid materials, and the change of the intermolecular magnetic interactions was apparently observed by the structural change for each photochromic couple.

  14. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  15. FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES - MEANINGS BEYOND SUBPRIME CRISIS STIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Derivatives are designed as complex financial instruments and their main aim is to manage the risk associated with the underlying asset, in order to ensure against fluctuations in value, or to profit from periods of inactivity, instability or decline. In recent years financial derivatives have experienced a fulminant development and also they have been perceived as an effective lever of the modern economy. The subprime crisis was triggered by a quite significant financial infrastructure glitch, which coalesced around certain factors influence, such as : highly permissive regulation of financial markets, speculative bubbles, underperforming risk management, liquidity injections and structural imbalances. Despite the fact that is a innovative segment and quite difficult affordable as understanding level of the operation mechanisms, financial derivatives were only the tool triggering this global dimension crisis.

  16. Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Graphene Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    The work presented in this PhD thesis can be divided into two main categories: 1) Syn-thesis and Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of graphene derivatives and 2) Application and characterization of graphene derivatives as an interface material in molecular electron-ics. While the first category could....... Solution processable graphene in the form of chemically derived graphene has been synthesized through the modified Hummers method with subsequent reduction into reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The completeness of oxidation, the effect of the refinement steps and the reduction of the graphene oxide...... immobilization of the monolayered graphene oxide via the Langmuir-Blodgett deposition technique prior to a three step reduction scheme involving hydrazine reduc-tion, sulfuric acid de-oxygenation, and thermal annealing. This method resulted in wrin-kle-free reduced graphene oxide with a negligible oxygen content...

  17. 5-Nitroimidazole Derivatives and their Antimicrobial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.M.; Salar, U.; Yousuf, S.; Naz, F.

    2016-01-01

    5-Nitroimidazole derivatives 2-8 were synthesized from secnidazole. The syntheses were accomplished in two steps which start from the oxidation of secnidazole to the secnidazolone 1. Secnidazolone 1 was converted into its hydrazone derivative 2-8 by treating with different substituted acid hydrazide. Compounds 2-8 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, compounds 3 and 4 showed the significant activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, however, compound 2 showed good inhibitions against Corynebacterium diphtheria when compared with the standard. Compound 3 showed good inhibitory potential against tested Gram-negative bacterial strains i.e. Enterobacter aerogene, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella flexeneri and Vibrio choleriae. All synthetic derivatives were also tested against eight fungal stains, however, they were weekly active against Aspergillus flavus and Candida albican. The synthesized compounds were characterized by different spectroscopy techniques. (author)

  18. Development of chitosan derivatives with anhydride maleic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Solranny C.C.C.; Braz, Elton Marks de A.; Brito, Carla Adriana R. de S.; Silva, Durcilene A. da; Junior, Luiz de S.S.; Silva Filho, Edson C. da

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan was chemically modified with maleic anhydride in ratios of 1/2, 1/5 and 1/10 in the absence of solvents. The obtained derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, thermal analysis (TGA / DTG) and XRD where it was possible to prove the chemical modification. Elemental analysis showed an increase of the relation C / N with the increasing of the proportion of anhydrides. The FTIR showed the incorporation of the anhydride in the biopolymer structure. The thermal stability of the derivatives was lower in comparison to the polysaccharide and by XRD the modified materials were less crystalline. (author)

  19. Modelling Environment Changes for Pricing Weather Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaivanov Stanimir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modelling environment changes in a way that allows to price weather derivatives in a flexible and efficient way. Applications and importance of climate and weather contracts extends beyond financial markets and hedging as they can be used as complementary tools for risk assessment. In addition, option-based approach toward resource management can offer very special insights on rare-events and allow to reuse derivative pricing methods to improve natural resources management. To demonstrate this general concept, we use Monte Carlo and stochastic modelling of temperatures to evaluate weather options. Research results are accompanied by R and Python code.

  20. Ethanolamine derivatives of dysprosium and holmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharia, K.S.; Singh, M.; Mathur, S.; Sankhla, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation and properties of dysprosium and holmium derivatives of mono-, di- and tri-ethanolamine derivatives are described. Compounds of general formulae: Ln(OPrsup(i)) 2 (mea), Ln(OPrsup(i))(mea) 2 , Ln(mea) 3 , Ln(OPrsup(i))(dea), Ln 2 (dea) 3 , Ln(dea)(deaH) and Ln(tea) (where Ln = Dy or Ho and mea, dea and tea are the anions of respective ethanolamine) were obtained and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectra. (author)

  1. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Greensite

    Full Text Available We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  2. Special relativity derived from spacetime magma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensite, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We present a derivation of relativistic spacetime largely untethered from specific physical considerations, in constrast to the many physically-based derivations that have appeared in the last few decades. The argument proceeds from the inherent magma (groupoid) existing on the union of spacetime frame components [Formula: see text] and Euclidean [Formula: see text] which is consistent with an "inversion symmetry" constraint from which the Minkowski norm results. In this context, the latter is also characterized as one member of a class of "inverse norms" which play major roles with respect to various unital [Formula: see text]-algebras more generally.

  3. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xian-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula. (paper)

  4. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  5. Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

  6. Deriving High-Precision Radial Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Pedro

    This chapter describes briefly the key aspects behind the derivation of precise radial velocities. I start by defining radial velocity precision in the context of astrophysics in general and exoplanet searches in particular. Next I discuss the different basic elements that constitute a spectrograph, and how these elements and overall technical choices impact on the derived radial velocity precision. Then I go on to discuss the different wavelength calibration and radial velocity calculation techniques, and how these are intimately related to the spectrograph's properties. I conclude by presenting some interesting examples of planets detected through radial velocity, and some of the new-generation instruments that will push the precision limit further.

  7. Derivation of Darcy's Law using Homogenization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kannanut Chamsri

    2013-01-01

    Darcy’s Law is a well-known constitutive equation describing the flow of a fluid through a porous medium. The equation shows a relationship between the superficial or Darcy velocity and the pressure gradient which was first experimentally observed by Henry Darcy in 1855-1856. In this study, we apply homogenization method to Stokes equation in order to derive Darcy’s Law. The process of deriving the equation is complicated, especially in multidimensional domain. Thus, for the sake of simplicit...

  8. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantisation. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalisable wave functions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm.

  9. Geometric derivation of the quantum speed limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Philip J.; Kok, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The Mandelstam-Tamm and Margolus-Levitin inequalities play an important role in the study of quantum-mechanical processes in nature since they provide general limits on the speed of dynamical evolution. However, to date there has been only one derivation of the Margolus-Levitin inequality. In this paper, alternative geometric derivations for both inequalities are obtained from the statistical distance between quantum states. The inequalities are shown to hold for unitary evolution of pure and mixed states, and a counterexample to the inequalities is given for evolution described by completely positive trace-preserving maps. The counterexample shows that there is no quantum speed limit for nonunitary evolution.

  10. Scale up of proteoliposome derived Cochleate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Caridad; Bracho, Gustavo; Lastre, Miriam; González, Domingo; Gil, Danay; Acevedo, Reinaldo; del Campo, Judith; Taboada, Carlos; Solís, Rosa L; Barberá, Ramón; Pérez, Oliver

    2006-04-12

    Cochleate are highly stable structures with promising immunological features. Cochleate structures are usually obtaining from commercial lipids. Proteoliposome derived Cochleate are derived from an outer membrane vesicles of Neisseria meningitidis B. Previously, we obtained Cochleates using dialysis procedures. In order to increase the production process, we used a crossflow system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The raw material and solutions used in the production process are already approved for human application. This work demonstrates that CFS is very efficient process to obtain Cochleate structures with a yield of more than 80% and the immunogenicity comparable to that obtained by dialysis membrane.

  11. Electronic absorption spectra of antiviral aminophenol derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, M. V.; Ksendzova, G. A.; Raichyonok, T. F.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Sorokin, V. L.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2011-03-01

    Electronic absorption spectra of aminophenol derivatives in solutions have been studied. A general property of the absorption spectra of these compounds, the dependence of the maximum of a long-wavelength absorption band on the solvent polarity, is revealed. As a rule, the absorption band maximum of compounds possessing pharmacological properties shows a greater shift to short wavelength with an increase in the medium polarity than that of inactive compounds. Absorption measurements of solutions of aminophenol derivatives can be used for a tentative estimation of their antiviral activity.

  12. Structure-activity relationships of bumetanide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Töllner, Kathrin; Römermann, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    , the effect of a series of diuretically active bumetanide derivatives was investigated on human NKCC2 variant A (hNKCC2A) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. KEY RESULTS: Bumetanide blocked hNKCC2A transport with an IC50 of 4 μM. There was good correlation between the diuretic potency of bumetanide and its...... derivatives in dogs and their inhibition of hNKCC2A (r(2) = 0.817; P ... of the structural requirements that determine relative potency of loop diuretics on human NKCC2 splice variants, and may lead to the discovery of novel high-ceiling diuretics....

  13. New coumarin derivatives as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Alici, Bülent; Cakir, Umit; Cetinkaya, Engin; Demir, Dudu; Ergün, Adem; Gençer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, a series of 4-chloromethyl-7-hydroxy-coumarin derivatives containing imidazolium, benzimidazolium, bisbenzimidazolium and quaternary ammonium salts were synthesized, characterized and the inhibition effects of the derivatives on human carbonic anhydrases (hCA I and hCA II) were investigated as in vitro. Structures of these coumarins were confirmed by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS analyses. Structure activity relationship study showed that 3d (IC50: 79 μM for hCA I and 88 μM for hCA II) performed higher inhibitory activity than others.

  14. 76 FR 3697 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Derivatives Clearing Organizations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 13 / Thursday... RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity... regulatory standards for compliance with derivatives clearing organization (DCO) Core Principles C...

  15. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not designated as cash flow or fair value hedges. Account 426.5, Other deductions... the fair value of the derivative instrument. ...

  16. Recurrence relations for the Cartesian derivatives of the Zernike polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Philip C L

    2014-04-01

    A recurrence relation for the first-order Cartesian derivatives of the Zernike polynomials is derived. This relation is used with the Clenshaw method to determine an efficient method for calculating the derivatives of any linear series of Zernike polynomials.

  17. Effects of oxyresveratrol and its derivatives on cultured P19-derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To modify the structure of oxyresveratrol and evaluate the obtained derivatives for effects on neuronal cells. Methods: Electron-withdrawing groups were selectively introduced to the aromatic ring of the core stilbene structure. Oxyresveratrol and derivatives were then evaluated for their ability to enhance the ...

  18. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives. Derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for deriving and using a class of constitutive laws incorporating spatial gradients of internal variables is presented. It uses two basic ingredients: a derivation of such models by homogenization techniques and a reformulation of the evolution equation at the scale of the whole structure. (orig.)

  19. Cretan Hydronyms Derived from Settlement Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Kaczyńska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses 284 Cretan river names, presumably derived from settlement names. This group of hydronyms represents 6.1% among all the modern hydronyms of the island (4 666 names collected by the author from written sources and, at a lesser degree, during fieldwork, its biggest part being attested only from the 20th century. The names studied in this paper were formed either by metonymic transfer of settlement names to bodies of water (134 units or by morphological derivation (suffixation and, in some cases, regressive derivation (150 units. To establish the direction of derivation, the author analyses the semantic features of the names and the chronology of their attestation in written sources. As to the morphological structure of the analyzed river names, the author distinguishes 85 simple names (29.9%, 128 compound names (45.1% and 71 elliptical ones (25%. This enables a structural analysis of the differentiating elements in the compound names and in the elliptical names formed by omitting a hydrograhical term. The morphological structure of some hydronyms allows to retrieve valuable information on lost or decayed settlements of Crete. The author also shows that some items demonstrate the onomastic contuinity in the island from antiquity to the present day.

  20. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide ...

  1. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Pepper, Peter; Smith, Douglas R.

    Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the

  2. synthesis and characterization of novel sulfonamides derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newer sulfonamides and their derivatives has obtained great attention in pharmaceutical field in order to compete life threatening issues caused by drug resistant strains of bacteria, i.e. Methicillin resistance as they have unusual ability of acclimatization against stress caused by antibiotics [12]. Disease causing organisms ...

  3. Derived Transformation of Children's Pregambling Game Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Bateman, Helena; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary behavior-analytic perspectives on gambling emphasize the impact of verbal relations, or derived relational responding and the transformation of stimulus functions, on the initiation and maintenance of gambling. Approached in this way, it is possible to undertake experimental analysis of the role of verbal/mediational variables in…

  4. Structural features of bionanocomposite derived from novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 2. Structural features of bionanocomposite derived from novel designed poly(ester-imide) based on natural amino acids with hydroxyl segments tailored for better dispersion of TiO2 nanofiller. Shadpour Mallakpour Parvin Asadi. Volume 36 Issue 2 April 2013 ...

  5. Inequalities for a Polynomial and its Derivative

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 110; Issue 2. Inequalities for a Polynomial and its Derivative. V K Jain. Volume 110 Issue 2 May 2000 pp 137- ...

  6. Hamiltonian path integral formalism with higher derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos-Neto, J.; Natividade, C.P. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)

    1991-07-01

    We study the Hamiltonian path integral formalism for systems containing higher derivatives. First we show the consistency of the formalism in applications involving only scalar fields. Later we use the Maxwell electromagnetic theory with a higher order regularization term to show that the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky (BFV) theory can also be consistently described. (orig.).

  7. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  8. Derivation of Stochastic Equations for Computational Uncertainties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    physical parameters using the relative standard deviations techniques (σ). These equations also known as ... define the maximum level of uncertainty that can be tolerated in any independent variable if the maximum uncertainty to be ... standard deviations, partial derivatives, degree of accuracy, empirical models. LIST OF ...

  9. Biodegradable polymers derived from amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wahid; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Farah, Shady; Kumar, Neeraj; Domb, Abraham J

    2011-12-08

    In the past three decades, the use of polymeric materials has increased dramatically for biomedical applications. Many α-amino acids derived biodegradable polymers have also been intensely developed with the main goal to obtain bio-mimicking functional biomaterials. Polymers derived from α-amino acids may offer many advantages, as these polymers: (a) can be modified further to introduce new functions such as imaging, molecular targeting and drugs can be conjugated chemically to these polymers, (b) can improve on better biological properties like cell migration, adhesion and biodegradability, (c) can improve on mechanical and thermal properties and (d) their degradation products are expected to be non-toxic and readily metabolized/excreted from the body. This manuscript focuses on biodegradable polymers derived from natural amino acids, their synthesis, biocompatibility and biomedical applications. It is observed that polymers derived from α-amino acids constitute a promising family of biodegradable materials. These provide innovative multifunctional polymers possessing amino acid side groups with biological activity and with innumerous potential applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Novel hydroquinone derivatives alleviate algesia, inflammation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in silico studies predicted high binding affinity of the hydroquinone derivatives to the active site of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme. Conclusion: The synthesized hydroquinone compounds possess analgesic, antipyretic and antiinflammatory properties with low gastric-ulcerogenic potential. This may be credited to ...

  11. Synthesis of Trishomocubane Amino Acid Derivatives | Govender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of four novel trishomocubane amino acid derivatives is described. The hydantoin precursor and bis-Boc protected hydantoin (>95% yield) were previously reported. A mild hydrolysis of the bis-Boc hydantoin with lithium hydroxide at room temperature quantitatively yielded the corresponding novel cage amino ...

  12. Glycosylation of a Newly Functionalized Orthoester Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tandem glycosylation of the 6-O-Fmoc-substituted benzyl orthoester derivative 2a was carried out in moderate yields by electrogenerated acid (EGA. The Fmoc group was effectively removed under mild basic conditions, and the product was submitted to the subsequent glycosylation.

  13. Antifungal activity of naphthothiazoles derived from Lawsone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of Naphtho [2,3-d] thiazole-4, 9-diones was prepared by the condensation of bromolawsone with thiosemicarbazones derived from the aldehydes and ketones in dry dimethyl formamide (DMF). The products are also obtained by the cyclization of the intermediate 2-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone of 1 ...

  14. Particle production in higher derivative theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of particle production on the evolution of the spatially flat Friedmann–. Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker cosmological model during the early stages of the universe is analysed in the framework of higher derivative theory. The universe has been considered as an open thermo- dynamic system where particle ...

  15. Microscopic Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Close to the critical temperature, GL arises as an effective theory on the macroscopic scale. The relevant scaling limit is semiclassical...

  16. Pharmacological characterization of tachykinin tetrabranched derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzza, Chiara; Rizzi, Anna; Malfacini, Davide; Cerlesi, Maria Camilla; Ferrari, Federica; Marzola, Erika; Ambrosio, Caterina; Gro, Cristina; Severo, Salvadori; Costa, Tommaso; Calo, Girolamo; Guerrini, Remo

    2014-09-01

    Peptide welding technology (PWT) is a novel chemical strategy that allows the synthesis of multibranched peptides with high yield, purity and reproducibility. Using this technique, we have synthesized and pharmacologically characterized the tetrabranched derivatives of the tachykinins, substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and B (NKB). The following in vitro assays were used: calcium mobilization in cells expressing human recombinant NK receptors, BRET studies of G-protein - NK1 receptor interaction, guinea pig ileum and rat urinary bladder bioassays. Nociceptive behavioural response experiments were performed in mice following intrathecal injection of PWT2-SP. In calcium mobilization studies, PWT tachykinin derivatives behaved as full agonists at NK receptors with a selectivity profile similar to that of the natural peptides. NK receptor antagonists display similar potency values when tested against PWT2 derivatives and natural peptides. In BRET and bioassay experiments PWT2-SP mimicked the effects of SP with similar potency, maximal effects and sensitivity to aprepitant. After intrathecal administration in mice, PWT2-SP mimicked the nociceptive effects of SP, but with higher potency and a longer-lasting action. Aprepitant counteracted the effects of PWT2-SP in vivo. The present study has shown that the PWT technology can be successfully applied to the peptide sequence of tachykinins to generate tetrabranched derivatives characterized with a pharmacological profile similar to the native peptides. In vivo, PWT2-SP displayed higher potency and a marked prolongation of action, compared with SP. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Deriving force field parameters for coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Brandt, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The process of deriving molecular mechanics force fields for coordination complexes is outlined. Force field basics are introduced with an emphasis on special requirements for metal complexes. The review is then focused on how to set up the initial model, define the target, refine the parameters...

  18. Nanomaterials derived from metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Song; Zhu, Qi-Long; Xu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The thermal transformation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) generates a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon-based materials, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, metal phosphides and metal carbides. These derivatives of MOFs have characteristics such as high surface areas, permanent porosities and controllable functionalities that enable their good performance in sensing, gas storage, catalysis and energy-related applications. Although progress has been made to tune the morphologies of MOF-derived structures at the nanometre scale, it remains crucial to further our knowledge of the relationship between morphology and performance. In this Review, we summarize the synthetic strategies and optimized methods that enable control over the size, morphology, composition and structure of the derived nanomaterials. In addition, we compare the performance of materials prepared by the MOF-templated strategy and other synthetic methods. Our aim is to reveal the relationship between the morphology and the physico-chemical properties of MOF-derived nanostructures to optimize their performance for applications such as sensing, catalysis, and energy storage and conversion.

  19. reaction-diffusion system with fractional derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Haouam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We give some necessary conditions for local and global existence of a solution to reaction-diffusion system of type (FDS with temporal and spacial fractional derivatives. As in the case of single equation of type (STFE studied by M. Kirane et al. (2005, we prove that these conditions depend on the behavior of initial conditions for large |x|.

  20. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  1. arene derivatives containing multiple aromatic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... two novel thiacalix[4]arene derivatives containing multiple aromatic groups in yields of 86% and 90%. Their complexation properties for four organic dyes were investigated by liquid-liquid extraction experiments, complexation UV-Vis spectra and mass spectrum. The highest extraction percentage was 97% for Neutral red.

  2. Derivation of Stochastic Equations for Computational Uncertainties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a simple mathematical algorithm or procedure for computing the uncertainties at the various percent of data input, using the stochastic approach of simulating the input variables to compute the output variables. A simple algorithm was used to derive stochastic equations for some selected petrophysical ...

  3. Resveratrol derivatives: a patent review (2009 - 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzuto, John M; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Ogas, Talysa

    2013-12-01

    There is currently a wealth of information on the effects of resveratrol and its derivatives in therapeutic, cosmetic and nutraceutical patent applications. Structure-activity studies of the resveratrol scaffold provide a foundation for the development of new analogs with potent activity or other beneficial properties. Ongoing research has yielded promising results and potential use in the treatment of various diseases. This review provides analysis of patents published from January 2009 to April 2013. There is a focus on different approaches for the production of resveratrol derivatives, combinations of new derivatives with old drugs, and applications in therapeutic areas, nutraceutical compositions and cosmetics. The ability of resveratrol to interact with a disparate array of subcellular targets is uncanny. Nonetheless, even though limited or no toxicity is apparent, the molecule is not a panacea due to lack of potency and issues with bioavailability. Thus, as witnessed by a number of patents, a large assortment of derivatives have been synthesized under the guise of having superior characteristics for treating or preventing various diseases or for use as neutraceutics and cosmetics. Some of these suppositions are probably correct, but evidence-based applications are essentially nil due to a lack of commitment in terms of investing the resources necessary for the conduct of obligatory clinical trials. Current usage is largely based on anecdotes and publicity. Hopefully, at some point in time, it will be possible to follow a standard protocol with a predicable outcome.

  4. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  5. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

  6. Temperature stochastic modeling and weather derivatives pricing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... over a sufficient period to apply a stochastic process that describes the evolution of the temperature. A numerical example of a swap contract pricing is presented, using an approximation formula as well as Monte Carlo simulations. Keywords: Weather derivatives, temperature stochastic model, Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Immunochemical analysis of apamin and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, S.V.; Kolesnikova, I.N.; Miroshnikov, A.I.; Komissarenko, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    The radioimmunologic analysis of apamin (neurotoxin of the venom of Apis mellifica honey bee) is carried out using its derivatives which have modifications of various aminoacidic remnants and antibodies against apamin. The curves of 125 J apamin binding with antiserum against apamin and the curves of inhibition with various nonlabelled binding effectors of 125 J-apamin with antiserum are obtained

  8. quinoxaline dyes derived from Anthraquinone f

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    to increase the solubility of the target molecules and later, the 5–methylated isatin derivatives were reacted with 1,2- diaminoathraquinone in acetic acid for 1–2h to produce the desired cyclocondensed product. The five target com- pounds were obtained in good yield (72–78%) as deep red solids. The identity and purity of ...

  9. Undesired Plant-Derived Components in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Abraham, Klaus; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Among the various chemical compounds, the class of natural plant-derived substances in the modern food chain is generating increasing concern. Adverse effects encountered may be various and pose risks of acute, subchronic, or chronic toxicity. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity may be

  10. Nitration of Thiacalix[4]arene Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhoták, P.; Svoboda, J.; Stibor, I.; Sýkora, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 41 (2002), s. 7413-7417 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/00/1722 Keywords : derivatives * nitation of thiacalix[4]arene Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2002

  11. Orchard navigation using derivative free Kalman filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localization and navigation in an orchard. The localization algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features representing the surrounding fruit trees of the orchard. The line features are created on basis of 2...

  12. Ineffective higher derivative black hole hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kevin; Mashiyane, James Junior

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the possibility that the Schwarzschild black hole may not be the unique spherically symmetric vacuum solution to generalizations of general relativity, we consider black holes in pure fourth order higher derivative gravity treated as an effective theory. Such solutions may be of interest in addressing the issue of higher derivative hair or during the later stages of black hole evaporation. Non-Schwarzschild solutions have been studied but we have put earlier results on a firmer footing by finding a systematic asymptotic expansion for the black holes and matching them with known numerical solutions obtained by integrating out from the near-horizon region. These asymptotic expansions can be cast in the form of trans-series expansions which we conjecture will be a generic feature of non-Schwarzschild higher derivative black holes. Excitingly we find a new branch of solutions with lower free energy than the Schwarzschild solution, but as found in earlier work, solutions only seem to exist for black holes with large curvatures, meaning that one should not generically neglect even higher derivative corrections. This suggests that one effectively recovers the nonhair theorems in this context.

  13. Methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitive methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probalistic mineral prospectivity map.The Rodalquilar mineral district is located in the Sierra del Cabo de Gata volcanic field, in the south...

  14. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The accurate estimation of noise variance in an image is the first important stage ... lung image was lung image was developed. developed. developed. The development of mean of median absolute derivation technique development of mean of median absolute .... that are non-real numbers during initial processing.

  15. Deriving Process Congruences from Reaction Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a theory which, given a formalism with a reduction semantics, allows the derivation of a canonical labelled transition system on which bisimilarity as well as other other equiv� alences are congruences; provided that the contexts of the formalism f...

  16. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze.

  17. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze.

  18. Visualization of enhancer-derived noncoding RNA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shibayama, Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancers are principal regulators that allow spatiotemporal tissue-specifi c control of gene expression. While mounting evidence suggests that enhancer-derived long noncoding RNAs (long ncRNAs), including enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), are an important...

  19. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  20. Access to new antimicrobial 4-methylumbelliferone derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pounds did not show any activity against P. huttiensis and only compound 8 exhibited a low activity towards. A. tumefasciens (IZ=7.5 mm). Pyrazole and pyrrole derivatives 10-12 were found to be active towards A. tumefasciens. The activity of com- pounds 11 and 12 could be explained by the presence in each one of the ...