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Sample records for flaw assessment guide

  1. Flaw assessment guide for high-temperature reactor components subject to creep-fatigue loading

    Ainsworth, R.A.; Takahashi, Y.

    1990-10-01

    A high-temperature flaw assessment procedure is described. This procedure is a result of a collaborative effort between Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom. The procedure addresses preexisting defects subject to creep-fatigue loading conditions. Laws employed to calculate the crack growth per cycle are defined in terms of fracture mechanics parameters and constants related to the component material. The crack-growth laws can be integrated to calculate the remaining life of a component or to predict the amount of crack extension in a given period. Fatigue and creep crack growth per cycle are calculated separately, and the total crack extension is taken as the simple sum of the two contributions. An interaction between the two propagation modes is accounted for in the material properties in the separate calculations. In producing the procedure, limitations of the approach have been identified. 25 refs., 1 fig

  2. Detection and assessment of flaws in friction stir welded joints using ultrasonic guided waves: experimental and finite element analysis

    Fakih, Mohammad Ali; Mustapha, Samir; Tarraf, Jaafar; Ayoub, Georges; Hamade, Ramsey

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves (GWs), e.g. Lamb waves, have been proven effective in the detection of defects such as corrosion, cracking, delamination, and debonding in both composite and metallic structures. They are a significant tool employed in structural health monitoring. In this study, the ability of ultrasonic GWs to assess the quality of friction stir welding (FSW) was investigated. Four friction stir welded AZ31B magnesium plates processed with different welding parameters and a non-welded plate were used. The fundamental symmetric (S0) Lamb wave mode was excited using piezoelectric wafers (PZTs). Further, the S0 mode was separated using the "Improved complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (Improved CEEMDAN)" technique. A damage index (DI) was defined based on the variation in the amplitude of the captured wave signals in order to detect the presence and asses the severity of damage resulting from the welding process. As well, computed tomography (CT) scanning was used as a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique to assess the actual weld quality and validate predictions based on the GW approach. The findings were further confirmed using finite element analysis (FEA). To model the actual damage profile in the welds, "Mimics" software was used for the 3D reconstruction of the CT scans. The built 3D models were later used for evaluation of damage volume and for FEA. The damage volumes were correlated to the damage indices computed from both experimental and numerical data. The proposed approach showed high sensitivity of the S0 mode to internal flaws within the friction stir welded joints. This methodology has great potential as a future classification method of FSW quality.

  3. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Described is the background work performed jointly by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom with the purpose of developing a high-temperature flaw assessment procedure for reactor components. Existing creep-fatigue crack-growth models are reviewed, and the most promising methods are identified. Sources of material data are outlined, and results of the fundamental deformation and crack-growth tests are discussed. Results of subcritical crack-growth exploratory tests, creep-fatigue crack-growth tests under repeated thermal transient conditions, and exploratory failure tests are presented and contrasted with the analytical modeling. Crack-growth assessment methods are presented and applied to a typical liquid-metal reactor component. The research activities presented herein served as a foundation for the Flaw Assessment Guide for High-Temperature Reactor Components Subjected to Creep-Fatigue Loading published separately. 30 refs., 108 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Mode Selection for Axial Flaw Detection in Steam Generator Tube Using Ultrasonic Guided Wave

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Yang, Seung Han; Guon, Ki Il; Kim, Yong Sik

    2009-01-01

    The eddy current testing method is mainly used to inspect steam generator tube during in-service inspection period. But the general problem of assessing the structural integrity of the steam generator tube using eddy current inspection is rather complex due to the presence of noise and interference signal under various conditions. However, ultrasonic testing as a nondestructive testing tool has become quite popular and effective for the flaw detection and material characterization. Currently, ultrasonic guided wave is emerging technique in power industry because of its various merits. But most of previous studies are focused on detection of circumferential oriented flaws. In this study, the steam generator tube of nuclear power plant was selected to detect axially oriented flaws and investigate guided wave mode identification. The longitudinal wave mode is generated using piezoelectric transducer frequency from 0.5 MHz, 1.0 MHz, 2.25MHz and 5MHz. Dispersion based STFT algorithm is used as mode identification tool

  5. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    1989-08-01

    The current program represents a joint effort between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the USA, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in Japan, and the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) in the UK. The goal is to develop an interim high-temperature flaw assessment procedure for high-temperature reactor components. This is to be accomplished through exploratory experimental and analytical studies of high-temperature crack growth. The state-of-the-art assessment and the fracture mechanics database for both types 304 and 316 stainless steels, completed in 1988, serve as a foundation for the present work. Work in the three participating organizations is progressing roughly on schedule. Results to-date are presented in this document. Fundamental tests results are discussed in Section 2. Section 3 focuses on results of exploratory subcritical crack growth tests. Progress in subcritical crack growth modeling is reported in Section 4. Exploratory failure tests are outlined in Section 5. 21 refs., 70 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Probabilistic assessment of critically flawed LMFBR PHTS piping elbows

    Balkey, K.R.; Wallace, I.T.; Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    One of the important functions of the Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) of a large Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plant is to contain the circulating radioactive sodium in components and piping routed through inerted areas within the containment building. A significant possible failure mode of this vital system is the development of cracks in the piping components. This paper presents results from the probabilistic assessment of postulated flaws in the most-critical piping elbow of each piping leg. The criticality of calculated maximum sized flaws is assessed against an estimated material fracture toughness to determine safety factors and failure probability estimates using stress-strength interference theory. Subsequently, a different approach is also employed in which the randomness of the initial flaw size and loading are more-rigorously taken into account. This latter approach yields much smaller probability of failure values when compared to the stress-strength interference analysis results

  7. Probabilistic assessment of flaw evaluation procedures for pressure vessel integrity

    Shaffer, D.H.; Bamford, W.H.; Jouris, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Prudent design procedures, in order to err in the direction of conservative over-strength rather than risky under-strength, have taken bounding values rather than best estimates for material parameters, and wherever possible, used conservative input for the calculations. The growing data base for this work is now beginning to allow an assessment of the conservatism that has been incorporated into the design procedure. Quantitative estimates of the variability associated with crack growth rates and fracture toughness have been generated in connection with other studies, and it would be useful to incorporate such information into an overall assessment of the design margins that are prescribed. In addition to getting an estimate of the conservatism in the current procedure, this study should provide a useful insight into the relative degree of margin that is introduced at each stage of the flaw evaluation process. Identification of the step by step margins should lead to more effective data collection programs from which information for adequately controlling the design conservatism can be obtained. The study will also provide valuable guidance in fixing revised design reference curves and safety factors so that adequate overall margins can be maintained without excess conservatism. This study is limited to vessel rupture in a brittle mode, and examples for illustration are particularly related to the beltline region of a reactor pressure vessel. The methodology, however, is applicable to all regions for which the required stress analyses, operating history, and material parameters are available. The work being carried out here is in consonance with ASME Section XI on Flaw Evaluation Procedures. It is concerned both with flaws under normal operating conditions and flaws under faulted conditions. (author)

  8. Flaw assessment procedure for high temperature reactor components

    Ainsworth, R.A.; Takahashi, Y.

    1990-01-01

    An interim high-temperature flaw assessment procedure is described. This is a result of a collaborative effort between Electric Power Research Institute in the USA, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, and Nuclear Electric plc in the UK. The procedure addresses preexisting defects subject to creep-fatigue loading conditions. Laws employed to calculate the crack growth per cycle are defined in terms of fracture mechanics parameters and constants related to the component material. The crack growth laws may be integrated to calculate the remaining life of a component or to predict the amount of crack extension in a given period. Fatigue and creep crack growth per cycle are calculated separately, and the total crack extension is taken as the simple sum of the two contributions. An interaction between the two propagation modes is accounted for in the material properties in the separate calculations. In producing the procedure, limitations of the approach have been identified. Some of these limitations are to be addressed in an extension of the current collaborative program. 20 refs

  9. Evaluation of flaws in ferritic piping: ASME Code Appendix J, Deformation Plasticity Failure Assessment Diagram (DPFAD)

    Bloom, J.M.

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the methods and bases used by an ASME Code procedure for the evaluation of flaws in ferritic piping. The procedure is currently under consideration by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee of Section 11. The procedure was initially proposed in 1985 for the evaluation of the acceptability of flaws detected in piping during in-service inspection for certain materials, identified in Article IWB-3640 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 11 ''Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components.'' for which the fracture toughness is not sufficiently high to justify acceptance based solely on the plastic limit load evaluation methodology of Appendix C and IWB-3641. The procedure, referred to as Appendix J, originally included two approaches: a J-integral based tearing instability (J-T) analysis and the deformation plasticity failure assessment diagram (DPFAD) methodology. In Appendix J, a general DPFAD approach was simplified for application to part-through wall flows in ferritic piping through the use of a single DPFAD curve for circumferential flaws. Axial flaws are handled using two DPFAD curves where the ratio of flaw depth to wall thickness is used to determine the appropriate DPFAD curve. Flaws are evaluated in Appendix J by comparing the actual pipe applied stress with the allowable stress with the appropriate safety factors for the flaw size at the end of the evaluation period. Assessment points for circumferential and axial flaws are plotted on the appropriate failure assessment diagram. In addition, this report summarizes the experimental test predictions of the results of the Battelle Columbus Laboratory experiments, the Eiber experiments, and the JAERI tests using the Appendix J DPFAD methodology. Lastly, this report also provides guidelines for handling residual stresses in the evaluation procedure. 22 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Development of a shallow-flaw fracture assessment methodology for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Dickson, T.L.; McAfee, W.J.; Pennell, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Shallow-flaw fracture technology is being developed within the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program for application to the safety assessment of radiation-embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing postulated shallow flaws. Cleavage fracture in shallow-flaw cruciform beam specimens tested under biaxial loading at temperatures in the lower transition temperature range was shown to be strain-controlled. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation was developed and shown to be capable of predicting the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture toughness for strain-controlled fracture. A probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) model that includes both the properties of the inner-surface stainless-steel cladding and a biaxial shallow-flaw fracture toughness correlation gave a reduction in probability of cleavage initiation of more than two orders of magnitude from an ASME-based reference case

  11. Exogenous Variables and Value-Added Assessments: A Fatal Flaw

    Berliner, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been rapid growth in value-added assessment of teachers to meet the widely supported policy goal of identifying the most effective and the most ineffective teachers in a school system. The former group is to be rewarded while the latter group is to be helped or fired for their poor performance. But, value-added approaches to…

  12. A Serious Flaw in the Collegiate Learning Assessment [CLA] Test

    Kevin Possin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Collegiate Learning Assessment Test (CLA has become popular and highly recommended, praised for its reliability and validity. I argue that while the CLA may be a commendable test for measuring critical-thinking, problem-solving, and logical-reasoning skills, those who are scoring students’ answers to the test’s questions are rendering the CLA invalid.

  13. Assessing performance of flaw characterization methods through uncertainty propagation

    Miorelli, R.; Le Bourdais, F.; Artusi, X.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we assess the inversion performance in terms of crack characterization and localization based on synthetic signals associated to ultrasonic and eddy current physics. More precisely, two different standard iterative inversion algorithms are used to minimize the discrepancy between measurements (i.e., the tested data) and simulations. Furthermore, in order to speed up the computational time and get rid of the computational burden often associated to iterative inversion algorithms, we replace the standard forward solver by a suitable metamodel fit on a database built offline. In a second step, we assess the inversion performance by adding uncertainties on a subset of the database parameters and then, through the metamodel, we propagate these uncertainties within the inversion procedure. The fast propagation of uncertainties enables efficiently evaluating the impact due to the lack of knowledge on some parameters employed to describe the inspection scenarios, which is a situation commonly encountered in the industrial NDE context.

  14. Fracture assessment of shallow-flaw cruciform beams tested under uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate with the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states. (orig.)

  15. Fatigue flaw growth assessment and inclusion of stratification to the LBB assessment

    Samohyl, P.

    1997-04-01

    The application of the LBB requires also fatigue flaw growth assessment. This analysis was performed for PWR nuclear power plants types VVER 440/230, VVER 440/213c, VVER 1000/320. Respecting that these NPP`s were designed according to Russian codes that differ from US codes it was needed to compare these approaches. Comparison with our experimental data was accomplished, too. Margins of applicability of the US methods and their modifications for the materials used for construction of Czech and Slovak NPP`s are shown. Computer code accomplishing the analysis according to described method is presented. Some measurement and calculations show that thermal stratifications in horizontal pipelines can lead to additive loads that are not negligible and can be dangerous. An attempt to include these loads induced by steady-state stratification was made.

  16. A Critical Assessment of Child Custody Evaluations: Limited Science and a Flawed System.

    Emery, Robert E; Otto, Randy K; O'Donohue, William T

    2005-07-01

    -Most parents who live apart negotiate custody arrangements on their own or with the help of lawyers, mediators, or other professionals. However, psychologists and other mental health professionals increasingly have become involved in evaluating children and families in custody disputes, because of the large number of separated, divorced, and never-married parents and the substantial conflict that often accompanies the breakup of a family. Theoretically, the law guides and controls child custody evaluations, but the prevailing custody standard (the "best interests of the child" test) is a vague rule that directs judges to make decisions unique to individual cases according to what will be in children's future (and undefined) best interests. Furthermore, state statutes typically offer only vague guidelines as to how judges (and evaluators) are to assess parents and the merits of their cases, and how they should ultimately decide what custody arrangements will be in a child's best interests. In this vacuum, custody evaluators typically administer to parents and children an array of tests and assess them through less formal means including interviews and observation. Sadly, we find that (a) tests specifically developed to assess questions relevant to custody are completely inadequate on scientific grounds; (b) the claims of some anointed experts about their favorite constructs (e.g., "parent alienation syndrome") are equally hollow when subjected to scientific scrutiny; (c) evaluators should question the use even of well-established psychological measures (e.g., measures of intelligence, personality, psychopathology, and academic achievement) because of their often limited relevance to the questions before the court; and (d) little empirical data exist regarding other important and controversial issues (e.g., whether evaluators should solicit children's wishes about custody; whether infants and toddlers are harmed or helped by overnight visits), suggesting a need for

  17. Use of Master Curve technology for assessing shallow flaws in a reactor pressure vessel material

    Bass, Bennett Richard; Taylor, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    In the NESC-IV project an experimental/analytical program was performed to develop validated analysis methods for transferring fracture toughness data to shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessels subject to biaxial loading in the lower-transition temperature region. Within this scope an extensive range of fracture tests was performed on material removed from a production-quality reactor pressure vessel. The Master Curve analysis of this data is reported and its application to the assessment of the project feature tests on large beam test pieces.

  18. Reliability assessment of hydraulic cylinders considering service loads and flaw distribution

    Altamura, Alessandra; Beretta, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing process, service conditions and material properties are all necessary requirements to a good design of tubular mechanical components subjected to fatigue. The most common approach to this design is usually deterministic, where a fixed NDT threshold, related to flaw acceptance limit, is set. However many uncertainties are left aside, i.e. the failure probability related to the fatigue strength under applied loads. This paper addresses the reliability evaluation of tubular mechanical components carrying some flaws and subjected to cyclic internal pressure variation. The aim is comparing the probability of failure obtained under several assumptions. A reliability assessment model, based on a random variable approach, has been implemented by using the Monte Carlo method. The analysis of the results, from a case study based on load spectra measurements of hydraulic cylinders of earth moving machines, has consented to evaluate the most important factors influencing the fatigue life prediction of these components. Highlights: ► Reliability evaluation of tubular components subjected to variable internal pressure. ► The dispersion of the threshold controls the stochasticity of crack growth. ► A random variable model has been developed using Monte Carlo. ► Initial crack size and spectrum shape are key factors in reliability evaluation.

  19. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure: A state-of-the-art survey

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.

    1989-05-01

    High-temperature crack growth under cyclic, static, and combined loading is received with an emphasis on fracture mechanics aspects. Experimental studies of the effects of loading history, microstructure, temperature, and environment on crack growth behavior are described and interpreted. The experimental evidence is used to examine crack growth parameters and theoretical models for fatigue, creep, and creep-fatigue crack propagation at elevated temperatures. The limitations of both elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics for high-temperature subcritical crack growth are assessed. Existing techniques for modeling critical crack growth/ligament instability failure are also presented. Related topics of defect modeling and engineering flaw assessment procedures, nondestructive evaluation methods, and probabilistic failure analysis are briefly discussed. 142 refs., 33 figs

  20. Fracture behaviour assessment of a flawed pressure vessel in the hydro-test

    Sarkimo, M; Rintamac, R

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the fracture properties of a flawed pressure vessel. The experiment was carried out within the Nordic Countries on a vessel in a Finnish refinery. The instrumentation used included acoustic emission. Some results are provided. (TEC).

  1. Fracture assessment of HSST Plate 14 shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimens tested under biaxial loading conditions

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.

  2. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    2014-12-01

    assessment in a reasonable amount of time. Hands-on assessments can be extremely diverse in makeup and administration depending on the subject matter...DEVELOPING AND USING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENTS TO TAILOR TRAINING D-3 ___ Brush and scrub ___ Orchards ___ Rice

  3. Standard Guide for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Composites, Laminates, and Bonded Joints

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide explains the rationale and basic technology for the acousto-ultrasonic (AU) method. Guidelines are given for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of flaws and physical characteristics that influence the mechanical properties and relative strength of composite structures (for example, filament-wound pressure vessels), adhesive bonds (for example, joints between metal plates), and interlaminar and fiber/matrix bonds in man-made composites and natural composites (for example, wood products). 1.2 This guide covers technical details and rules that must be observed to ensure reliable and reproducible quantitative AU assessments of laminates, composites, and bonded structures. The underlying principles, prototype apparatus, instrumentation, standardization, examination methods, and data analysis for such assessments are covered. Limitations of the AU method and guidelines for taking advantage of its capabilities are cited. 1.3 The objective of AU is to assess subtle flaws and associated strength variations...

  4. PWR vessel flaw distribution development

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.; Kinsman, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on PWR pressure vessels which operate under NRC rules and regulatory guides intended to prevent failure of the vessels. Plants failing to meet the operating criteria specified under these rules and regulations are required to analytically demonstrate fitness for service in order to continue operation. The initial flaw size or distribution of initial vessel flaws is a key input to the required vessel integrity analyses. However, the flaw distribution assumed in the development of the NRC Regulations and recommended for the plant specific analyses is potentially over-conservative. This is because the distribution is based on the limited amount of vessel inspection data available at the time the criteria were being developed and does not take full advantage of the more recent and reliable domestic vessel inspection results. The U.S. Department of Energy is funding an effort through Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of developing a new flaw distribution based on the increased amount and improved reliability of domestic vessel inspection data. Results of Phase I of the program indicate that state-of-the-art NDE systems' capabilities are sufficient for development of a new flaw distribution that could ultimately provide life extension benefits over the presently required operating practice

  5. Flaw detection device

    Sasahara, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for detecting welded portions of a reactor pressure vessel. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a casing to be disposed on the surface to be detected, (2) a probe driving means loaded to the casing, (3) a probe driven along the surface to be detected and (4) a pressure reduction means for keeping the hollow portion in the casing to an evacuated atmosphere. The casing comprises a flexible suction edge to be tightly in contact with the surface to be tested for maintaining the air tight state, (6) a guide wheel for moving the casing along the surface to be tested and (7) a handle for performing transferring operation. The flaw detection device thus constituted has following features. The working efficiency upon conducting detection is improved. The influence of the weight of the device on the detection is small. The device can be applied on the surface of a nonmagnetic material. The efficiency for the flaw detection can be improved. (I.S.)

  6. Component flaw evaluations

    Yoon, K [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States). Nuclear Power Div.

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with flaw evaluation during in-service inspection. These flaws can be divided into two groups: defects originating from the manufacturing fabrication stage or service-induced flaws. These are mainly caused by high cycle thermal fatigue and are influenced by the presence of stress corrosion cracking mechanisms such as nozzles or pump shaft. (TEC).

  7. Currency flaw severity. [Banknotes

    Johnson, C.; Burnett, M.; Goodman, C.; Sherrod, R.; Schmoyer, R.; Harrison, C.; Uppuluri, R.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of currency flaw severity was carried out using 300 banknotes and 37 judges. Each judge assigned each note to one of five flaw severity categories. These categories correspond to severity grades of 1 to 5 with 1 equivalent to ''always accepted'' and 5 ''never accepted.'' An average flaw severity grade for each note was obtained by taking the mean of the severity grades assigned to that note by the 37 judges. Thus, each note has a single numerical real-number flaw grade between 1 and 5. Mathematical modeling of the currency flaw survey results is continuing with some very promising initial results. Our present model handles common excess ink and missing ink flaw types quite well. We plan to extend the model to ink level, mash, setoff and blanket impression flaw types.

  8. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-02-01

    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Flaw identification using acoustic emission

    Woodward, B.; McDonald, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    Acoustic emission 'signatures' contain information about the fine structure of metallurgical source events and their interpretation may provide a means of assessing the severity of internal flaws as well as surface flaws. The ultimate aim of this research on signature analysis is to develop a real time non-destructive testing technique having the capability of flaw recognition as well as flaw location in nuclear reactor components and structures under stress. Thus the requisite, unlike that in most acoustic emission work to date, is for a technique which affords discrimination between acoustic emission from different types of flaws propagating simultaneously. The approach described here requires detailed analysis of the emission signatures in terms of a specific statistical parameter, energy spectral density. In order to realise the full inspection potential of acoustic emission monitoring data obtained from zirconium and steel testpieces have been correlated with metallurgical condition and mechanical behaviour, since the nature of emission signatures is strongly affected by the physical characteristics and internal structure of the material. (Auth.)

  10. Assessing an avoidable and dispensable reoperative entity: Self-referred flawed cleft lip and palate repair.

    Foroglou, Pericles; Tsimponis, Antonis; Goula, Olga-Christina; Demiri, Efterpi

    2015-01-01

    aesthetically improved outcome. Indications for surgery include widened scars, lip contour deformities, shortened lips, poorly defined and flattened nasal tip, short columella and irregularities of the nostrils (narrow or high-riding) and cartilages. Wound dehiscence, contractures, vermilion notching, white roll malalignment and orovestibular fistulas are possible unfavourable results after cleft lip repair. The psychological status of children and adults with repaired cleft lip and palate has been the subject of extensive research especially regarding the way of their evaluation facial appearance, satisfaction and need for secondary corrective surgical procedures in the hope of increasing their self-esteem and self-confidence. The aim of this study was to assess secondary CLP deformity management in an accredited present-day tertiary hospital facility with an existing infrastructure of a specialist teams however not formed in a multidisciplinary group. Equally, to answer questions of specific operation indications and choice as related to prior surgeries, hospitalization time and cost, provision of adequate preoperative information, correlation between paediatric and plastic surgeons and effect of post-plastic surgical care on patients' health and well-being. It also aims at presenting, beyond our current primary cleft lip and palate repair approach, appropriate indications and timing of secondary repair and achieved results.

  11. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2014-03-24

    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  12. Flaw evaluation charts

    Korosec, D.; Vojvodic Tuma, J.

    1999-01-01

    The structural integrity of the primary components in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant is very important in the respect of safe and efficient operation. These components have to be subjected to periodic controls. In the light of fracture mechanics concept, the acceptance criteria for defects (flaws) are developed. Flaw evaluation procedure is necessary, to evaluate the defects regarding their acceptability for further operation. The objective of the flaw evaluation charts is to provide a series of simple graphs as decision maps. that immediate decision may be taken regarding the acceptability of a detected defects, on the basis of ASME Code XI criteria.(author)

  13. Reliably detectable flaw size for NDE methods that use calibration

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2017-04-01

    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-1823 and associated mh18232 POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. In this paper, POD analysis is applied to an NDE method, such as eddy current testing, where calibration is used. NDE calibration standards have known size artificial flaws such as electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches and flat bottom hole (FBH) reflectors which are used to set instrument sensitivity for detection of real flaws. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. Therefore, it is important to correlate signal responses from real flaws with signal responses form artificial flaws used in calibration process to determine reliably detectable flaw size.

  14. Assessment of crack-like flaws - Comparison of procedures in BS 7910, API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, RSE-M AND FITNET

    Chaudouet, A.

    2007-01-01

    Among all Fitness For Service Codes enabling to assess flaws in metallic structures and to evaluate their remaining life, new editions of the most important ones at the international level have been issued recently. The latest edition of BS 7910 in United Kingdom has been released in October 2005. In the USA, API and ASME have edited a new standard in 2007, API579-1/ASME FFS-1, dedicated to pressure equipment. In France, the rules concerning the of Light Water Reactors, RSE-M, have been updated in 2005. Finally, in Europe, the FITNET network is writing a document based on BS 7910 but extended with the most recent results in this domain. Rules given in these documents to assess crack-like flaws with respect to fracture and fatigue propagation are presented. They are compared in order to point out the most interesting aspects of each ones and to identify those which could be generalized. An example assessed with the above mentioned 'Codes' enlightens the differences in the results with respect to the 'Code' used. (author) [fr

  15. Comparison of COD, R6, and J-contour integral methods of defect assessment, modified to give critical flaw sizes

    Burdekin, F.M.; Turner, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study of the application of different elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to the calculation of critical defect sizes in pressure vessels showed widely varying results. The present authors have investigated in detail the reasons for the variations resulting from the use of the CEGB R6, COD design curve, and J-design curve methods to the particular pressure vessel problems. To obtain reasonable agreement between the three methods for the calculation of critical flaw sizes in high stress gradient situations, the published COD method in PD6493 has to be modified to remove its inherent safety factor, and to allow for stress gradients, and a consistent treatment for gross yielding/collapse has to be adopted for all three methods. (author)

  16. Applicability of Alignment and Combination Rules to Burst Pressure Prediction of Multiple-flawed Steam Generator Tube

    Lee, Myeong Woo; Kim, Ji Seok; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jun Young [Doosan Heavy Industries and Consruction, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Min [Korea Plant Service and Engineering, Technical Research and Development Institute, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Alignment and combination rules are provided by various codes and standards. These rules are used to determine whether multiple flaws should be treated as non-aligned or as coplanar, and independent or combined flaws. Experimental results on steam generator (SG) tube specimens containing multiple axial part-through-wall (PTW) flaws at room temperature (RT) are compared with assessment results based on the alignment and combination rules of the codes and standards. In case of axial collinear flaws, ASME, JSME, and BS7910 treated multiple flaws as independent flaws and API 579, A16, and FKM treated multiple flaws as combined single flaw. Assessment results of combined flaws were conservative. In case of axial non-aligned flaws, almost flaws were aligned and assessment results well correlate with experimental data. In case of axial parallel flaws, both effective flaw lengths of aligned flaws and separated flaws was are same because of each flaw length were same. This study investigates the applicability of alignment and combination rules for multiple flaws on the failure behavior of Alloy 690TT steam generator (SG) tubes that widely used in the nuclear power plan. Experimental data of burst tests on Alloy 690TT tubes with single and multiple flaws that conducted at room temperature (RT) by Kim el al. compared with the alignment rules of these codes and standards. Burst pressure of SG tubes with flaws are predicted using limit load solutions that provide by EPRI Handbook.

  17. Proposal of reference stress for a surface flaw on a cylindrical component from a review-with-comparison of the local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M diagram method

    Oyamada, Kenji; Konosu, Shinji; Ohno, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The Remaining Strength Factor (RSF) approach in Part 5 of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 is an assessment method for a cylindrical component with a local metal loss based on surface correction factors. Also, reference stress solutions that are applied in the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) method for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw are provided in Annex D using surface correction factors. In the recently-developed p-M diagram method, the reference stress solution for local metal loss evaluation in a cylindrical component is derived using bulging factors, which are similar but not identical to the surface correction factors used in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. This paper describes the results of a comparative study among the RSF approach, reference stress solutions for the FAD method, and the p-M diagram method, in terms of plastic collapse evaluation of a cylindrical component. These results were compared with the FEA and experimental results to confirm how these estimated stresses could be validated. This study also involves recommended reference stress solutions for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw or a local metal loss, which should be adopted as fitness-for-service rules, and a discussion on the influence of the design margin of the construction code on allowable flaw depth. - Highlights: → We compared local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M method. → Experiments and FEA verified the p-M estimate stress state around a flaw accurate. → API 579-1 for local metal loss may underestimate stress state for certain conditions. → Existing reference stresses for crack-like flaws may underestimate stress state too. → We propose the reference stress for a surface flaw subjected to pressure and moment.

  18. Methodology for inferring initial flaw distribution

    Jouris, G.M.; Shaffer, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    It has been common practice in both deterministic and probabilistic assessment of the integrity of a pressure vessel to assume the presence of a rather large flaw (usually 1/4 the thickness of the vessel wall) in the belt-line region. Although it is highly unlikely that such a large flaw would be present, the assumption is adopted in order to be conservative. A more realistic approach, which can be incorporated in the probabilistic analysis of integrity, is to characterize the depth of a flaw as a random variable and thus allow the probabilities associated with the presence of various size flaws to be reflected in the final estimated probability of vessel failure. This is precisely the motivation for developing the methodology to obtain the distribution of initial flaw depth, which is presented in this paper. It should be mentioned that the methodology developed here is not an end in itself but rather provides an input distribution to be used in a comprehensive integrity assessment. (orig.)

  19. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution in Weld Repairs

    Doctor, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a generalized flaw distribution for the population of nuclear reactor pressure vessels and for piping welds in the U. S. operating reactors. The purpose of the generalized flaw distribution is to predict component-specific flaw densities. The estimates of fabrication flaws are intended for use in fracture mechanics structural integrity assessments. Structural integrity assessments, such as estimating the frequency of loss-of-coolant accidents, are performed by computer codes that require, as input, accurate estimates of flaw densities. Welds from four different cancelled reactor pressure vessels and a collection of archived pipes have been studied to develop empirical estimates of fabrication flaw densities. This paper describes the fabrication flaw distribution and characterization in the repair weld metal of vessels and piping. This work indicates that large flaws occur in these repairs which are complex in composition and sometimes include cracks on the ends of the repair cavities. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit is performed on the data. Construction records where available were reviewed. It is difficult to make conclusions due to the limited number of construction records reviewed. However, the records reviewed to date show a significant change in repair frequency over the years when the components in this study were fabricated. A description of repair flaw morphology is provided with a discussion of fracture mechanics significance.

  20. Midland reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1993-12-01

    The results of laboratory nondestructive examination (NDE), and destructive cross-sectioning of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor pressure vessel were analyzed per a previously developed methodology in order to develop a flaw distribution. The flaw distributions developed from the NDE results obtained by two different ultrasonic test (UT) inspections (Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center and Pacific Northwest Laboratories) were not statistically significantly different. However, the distribution developed from the NDE Center's (destructive) cross-sectioning-based data was found to be significantly different than those obtained through the UT inspections. A fracture mechanics-based comparison of the flaw distributions showed that the cross-sectioning-based data, conservatively interpreted (all defects considered as flaws), gave a significantly lower vessel failure probability when compared with the failure probability values obtained using the UT-based distributions. Given that the cross-sectioning data were reportedly biased toward larger, more significant-appearing (by UT) indications, it is concluded that the nondestructive examinations produced definitively conservative results. In addition to the Midland vessel inspection-related analyses, a set of twenty-seven numerical simulations, designed to provide a preliminary quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the flaw distribution method used here, were conducted. The calculations showed that, in more than half the cases, the analysis produced reasonably accurate predictions

  1. The Flawed Characters in the Campaign: Prestige Newspaper Assessments of the 1992 Presidential Candidates' Integrity and Competence.

    King, Erika G.

    1995-01-01

    Examines coverage in three leading newspapers, finding that explicit assessments of the 1992 presidential candidates' character were present in seven percent of all news articles and one-third of op-ed items, with the vast majority unfavorable. Shows that Bill Clinton was consistently assessed as a "slippery obfuscator," George Bush as…

  2. Detecting flaws in welds

    Woodacre, A.; Lawton, H.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for detecting flaws in welds in a workpiece, the portion of the workpiece containing the weld is maintained at a constant temperature and the weld is scanned by an infra red detector. The weld is then scanned again with the workpiece in contact with a cooling probe to produce a steeper temperature gradient across the weld. Comparison of the signals produced by each scan reveals the existence of defects in the welds. The signals may be displayed on an oscilloscope and the display may be observed by a TV camera and recorded on videotape. (UK)

  3. A review of recent advances in the role of leak-before-break concept in assessments of flaws detected in CANDU pressure tubes

    Crespi, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    If a crack develops in a pressure tube, the leak is detected by monitoring the moisture in the gas annulus and the reactor shutdown before it becomes unstable. Because the delayed hydride cracking has been associated to date with all pressure tube failures at a rolled joints, the delayed hydride cracking is considered to be the dominant mecanism by which the flaws can grow to a size which exceeds the critical crack length. For the delayed hydride cracking failure mode leak-before-break is used as defense in depth against unstable rupture. The methodology depends on showing than the time available to detect a delayed hydride crack is much greater that the time required to detect it in the gas annulus. The time available is estimated from measurements of: (a) axial delayed hydride crack growth rates, (b) crack lengths at penetrations of the tube wall when leakage first occurs and (c) critical crack lengths at instability when a crack is growing by the delayed hydride cracking mechanism. A review of recent advances in the experimental data used in leak-before-break assessment are presented and discussed. (author). 17 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  4. DOE assessment guide for safeguards and security

    Bennett, C.A.; Christorpherson, W.E.; Clark, R.J.; Martin, F.; Hodges, Jr.

    1978-04-01

    DOE operations are periodically assessed to assure that special nuclear material, restricted data, and other classified information and DOE facilities are executed toward continuing the effectiveness of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards. A guide to describe the philosophy and mechanisms through which these assessments are conducted is presented. The assessment program is concerned with all contractor, field office, and Headquarters activities which are designed to assure that safeguards and security objectives are reached by contractors at DOE facilities and operations. The guide takes into account the interlocking relationship between many of the elements of an effective safeguards and security program. Personnel clearance programs are a part of protecting classified information as well as nuclear materials. Barriers that prevent or limit access may contribute to preventing theft of government property as well as protecting against sabotage. Procedures for control and surveillance need to be integrated with both information systems and procedures for mass balance accounting. Wherever possible, assessment procedures have been designed to perform integrated inspection, evaluation, and follow-up for the safeguards and security program

  5. Flaws in Commercial Reading Materials.

    Axelrod, Jerome

    Three flaws found in commercial reading materials, such as workbooks and kits, are discussed in this paper, and examples of the flaws are taken from specific materials. The first problem noted is that illustrations frequently provide the information that the learner is supposed to supply through phonetic or structural analysis; the illustrations…

  6. Evaluation of canister weld flaw depth for concrete storage cask

    Moon, Tae Chul; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sung Hun; Lee, Young Oh; Jung, In Su [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Corp, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Domestically developed concrete storage casks include an internal canister to maintain the confinement integrity of radioactive materials. In this study, we analyzed the depth of flaws caused by loads that propagate canister weld cracks under normal, off-normal and accident conditions, and evaluated the maximum allowable weld flaw depth needed to secure the structural integrity of the canister weld and to reduce the welding time of the internal canister lid of the concrete storage cask. Structural analyses for normal, off-normal and accident conditions were performed using the general-purpose finite element analysis program ABAQUS; the allowable flaw depth was assessed according to ASME B and PV Code Section XI. Evaluation results revealed an allowable canister weld flaw depth of 18.75 mm for the concrete storage cask, which satisfies the critical flaw depth recommended in NUREG-1536.

  7. Statistical flaw detection: Application to flaws below curved surfaces

    Elsley, R.K.; Fertig, K.W.; Linebarger, R.S.; Richardson, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a practical approach to the optimum detection of flaws in the presence of noise signals. A decision theoretic approach is used to derive a detection algorithm which is adapted to the noise environment in which a particular measurement is being made. An automatic procedure for characterizing the noises and developing the optimum detection algorithm is presented. The proposed method makes use of an explicit knowledge of the noise processes in order to design a flaw detection algorithm which optimally detects flaws in the presence of such noise. It is concluded that this approach will provide a number of advantages in practical testing situations, including the detection of smaller flaws, faster scanning due to the use of less highly focussed transducers, and less need for operator optimization of the measurement process. The described algorithms were implemented on the Digital Ultrasonic Instrument (DUI), which is a high speed all-digital instrument for performing sophisticated calculations on ultrasonic signals

  8. The behavior of shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessels

    Rolfe, S.T.

    1991-11-01

    Both analytical and experimental studies have shown that the effect of crack length, a, on the elastic-plastic toughness of structural steels is significant. The objective of this report is to recommend those research investigations that are necessary to understand the phenomenon of shallow behavior as it affects fracture toughness so that the results can be used properly in the structural margin assessment of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with flaws. Preliminary test results of A 533 B steel show an elevated crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) toughness similar to that observed for structural steels tested at the University of Kansas. Thus, the inherent resistance to fracture initiation of A 533 B steel with shallow flaws appears to be higher than that used in the current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) design curves based on testing fracture mechanics specimens with deep flaws. If this higher toughness of laboratory specimens with shallow flaws can be transferred to a higher resistance to failure in RPV design or analysis, then the actual margin of safety in nuclear vessels with shallow flaws would be greater than is currently assumed on the basis of deep-flaw test results. This elevation in toughness and greater resistance to fracture would be a very desirable situation, particularly for the pressurized-thermal shock (PTS) analysis in which shallow flaws are assumed to exist. Before any advantage can be taken of this possible increase in initiation toughness, numerous factors must be analyzed to ensure the transferability of the data. This report reviews those factors and makes recommendations of studies that are needed to assess the transferability of shallow-flaw toughness test results to the structural margin assessment of RPV with shallow flaws. 14 refs., 8 figs

  9. An interim report on shallow-flaw fracture technology development

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Shallow-flaw fracture technology is being developed for application to the safety assessment of radiation-embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVS) containing flaws. Fracture mechanics tests on RPV steel, coupled with detailed elastic-plastic finite-element analyses of the crack-tip stress fields, have shown that (1) constraint relaxation at the crack tip of shallow surface flaws results in increased data scatter but no increase in the lower-bound fracture toughness, (2) the nil ductility temperature (NDT) performs better than the reference temperature for nil ductility transition (RT NDT ) as a normalizing parameter for shallow-flaw fracture toughness data, (3) biaxial loading can reduce the shallow-flaw fracture toughness, (4) stress-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlations cannot predict the effect of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness because in-plane stresses at the crack tip are not influenced by biaxial loading, and (5) a strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation can predict the effect of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness

  10. A user's guide to the disease management literature: recommendations for reporting and assessing program outcomes.

    Linden, Ariel; Roberts, Nancy

    2005-02-01

    Recently there has been tremendous growth in the number of lay-press articles and peer-reviewed journal articles reporting extraordinary improvements in health status and financial outcomes due to disease management (DM) interventions. However, closer scrutiny of these reports reveals serious flaws in research design and/or analysis, leaving many to question the veracity of the claims. In recent years, there have been numerous contributions to the literature on how to assess the quality of medical research papers. However, these guidelines focus primarily on randomized controlled trials, with little attention given to the observational study designs typically used in DM outcome studies. As such, general guides to evaluating the medical literature are inadequate in their utility to assist authors and readers of DM outcomes research. The purpose of this paper is to provide authors with a clear and comprehensive guide to the reporting of DM outcomes, as well as to educate readers of the DM literature (both lay and peer reviewed) in how to assess the quality of the findings presented.

  11. Determination of Flaw Size from Thermographic Data

    Winfree, William P.; Howell, Patricia A.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional methods for reducing the pulsed thermographic responses of delaminations tend to overestimate the size of the flaw. Since the heat diffuses in the plane parallel to the surface, the resulting temperature profile over the flaw is larger than the flaw. A variational method is presented for reducing the thermographic data to produce an estimated size for the flaw that is much closer to the true size of the flaw. The size is determined from the spatial thermal response of the exterior surface above the flaw and a constraint on the length of the contour surrounding the flaw. The technique is applied to experimental data acquired on a flat bottom hole composite specimen.

  12. Site remediation guided by risk assessment

    McBean, E.A.; Gowing, A.; Pieczonka, G.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Risk assessment (RA) provides an effective tool for identifying hazards with respect to human health and ecological receptors, hazards that arise from contaminants in the environment. Risk assessment relies upon: hazard identification/problem formulation; toxicity assessment; exposure assessment; and risk characterization. Hence, risk assessment provides an effective guide for site remediation through the identification of the associated risks arising from pre- and potential post-remediation activities. As a demonstration of this decision-making process, a site-specific risk assessment (SSRA) was performed on a chemical producing facility. Historical waste practices during the production of DDT compounds resulted in impacted site soils and sediment and soils of the creek passing through the facility. The purpose of the SSRA was to derive site-specific cleanup values for the impacted on-site soils, creek sediments, and embankment soils, incorporating human and ecological receptors associated with the environmental media. The human exposure pathways considered were dermal contact, incidental ingestion, and inhalation of the various soils. The potential human receptors were industrial workers, construction workers, trespassers, and off-site residents. Ingestion of fish from the creek by residents was also evaluated in the human health risk assessment (HHRA). Food web analyses were used to evaluate the impact of exposure to chemical compounds in aquatic sediments and related soils by ecological receptors such as the great blue heron, raccoon, and mink. The SSRA involved modelling the daily chemical intake by receptors and the transfer of chemicals to identified secondary media (e.g., ambient air or animal tissues) that are also potential exposure media. These models, while using the site-specific chemical data in the source media, possess uncertainties associated with default parameters that are only approximations and not site-specific (e.g., soil

  13. Methods to establish flaw tolerances

    Varga, T.

    1978-01-01

    Three conventional methods used to establish flaw tolerances are compared with new approaches using fracture mechanics. The conventional methods are those based on (a) non-destructive testing methods; (b) fabrication and quality assurance experience; and (c) service and damage experience. Pre-requisites of fracture mechanics methods are outlined, and summaries given of linear elastic mechanics (LEFM) and elastoplastic fracture mechanics (EPFM). The latter includes discussion of C.O.D.(crack opening displacement), the J-integral and equivalent energy. Proposals are made for establishing flaw tolerances. (U.K.)

  14. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for estimation stress intensity factor. Surface crack on ICM housing for penetration in reactor vessel

    2012-12-01

    The project of Integrity Assessment of Flawed Components with Structural Discontinuity (IAF) was entrusted to Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and started from FY 2001. And then, it was taken over to Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) which was established in October 2003 and carried out until FY 2007. In the IAF project, weld joints between nickel based alloys and low alloy steels around penetrations in reactor vessel, safe-end of nozzles and shroud supports were selected from among components and pipe arrangements in nuclear power plants, where high residual stresses were generated due to welding and complex structure. Residual stresses around of the weld joints were estimated by finite element analysis method (FEM) with a general modeling method, then the reasonability and the conservativeness was evaluated. In addition, for postulated surface crack of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a simple calculation method of stress intensity factor (K) required to estimate the crack growth was proposed and the effectiveness was confirmed. JNES compiled results of the IAF project into Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis of Weld Joint, and Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation for Penetration of Reactor as typical Structure Discontinuity, respectively. Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. 1. Butt Weld Joint of Small Diameter Cylinder (4B Sch40) (JNES-RE-2012-0005), 2. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (One-Side Groove Joint (JNES-RE-2012-0006), 3. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (Large Diameter Both-Side Groove Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0007), 4. Weld Joint around Penetrations in Reactor Vessel (Insert Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0008), 5. Weld Joint in Shroud Support (H8, H9, H10 and H11 Welds) (JNES-RE-2012-0009), 6. Analysis Model of Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint Applied Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) (JNES-RE-2012-0010). Data Book of

  15. Modeling the X-ray Process, and X-ray Flaw Size Parameter for POD Studies

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2014-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method reliability can be determined by a statistical flaw detection study called probability of detection (POD) study. In many instances, the NDE flaw detectability is given as a flaw size such as crack length. The flaw is either a crack or behaving like a crack in terms of affecting the structural integrity of the material. An alternate approach is to use a more complex flaw size parameter. The X-ray flaw size parameter, given here, takes into account many setup and geometric factors. The flaw size parameter relates to X-ray image contrast and is intended to have a monotonic correlation with the POD. Some factors such as set-up parameters, including X-ray energy, exposure, detector sensitivity, and material type that are not accounted for in the flaw size parameter may be accounted for in the technique calibration and controlled to meet certain quality requirements. The proposed flaw size parameter and the computer application described here give an alternate approach to conduct the POD studies. Results of the POD study can be applied to reliably detect small flaws through better assessment of effect of interaction between various geometric parameters on the flaw detectability. Moreover, a contrast simulation algorithm for a simple part-source-detector geometry using calibration data is also provided for the POD estimation.

  16. Design flaw could delay collider

    Cho, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    "A magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) failed during a key test at the European particle physics laboratory CERN last week. Physicists and engineers will have to repair the damaged magnet and retrofit others to correct the underlynig design flaw, which could delay the start-up of the mammouth subterranean machine." (1,5 page)

  17. Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide

    2017-05-15

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0012 Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide Elizabeth Shoda, Alex...June 2015 – May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... automated vision tests , or AVT. Development of the AVT was required to support threshold-level vision testing capability needed to investigate the

  18. The Benefits of Guided Facility Self-Assessments

    O'Leary, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of educational institutions have discovered that a guided self-assessment solution helps them to consistently and cost-effectively obtain facility condition information and make better-informed capital planning decisions. Facility self-assessment employs a consistent, repeatable process for internal staff to quickly assess assets…

  19. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  20. Users guide to REGIONAL-1: a regional assessment model

    Davis, W.E.; Eadie, W.J.; Powell, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    A guide was prepared to allow a user to run the PNL long-range transport model, REGIONAL 1. REGIONAL 1 is a computer model set up to run atmospheric assessments on a regional basis. The model has the capability of being run in three modes for a single time period. The three modes are: (1) no deposition, (2) dry deposition, (3) wet and dry deposition. The guide provides the physical and mathematical basis used in the model for calculating transport, diffusion, and deposition for all three modes. Also the guide includes a program listing with an explanation of the listings and an example in the form of a short-term assessment for 48 hours. The purpose of the example is to allow a person who has past experience with programming and meteorology to operate the assessment model and compare his results with the guide results. This comparison will assure the user that the program is operating in a proper fashion

  1. RID-41 gamma flaw detector

    Glebov, V.N.; Zubkov, V.S.; Majorov, A.N.; Murashev, A.I.; Firstov, V.G.; Yampol'skij, V.V.; Goncharov, V.I.; Sakhanov, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The design is described and the main characteristics are given of a universal stationary hose-type gamma flow detector with a 60 Co source from 3O to 4g0 Ci for high-productive control of thick-walled products from steel and other materials. The principal units of the instrument are a radiation head, a control panel, and a charge-exchange container. The flaw detector may be used both in shield chambers and in shop or mounting conditions on complying with due requirements of radiation protection. The high activity of the source at relatively small dimensions of its active part ensures good detection of defects. The high radioscopy rate permits to use the flaw detector in conditions of increased background radiation, e.g. during routine repairs and inspections at nuclear power plants. The instrument may also be used in radiometric complexes, and produces a considerable economic effect. This flaw-detector corresponds to ISO and IAEA requirements and may be delivered for export

  2. Flaw distributions and use of ISI data in RPV integrity evaluations

    Dimitrijevic, V.; Ammirato, F.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic method for developing post-inspection flaw distributions has been developed that explicitly accounts for the capability of the inspection procedure to detect and size flaws. This methodology has been used to develop flaw distributions for calculating reactor vessel failure probability under postulated pressurized thermal shock (PTS) conditions. Realistic flaw distributions are important because plant-specific PTS safety assessments are very sensitive to assumptions made about major flaw parameters such as density, size, shape, and location. PTS analysis made in the past do not consider ISI. Two main reasons are (1) lack of a general and approved methodology which provides directions for involvement of ISI results in developing new flaw parameters and (2) lack of confidence in the capability of ISI procedures to detect critical flaws that may be present near the clad-to-base metal interface of the vessel, the location of most concern for PTS conditions. Recent developments in ISI practice, however, have led to substantial improvement in ISI capability and provide a basis for using ISI data to develop plant-specific post-inspection flaw distributions for vessel integrity evaluations. The key components of this evaluation are (1) the generic (preinspection) flaw distribution, (2) a probabilistic flaw detection model, and (3) Bayesian updating of the prior flaw distribution with the detection model to develop a post-inspection flaw distribution. Destructive analysis of RPV weld material was performed to develop data to support the pre-inspection flaw distributions. Since the probability of detection (POD) plays such an important role in the analysis and a high POD is needed to make significant reductions in probability of failure, a procedure was developed to achieve and demonstrate POD greater than 0.9 by using a combination of independent inspection techniques

  3. Flaw shape reconstruction – an experimental approach

    Marilena STANCULESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Flaws can be classified as acceptable and unacceptable flaws. As a result of nondestructive testing, one takes de decision Admit/Reject regarding the tested product related to some acceptability criteria. In order to take the right decision, one should know the shape and the dimension of the flaw. On the other hand, the flaws considered to be acceptable, develop in time, such that they can become unacceptable. In this case, the knowledge of the shape and dimension of the flaw allows determining the product time life. For interior flaw shape reconstruction the best procedure is the use of difference static magnetic field. We have a stationary magnetic field problem, but we face the problem given by the nonlinear media. This paper presents the results of the experimental work for control specimen with and without flaw.

  4. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment.

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Determining the principles of HIA from peer-reviewed papers provides an opportunity for guiding

  5. Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment

    Ali Fakhri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods This study was conducted in three stages: 1 Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2 The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3 Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion Determining the principles of HIA from

  6. Evaluation of flawed-pipe experiments: Final report

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to perform elastic plastic fracture mechanics evaluations of experimental data that have become available from the NRC Degraded Pipe Program, Phase II (DPII) and other NRC and EPRI sponsored programs. These evaluations were used to assess flaw evaluation procedures for austenitic and ferritic steel piping. The results also have application to leak before break fracture mechanics analysis. An improved relationship was developed for computing the J-Integral for pipes containing throughwall flaws and loaded in pure bending. The results from several DPII experiments were compared to predictions based on new J estimation scheme solutions for circumferential, finite length part-throughwall flaws in pipes with bending loading. Comparisons of experimental maximum loads with those predicted using procedures in Paragraph IWB-3640, Section XI of the ASME Code indicate that the Code flaw evaluation procedures and allowables for austenitic steel pipe are appropriate and conservative. However, the comparisons also indicate that the base metal Code allowable loads may be about 15 to 20% high for small diameter piping (less than 8-inch diameter) at allowable a/t larger than about 0.5. The work further indicates that there is justification for reducing the conservatism in IWB-3640 allowable flaw sizes and loads for austenitic steel pipe with submerged or shielded metal arc welds.

  7. Preclinical animal anxiety research - flaws and prejudices.

    Ennaceur, Abdelkader; Chazot, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    The current tests of anxiety in mice and rats used in preclinical research include the elevated plus-maze (EPM) or zero-maze (EZM), the light/dark box (LDB), and the open-field (OF). They are currently very popular, and despite their poor achievements, they continue to exert considerable constraints on the development of novel approaches. Hence, a novel anxiety test needs to be compared with these traditional tests, and assessed against various factors that were identified as a source of their inconsistent and contradictory results. These constraints are very costly, and they are in most cases useless as they originate from flawed methodologies. In the present report, we argue that the EPM or EZM, LDB, and OF do not provide unequivocal measures of anxiety; that there is no evidence of motivation conflict involved in these tests. They can be considered at best, tests of natural preference for unlit and/or enclosed spaces. We also argued that pharmacological validation of a behavioral test is an inappropriate approach; it stems from the confusion of animal models of human behavior with animal models of pathophysiology. A behavioral test is developed to detect not to produce symptoms, and a drug is used to validate an identified physiological target. In order to overcome the major methodological flaws in animal anxiety studies, we proposed an open space anxiety test, a 3D maze, which is described here with highlights of its various advantages over to the traditional tests.

  8. An Assessment of Iranian Journals guide for authors

    Javad abbaspour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One indicator to assess the journals in international studies is the quality of guide for authors. The aim of this study is to determine the quality of guide for authors in Iranian journals.The population consisted of 755 Persian journals approved by Ministry of Science, Research and Technology in March 2013. Using a checklist, authors reviewed separately the content of guide for authors of 501 journals that provided access to their guide for authors through the web.according to the results, a total of 40% of the observed items were met. In addition, of the four studied sections, including generalities, legal and ethical issues, article structure and appearance, legal and ethical issues (18% and appearance (56% had the worst and best status respectively. In terms of the severity of problems, "violation of individuals or group rights"," how to write abbreviations and acronyms", "accepting journal requirements and laws", and "writing manuals used by authors" had the highest severity rankings.

  9. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    2001-01-01

    This publication supports the Safety Requirements on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. This Safety Guide was prepared on the basis of a systematic review of all the relevant publications including the Safety Fundamentals, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, current and ongoing revisions of other Safety Guides, INSAG reports and other publications that have addressed the safety of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide also provides guidance for Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety in meeting their obligations under Article 14 on Assessment and Verification of Safety. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design states that a comprehensive safety assessment and an independent verification of the safety assessment shall be carried out before the design is submitted to the regulatory body. This publication provides guidance on how this requirement should be met. This Safety Guide provides recommendations to designers for carrying out a safety assessment during the initial design process and design modifications, as well as to the operating organization in carrying out independent verification of the safety assessment of new nuclear power plants with a new or already existing design. The recommendations for performing a safety assessment are suitable also as guidance for the safety review of an existing plant. The objective of reviewing existing plants against current standards and practices is to determine whether there are any deviations which would have an impact on plant safety. The methods and the recommendations of this Safety Guide can also be used by regulatory bodies for the conduct of the regulatory review and assessment. Although most recommendations of this Safety Guide are general and applicable to all types of nuclear reactors, some specific recommendations and examples apply mostly to water cooled reactors. Terms such as 'safety assessment', 'safety analysis' and 'independent

  10. Eddy Current Flaw Characterization Using Neural Networks

    Song, S. J.; Park, H. J.; Shin, Y. K.

    1998-01-01

    Determination of location, shape and size of a flaw from its eddy current testing signal is one of the fundamental issues in eddy current nondestructive evaluation of steam generator tubes. Here, we propose an approach to this problem; an inversion of eddy current flaw signal using neural networks trained by finite element model-based synthetic signatures. Total 216 eddy current signals from four different types of axisymmetric flaws in tubes are generated by finite element models of which the accuracy is experimentally validated. From each simulated signature, total 24 eddy current features are extracted and among them 13 features are finally selected for flaw characterization. Based on these features, probabilistic neural networks discriminate flaws into four different types according to the location and the shape, and successively back propagation neural networks determine the size parameters of the discriminated flaw

  11. Ultrasonographic Detection of Tooth Flaws

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.; Ghorayeb, S. R.

    2010-02-01

    The goal of our work is to adapt pulse-echo ultrasound into a high resolution imaging modality for early detection of oral diseases and for monitoring treatment outcome. In this talk we discuss our preliminary results in the detection of: demineralization of the enamel and dentin, demineralization or caries under and around existing restorations, caries on occlusal and interproximal surfaces, cracks of enamel and dentin, calculus, and periapical lesions. In vitro immersion tank experiments are compared to results from a handpiece which uses a compliant delay line to couple the ultrasound to the tooth surface. Because the waveform echoes are complex, and in order to make clinical interpretation of ultrasonic waveform data in real time, it is necessary to automatically interpret the signals. We apply the dynamic wavelet fingerprint algorithms to identify and delineate echographic features that correspond to the flaws of interest in teeth. The resulting features show a clear distinction between flawed and unflawed waveforms collected with an ultrasonic handpiece on both phantom and human cadaver teeth.

  12. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution development

    Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.; Basin, S.L.

    1991-12-01

    Previous attempts to develop flaw distributions for probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessels have aimed at the estimation of a ''generic'' distribution applicable to all PWR vessels. In contrast, this report describes (1) a new flaw distribution development analytic methodology that can be applied to the analysis of vessel-specific inservice inspection (ISI) data, and (2) results of the application of the methodology to the analysis of flaw data for each vessel case (ISI data on three PWR vessels and laboratory inspection data on sections of the Midland reactor vessel). Results of this study show significant variation among the flaw distributions derived from the various data sets analyzed, strongly suggesting than a vessel-specific flaw distribution (for vessel integrity prediction under pressurized thermal shock) is preferred over a ''generic'' distribution. In addition, quantitative inspection system flaw sizing accuracy requirements have been identified for developing a flaw distribution from vessel ISI data. The new flaw data analysis methodology also permits quantifying the reliability of the flaw distribution estimate. Included in the report are identified needs for further development of several aspects of ISI data acquisition and vessel integrity prediction practice

  13. Flaw distribution development from vessel ISI data

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L.; Basin, S.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop flaw distributions for use in the structural integrity evaluation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessels have aimed at the estimation of a ''generic'' distribution applicable to all vessels. In contrast, this paper describes the analysis of vessel-specific in-service inspection (ISI) data for the development of a flaw distribution reliably representative of the condition of the particular vessel inspected. The application of the methodology may be extended to other vessels, but has been primarily developed for PWR reactor vessels. For this study, the flaw data analyzed included data obtained from three recently performed PWR vessel ISIs and from laboratory inspection of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor vessel. The variability in both the character of the reviewed data (size range of flaws, number of flaws) and the UT (ultrasonic test) inspection system performance identified a need for analyzing the inspection results on a vessel-, or data set-specific basis. For this purpose, traditional histogram-based methods were inadequate, and a new methodology that can accept a very small number of flaws (typical of vessel-specific ISI results) and that includes consideration of inspection system flaw detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy and flaw detection threshold, was developed. Results of the application of the methodology to each of the four PWR reactor vessel cases studied are presented and discussed

  14. Students as Tour Guides: Innovation in Fieldwork Assessment

    Coe, Neil M.; Smyth, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and details an innovative mode of fieldcourse assessment in which students take on the role of tour guides to offer their lecturer and peers a themed, theoretically informed journey through the urban landscape of Havana, Cuba. Informed by notions of student-centered learning and mobile methods, the tour offers an enjoyable,…

  15. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Assessment of mood: guides for clinicians.

    Furukawa, Toshi A

    2010-06-01

    This article is one of the series of review articles aiming to present a convenient guideline for practicing clinicians in their selection of scales for clinical and research purposes. This article focuses on assessment scales for mood (depression, mania). After reviewing the basic principles of clinical psychometrics, we present a selective review of representative scales measuring depressed or manic mood. We reviewed and reported on reliability, validity, interpretability, and feasibility of the following rating scales: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), K6, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR) as self-report scales for depressed mood; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) as clinician-administered measure for depression; and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) as a clinician-administered instrument for mania. Although the rating scales for mood represent a well-trodden terrain, this brief review of the most frequently used scales in the literature revealed there is still some room for improvement and for further research, especially with regard to their clinical interpretability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Flaw evolution monitoring by acoustic emission technique

    Ghia, S.; Sala, A.; Lucia, A.

    1986-01-01

    Flaw evolution monitoring during mechanical fatigue test has been performed by acoustic emission (AE) technique. Testing on 1:5 reduced scale vessel containing fabrication defects was carried out in the frame of an European program for pressure component residual life evaluation. Characteristics of AE signals associated to flaw evolution are discussed

  18. Nuclear computerized library for assessing reactor reliability (NUCLARR): Part 2, Guide to operations: User's guide

    Gilmore, W.E.; Gentillon, C.D.; Gertman, D.I.; Beers, G.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Gilbert, B.G.

    1988-06-01

    The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) is an automated data base management system for processing and storing human error probability and hardware component failure data. The NUCLARR system software resides on an IBM (or compatible) personal micro-computer. NUCLARR can be used by the end user to furnish data inputs for both human and hardware reliability analysis in support of a variety of risk assessment activities. The NUCLARR system is documented in a five-volume series of reports. Volume IV of this series is the User's Guide for operating the NUCLARR software and is presented in three parts. This volume, Part 2: Guide to Operations, contains the instructions and basic procedures for using the NUCLARR software. Part 2 provides guidance and information for getting started, performing the desired functions, and making the most efficient use of the system's features

  19. A Self-Assessment Guide for Resident Teaching Experiences.

    Engle, Janet P; Franks, Amy M; Ashjian, Emily; Bingham, Angela L; Burke, John M; Erstad, Brian L; Haines, Seena L; Hilaire, Michelle L; Rager, Michelle L; Wienbar, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Educational Affairs Committee was charged with developing a self-assessment guide for residency programs to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the outcomes of resident teaching curricula. After extensively reviewing the literature, the committee developed assessment rubrics modeled after the 2013 ACCP white paper titled "Guidelines for Resident Teaching Experiences" and the revised American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) 2014 accreditation standards for PGY1 residencies, which place greater emphasis on the teaching and learning curriculum (TLC) than the previous accreditation standards. The self-assessment guide developed by the present committee can serve as an assessment tool for both basic and expanded TLCs. It provides the criteria for program goals, mentoring, directed readings with topic discussions, teaching experiences, and assessment methodology. For an expanded TLC, the committee has provided additional guidance on developing a teaching philosophy, becoming involved in interactive seminars, expanding teaching experiences, developing courses, and serving on academic committees. All the guidelines listed in the present paper use the measures "not present," "developing," and "well developed" so that residency program directors can self-assess along the continuum and identify areas of excellence and areas for improvement. Residency program directors should consider using this new assessment tool to measure program quality and outcomes of residency teaching experiences. Results of the assessment will help residency programs focus on areas within the TLC that will potentially benefit from additional attention and possible modification. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Ultrasonic imaging of material flaws exploiting multipath information

    Shen, Xizhong; Zhang, Yimin D.; Demirli, Ramazan; Amin, Moeness G.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT) tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. Multipath exploitations provide extended virtual array apertures and, in turn, enhance imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior discontinuities. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles. Exploitation of multipath information addresses unique issues observed in ultrasonic imaging. (1) Utilization of physical and virtual sensors significantly extends the array aperture for image enhancement. (2) Multipath signals extend the angle of view of the narrow beamwidth of the ultrasound transducers, allowing improved visibility and array design flexibility. (3) Ultrasonic signals experience difficulty in penetrating a flaw, thus the aspect angle of the observation is limited unless access to other sides is available. The significant extension of the aperture makes it possible to yield flaw observation from multiple aspect angles. We show that data fusion of physical and virtual sensor data significantly improves the detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated through experimental studies.

  1. Risk assessment, management, communication: a guide to selected sources. Update. Information guide

    1987-05-01

    This is the first update to the March 1987 publication entitled Risk Assessment, Management, Communication: A Guide to Selected Sources. The risk update series is divided into three major sections: Assessment, Management, and Communication. This update also includes subsections on hazardous waste, radiation, and a number of specific chemicals. Due to the expanding literature on risk, other subsections may be added to updates in the future. Each Table of Contents contains a complete list of the subsections. Updates are produced on a quarterly basis

  2. Guide for developing conceptual models for ecological risk assessments

    Suter, G.W., II.

    1996-05-01

    Ecological conceptual models are the result of the problem formulation phase of an ecological risk assessment, which is an important component of the Remedial Investigation process. They present hypotheses of how the site contaminants might affect the site ecology. The contaminant sources, routes, media, routes, and endpoint receptors are presented in the form of a flow chart. This guide is for preparing the conceptual models; use of this guide will standardize the models so that they will be of high quality, useful to the assessment process, and sufficiently consistent so that connections between sources of exposure and receptors can be extended across operable units (OU). Generic conceptual models are presented for source, aquatic integrator, groundwater integrator, and terrestrial OUs

  3. Probabilistic analysis of flaw distribution on structure under cyclic load

    Kwak, Sang Log; Choi, Young Hwan; Kim, Hho Jung

    2003-01-01

    Flaw geometries, applied stress, and material properties are major input variables for the fracture mechanics analysis. Probabilistic approach can be applied for the consideration of uncertainties within these input variables. But probabilistic analysis requires many assumptions due to the lack of initial flaw distributions data. In this study correlations are examined between initial flaw distributions and in-service flaw distributions on structures under cyclic load. For the analysis, LEFM theories and Monte Carlo simulation are applied. Result shows that in-service flaw distributions are determined by initial flaw distributions rather than fatigue crack growth rate. So initial flaw distribution can be derived from in-service flaw distributions

  4. Labor security in radiation flaw detection

    Margulis, U.Ya.; Chistov, E.D.; Partolin, O.F.; Pertsov, V.A.; Momzhiev, B.N.; Sprygaev, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ensuring safe labour conditions in radiation flaw detection are considered. Methods for ionizing radiation protection are given calculating techniques for shielding flaw detectors and stationary structures are presented as well. Safe methods of nondestructive testing of items under field conditions, in a shop and special laboratories using gamma- and X-ray flaw detectors, betatrons, electron accelerators are described. Attention is paid to the principles of radiation factor stantardization as well as radiation monitoring. Analysis of accidents and recommendations on their prevention and liquidation of accidental consequences are given

  5. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): user's guide

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This User's Guide provides instruction in the setup and operation of the equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Instructions are also given on how to load the magnetic disks and access the interactive part of the program. Two other companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. Reactor Accident Assessment Methods (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 2) describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios

  6. Fundamentally Flawed: Extension Administrative Practice (Part 1).

    Patterson, Thomas F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Extension's current administrative techniques are based on the assumptions of classical management from the early 20th century. They are fundamentally flawed and inappropriate for the contemporary workplace. (SK)

  7. Derivation of Elastic Stress Concentration Factor Equations for Debris Fretting Flaws in Pressure Tubes of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors

    Kim, Jong Sung; Oh, Young Jin

    2014-01-01

    If volumetric flaws such as bearing pad fretting flaws and debris fretting flaws are detected in the pressure tubes of pressurized heavy water reactors during in-service inspection, the initiation of fatigue cracks and delayed hydrogen cracking from the detected volumetric flaws shall be assessed by using elastic stress concentration factors in accordance with CSA N285.8-05. The CSA N285.8-05 presents only an approximate formula based on linear elastic fracture mechanics for the debris fretting flaw. In this study, an engineering formula considering the geometric characteristics of the debris fretting flaw in detail was derived using two-dimensional finite element analysis and Kinectrics, Inc.'s engineering procedure with slight modifications. Comparing the application results obtained using the derived formula with the three-dimensional finite element analysis results, it is found that the results obtained using the derived formula agree well with the results of the finite element analysis

  8. State Standards and State Assessment Systems: A Guide to Alignment. Series on Standards and Assessments.

    La Marca, Paul M.; Redfield, Doris; Winter, Phoebe C.

    Alignment of content standards, performance standards, and assessments is crucial. This guide contains information to assist states and districts in aligning their assessment systems to their content and performance standards. It includes a review of current literature, both published and fugitive. The research is woven together with a few basic…

  9. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  10. Supersonic flaw detection device for nozzle

    Hata, Moriki.

    1996-01-01

    In a supersonic flaw detection device to be attached to a body surface of a reactor pressure vessel for automatically detecting flaws of a welded portion of a horizontally connected nozzle by using supersonic waves, a running vehicle automatically running along a circumferential direction of the nozzle comprises a supersonic flaw detection means for detecting flaws of the welded portion of the nozzle by using supersonic waves, and an inclination angle sensor for detecting the inclination angle of the running vehicle relative to the central axis of the nozzle. The running distance of the vehicle running along the circumference of the nozzle, namely, the position of the running vehicle from a reference point of the nozzle can be detected accurately by dividing the distance around the nozzle by the inclination angle detected by the inclination angle sensor. Accordingly, disadvantages in the prior art, for example, that the detected values obtained by using an encoder are changed by slipping or idle running of the magnet wheels are eliminated, and accurate flaw detection can be conducted. In addition, an operation of visually adjusting the reference point for the device can be eliminated. An operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (N.H.)

  11. Real time automatic discriminating of ultrasonic flaws

    Suhairy Sani; Mohd Hanif Md Saad; Marzuki Mustafa; Mohd Redzwan Rosli

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the real time automatic discriminating of flaws from two categories; i. cracks (planar defect) and ii. Non-cracks (volumetric defect such as cluster porosity and slag) using pulse-echo ultrasound. The raw ultrasonic flaws signal were collected from a computerized robotic plane scanning system over the whole of each reflector as the primary source of data. The signal is then filtered and the analysis in both time and frequency domain were executed to obtain the selected feature. The real time feature analysis techniques measured the number of peaks, maximum index, pulse duration, rise time and fall time. The obtained features could be used to distinguish between quantitatively classified flaws by using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. The proposed algorithm and complete system were implemented in a computer software developed using Microsoft Visual BASIC 6.0 (author)

  12. Flaw characterization through nonlinear ultrasonics and wavelet cross-correlation algorithms

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Yee, Andrew; Stewart, Dylan; Rogers, James; Henley, Stanley; Bugg, Chris; Cline, John; Webster, Matthew; Farinholt, Kevin; Friedersdorf, Fritz

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic measurements have become increasingly important non-destructive techniques to characterize flaws found within various in-service industrial components. The prediction of remaining useful life based on fracture analysis depends on the accurate estimation of flaw size and orientation. However, amplitude-based ultrasonic measurements are not able to estimate the plastic zones that exist ahead of crack tips. Estimating the size of the plastic zone is an advantage since some flaws may propagate faster than others. This paper presents a wavelet cross-correlation (WCC) algorithm that was applied to nonlinear analysis of ultrasonically guided waves (GW). By using this algorithm, harmonics present in the waveforms were extracted and nonlinearity parameters were used to indicate both the tip of the cracks and size of the plastic zone. B-scans performed with the quadratic nonlinearities were sensitive to micro-damage specific to plastic zones.

  13. Task Rotation: Strategies for Differentiating Activities and Assessments by Learning Style. A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide

    Silver, Harvey; Moirao, Daniel; Jackson, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    One of the hardest jobs in teaching is to differentiate learning activities and assessments to your students' learning styles. But you and your colleagues can learn how to do this together when each of you has this guide to the Task Rotation strategy from our ultimate guide to teaching strategies, "The Strategic Teacher". Use the guide in your…

  14. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  15. Fracture evaluation of an in-service piping flaw caused by microbiologically induced corrosion

    Rudland, D.L.; Scott, P.M.; Wilkowski, G.M.; Rahman, S.

    1996-01-01

    A pipe fracture experiment was conducted on a section of 6-inch nominal diameter pipe which was degraded by microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) at a circumferential girth weld. The pipe was a section of one of the service water piping systems to one of the emergency diesel generators at the Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) plant. The experimental results will help validate future ASME Section XI pipe flaw evaluation criteria for other than Class 1 piping. A critical aspect of this experiment was an assessment of the degree of conservatism embodied in the ASME definition of flaw size. The ASME flaw size definition assumes a rectangular shaped, constant depth flaw with a depth equal to its maximum depth for its entire length. Since most service flaws are irregular in shape, this definition may be overly conservative. Results from several fracture prediction models are compared with the experimental results. These results show that, for this case, the ASME Appendix H criteria significantly underpredicted the experimental maximum moment, while other fracture prediction models provided good predictions when accurate pipe, weld and flaw dimensions were used

  16. Winkling out MAFF's flawed figures

    Green, P.; Cassidy, N.

    1993-01-01

    Significant errors in the way the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) assesses the radiation dose received by people exposed to Sellafield marine discharges have been revealed by Friends of the Earth (FoE). MAFF's dose estimates of the dose received by the people receiving the largest radiation dose as a result of the discharges from Sellafield, those eating the fish and shellfish from the Sellafield area, is challenged. (author)

  17. Irradiation effects and the duplication of detected flaws in service

    Mager, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    ASME Code procedure for evaluating the acceptability of flaws detected during in-service inspection is revised. Critical crack size for instability is proposed as criteria for detected flaws in operating plants

  18. Stress intensities in flawed pressure vessels

    Smith, C.W.; Jolles, M.; Peters, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    A technique for determining the stess intensity factor (SIF) near pressure vessel flaws or cracks experimentally from photoelastic data for use in two-dimensional problems was developed in the 1950's. This technique was modified and extended to a variety of two-dimensional problems. The technique has been refined further and what has evolved may be regarded as a hybrid technique which affects a marriage between ''frozen stress'' photoelastic results and a simple least-squares digital computer program for estimating SIF values in three-dimensional problems. This technique, in its original modified form, has been shown to be applicable to a study of surface flaws and the applicability of the method to complex crack body geometries of current technological importance are discussed. The analytical foundations of the method are reviewed

  19. A new digital correlation flaw detection system

    Lee, B.B.; Furgason, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    A new portable digital random signal flaw detection system is described which uses a digital delay line to replace the acoustic delay line of the original random signal system. Using this new system, a comparison was made between the two types of transmit signals which have been used in previous systems--m-sequences and random signals. This comparison has not been possible with these previous correlation flaw detection systems. Results indicated that for high-speed short code operation, the m-sequences produced slightly lower range sidelobes than typical samples of a clipped random signal. For normal long code operation, results indicated that system performance is essentially equivalent in resolution and signal-to-noise ratio using either m-sequences or clipped and sampled random signals. Further results also showed that for normal long code operation, the system produces outputs equivalent in resolution to pulse-echo systems, but with the added benefit of signal-to-noise ratio enhancement

  20. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  1. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for residual stress analysis in weld joint. Analysis model of dissimilar metal weld joint applied post weld heat treatment (PWHT)

    2012-12-01

    The project of Integrity Assessment of Flawed Components with Structural Discontinuity (IAF) was entrusted to Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and started from FY 2001. And then, it was taken over to Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) which was established in October 2003 and carried out until FY 2007. In the IAF project, weld joints between nickel based alloys and low alloy steels around penetrations in reactor vessel, safe-end of nozzles and shroud supports were selected from among components and pipe arrangements in nuclear power plants, where high residual stresses were generated due to welding and complex structure. Residual stresses around of the weld joints were estimated by finite element analysis method (FEM) with a general modeling method, then the reasonability and the conservativeness was evaluated. In addition, for postulated surface crack of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a simple calculation method of stress intensity factor (K) required to estimate the crack growth was proposed and the effectiveness was confirmed. JNES compiled results of the IAF project into Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis of Weld Joint, and Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation for Penetration of Reactor as typical Structure Discontinuity, respectively. Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. 1. Butt Weld Joint of Small Diameter Cylinder (4B Sch40) (JNES-RE-2012-0005), 2. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (One-Side Groove Joint (JNES-RE-2012-0006), 3. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (Large Diameter Both-Side Groove Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0007), 4. Weld Joint around Penetrations in Reactor Vessel (Insert Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0008), 5. Weld Joint in Shroud Support (H8, H9, H10 and H11 Welds) (JNES-RE-2012-0009), 6. Analysis Model of Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint Applied Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) (JNES-RE-2012-0010). Data Book of

  2. Detection of flaws below curved surfaces

    Elsley, R.K.; Addison, R.C.; Graham, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    A measurement model has been developed to describe ultrasonic measurements made with circular piston transducers in parts with flat or cylindrically curved surfaces. The model includes noise terms to describe electrical noise, scatterer noise and echo noise as well as effects of attenuation, diffraction and Fresnel loss. An experimental procedure for calibrating the noise terms of the model was developed. Experimental measurements were made on a set of known flaws located beneath a cylindrically curved surface. The model was verified by using it to correct the experimental measurements to obtain the absolute scattering amplitude of the flaws. For longitudinal wave propagation within the part, the derived scattering amplitudes were consistent with predictions at internal angles of less than 30 0 . At larger angles, focusing and aberrations caused a lack of agreement; the model needs further refinement in this case. For shear waves, it was found that the frequency for optimum flaw detection in the presence of material noise is lower than that for longitudinal waves; lower frequency measurements are currently in progress. The measurement model was then used to make preliminary predictions of the best experimental measurement technique for the detection of cracks located under cylindrically curved surfaces

  3. Common methodological flaws in economic evaluations.

    Drummond, Michael; Sculpher, Mark

    2005-07-01

    Economic evaluations are increasingly being used by those bodies such as government agencies and managed care groups that make decisions about the reimbursement of health technologies. However, several reviews of economic evaluations point to numerous deficiencies in the methodology of studies or the failure to follow published methodological guidelines. This article, written for healthcare decision-makers and other users of economic evaluations, outlines the common methodological flaws in studies, focussing on those issues that are likely to be most important when deciding on the reimbursement, or guidance for use, of health technologies. The main flaws discussed are: (i) omission of important costs or benefits; (ii) inappropriate selection of alternatives for comparison; (iii) problems in making indirect comparisons; (iv) inadequate representation of the effectiveness data; (v) inappropriate extrapolation beyond the period observed in clinical studies; (vi) excessive use of assumptions rather than data; (vii) inadequate characterization of uncertainty; (viii) problems in aggregation of results; (ix) reporting of average cost-effectiveness ratios; (x) lack of consideration of generalizability issues; and (xi) selective reporting of findings. In each case examples are given from the literature and guidance is offered on how to detect flaws in economic evaluations.

  4. A time-domain synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging method for material flaw quantification with validations on small-scale artificial and natural flaws.

    Guan, Xuefei; He, Jingjing; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub

    2015-02-01

    A direct time-domain reconstruction and sizing method of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) is developed to improve the spatial resolution and sizing accuracy for phased-array ultrasonic inspections. The basic idea of the reconstruction algorithm is to coherently superimpose multiple A-scan measurements, incorporating the phase information of the sampling points. The algorithm involves data mapping and in-phase summation according to time-of-flight (TOF). Data mapping refers to the process of placing each of the sampling points to a two-/three-dimensional grid that represents the geometry model of the object being inspected. The value for each of the cells of the grid is a summation of all sampling points mapped into the cell. A sizing method based on the concept of 6 dB-drop is proposed to characterize the flaw boundary. The extents, orientation and the shape of the flaw can then be inferred to provide more information for life assessment calculations. Lab experiments are performed using a 10 MHz phased-array ultrasonic transducer to collect data from a cylinder material block with closely spaced artificial flaws and from a material block with a natural flaw. The developed method is used to process the experimental data to characterize the flaws. Using the developed method, the improvement of spatial resolution is observed. Results indicate that four closely spaced 0.794 mm-diameter flat-bottomed holes are clearly identified, and the quantification of size and orientation of the natural flaw is very close to the actual measurement made from digital microscopy after cutting the testing piece apart. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of flaws in carbon steel piping. Final report

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.; Mehta, H.S.; Yukawa, S.; Ranganath, S.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this program was to develop flaw evaluation procedures and allowable flaw sizes for ferritic piping used in light water reactor (LWR) power generation facilities. The program results provide relevant ASME Code groups with the information necessary to define flaw evaluation procedures, allowable flaw sizes, and their associated bases for Section XI of the code. Because there are several possible flaw-related failure modes for ferritic piping over the LWR operating temperature range, three analysis methods were employed to develop the evaluation procedures. These include limit load analysis for plastic collapse, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) analysis for ductile tearing, and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis for non ductile crack extension. To ensure the appropriate analysis method is used in an evaluation, a step by step procedure also is provided to identify the relevant acceptance standard or procedure on a case by case basis. The tensile strength and toughness properties required to complete the flaw evaluation for any of the three analysis methods are included in the evaluation procedure. The flaw evaluation standards are provided in tabular form for the plastic collapse and ductile tearing modes, where the allowable part through flaw depth is defined as a function of load and flaw length. For non ductile crack extension, linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis methods, similar to those in Appendix A of Section XI, are defined. Evaluation flaw sizes and procedures are developed for both longitudinal and circumferential flaw orientations and normal/upset and emergency/faulted operating conditions. The tables are based on margins on load of 2.77 and 1.39 for circumferential flaws and 3.0 and 1.5 for longitudinal flaws for normal/upset and emergency/faulted conditions, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of flaws in carbon steel piping. Final report

    Zahoor, A.; Gamble, R.M.; Mehta, H.S.; Yukawa, S.; Ranganath, S.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this program was to develop flaw evaluation procedures and allowable flaw sizes for ferritic piping used in light water reactor (LWR) power generation facilities. The program results provide relevant ASME Code groups with the information necessary to define flaw evaluation procedures, allowable flaw sizes, and their associated bases for Section XI of the code. Because there are several possible flaw-related failure modes for ferritic piping over the LWR operating temperature range, three analysis methods were employed to develop the evaluation procedures. These include limit load analysis for plastic collapse, elastic plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) analysis for ductile tearing, and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis for non ductile crack extension. To ensure the appropriate analysis method is used in an evaluation, a step by step procedure also is provided to identify the relevant acceptance standard or procedure on a case by case basis. The tensile strength and toughness properties required to complete the flaw evaluation for any of the three analysis methods are included in the evaluation procedure. The flaw evaluation standards are provided in tabular form for the plastic collapse and ductile tearing modes, where the allowable part through flaw depth is defined as a function of load and flaw length. For non ductile crack extension, linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis methods, similar to those in Appendix A of Section XI, are defined. Evaluation flaw sizes and procedures are developed for both longitudinal and circumferential flaw orientations and normal/upset and emergency/faulted operating conditions. The tables are based on margins on load of 2.77 and 1.39 for circumferential flaws and 3.0 and 1.5 for longitudinal flaws for normal/upset and emergency/faulted conditions, respectively

  7. 76 FR 71341 - BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications

    2011-11-17

    ... Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (EPA/600/R-11/123A). EPA also is announcing that... report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for...

  8. Determination of Flaw Size and Depth From Temporal Evolution of Thermal Response

    Winfree, William P.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Cramer, Elliott; Howell, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Simple methods for reducing the pulsed thermographic responses of flaws have tended to be based on either the spatial or temporal response. This independent assessment limits the accuracy of characterization. A variational approach is presented for reducing the thermographic data to produce an estimated size for a flaw that incorporates both the temporal and spatial response to improve the characterization. The size and depth are determined from both the temporal and spatial thermal response of the exterior surface above a flaw and constraints on the length of the contour surrounding the delamination. Examples of the application of the technique to simulation and experimental data acquired are presented to investigate the limitations of the technique.

  9. Characterization of flaws in a tube bundle mock-up for reliability studies

    Kupperman, D.S.; Bakhtiari, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of an assessment of in-service inspection of steam generator tubes, the authors will assemble a steam generator mock-up for round robin studies and use as a test bed in evaluating emerging technologies. Progress is reported on the characterization of flaws that will be part of the mock-up. Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques are being evaluated as a means to characterize the flaws in the mock-up tubes before final assembly. Twenty Inconel 600 tubes with laboratory-grown cracks, typical of those to be used in the mock-up, were provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for laboratory testing. After the tubes were inspected with eddy current and ultrasonic techniques, they were destructively analyzed to establish the actual depths, lengths, and profiles of the cracks. The analysis of the results will allow the best techniques to be used for characterizing the flaws in the mock-up tubes

  10. Characterization of flaws in a tube bundle mock-up for reliability studies

    Kupperman, D.S.; Bakhtiari, S.

    1996-10-01

    As part of an assessment of in-service inspection of steam generator tubes, the authors will assemble a steam generator mock-up for round robin studies and use as a test bed in evaluating emerging technologies. Progress is reported on the characterization of flaws that will be part of the mock-up. Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques are being evaluated as a means to characterize the flaws in the mock-up tubes before final assembly. Twenty Inconel 600 tubes with laboratory-grown cracks, typical of those to be used in the mock-up, were provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for laboratory testing. After the tubes were inspected with eddy current and ultrasonic techniques, they were destructively analyzed to establish the actual depths, lengths, and profiles of the cracks. The analysis of the results will allow the best techniques to be used for characterizing the flaws in the mock-up tubes

  11. Probabilistic calibration of safety coefficients for flawed components in nuclear engineering

    Ardillon, E.; Pitner, P.; Barthelet, B.; Remond, A.

    1996-01-01

    The rules that are currently under application to verify the acceptance of flaws in nuclear components rely on deterministic criteria supposed to ensure the safe operating of plants. The interest of having a precise and reliable method to evaluate the safety margins and the integrity of components led Electricite de France to launch an approach to link directly safety coefficients with safety levels. This paper presents a probabilistic methodology to calibrate safety coefficients in relation to reliability target values. The proposed calibration procedure applies to the case of a ferritic flawed pipe using the R6 procedure for assessing the integrity of the structure. (authors). 5 refs., 5 figs

  12. Probabilistic calibration of safety coefficients for flawed components in nuclear engineering

    Ardillon, E.; Pitner, P.; Barthelet, B.; Remond, A.

    1995-01-01

    The current rules applied to verify the flaws acceptance in nuclear components rely on deterministic criteria supposed to ensure the plant safe operation. The interest in have a precise and reliable method to evaluate the safety margins and the integrity of components led Electricite de France to launch an approach to link directly safety coefficients with safety levels. This paper presents a probabilistic methodology to calibrate safety coefficients in relation do reliability target values. The proposed calibration procedure applies to the case of a ferritic flawed pipe using the R 6 procedure for assessing the structure integrity. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Everyday Mental Health: A Guide to Assessing Life Strengths.

    Kivnick, Helen Q.

    1993-01-01

    The Life Strengths Interview Guide is a framework based on eight psychosocial themes: hope and faith; willfulness, independence, and control; competence and hard work; values and sense of self; love and friendship; care and productivity; and wisdom and perspective. It can be used to conceptualize everyday mental health in working with older…

  14. Nondestructive detection of surface flaws in materials by infrared thermography

    Ishii, Toshimitsu; Ooka, Norikazu; Eto, Motokuni; Hoshiya, Taiji; Okamoto, Yoshizo

    1999-01-01

    Infrared thermography is one of the useful remote sensing techniques applied to the nondestructive detection of surface flaws in materials. Radiation temperatures of the specimen surface and surrounding walls as well as the difference in them are crucial factors to detect surface flaws from thermal images, and it is essential that these factors be properly evaluated beforehand in order to detect the flaws by infrared thermography. In this study, the radiation temperature of nuclear graphite specimens heated uniformly was measured by infrared thermography to evaluate the radiation characteristics such as emissivity, radiosity coefficient and variation of radiation temperature. The influence of the temperature difference between the test specimen and its surroundings on the limit of detection of pinhole flaws was discussed on the basis of the thermal images of graphite specimen with surface flaws. It was found that the thermal image of a small flaw was clearly visible with increase in the temperature difference. (author)

  15. An intelligent software approach to ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Hyun

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic pattern recognition is the most effective approach to the problem of discriminating types of flaws in weldments based on ultrasonic flaw signals. In spite of significant progress on this methodology, it has not been widely used in practical ultrasonic inspection of weldments in industry. Hence, for the convenient application of this approach in many practical situations, we develop an intelligent ultrasonic signature classification software which can discriminate types of flaws in weldments using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. This software shows excellent performances in an experimental problem where flaws in weldments are classified into two categories of cracks and non-cracks.

  16. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  17. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  18. Writing Information Literacy Assessment Plans: A Guide to Best Practice

    Megan Oakleaf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic librarians throughout higher education add value to the teaching and learning missions of their institutions though information literacy instruction. To demonstrate the full impact of librarians on students in higher education, librarians need comprehensive information literacy assessment plans, composed of instructional program-level and outcome-level components, that summarize the purpose of information literacy assessment, emphasize the theoretical basis of their assessment efforts, articulate specific information literacy goals and outcomes, describe the major assessment methods and tools used to capture evidence of student learning, report assessment results, and highlight improvements made as a consequence of learning assessment.

  19. The Flaws of Fragmented Financial Standard Setting

    Mügge, Daniel; Perry, James

    2014-01-01

    rating, accounting, and derivatives trading, this article demonstrates why the appropriateness of the organizational architecture of global financial governance is necessarily contingent upon one’s understanding of how financial markets work. In particular, if financial markets are not anchored......In the half decade following the 2007 financial crisis, the reform of global financial governance was driven by two separate policy debates: one on the substantive content of regulations, the other on the organizational architecture of their governance. The separation of the two debates among...... policymakers has been mirrored in academia, where postcrisis analyses of financial governance have remained detached from reinvigorated discussions about the nature of financial markets. We argue that this separation is deeply flawed. Presenting an analysis of interactions between standards for banking, credit...

  20. Developing a guiding protocol for the moderation of summative assessments.

    McGuire, W.; Raaper, R.

    2016-01-01

    According to literature, assessment moderation is a process for assuring ‘valid, fair and reliable’ assessment outcomes but also consistency of applied marking criteria. While being an important area in assessment, moderation is often referred as an ‘under researched area of higher education’. The School of Education in the University of Glasgow, like many other academic units in the UK and internationally, adopts a range of approaches to moderating assessment within any one programme and acr...

  1. Comparison of evaluation method for planar flaw in pressure tube

    Choi, Sung Nam; Kim, Hyung Nam; Yoo, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Won Gul

    2009-01-01

    CSA N285.4-94 requires the periodic inservice inspection and surveillance of pressure tubes in operating CANDU nuclear power reactors. If the inspection results reveal a flaw exceeding the acceptance criteria of the Code, the flaw must be evaluated to determine if the pressure is acceptable for continued service. Currently, the flaw evaluation methodology and acceptance criteria specified in CSA N285.8-05, 'Technical requirements for in-service evaluation of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors'. The Code is applicable to zirconium alloy pressure tubes. The evaluation methodology for a crack-like flaw is similar to that of FFSG(Fitness For Service Guideline for Zirconium alloy pressure in operation CANDU) used now. The object of this paper is to address the fracture initiation and plastic collapse evaluation for the planar flaw as it applies to the pressure tube on Wolsong NPP.

  2. Guided waves based SHM systems for composites structural elements: statistical analyses finalized at probability of detection definition and assessment

    Monaco, E.; Memmolo, V.; Ricci, F.; Boffa, N. D.; Maio, L.

    2015-03-01

    Maintenance approaches based on sensorised structures and Structural Health Monitoring systems could represent one of the most promising innovations in the fields of aerostructures since many years, mostly when composites materials (fibers reinforced resins) are considered. Layered materials still suffer today of drastic reductions of maximum allowable stress values during the design phase as well as of costly and recurrent inspections during the life cycle phase that don't permit of completely exploit their structural and economic potentialities in today aircrafts. Those penalizing measures are necessary mainly to consider the presence of undetected hidden flaws within the layered sequence (delaminations) or in bonded areas (partial disbonding); in order to relax design and maintenance constraints a system based on sensors permanently installed on the structure to detect and locate eventual flaws can be considered (SHM system) once its effectiveness and reliability will be statistically demonstrated via a rigorous Probability Of Detection function definition and evaluation. This paper presents an experimental approach with a statistical procedure for the evaluation of detection threshold of a guided waves based SHM system oriented to delaminations detection on a typical wing composite layered panel. The experimental tests are mostly oriented to characterize the statistical distribution of measurements and damage metrics as well as to characterize the system detection capability using this approach. Numerically it is not possible to substitute part of the experimental tests aimed at POD where the noise in the system response is crucial. Results of experiments are presented in the paper and analyzed.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Calgary Cambridge guides to assess communication skills of undergraduate medical students.

    Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Heinemann, Stephanie; Nolte, Catharina; Fischer, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the short version of the Calgary Cambridge Guides and to decide whether it can be recommended for use in the assessment of communications skills in young undergraduate medical students. METHODS: Using a translated version of the Guide, 30 members from the Department of General Practice rated 5 videotaped encounters between students and simulated patients twice. Item analysis should detect possible floor and/or...

  4. Regulatory Guide on Conducting a Security Vulnerability Assessment

    Ek, David R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This document will provide guidelines on conducting a security vulnerability assessment at a facility regulated by the Radiation Protection Centre. The guidelines provide a performance approach assess security effectiveness. The guidelines provide guidance for a review following the objectives outlined in IAEA NSS#11 for Category 1, 2, & 3 sources.

  5. Modified Assessment for Adult Readers: Collage. User's Guide. Final Report.

    Wilt, Gaie Isett

    A project was conducted to design an alternative assessment tool for use with adult learners traditionally identified as reading below fifth-grade level. This assessment allows for the creation of a goal-oriented Individual Education Plan that is personalized to the learner's needs and educational goals. The approach, analogous to the art…

  6. The Harvard Medical School Guide to Suicide Assessment and Intervention. First Edition.

    Jacobs, Douglas G., Ed.

    Written by several experts, this multidimensional compendium of current research and thought provides a hands-on guide for psychiatrists, psychotherapists, primary care physicians, counselors, and other professionals faced with the need to assess risk and relate to potentially suicidal clients. Part 1, "Assessment," includes two…

  7. A clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    Sultan, S F

    2012-05-01

    Competency in anesthesia traditionally has been determined subjectively in practice. Optimal training in procedural skills requires valid and reliable forms of assessment. The objective was to examine a procedure-specific clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block for inter-rater reliability and construct validity in a clinical setting.

  8. A Counselor's Guide to Career Assessment Instruments, Sixth Edition

    Wood, Chris; Hays, Danica G.

    2013-01-01

    This book contains exemplary resources for counselors, career development facilitators, school counselors, and other career professionals working in a variety of settings. This edition is an essential guide to career assessment and contains a comprehensive list of career assessment instruments. It has over 70 reviews and includes…

  9. The Environmental Compliance Assessment Management Program (ECAMP) Air National Guard Supplement for The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide. Volume 2. (Revised)

    Krooks, David

    1997-01-01

    ... (The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide), the ECAMP-ANG supplement was developed to examine Air Force Instructions, Air Force Manuals, and Air Force Policies in conjunction with the TEAM Guide...

  10. Assessment of Pipe Wall Loss Using Guided Wave Testing

    Joo, Kyung Mun; Jin, Seuk Hong; Moon, Yong Sig

    2010-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion(FAC) of carbon steel pipes in nuclear power plants has been known as one of the major degradation mechanisms. It could have bad influence on the plant reliability and safety. Also detection of FAC is a significant cost to the nuclear power plant because of the need to remove and replace insulation. Recently, the interest of the guided wave testing(GWT) has grown because it allows long range inspection without removing insulation of the pipe except at the probe position. If GWT can be applied to detection of FAC damages, it will can significantly reduce the cost for the inspection of the pipes. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of GWT to identify location of FAC damages. In this paper, three kinds of techniques were used to measure the amplitude ratio between the first and the second welds at the elbow area of mock-ups that contain real FAC damages. As a result, optimal inspection technique and minimum detectability to detect FAC damages drew a conclusion

  11. The influence of long-range residual stress on plastic collapse of pressurised pipes with and without flaws

    Wu, Gui-Yi; Smith, David J.; Pavier, Martyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Structural integrity assessments of pressurised pipes include plastic collapse as a potential failure mode. This paper uses analytical and numerical models to explore the effect of the end conditions of the pipe on the collapse pressure. The pipe is open-ended and two bounding conditions are addressed: one where axial loading is applied to the ends of the pipe and the other where a fixed axial displacement is applied. The fixed axial displacement condition represents long-range or fit-up residual stress. It is common practice to treat long-range residual stress in the same way as axial loading, leading to the conclusion that such long-range residual stress reduces the collapse pressure. Pipes in a number of states are considered: pipes with no flaws, pipes with fully circumferential flaws and pipes with part circumferential flaws. The flaws consist of either a crack or a slot on the external surface of the pipe. For the axial load condition, the collapse pressure for a flawed pipe is reduced when higher magnitudes of tensile or compressive axial loads are applied. For the fixed displacement condition however, the magnitude of the displacement may have little or no effect on the collapse pressure. The results of the work indicate that substantially conservative assessments may be made of the collapse pressures of pipes containing flaws, when long-range residual stress is taken to be a form of axial loading. -- Highlights: • The effect of end conditions on the collapse pressure of a pipe has been explored. • Fixed displacement conditions represent long-range residual stress. • Long-range residual stress is commonly thought to contribute to plastic collapse. • We show long-range residual stress has no influence on collapse for flawed pipes. • It is therefore possible to reduce conservatism in structural integrity assessment

  12. Thermal-shock experiments with flawed clad cylinders

    Cheverton, R.D.; Bryson, J.W.; Alexander, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The life expectancy of LWR pressure vessels is influenced by a reduction in fracture toughness that is the result of radiation damage. As the fracture toughness decreases, the probability of propagation of preexisting flaws (sharp, crack-like defects) in the wall of the vessel increases. The probability of propagation is also influenced by the type of loading condition and the type of flaws that might exist. A loading condition of particular concern is referred to as pressurized thermal shock (PTS), and a flaw of particular concern for PTS loading conditions is a shallow surface flaw. A sudden cooling (thermal shock) of the inner surface of the vessel results in relatively high tensile stresses and relatively low fracture toughness at the inner surface. In addition, the attenuation of the fast-neutron fluence also results in relatively low fracture toughness at the inner surface. Under some circumstances, this combination of high stress and low toughness at the inner surface makes it possible for very shallow surface flaws to propagate. The PTS issue has been under investigation for quite some time, but thus far possible beneficial effects, other than thermal resistance, of the cladding on the inner surface of the vessel have not been included in the analysis of flaw behavior. This document discusses this effect of cladding on surface flaws and crack propagation

  13. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel-specific flaw distribution development

    Rosinski, S.T.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel integrity predictions performed through fracture mechanics analysis of a pressurized thermal shock event have been shown to be significantly sensitive to the overall flaw distribution input. It has also been shown that modem vessel in-service inspection (ISI) results can be used for development of vessel flaw distribution(s) that are more representative of US vessels. This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to analyze ISI data for the purpose of flaw distribution determination. The resultant methodology considers detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy, and flaw detection threshold in its application. Application of the methodology was then demonstrated using four recently acquired US PWR vessel inspection data sets. Throughout the program, new insight was obtained into several key inspection performance and vessel integrity prediction practice issues that will impact future vessel integrity evaluation. For example, the potential application of a vessel-specific flaw distribution now provides at least one method by which a vessel-specific reference flaw size applicable to pressure-temperature limit curves determination can be estimated. This paper will discuss the development and application of the methodology and the impact to future vessel integrity analyses

  14. User's guide for remote access of the Performance Assessment Center

    Peterson, C.R.; Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-03-01

    The Performance Assessment Center (PAC) was established by the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide technical assistance to support the development of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This user's manual provides guidance to remote users of the PAC. Information is presented on how remote users may most effectively access and use the systems available at the Performance Assessment Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Access requirements and operating procedures are presented to assist the first-time PAC user. This manual also provides brief descriptions of each code available on the system

  15. Flaws in the Concept of Nuclear Deterrance

    John Scales Avery

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of nuclear deterrence is seriously flawed, and it violates the fundamental ethical principles of all major religions. Besides being morally unacceptable, nuclear weapons are also illegal according to a historic 1996 decision of the International Court of Justice, a ruling that reflects the opinion of the vast majority of the worldʼs peoples. Even a small nuclear war would be an ecological catastrophe, not only killing civilian populations indiscriminately in both belligerent and neutral countries, but also severely damaging global agriculture and making large areas of the earth permanently uninhabitable through radioactive contamination. The danger of accidental nuclear war continues to be very great today, and the danger of nuclear terrorism is increasing. In this perilous situation, it is necessary for the nuclear nations to acknowledge that the concept of deterrence has been a mistake, which is threatening the lives of all human beings as well as threatening devastation of the biosphere. Acknowledging that the policy of nuclear deterrence has been a grave error can reduce risk of nuclear weapons proliferation.

  16. Assessment of pressurized nuclear equipment compliance - ASN guide no. 8, version of 04/09/2012

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the modalities according to which the compliance assessment of pressurized nuclear equipment must be performed by inspecting organisations according to a decree of December 1999 and an order of December 2005. After an indication of reference documents and some technical definitions, this guide describes the equipment classification and the principles of intervention. These principles concern the assessment request and the various assessment tasks to be performed by the inspecting organisation

  17. Analysis of portable gamma flaw detectors concerning radiation hygiene

    Makarova, T.V.

    1982-01-01

    Design and shields of gamma flaw detectors as one of the main factors responsible for personnel dose were studied. The analysis was conducted using the results of radiation hygienic surveys of gamma flaw detection laboratories functioning constantly in Estonia. It is shown that recently the replacement of GUP apparatuses by flaw detectors of RID and ''Gamma-RID'' (types which have design and shielding advantages is observed. However personnel doses have not reduced considerably for the last 10 years. This fact is attributed to design disadvantages of the RID and ''Gamma-RID'' apparatuses the removing of which will give the decreasing of annual personnel dose by 80 %

  18. Estimating probable flaw distributions in PWR steam generator tubes

    Gorman, J.A.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes methods for estimating the number and size distributions of flaws of various types in PWR steam generator tubes. These estimates are needed when calculating the probable primary to secondary leakage through steam generator tubes under postulated accidents such as severe core accidents and steam line breaks. The paper describes methods for two types of predictions: (1) the numbers of tubes with detectable flaws of various types as a function of time, and (2) the distributions in size of these flaws. Results are provided for hypothetical severely affected, moderately affected and lightly affected units. Discussion is provided regarding uncertainties and assumptions in the data and analyses

  19. Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics of Reactor Pressure Vessels with Populations of Flaws

    Spencer, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Backman, Marie [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Williams, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dickson, Terry [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bass, B. Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Klasky, Hilda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report documents recent progress in developing a tool that uses the Grizzly and RAVEN codes to perform probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses of reactor pressure vessels in light water reactor nuclear power plants. The Grizzly code is being developed with the goal of creating a general tool that can be applied to study a variety of degradation mechanisms in nuclear power plant components. Because of the central role of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a nuclear power plant, particular emphasis is being placed on developing capabilities to model fracture in embrittled RPVs to aid in the process surrounding decision making relating to life extension of existing plants. A typical RPV contains a large population of pre-existing flaws introduced during the manufacturing process. The use of probabilistic techniques is necessary to assess the likelihood of crack initiation at one or more of these flaws during a transient event. This report documents development and initial testing of a capability to perform probabilistic fracture mechanics of large populations of flaws in RPVs using reduced order models to compute fracture parameters. The work documented here builds on prior efforts to perform probabilistic analyses of a single flaw with uncertain parameters, as well as earlier work to develop deterministic capabilities to model the thermo-mechanical response of the RPV under transient events, and compute fracture mechanics parameters at locations of pre-defined flaws. The capabilities developed as part of this work provide a foundation for future work, which will develop a platform that provides the flexibility needed to consider scenarios that cannot be addressed with the tools used in current practice.

  20. Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) self-assessment guide

    Reese, R.T.; Golden, N.L.; Romero, J.R.; Yesner, S.

    1997-06-01

    This document has been prepared as a guide for conducting self-assessments of ES&H functional programs and organizational (line) implementation of these programs. This guide is intended for use by individuals and/or teams involved in or familiar with ES&H programs and line operations (e.g., the {open_quotes}self{close_quotes}in self-assessment). Essential elements of the self-assessment process are described including: schedule and priorities, scope and approach, assessment criteria (e.g., performance objectives and measures), information gathering and analysis techniques, and documentation of planning efforts and results. The appendices in this guide include: (1) an assessment prioritization process, (2) generic performance objectives for line implementation and for ES&H functional programs, (3) sources for ES&H assessment information, (4) systemic factors (developed for SNL`s root cause analysis program), (5) Lockheed Martin audit questions for management systems, compliance and validation, and specific areas and concerns, (6) DOE facility representatives checklist, and (7) assessment tools and resources developed at SNL and other DOE/Lockheed Martin sites. This document is a product of the efforts associated with the SNL ES&H Oversight Pilot Project conducted from June 1995 to January 1997. This Pilot was part of the overall initiative by DOE to reduce burdensome agency oversight by placing greater reliance on contractor self-assessment.

  1. A Practical Guide to Rodent Islet Isolation and Assessment

    Carter Jeffrey D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pancreatic islets of Langerhans secrete hormones that are vital to the regulation of blood glucose and are, therefore, a key focus of diabetes research. Purifying viable and functional islets from the pancreas for study is an intricate process. This review highlights the key elements involved with mouse and rat islet isolation, including choices of collagenase, the collagenase digestion process, purification of islets using a density gradient, and islet culture conditions. In addition, this paper reviews commonly used techniques for assessing islet viability and function, including visual assessment, fluorescent markers of cell death, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and intracellular calcium measurements. A detailed protocol is also included that describes a common method for rodent islet isolation that our laboratory uses to obtain viable and functional mouse islets for in vitro study of islet function, beta-cell physiology, and in vivo rodent islet transplantation. The purpose of this review is to serve as a resource and foundation for successfully procuring and purifying high-quality islets for research purposes.

  2. Detection of plane, poorly oriented wide flaws using focused transducers

    Vadder, D. de; Azou, P.; Bastien, P.; Saglio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The detection of plane, poorly oriented, wide flaws by ultrasonic non destructive testing is distinctly improved when using focused transducers. An increased echo can be obtained crossing the defect limit [fr

  3. Ductile fracture of cylindrical vessels containing a large flaw

    Erdogan, F.; Irwin, G. R.; Ratwani, M.

    1976-01-01

    The fracture process in pressurized cylindrical vessels containing a relatively large flaw is considered. The flaw is assumed to be a part-through or through meridional crack. The flaw geometry, the yield behavior of the material, and the internal pressure are assumed to be such that in the neighborhood of the flaw the cylinder wall undergoes large-scale plastic deformations. Thus, the problem falls outside the range of applicability of conventional brittle fracture theories. To study the problem, plasticity considerations are introduced into the shell theory through the assumptions of fully-yielded net ligaments using a plastic strip model. Then a ductile fracture criterion is developed which is based on the concept of net ligament plastic instability. A limited verification is attempted by comparing the theoretical predictions with some existing experimental results.

  4. Flaw evaluation of pressure vessel in pressurized water reactor

    Park, Ki Sung; Kim, Min Geol; Jeon, Chae Hong; Rhim, Soon Hyung; Kim, Seung Tae

    1999-01-01

    Flaw evaluation should be performed to determine the acceptance of a surface or a subsurface flaw detected during the in-service inspection without any repair or replacement. In this paper, the evaluation methodology and procedure were established according to ASME code Sec. XI and the evaluation program was coded. Using this program, a field engineer who doesn't have enough knowledge on fracture mechanics may be able to perform prompt and accurate flaw evaluation on site and decide whether a detected flaw be allowable or not. Analysis results were compared with those obtained from Westinghouse program called KCAL and FCG. Both results made good agreement and accuracy of the program developed in this paper was verified.=20

  5. Evaluation of constraint methodologies applied to a shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimen tested under biaxial loading conditions

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far-field. out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies. namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness, the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect

  6. Energy: a background and guide to the assessment of risks

    Wolff, Heinz

    1986-01-01

    The question of safety and the assessment of risk to personnel has been looked at from the point of view of life underwriting in the nuclear power industry, and the oil, gas and coal industries. Following a brief history of the energy industries and techniques of energy extraction, including reactor types, the medical aspects are considered for each industry. For nuclear energy workers these are exposure to radioactive material and deafness. The accident risks are then considered. For the nuclear industry particular areas of risk are identified as walkways, road traffic accidents, human error and radiation. Accident statistics for 1981-1985 in the UK are given. Safety aspects are then considered and accidents involving increased radiation exposure are mentioned. Suggested ratings are given. For the nuclear industry there is insufficient evidence to suggest that ratings should be imposed. (UK)

  7. School Health Index: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Middle School/High School.

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Crossett, Linda; Harrykissoon, Samantha D.; Pritzl, Jane; Wechsler, Howell; Kuester, Sarah A.; Pederson, Linda; Graffunder, Corinne; Rainford, Neil; Sleet, David

    2004-01-01

    The "School Health Index" is a self-assessment and planning guide that will enable schools to: (1) identify the strengths and weaknesses of school policies and programs for promoting health and safety; (2) develop an action plan for improving student health and safety, and (3) involve teachers, parents, students, and the community in improving…

  8. Disparity in Physical Activity among Urban Youth: An Ecologically Guided Assessment

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda; Brown, Michael D.; O'Brien, Matthew J.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insufficient physical activity among urban youth increases risk of chronic disease.Purpose:This study assessed reported physical activity to determine when disparities in participation emerge and what ecologically guided factors are linked with high activity. Methods:We administered a cross-sectional survey to a diverse sample of 321…

  9. Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Interactive Training Module. User's Manual & Facilitator's Guide. Second Edition.

    Liaupsin, Carl J.; Scott, Terry M.; Nelson, C. Michael

    This user's manual and facilitator's guide is intended for use with an accompanying interactive CD-ROM to provide a complete training program in conducting functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) as required under the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapter 1 provides general information for users, such as…

  10. Beginning LCA. A guide into environmental life cycle assessment

    Van den Berg, N.W. [ed.; Huppes, G. [Centre of Environmental Science CLM, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Dutilh, C.E. [Unilever, Van den Bergh Netherlands, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-02-01

    The main goal of this document is to provide practical guidance for those who want to start with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The document has been set up in the form of modules. Module 1 provides arguments to decide whether or not LCA is the right tool to use in a particular case. In this module other ways to study interactions with the environment will be mentioned as well. Module 2 explains the process of formulating the purpose and scope of the study. The results will give a general picture of the characteristics of the LCA. The next step, which is called the inventory analysis, represents the largest amount of work and is split up into four parts, i.e. Modules 3,4,5, and 6. Module 3 gives guidelines and detailed examples on how to construct a flowchart of the study. Module 5 describes how to collect the required data and Module 4 how to define the system boundaries. Finally, the processing of data is described in Module 6. The result of the inventory is a list of emissions and extractions for all processes involved in manufacturing and required for the functioning of a product, service or activity during the entire life cycle. Sometimes results are so clear that you may decide to stop after the inventory stage. Usually however, it is useful to carry out the impact assessment, which is split up into two parts (Modules 7 and 8). Instructions are given on how to translate the list of environmental interventions of the entire life cycle of the product into a table with scores on environmental themes: the classification/characterization. A basic substance list that might be used is added (Module 7). Also a description showing how to evaluate the results of the classification/characterization is given, so that conclusions may be drawn on the information that has been generated (Module 8). Module 9, the last module, describes how to complete the LCA. It provides suggestions on how to present the results and indications about the improvement analysis.

  11. Improved criteria for the repair of fabrication flaws

    Doctor, S.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Simonen, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear power plant components requires radiographic examinations (RT) of welds and requires repairs for RT indications that exceed code acceptable sizes. This paper describes research that has generated data on welding flaws, which indicated that the largest flaws occur in repaired welds. The fabrication flaws were detected in material removed from cancelled nuclear power plants using high sensitivity Nondestructive Examination (NDE) and validated by complementary NDE and destructive testing. Evidence suggests that repairs are often for small and benign RT indications at locations buried within the vessel or pipe wall. Probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations are described in this paper to predict the increases in vessel failure probabilities caused by the repair-induced flaws. Calculations address failures of embrittled vessel welds for pressurized thermal shock (PTS) transients. In this case small flaws, which are relatively common, can cause brittle fracture, such that the rarely encountered repair flaws of large sizes gave only modestly increased failure probabilities. The paper recommends the use of more discriminating ultrasonic examinations in place of RT examinations along with repair criteria based on a fitness-for-purpose approach that minimize the number of unjustified repairs. (author)

  12. A study on the dimensioning of flaws by acoustical holography

    Yamamoto, Michio; Ando, Tomozumi; Enami, Koji; Yajima, Minoru; Fukui, Shigetaka.

    1978-01-01

    As a means of evaluating the safety of flawed pressure vessels and other structures against fracture, fracture mechanics has come to be applied. For the application of fracture mechanics it is necessary to get information concerning the sizes and shapes of flaws. The ultrasonic flaw detection method that is widely used as a nondestructive inspection method cannot measure the sizes and shapes of flaws accurately. Considering that acoustical holography is an useful means for the dimensioning of flaws, we performed basic tests on this method and obtained the following results: (1) The measured values of artificial flaws (flat bottom drilled holes: 5 - 36 mm) made on a steel plate of 150 mm thick showed a good linear relation with their actual sizes and scatter in the measured values was +-3 - 6 mm. (2) The measured values of fatigue cracks (length: 5 - 57 mm) introduced into a steel plate of 150 mm thick also showed a good linear relation with their actual sizes and scatter in the measured values was +-3 mm. (3) It was found that acoustical holography can also be applied to heavy section cast steels. (4) The method of correcting distortion caused by curved surface was investigated by computer-aided simulation and it was considered that such distortion can be corrected by radial scanning of a transducer. (author)

  13. Assessment guide for tornado effect on Nuclear Power Plants (draft) with its commentaries

    Inoue, Hiroto; Fukunishi, Shiro; Suzuki, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    In the context of a severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) was established on September 19, 2012 under the relevant law. After that NRA organized a task force for studying new regulatory standards for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in consideration of lessons learned from the severe accident at Fukushima. In the task force open meeting, through discussing about design basis external natural events which should be considered in the new regulatory standards, tornado was newly introduced into new regulatory standards as an external natural event. Based on the decision that tornado was newly introduced into new regulatory standards, the Secretariat of the Nuclear Regulation Authority (SNRA) commissioned the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) to study an assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs intended to be used for an official safety review for a NPP construction. JNES organized Sectional Committee for Tornado Effect Assessment Guide consisting of experts in meteorology and wind engineering fields, discussing about assessment methods for tornado effect on NPPs, draft version of the assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs was completed on April 4, 2013, and JNES submitted the draft guide to SNRA on the same date. After that NRA called for public comments for the draft version of the assessment guide, the draft version of the assessment guide was partly amended taking posted public comments account, and tornado effect assessment guide was officially released on June 19, 2013. Contents in this paper are as follows, assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs (Draft version on April 4, 2013), supplementary documents, calculation examples, and future tasks for further improved reliability of tornado effect assessment on NPPs. This draft guide consists of six chapters

  14. Assessment guide for tornado effect on Nuclear Power Plants (draft) with its commentaries

    Inoue, Hiroto; Fukunishi, Shiro; Suzuki, Tetsuo [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Seismic Safety Department, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    In the context of a severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) was established on September 19, 2012 under the relevant law. After that NRA organized a task force for studying new regulatory standards for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in consideration of lessons learned from the severe accident at Fukushima. In the task force open meeting, through discussing about design basis external natural events which should be considered in the new regulatory standards, tornado was newly introduced into new regulatory standards as an external natural event. Based on the decision that tornado was newly introduced into new regulatory standards, the Secretariat of the Nuclear Regulation Authority (SNRA) commissioned the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) to study an assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs intended to be used for an official safety review for a NPP construction. JNES organized Sectional Committee for Tornado Effect Assessment Guide consisting of experts in meteorology and wind engineering fields, discussing about assessment methods for tornado effect on NPPs, draft version of the assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs was completed on April 4, 2013, and JNES submitted the draft guide to SNRA on the same date. After that NRA called for public comments for the draft version of the assessment guide, the draft version of the assessment guide was partly amended taking posted public comments account, and tornado effect assessment guide was officially released on June 19, 2013. Contents in this paper are as follows, assessment guide for tornado effect on NPPs (Draft version on April 4, 2013), supplementary documents, calculation examples, and future tasks for further improved reliability of tornado effect assessment on NPPs. This draft guide consists of six chapters

  15. Review and assessment of nuclear facilities by the regulatory body. Safety guide

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for regulatory bodies on reviewing and assessing the various safety related submissions made by the operator of a nuclear facility at different stages (siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning or closure) in the facility's lifetime to determine whether the facility complies with the applicable safety objectives and requirements. This Safety Guide covers the review and assessment of submissions in relation to the safety of nuclear facilities such as: enrichment and fuel manufacturing plants. Nuclear power plants. Other reactors such as research reactors and critical assemblies. Spent fuel reprocessing plants. And facilities for radioactive waste management, such as treatment, storage and disposal facilities. This Safety Guide also covers issues relating to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the closure of waste disposal facilities and site rehabilitation. Objectives, management, planning and organizational matters relating to the review and assessment process are presented in Section 2. Section 3 deals with the bases for decision making and conduct of the review and assessment process. Section 4 covers aspects relating to the assessment of this process. The Appendix provides a generic list of topics to be covered in the review and assessment process

  16. Review and assessment of nuclear facilities by the regulatory body. Safety guide

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for regulatory bodies on reviewing and assessing the various safety related submissions made by the operator of a nuclear facility at different stages (siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning or closure) in the facility's lifetime to determine whether the facility complies with the applicable safety objectives and requirements. This Safety Guide covers the review and assessment of submissions in relation to the safety of nuclear facilities such as: enrichment and fuel manufacturing plants. Nuclear power plants. Other reactors such as research reactors and critical assemblies. Spent fuel reprocessing plants. And facilities for radioactive waste management, such as treatment, storage and disposal facilities. This Safety Guide also covers issues relating to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the closure of waste disposal facilities and site rehabilitation. Objectives, management, planning and organizational matters relating to the review and assessment process are presented in Section 2. Section 3 deals with the bases for decision making and conduct of the review and assessment process. Section 4 covers aspects relating to the assessment of this process. The Appendix provides a generic list of topics to be covered in the review and assessment process

  17. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  18. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  19. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  20. 77 FR 70846 - Regulatory Guide 1.182, “Assessing and Managing Risk Before Maintenance Activities at Nuclear...

    2012-11-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0285] Regulatory Guide 1.182, ``Assessing and Managing Risk Before Maintenance Activities at Nuclear Power Plants'' AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... withdrawing Regulatory Guide (RG)1.182, Revision (Rev.) 0, ``Assessing and Managing Risk Before Maintenance...

  1. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  2. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  3. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    2001-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  4. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  5. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  6. A framework for guiding sustainability assessment and on-farm strategic decision making

    Coteur, Ine, E-mail: ine.coteur@ilvo.vlaanderen.be [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO)-Social sciences Unit, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 115, box 2, 9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Marchand, Fleur [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO)-Social sciences Unit, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 115, box 2, 9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Ecosystem Management Research Group and IMDO, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Debruyne, Lies; Dalemans, Floris [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO)-Social sciences Unit, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 115, box 2, 9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Lauwers, Ludwig [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO)-Social sciences Unit, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 115, box 2, 9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); University of Ghent, Department of Agricultural Economics, Coupure Links 53, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-09-15

    Responding to future challenges and societal needs, various actions are taken in agriculture to evolve towards more sustainable farming practices. These actions imply strategic choices and suppose adequate sustainability assessments to identify, measure, evaluate and communicate sustainable development. However, literature is scarce on the link between strategic decision making and sustainability assessment. As questions emerge on how, what and when to measure, the objective of this paper is to construct a framework for guiding sustainability assessment and on-farm strategic decision making. Qualitative research on own experiences from the past and a recent project revealed four categories of actual needs farmers, advisors and experts have regarding sustainability assessment: context, flexibility, focus on farm and farmer and communication. These stakeholders' needs are then incorporated into a two-dimensional framework that marries the intrinsic complexity of sustainability assessment tools and the time frame of strategic decision making. The framework allows a farm-specific and flexible approach leading to harmonized actions towards sustainable farming. As this framework is mainly a procedural instrument to guide the use of sustainability assessment tools within strategic decision making, it fits to incorporate, even guide, future research on sustainability assessment tools themselves and on their adoption on farms. - Highlights: • How to link sustainability assessment and on-farm strategic decision making is unclear. • Two-dimensional framework incorporating stakeholders' needs regarding sustainability assessment • Linking complexity of sustainability assessment tools and the time frame of strategic decision making • Farm-specific and flexible approach to harmonize action towards sustainable farming.

  7. A framework for guiding sustainability assessment and on-farm strategic decision making

    Coteur, Ine; Marchand, Fleur; Debruyne, Lies; Dalemans, Floris; Lauwers, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Responding to future challenges and societal needs, various actions are taken in agriculture to evolve towards more sustainable farming practices. These actions imply strategic choices and suppose adequate sustainability assessments to identify, measure, evaluate and communicate sustainable development. However, literature is scarce on the link between strategic decision making and sustainability assessment. As questions emerge on how, what and when to measure, the objective of this paper is to construct a framework for guiding sustainability assessment and on-farm strategic decision making. Qualitative research on own experiences from the past and a recent project revealed four categories of actual needs farmers, advisors and experts have regarding sustainability assessment: context, flexibility, focus on farm and farmer and communication. These stakeholders' needs are then incorporated into a two-dimensional framework that marries the intrinsic complexity of sustainability assessment tools and the time frame of strategic decision making. The framework allows a farm-specific and flexible approach leading to harmonized actions towards sustainable farming. As this framework is mainly a procedural instrument to guide the use of sustainability assessment tools within strategic decision making, it fits to incorporate, even guide, future research on sustainability assessment tools themselves and on their adoption on farms. - Highlights: • How to link sustainability assessment and on-farm strategic decision making is unclear. • Two-dimensional framework incorporating stakeholders' needs regarding sustainability assessment • Linking complexity of sustainability assessment tools and the time frame of strategic decision making • Farm-specific and flexible approach to harmonize action towards sustainable farming

  8. Evaluation of J-integral estimation scheme for flawed throughwall pipes

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-02-01

    The accuracy of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme for pipes with throughwall cracks and subjected to pure bending was assessed using available experimental data on circumferentially flawed throughwall pipes. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. The results indicated that the EPRI J estimation scheme solutions are unnecessarily conservative compared to results from pipe experiments. As a result of these evaluations an improved J estimation scheme is developed, which is shown to have improved accuracy compared to the original EPRI J estimation scheme. These results imply that the flaw evaluation procedures in the ASME Code on austenitic piping welds are conservative. These results also have applications to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses.

  9. Evaluation of J-integral estimation scheme for flawed throughwall pipes

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme for pipes with throughwall cracks and subjected to pure bending was assessed using available experimental data on circumferentially flawed throughwall pipes. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. The results indicated that the EPRI J estimation scheme solutions are unnecessarily conservative compared to results from pipe experiments. As a result of these evaluations an improved J estimation scheme is developed, which is shown to have improved accuracy compared to the original EPRI J estimation scheme. These results imply that the flaw evaluation procedures in the ASME Code on austenitic piping welds are conservative. These results also have applications to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses. (orig.)

  10. An engineering approach for examining crack growth and stability in flawed structures

    Shih, C.F.; German, M.D.; Kumar, V.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in two research programmes, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), to identify viable parameters for characterising crack initiation and continued extension are summarised. An engineering/design methodology, based on these parameters, for the assessment of crack growth and instability in engineering structures which are stressed beyond the regime of applicability of linear elastic fracture mechanics is developed. The ultimate goal in the development of such a methodology is to establish an improved basis for analysing the effect of flaws (postulated or detected) on the safety margins of pressure boundary components of light water-cooled type nuclear steam supply systems. The methodology can also be employed for structural integrity analyses of other engineering components. Extensive experimental and analytical investigations undertaken to evaluate potential criteria for crack initiation and growth and the selection of the final criteria for analysing crack growth and stability in flawed structures are summarised. The experimental and analytical results obtained to date suggest that parameters based on the J-integral and the crack tip opening displacement, delta, are the most promising. This is not surprising since, from a theoretical basis, the two approaches are similar if certain conditions are met. An engineering/design approach for the assessment of crack growth and instability in flawed structures is outlined. (author)

  11. Basic CNC Operation. Training Workbook [and] Assessment and Training Guide [and] Hands-on Assessment.

    Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

    This workbook is intended for students taking a course in basic computer numerical control (CNC) operation that was developed during a project to retrain defense industry workers at risk of job loss or dislocation because of conversion of the defense industry. The workbook contains daily training guides for each of the course's 13 sessions. Among…

  12. Flaws and fallacies in statistical thinking

    Campbell, Stephen K

    2004-01-01

    This book was written with a dual purpose: first, the author was motivated to relieve his distress over the faulty conclusions drawn from the frequent misuse of relatively simple statistical tools such as percents, graphs, and averages. Second, his objective was to create a nontechnical book that would help people make better-informed decisions by increasing their ability to judge the quality of statistical evidence. This volume achieves both, serving as a supplemental text for students taking their first course in statistics, and as a self-help guide for anyone wishing to evaluate statistica

  13. Effect of combined loading on pipe flaw evaluation criteria

    Miura, Naoki; Chung Yeonki

    1999-01-01

    Considering a rational maintenance rule of Light Water Reactor piping, reliable flaw evaluation criteria are essential to determine how a detected flaw is detrimental to continuous plant operation. Ductile fracture is one of the dominant failure modes to be considered for carbon steel piping, and can be analyzed by the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Currently the analytical results are provided as flaw evaluation criteria using load correction factors such like the Z-factor in ASME Code Section 6. The present correction factors were conventionally determined taken a conservatism and a simplicity into account, however, the effect of internal pressure which would be an important factor under an actual plant condition was not adequately considered. Recently, a J-estimation scheme, 'LBB.ENGC' for ductile fracture analysis of circumferentially through-wall-cracked pipes subjected to combined loading was newly developed to have a better prediction with more realistic manner. This method is explicitly incorporated the contribution of both bending and tension due to internal pressure by means of the scheme compatible with an arbitrary combined loading history. In this paper, the effect of internal pressure on the flaw evaluation criteria was investigated using the new J-estimation scheme. A correction factor based on the new J-estimation scheme was compared with the present correction factors, and the predictability of the current flaw evaluation criteria was quantitatively evaluated in consideration of internal pressure. (author)

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Mobile App-Guided Training in Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (eFAST)

    Nilsson, Philip Morkeberg; Todsen, Tobias; Subhi, Yousif

    2017-01-01

    the cost-effectiveness of mobile app-guided training versus traditional formats such as textbook-guided training. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of mobile app-guided versus textbook-guided ultrasound training. Material and methods First-year residents (n?=?38) with no previous ultrasound...... Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. The costs of developing mobile app and textbook material were calculated and used for the analysis of cost-effectiveness. Results 34 participants completed the transfer test. There was no statistically significant difference in test performance...... or diagnostic accuracy between the mobile app-guided (mean-OSAUS 42.3?% [95?%CI38.5?–?46.0?%]) and textbook-guided groups (mean-OSAUS 45.3?% [95?%CI39.3?–?51.3?%]) (d.f. [1.33]?=?0.45, p?=?0.41). However, development costs differed greatly for each instructional format. Textbook-guided training...

  15. PRA Procedures Guide: a guide to the performance of probabilistic risk assessments for nuclear power plants. Final report, Volume 1 - Chapters 1-8

    1983-01-01

    This document, the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Procedures Guide, is intended to provide an overview of the risk-assessment field as it exists today and to identify acceptable techniques for the systematic assessment of the risk from nuclear power plants. Topics discussed include: organization of PRA; accident-sequence definition and system modeling; human-reliability analysis; data-base development; accident-sequence quantification; physical processes of core-melt accidents; and radionuclide release and transport

  16. Detecting accuracy of flaws by manual and automatic ultrasonic inspections

    Iida, K.

    1988-01-01

    As the final stage work in the nine year project on proving tests of the ultrasonic inspection technique applied to the ISI of LWR plants, automatic ultrasonic inspection tests were carried out on EDM notches, surface fatigue cracks, weld defects and stress corrosion cracks, which were deliberately introduced in full size structural components simulating a 1,100 MWe BWR. Investigated items are the performance of a newly assembled automatic inspection apparatus, detection limit of flaws, detection resolution of adjacent collinear or parallel EDM notches, detection reproducibility and detection accuracy. The manual ultrasonic inspection of the same flaws as inspected by the automatic ultrasonic inspection was also carried out in order to have comparative data. This paper reports how it was confirmed that the automatic ultrasonic inspection is much superior to the manual inspection in the flaw detection rate and in the detection reproducibility

  17. Finite-element analysis of flawed and unflawed pipe tests

    James, R.J.; Nickell, R.E.; Sullaway, M.F.

    1989-12-01

    Contemporary versions of the general purpose, nonlinear finite element program ABAQUS have been used in structural response verification exercises on flawed and unflawed austenitic stainless steel and ferritic steel piping. Among the topics examined, through comparison between ABAQUS calculations and test results, were: (1) the effect of using variations in the stress-strain relationship from the test article material on the calculated response; (2) the convergence properties of various finite element representations of the pipe geometry, using shell, beam and continuum models; (3) the effect of test system compliance; and (4) the validity of ABAQUS J-integral routines for flawed pipe evaluations. The study was culminated by the development and demonstration of a ''macroelement'' representation for the flawed pipe section. The macroelement can be inserted into an existing piping system model, in order to accurately treat the crack-opening and crack-closing static and dynamic response. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  18. Improved flaw detection and characterization with difference thermography

    Winfree, William P.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.

    2011-05-01

    Flaw detection and characterization with thermographic techniques in graphite polymer composites is often limited by localized variations in the thermographic response. Variations in properties such as acceptable porosity, variations in fiber volume content and surface polymer thickness result in variations in the thermal response that in general cause significant variations in the initial thermal response. These variations result in a noise floor that increases the difficulty of detecting and characterizing deeper flaws. The paper investigates comparing thermographic responses taken before and after a change in state in a composite to improve the detection of subsurface flaws. A method is presented for registration of the responses before finding the difference. A significant improvement in the detectability is achieved by comparing the differences in response. Examples of changes in state due to application of a load and impact are presented.

  19. Development of digital shade guides for color assessment using a digital camera with ring flashes.

    Tung, Oi-Hong; Lai, Yu-Lin; Ho, Yi-Ching; Chou, I-Chiang; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2011-02-01

    Digital photographs taken with cameras and ring flashes are commonly used for dental documentation. We hypothesized that different illuminants and camera's white balance setups shall influence color rendering of digital images and affect the effectiveness of color matching using digital images. Fifteen ceramic disks of different shades were fabricated and photographed with a digital camera in both automatic white balance (AWB) and custom white balance (CWB) under either light-emitting diode (LED) or electronic ring flash. The Commission Internationale d'Éclairage L*a*b* parameters of the captured images were derived from Photoshop software and served as digital shade guides. We found significantly high correlation coefficients (r² > 0.96) between the respective spectrophotometer standards and those shade guides generated in CWB setups. Moreover, the accuracy of color matching of another set of ceramic disks using digital shade guides, which was verified by ten operators, improved from 67% in AWB to 93% in CWB under LED illuminants. Probably, because of the inconsistent performance of the flashlight and specular reflection, the digital images captured under electronic ring flash in both white balance setups revealed less reliable and relative low-matching ability. In conclusion, the reliability of color matching with digital images is much influenced by the illuminants and camera's white balance setups, while digital shade guides derived under LED illuminants with CWB demonstrate applicable potential in the fields of color assessments.

  20. Development of a Weibull model of cleavage fracture toughness for shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessel material

    Bass, B.R.; Williams, P.T.; McAfee, W.J.; Pugh, C.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    A primary objective of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) -sponsored Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is to develop and validate technology applicable to quantitative assessments of fracture prevention margins in nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing flaws and subjected to service-induced material toughness degradation. This paper describes an experimental/analytical program for the development of a Weibull statistical model of cleavage fracture toughness for applications to shallow surface-breaking and embedded flaws in RPV materials subjected to multi-axial loading conditions. The experimental part includes both material characterization testing and larger fracture toughness experiments conducted using a special-purpose cruciform beam specimen developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for applying biaxial loads to shallow cracks. Test materials (pressure vessel steels) included plate product forms (conforming to ASTM A533 Grade B Class 1 specifications) and shell segments procured from a pressurized-water reactor vessel intended for a nuclear power plant. Results from tests performed on cruciform specimens demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower-transition temperature region. A local approach methodology based on a three-parameter Weibull model was developed to correlate these experimentally-observed biaxial effects on fracture toughness. The Weibull model, combined with a new hydrostatic stress criterion in place of the more commonly used maximum principal stress in the kernel of the Weibull stress integral definition, is shown to provide a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states for 2-dimensional flaws located in the A533-B plate material. The Weibull stress density was introduced as a matrice for identifying regions along a semi-elliptical flaw front that have a higher probability of cleavage initiation. Cumulative

  1. Development of a Weibull model of cleavage fracture toughness for shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessel material

    Bass, B.R.; Williams, P.T.; McAfee, W.J.; Pugh, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    A primary objective of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) -sponsored Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is to develop and validate technology applicable to quantitative assessments of fracture prevention margins in nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing flaws and subjected to service-induced material toughness degradation. This paper describes an experimental/analytical program for the development of a Weibull statistical model of cleavage fracture toughness for applications to shallow surface-breaking and embedded flaws in RPV materials subjected to multi-axial loading conditions. The experimental part includes both material characterization testing and larger fracture toughness experiments conducted using a special-purpose cruciform beam specimen developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for applying biaxial loads to shallow cracks. Test materials (pressure vessel steels) included plate product forms (conforming to ASTM A533 Grade B Class 1 specifications) and shell segments procured from a pressurized-water reactor vessel intended for a nuclear power plant. Results from tests performed on cruciform specimens demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower-transition temperature region. A local approach methodology based on a three-parameter Weibull model was developed to correlate these experimentally-observed biaxial effects on fracture toughness. The Weibull model, combined with a new hydrostatic stress criterion in place of the more commonly used maximum principal stress in the kernel of the Weibull stress integral definition, is shown to provide a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states for 2-dimensional flaws located in the A533-B plate material. The Weibull stress density was introduced as a matrice for identifying regions along a semi-elliptical flaw front that have a higher probability of cleavage initiation. Cumulative

  2. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  3. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  4. LISA. A code for safety assessment in nuclear waste disposals program description and user guide

    Saltelli, A.; Bertozzi, G.; Stanners, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The code LISA (Long term Isolation Safety Assessment), developed at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra is a useful tool in the analysis of the hazard due to the disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations. The risk linked to preestablished release scenarios is assessed by the code in terms of dose rate to a maximum exposed individual. The various submodels in the code simulate the system of barriers -both natural and man made- which are interposed between the contaminants and man. After a description of the code features a guide for the user is supplied and then a test case is presented

  5. Assessment of atherosclerotic luminal narrowing of coronary arteries based on morphometrically generated visual guides.

    Barth, Rolf F; Kellough, David A; Allenby, Patricia; Blower, Luke E; Hammond, Scott H; Allenby, Greg M; Buja, L Maximilian

    Determination of the degree of stenosis of atherosclerotic coronary arteries is an important part of postmortem examination of the heart, but, unfortunately, estimation of the degree of luminal narrowing can be imprecise and tends to be approximations. Visual guides can be useful to assess this, but earlier attempts to develop such guides did not employ digital technology. Using this approach, we have developed two computer-generated morphometric guides to estimate the degree of luminal narrowing of atherosclerotic coronary arteries. The first is based on symmetric or eccentric circular or crescentic narrowing of the vessel lumen and the second on either slit-like or irregularly shaped narrowing of the vessel lumens. Using the Aperio ScanScope XT at a magnification of 20× we created digital whole-slide images of 20 representative microscopic cross sections of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, stained with either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or Movat's pentachrome stain. These cross sections illustrated a variety of luminal profiles and degrees of stenosis. Three representative types of images were selected and a visual guide was constructed with Adobe Photoshop CS5. Using the "Scale" and "Measurement" tools, we created a series of representations of stenosis with luminal cross sections depicting 20%, 40%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% occlusion of the LAD branch. Four pathologists independently reviewed and scored the degree of atherosclerotic luminal narrowing based on our visual guides. In addition, digital technology was employed to determine the degree of narrowing by measuring the cross-sectional area of the 20 microscopic sections of the vessels, first assuming no narrowing and then comparing this to the percent of narrowing determined by precise measurement. Two of the observers were very experienced general autopsy pathologists, one was a first-year pathology resident on his first rotation on the autopsy service, and the fourth observer was a

  6. Statistical flaw strength distributions for glass fibres: Correlation between bundle test and AFM-derived flaw size density functions

    Foray, G.; Descamps-Mandine, A.; R’Mili, M.; Lamon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper investigates glass fibre flaw size distributions. Two commercial fibre grades (HP and HD) mainly used in cement-based composite reinforcement were studied. Glass fibre fractography is a difficult and time consuming exercise, and thus is seldom carried out. An approach based on tensile tests on multifilament bundles and examination of the fibre surface by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used. Bundles of more than 500 single filaments each were tested. Thus a statistically significant database of failure data was built up for the HP and HD glass fibres. Gaussian flaw distributions were derived from the filament tensile strength data or extracted from the AFM images. The two distributions were compared. Defect sizes computed from raw AFM images agreed reasonably well with those derived from tensile strength data. Finally, the pertinence of a Gaussian distribution was discussed. The alternative Pareto distribution provided a fair approximation when dealing with AFM flaw size.

  7. Ultrasonic flaw detection in a monorail box beam

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2009-03-01

    A steel box beam in a monorail application is constructed with an epoxy grout wearing surface, precluding visual inspection of its top flange. This paper describes a sequence of experimental research tasks to develop an ultrasonic system to detect flaws (such as fatigue cracks) in that flange, and the results of a field test to demonstrate system performance. The problem is constrained by the fact that the flange is exposed only along its longitudinal edges, and by the fact that permanent installation of transducers at close spacing was deemed to be impractical. The system chosen for development, after experimental comparison of alternate technologies, features angle-beam ultrasonic transducers with fluid coupling to the flange edge; the emitting transducers create transverse waves that travel diagonally across the width of the flange, where an array of receiving transducers detect flaw reflections and flaw shadows. The system rolls along the box beam, surveying (screening) the top flange for the presence of flaws. In a first research task, conducted on a full-size beam specimen, we compared waves generated from different transducer locations, either the flange edge or the web face, and at different frequency ranges. At relatively low frequencies, such as 100 kHz, we observed Lamb wave modes, and at higher frequency, in the MHz range, we observed nearlylongitudinal waves with trailing pulses. In all cases we observed little attenuation by the wearing surface and little influence of reflection at the web-flange joints. At the conclusion of this task we made the design decision to use edgemounted transducers at relatively high frequency, with correspondingly short wavelength, for best scattering from flaws. In a second research task we conducted experiments at 55% scale on a steel plate, with machined flaws of different size, and detected flaws of target size for the intended application. We then compared the performance of bonded transducers, fluid

  8. Development of flaw assesment methodology for elevated temperature components of FBR plants

    Shimakawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Yukio; Miura, Naoki; Nakayama, Yasunari; Sawai, Tatsuaki; Tooya, Yuuji

    1999-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is applicable for the safety assessment of FBR component if a crack is assumed to exist. Inelastic response should be taken into account due to high temperature operation of FBR components. However, methodology for the application of inelastic fracture mechanics has not been established sufficiently. CRIEPI has been conducted research projects to develop a flaw assessment guideline for FBR components. This guideline consists of evaluation methods for creep-fatigue crack propagation, ductile fracture and sodium leak rate. The summary of evaluation methods on creep-fatigue crack and ductile fracture is presented in this paper. (author)

  9. The SATELLITE Sexual Violence Assessment and Care Guide for Perinatal Patients

    Ross, Ratchneewan; Roller, Cyndi; Rusk, Tom; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence (SV) is a prevalent public health problem affecting millions of women across the lifespan. Poor pregnancy outcomes have been shown to be related to SV experiences; therefore, the perinatal period is an important time for healthcare practitioners (HCPs) to intervene. Various healthcare organizations suggest or even mandate screening for SV. Although SV screening tools are available, many practitioners do not routinely screen their patients. Barriers to screening include lack of comfort with or knowledge about how to screen and intervene, and reluctance on the part of the patient to disclose information. The SATELLITE Sexual Violence Assessment and Care Guide for Patients in the Perinatal Period was designed to overcome these barriers. The guide leads practitioners through the process of setting the context for screening, the screening itself, and the interventions after a positive screen finding, including specific questions to be asked and statements to be made by the practitioner in providing care for an SV survivor. By using this guide, nurse practitioners can increase their feelings of comfort and confidence as they assess and care for SV survivors during the perinatal period. PMID:22506255

  10. Teaching diversity to medical undergraduates: Curriculum development, delivery and assessment. AMEE GUIDE No. 103.

    Dogra, Nisha; Bhatti, Farah; Ertubey, Candan; Kelly, Moira; Rowlands, Angela; Singh, Davinder; Turner, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Guide is to support teacher with the responsibility of designing, delivering and/or assessing diversity education. Although, the focus is on medical education, the guidance is relevant to all healthcare professionals. The Guide begins by providing an overview of the definitions used and the principles that underpin the teaching of diversity as advocated by Diversity and Medicine in Health (DIMAH). Following an outline of these principles we highlight the difference between equality and diversity education. The Guide then covers diversity education throughout the educational process from the philosophical stance of educators and how this influences the approaches used through to curriculum development, delivery and assessment. Appendices contain practical examples from across the UK, covering lesson plans and specific exercises to deliver teaching. Although, diversity education remains variable and fragmented there is now some momentum to ensure that the principles of good educational practice are applied to diversity education. The nature of this topic means that there are a range of different professions and medical disciplines involved which leads to a great necessity for greater collaboration and sharing of effective practice.

  11. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  12. Probabilistic assessment factors for human health risk assessment - A practical guide

    Vermeire T; Pieters M; Rennen M; Bos P; CSR

    2001-01-01

    Dit rapport is een practische gids voor de toepassing van probabilistische verdelingen van default assessment factoren in risicobeoordelingen voor de mens. RIVM en TNO ontwikkelden het gebruik van probabilistische assessment factoren als eerste stap naar nationale en internaitonale harmonisatie.

  13. Fracture mechanics based assessment of postulated flaws in the nozzle region of RPV-KKS under loss of coolant accidents; Bruchmechanische Bewertung von postulierten Fehlern im Stutzenbereich des RDB-KKS bei Kuehlmittelverlust-Stoerfaellen

    Siegele, D.; Hodulak, L.; Varfolomeyev, I. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Nagel, G. [Preussen Elektra AG, Hannover (Germany). Hauptverwaltung

    1998-11-01

    Safety assessment of reactor components has to encompass the nozzles, as in the event of a LOCA, the nozzle areas are subject to heavy thermal stresses due to the low temperature there of the cooling agent. The paper refers to three-dimensional, elasto-plastic FEM analyses of the integer RPV and calculations of the J-integral for various crack locations and geometries, for derivation of realistic transients. The J-integral and K values calculated with FEM have been compared with stress intensity factors determined by means of enhanced analytical methods. Calculations for description of the integer nozzle yield plastifications in the cladded and the ferritic areas, so that the K concept of linear-elastic fracture mechanics is restricted in applicability. For postulated cracks beneath the integer cladding, J-integral values are determined which are below the initiating value J{sub 1} of the material used, which excludes crack initiation. For the largest postulated, 20 mm deep surface crack and through-cladding damage, a crack growth of 0.1 mm is derived according to the crack resistance curve. The analytical method for calculating the stress intensity factors has been expanded to also include application to evaluation of nozzle edge cracks under the cladding. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Bei der sicherheitstechnischen Bewertung von Reaktorkomponenten sind auch die Stutzen zu beruecksichtigen, da der Stutzenbereich bei Kuehlmittelverlust-Faellen, bedingt durch die dort vorliegenden tiefen Temperaturen des Kuehlmediums, hohen thermischen Beanspruchungen ausgesetzt ist. Fuer realistische Transienten werden dreidimensionale, elastisch-plastische FEM-Analysen fuer den integren RDB und Berechnungen des J-Integrals fuer verschiedene Risslagen und Rissgeometrien durchgefuehrt. Die mit FEM berechneten J-Integral- und K-Werte werden mit nach weiterentwickelten analytischen Methoden ermittelten Spannungsintensitaetsfatoren verglichen. Die Berechnungen fuer den integren Stutzen ergeben

  14. Users guide for NRC145-2 accident assessment computer code

    Pendergast, M.M.

    1982-08-01

    An accident assessment computer code has been developed for use at the Savannah River Plant. This computer code is based upon NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145 which provides guidence for accident assessements for power reactors. The code contains many options so that the user may utilize the code for many different assessments. For example the code can be used for non-nuclear assessments such as Sulpher Dioxide which may be required by the EPA. A discription of the code is contained in DP-1646. This document is a compilation of step-by-step instructions on how to use the code on the SRP IBM 3308 computer. This document consists of a number of tables which contain copies of computer listings. Some of the computer listings are copies of input; other listings give examples of computer output

  15. Advanced Signal Processing for Thermal Flaw Detection; TOPICAL

    VALLEY, MICHAEL T.; HANSCHE, BRUCE D.; PAEZ, THOMAS L.; URBINA, ANGEL; ASHBAUGH, DENNIS M.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic thermography is a promising technology for inspecting metallic and composite structures used in high-consequence industries. However, the reliability and inspection sensitivity of this technology has historically been limited by the need for extensive operator experience and the use of human judgment and visual acuity to detect flaws in the large volume of infrared image data collected. To overcome these limitations new automated data analysis algorithms and software is needed. The primary objectives of this research effort were to develop a data processing methodology that is tied to the underlying physics, which reduces or removes the data interpretation requirements, and which eliminates the need to look at significant numbers of data frames to determine if a flaw is present. Considering the strengths and weakness of previous research efforts, this research elected to couple both the temporal and spatial attributes of the surface temperature. Of the possible algorithms investigated, the best performing was a radiance weighted root mean square Laplacian metric that included a multiplicative surface effect correction factor and a novel spatio-temporal parametric model for data smoothing. This metric demonstrated the potential for detecting flaws smaller than 0.075 inch in inspection areas on the order of one square foot. Included in this report is the development of a thermal imaging model, a weighted least squares thermal data smoothing algorithm, simulation and experimental flaw detection results, and an overview of the ATAC (Automated Thermal Analysis Code) software that was developed to analyze thermal inspection data

  16. Detecting and revising flaws in OWL object property expressions

    Keet, CM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available to the ontologist's intention. However, the more one can do, the higher the chance modelling flaws are introduced; hence, an unexpected or undesired classification or inconsistency may actually be due to a mistake in the object property box, not the class axioms. We...

  17. According to Jim: The Flawed Normal Curve of Intelligence

    Gallagher, James J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the normal curve of intelligence which he thinks is flawed and contends that wrong conclusions have been drawn based on this spurious normal curve. An example is that of racial and ethnic differences wherein some authors maintain that some ethnic and racial groups are clearly superior to others based on…

  18. Detecting and Preventing Type flaws at Static Time

    Bodei, Chiara; Brodo, Linda; Degano, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    A type flaw attack on a security protocol is an attack where an honest principal is cheated on interpreting a field in a message as the one with a type other than the intended one. In this paper, we shall present an extension of the LYSA calculus to cope with types, by using tags to represent...

  19. Psychometric properties of the Calgary Cambridge guides to assess communication skills of undergraduate medical students.

    Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Heinemann, Stephanie; Nolte, Catharina; Fischer, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2014-12-06

    The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the short version of the Calgary Cambridge Guides and to decide whether it can be recommended for use in the assessment of communications skills in young undergraduate medical students. Using a translated version of the Guide, 30 members from the Department of General Practice rated 5 videotaped encounters between students and simulated patients twice. Item analysis should detect possible floor and/or ceiling effects. The construct validity was investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Intra-rater reliability was measured in an interval of 3 months, inter-rater reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient. The score distribution of the items showed no ceiling or floor effects. Four of the five factors extracted from the factor analysis represented important constructs of doctor-patient communication The ratings for the first and second round of assessing the videos correlated at 0.75 (p<0.0001). Intraclass correlation coefficients for each item ranged were moderate and ranged from 0.05 to 0.57. Reasonable score distributions of most items without ceiling or floor effects as well as a good test-retest reliability and construct validity recommend the C-CG as an instrument for assessing communication skills in undergraduate medical students. Some deficiencies in inter-rater reliability are a clear indication that raters need a thorough instruction before using the C-CG.

  20. Guide for Regional Integrated Assessments: Handbook of Methods and Procedures, Version 5.1. Appendix 1

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Jones, James W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Antle, John; Ruane, Alex; Boote, Ken; Thorburn, Peter; Valdivia, Roberto; Porter, Cheryl; Janssen, Sander; hide

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to describe recommended methods for a trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach for regional-scale (local to national scale) integrated assessment of agricultural systems under future climate, bio-physical and socio-economic conditions. An earlier version of this Handbook was developed and used by several AgMIP Regional Research Teams (RRTs) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA)(AgMIP handbook version 4.2, www.agmip.org/regional-integrated-assessments-handbook/). In contrast to the earlier version, which was written specifically to guide a consistent set of integrated assessments across SSA and SA, this version is intended to be more generic such that the methods can be applied to any region globally. These assessments are the regional manifestation of research activities described by AgMIP in its online protocols document (available at www.agmip.org). AgMIP Protocols were created to guide climate, crop modeling, economics, and information technology components of its projects.

  1. Ultrasonic simulation studies for sizing of planar flaws in thick carbon steel welds

    Prakash, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing typically involves detection of flaws that may affect the integrity of component under test. Once detected, the flaw is sized for its critical dimensions and its nature. The detection of flaw in the component by ultrasonic test is based on the principle of echo or reflection. Once the echo from a flaw is received, there are several approaches for analyzing the signal so that more and accurate information is obtained on the size of the flaw and its nature. The 6dB drop method is commonly used for sizing of flaws. This technique is based on determining the end points where the ultrasonic signal amplitude from the flaw drops to half of the peak amplitude. Though this method works well for large flaws whose size is larger than the beam width, it has a tendency to oversize the flaw which is smaller than the beam dimensions. In addition to beam divergence, flaw sizing also depends upon the orientation of the flaw with respect to incident sound beam. The paper describes the results of simulation studies on ultrasonic response from planar flaws of various orientations, their imaging and the methodology to be adopted for their accurate depth sizing. The paper also describes the experimental results to validate the flaw sizing approach

  2. Assessment in Counseling: A Guide to the Use of Psychological Assessment Procedures. Third Edition.

    Hood, Albert B.; Johnson, Richard W.

    This book presents information about various psychological assessment procedures that are specifically relevant for practicing counselors. It deals with the use of assessment procedures in the counseling process and emphasizes the selection, interpretation, and communication of psychological test results. The importance of integrating test results…

  3. Development and Application of Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for meeting the IAEA safety requirements in performing or managing a level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) project for a nuclear power plant; thus it complements the Safety Guide on level 1 PSA. One of the aims of this Safety Guide is to promote a standard framework, standard terms and a standard set of documents for level 2 PSAs to facilitate regulatory and external peer review of their results. It describes all elements of the level 2 PSA that need to be carried out if the starting point is a fully comprehensive level 1 PSA. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. PSA project management and organization; 3. Identification of design aspects important to severe accidents and acquisition of information; 4. Interface with level 1 PSA: Grouping of sequences; 5. Accident progression and containment analysis; 6. Source terms for severe accidents; 7. Documentation of the analysis: Presentation and interpretation of results; 8. Use and applications of the PSA; Annex I: Example of a typical schedule for a level 2 PSA; Annex II: Computer codes for simulation of severe accidents; Annex III: Sample outline of documentation for a level 2 PSA study.

  4. GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD PRACTICES IN HOSPITAL-BASED HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT UNITS.

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Lach, Krzysztof; Pasternack, Iris; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Cicchetti, Americo; Marchetti, Marco; Kidholm, Kristian; Arentz-Hansen, Helene; Rosenmöller, Magdalene; Wild, Claudia; Kahveci, Rabia; Ulst, Margus

    2015-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) carried out for policy decision making has well-established principles unlike hospital-based HTA (HB-HTA), which differs from the former in the context characteristics and ways of operation. This study proposes principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. A framework for good practice criteria was built inspired by the EFQM excellence business model and information from six literature reviews, 107 face-to-face interviews, forty case studies, large-scale survey, focus group, Delphi survey, as well as local and international validation. In total, 385 people from twenty countries have participated in defining the principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. Fifteen guiding principles for good practices in HB-HTA units are grouped in four dimensions. Dimension 1 deals with principles of the assessment process aimed at providing contextualized information for hospital decision makers. Dimension 2 describes leadership, strategy and partnerships of HB-HTA units which govern and facilitate the assessment process. Dimension 3 focuses on adequate resources that ensure the operation of HB-HTA units. Dimension 4 deals with measuring the short- and long-term impact of the overall performance of HB-HTA units. Finally, nine core guiding principles were selected as essential requirements for HB-HTA units based on the expertise of the HB-HTA units participating in the project. Guiding principles for good practices set up a benchmark for HB-HTA because they represent the ideal performance of HB-HTA units; nevertheless, when performing HTA at hospital level, context also matters; therefore, they should be adapted to ensure their applicability in the local context.

  5. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    Shibata, Akira; Ito, Masayasu; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Tanimoto, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  6. Methodological guide for the follow-up and elaboration of performance assessments of a methanization plant

    Bastide, Guillaume

    2014-06-01

    This guide aims at giving indications required for a good implementation of an exploitation follow-up of a methanization plant. More precisely, it aims at foreseeing equipment necessary to the follow-up of installation construction, at preparing the operator to the follow-up and command of his installation, at elaborating operation assessments and performance interpretations, at proposing solutions and/or improvements. The described follow-up process can be applied to all the process stages (from receipt to by-product valorization), and addresses technical as well as economic aspects. Thus, four types of assessments are made: technical, energetic, environmental, and social-economic. This guide comprises five parts: a presentation of follow-up objectives (information to be looked for, benefits and drawbacks, follow-up level to be implemented), the follow-up methodology, follow-up assessments (what they are and how to elaborate them), practical sheets (practical presentation of techniques, typical Excel spreadsheets), and a glossary which explains the main technical terms

  7. A Transparent Framework for guiding Radiological and Non-Radiological Contaminated Land Risk Assessments

    Lee, Alex; Mathers, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A framework is presented that may be used as a transparent guidance to both radiological and non-radiological risk assessments. This framework has been developed by BNFL, with external consultation, to provide a systematic approach for identifying key system drivers and to guide associated research packages in light of data deficiencies and sources of model uncertainty. The process presented represents an advance on existing working practices yet combines regulator philosophy to produce a robust, comprehensive, cost-effective and transparent work package. It aims at lending added confidence to risk models thereby adding value to the decision process

  8. Determination of K-factors for arbitrarily shaped flaws at pressure vessel nozzle corners

    Bryson, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Photoelastic and finite element studies are being conducted to determine Mode I stress intensity factor distributions along arbitrarily shaped flaw fronts at pressure vessel nozzle corners. Comparisons of results from NOZ-FLAW, BIGIF, and the photoelastic studies showed that (1) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW and the photoelastically determined K 1 's for the deep flaw in an ITV model, (2) good agreement was obtained between NOZ-FLAW BIGIF for shallow and moderately deep flaws in a BWR model, and (3) less satisfactory agreement was obtained between NOZ- FLAW and the photoelastic results for the BWR models, particularly for moderately deep to deep flaws. Attempts are presently being made at understanding and explaining the discrepancies between the two

  9. Assessment of color parameters of composite resin shade guides using digital imaging versus colorimeter.

    Yamanel, Kivanc; Caglar, Alper; Özcan, Mutlu; Gulsah, Kamran; Bagis, Bora

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color parameters of resin composite shade guides determined using a colorimeter and digital imaging method. Four composite shade guides, namely: two nanohybrid (Grandio [Voco GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany]; Premise [KerrHawe SA, Bioggio, Switzerland]) and two hybrid (Charisma [Heraeus Kulzer, GmbH & Co. KG, Hanau, Germany]; Filtek Z250 [3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany]) were evaluated. Ten shade tabs were selected (A1, A2, A3, A3,5, A4, B1, B2, B3, C2, C3) from each shade guide. CIE Lab values were obtained using digital imaging and a colorimeter (ShadeEye NCC Dental Chroma Meter, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test. Overall, the mean ΔE values from different composite pairs demonstrated statistically significant differences when evaluated with the colorimeter (p 6.8). For all shade pairs evaluated, the most significant shade mismatches were obtained between Grandio-Filtek Z250 (p = 0.021) and Filtek Z250-Premise (p = 0.01) regarding ΔE mean values, whereas the best shade match was between Grandio-Charisma (p = 0.255) regardless of the measurement method. The best color match (mean ΔE values) was recorded for A1, A2, and A3 shade pairs in both methods. When proper object-camera distance, digital camera settings, and suitable illumination conditions are provided, digital imaging method could be used in the assessment of color parameters. Interchanging use of shade guides from different composite systems should be avoided during color selection. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  10. Geriatric Assessment-Guided Care Processes for Older Adults: A Delphi Consensus of Geriatric Oncology Experts.

    Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Velarde, Carla; Hurria, Arti; Magnuson, Allison; Lowenstein, Lisa; Pandya, Chintan; O'Donovan, Anita; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Dale, William

    2015-09-01

    Structured care processes that provide a framework for how oncologists can incorporate geriatric assessment (GA) into clinical practice could improve outcomes for vulnerable older adults with cancer, a growing population at high risk of toxicity from cancer treatment. We sought to obtain consensus from an expert panel on the use of GA in clinical practice and to develop algorithms of GA-guided care processes. The Delphi technique, a well-recognized structured and reiterative process to reach consensus, was used. Participants were geriatric oncology experts who attended NIH-funded U13 or Cancer and Aging Research Group conferences. Consensus was defined as an interquartile range of 2 or more units, or 66.7% or greater, selecting a utility/helpfulness rating of 7 or greater on a 10-point Likert scale. For nominal data, consensus was defined as agreement among 66.7% or more of the group. From 33 invited, 30 participants completed all 3 rounds. Most experts (75%) used GA in clinical care, and the remainder were involved in geriatric oncology research. The panel met consensus that "all patients aged 75 years or older and those who are younger with age-related health concerns" should undergo GA and that all domains (function, physical performance, comorbidity/polypharmacy, cognition, nutrition, psychological status, and social support) should be included. Consensus was met for how GA could guide nononcologic interventions and cancer treatment decisions. Algorithms for GA-guided care processes were developed. This Delphi investigation of geriatric oncology experts demonstrated that GA should be performed for older patients with cancer to guide care processes. Copyright © 2015 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  11. Determination of Flaw Type and Location Using an Expert Module in Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing for Weld Inspection

    Shahriari, D.; Zolfaghari, A.; Masoumi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation is explained as nondestructive testing, nondestructive inspection, and nondestructive examination. It is a desire to determine some characteristic of the object or to determine whether the object contains irregularities, discontinuities, or flaws. Ultrasound based inspection techniques are used extensively throughout industry for detection of flaws in engineering materials. The range and variety of imperfections encountered is large, and critical assessment of location, size, orientation and type is often difficult. In addition, increasing quality requirements of new standards and codes of practice relating to fitness for purpose are placing higher demands on operators. Applying of an expert knowledge-based analysis in ultrasonic examination is a powerful tool that can help assure safety, quality, and reliability; increase productivity; decrease liability; and save money. In this research, an expert module system is coupled with ultrasonic examination (A-Scan Procedure) to determine and evaluate type and location of flaws that embedded during welding parts. The processing module of this expert system is implemented based on EN standard to classify welding defects, acceptance condition and measuring of their location via echo static pattern and image processing. The designed module introduces new system that can automate evaluating of the results of A-scan method according to EN standard. It can simultaneously recognize the number and type of defects, and determine flaw position during each scan.

  12. Communication skills: an essential component of medical curricula. Part I: Assessment of clinical communication: AMEE Guide No. 51.

    Laidlaw, Anita; Hart, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This AMEE Guide in Medical Education is Part 1 of a two part Guide covering the issues of Communication. This Guide has been written to provide guidance for those involved in planning the assessment of clinical communication and provides guidance and information relating to the assessment of various aspects of clinical communication; its underlying theory; its practical ability to show that an individual is competent and its relationship to students' daily performance. The advantages and disadvantages of assessing specific aspects of communication are also discussed. The Guide draws attention to the complexity of assessing the ability to communicate with patients and healthcare professionals, with issues of reliability and validity being highlighted for each aspect. Current debates within the area of clinical communication teaching are raised: when should the assessment of clinical communication occur in undergraduate medical education?; should clinical communication assessment be integrated with clinical skills assessment, or should the two be separate?; how important should the assessment of clinical communication be, and the question of possible failure of students if they are judged not competent in communication skills? It is the aim of the authors not only to provide a useful reference for those starting to develop their assessment processes, but also provide an opportunity for review and debate amongst those who already assess clinical communication within their curricula, and a resource for those who have a general interest in medical education who wish to learn more about communication skills assessment.

  13. Flaw analysis in steam generator tube

    Hutin, J.P.; Billon, F.

    1985-08-01

    Operating more than 30 PWR units, Electricite de France has to face several steam generator tube problems. One of the most serious difficulties is the stress corrosion cracking due to primary fluid, just above the tube sheet, in the roll transition region. With regard to availability it is, of course, a major concern; with regard to safety, the point is that tube rupture should be preceded by a significant primary-to-secondary leak during normal operation so that the reactor should be shut down before failure occurs. The demonstration of this assessment asks for experimental and analytical evidences. In 1981, Elecricite de France started a comprehensive program on that subject. A general description of this program and the main results are to be presented during the SMIRT-8 Conference. The purpose of the present paper is to develop in greater detail the analytical part of the work

  14. [Initial study of transthoracic echocardiography guided three-dimensional printing on the application of assessment of structural heart disease].

    Zhu, Y B; Liu, J S; Wang, L Q; Guan, X; Luo, Y J; Geng, J; Geng, Q G; Lin, Y J; Zhang, L X; Li, X X; Lu, Y P

    2017-08-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and diagnostic value of preoperative transthoracic echocardiography guided three dimensional printing model (TTE Guided 3DPM) on the assessment of structural heart disease (SHD). Methods: From February 2016 to October 2016, 44 patients underwent cardiac surgery in Tianjin Chest Hospital, forty-four patients were assessed preoperatively using TTE Guided 3DPM, including 25 males and 19 females, aged 3-75 years, with an average of (44±22) years. compared to conventional three dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D-TTE), and took direct intraoperative findings as "Golden Standard" simultaneously. There are twelve patients with SHD, including four cases with mitral prolapse, two cases with partial endocardial cushion defect, two cases with secondary atrial septal defect, two cases with rheumatic mitral stenosis, one case with tetralogy of Fallot, one case with ventricular septal defect (VSD), thirty-two patients without SHD were designed as negative control. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of TTE Guided 3DPM were greater than or equal to 3D-TTE, P value of McNemar test of 3D-TTE was greater than 0.05, the difference was not statistically significant, kappa =0.745, P Guided 3DPM was greater than 0.05, the difference was not statistically significant, kappa =0.955, P Guided 3DPM and gold standards were consistent. Compared with 3D-TTE and TTE Guided 3DPM, P value was greater than 0.05, the difference was not statistically significant, kappa =0.879, P Guided 3DPM were consistent. TTE Guided 3DPM displayed the three-dimensional structure of SHD cardiac lesions clearly, which were consistent with intraoperative findings. Conclusion: TTE Guided 3DPM provides essential information for the preoperative evaluation and decision of SHD.

  15. Tailoring Global Data to Guide Corporate Investments in Biodiversity, Environmental Assessments and Sustainability

    Joseph Kiesecker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Companies make significant investments in environmental impacts assessments, biodiversity action plans, life-cycle assessments, and environmental management systems, but guidance on where and when these tools can be best used, and how they may scale-up to inform corporation-wide planning, is sorely lacking. A major barrier to informed environmental decision-making within companies, especially in data poor regions of the world, is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting biodiversity information. To address this shortcoming, we analyzed nine publicly available environmental datasets, and created five globally-relevant metrics associated with biodiversity: habitat intactness, habitat protection, species richness (globally and biome normalized, and threatened species. We demonstrate how packaging these metrics within an open-source, web-based mapping tool can facilitate corporations in biodiversity prioritization of their sites (or their supply chains, ultimately guiding potential investments in the environment.

  16. Nuclear computerized library for assessing reactor reliability (NUCLARR): User's guide: Part 3, NUCLARR system description

    Gilmore, W.E.; Gentillon, C.D.; Gertman, D.I.; Beers, G.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Gilbert, B.G.

    1988-06-01

    The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) is an automated data base management system for processing and storing human error probability and hardware component failure data. The NUCLARR system software resides on an IBM (or compatible) personal micro-computer. NUCLARR can be used by the end user to furnish data inputs for both human and hardware reliability analysis in support of a variety of risk assessment activities. The NUCLARR system is documented in a five-volume series of reports. Volume IV of this series is the User's Guide for operating the NUCLARR software and is presented in three parts. This document, Part 3: NUCLARR System Description, provides an in-depth discussion of the design characteristics and special features of the NUCLARR software. Part 3 also presents the organization of the data base structures and techniques used to manipulate the data

  17. The Saskatchewan Environmental Assessment Act Guide to Proposal Development : oil and natural gas projects

    1999-02-01

    The manner in which requests for review of oil and natural gas projects are to be provided under the Environmental Assessment Act in Saskatchewan is described. The provisions of the Guide apply to all seismic projects on private or Crown lands, all drilling projects, flowline projects, access routes and production facilities on any land, except where the project is on cultivated land where it does not interfere with water bodies or endangered species. It also applies to any project that has the potential to meet the definition of 'development' under the Environmental Assessment Act. Basically, the following information is required for all proposals: (1) project description, (2) project evaluation, (3) description of proposed waste management practices, and (4) description of the proposed environmental monitoring. 4 refs

  18. STOPDVTs: Development and testing of a clinical assessment tool to guide nursing assessment of postoperative patients for Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    O'Brien, Alanna; Redley, Bernice; Wood, Beverley; Botti, Mari; Hutchinson, Anastasia F

    2018-03-01

    To develop and test a clinical tool to guide nurses' assessment of postoperative patients for Deep Vein Thrombosis. Preventing venous thromboembolism in hospitalised patients is an international patient safety priority. Despite high-level evidence for optimal venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, implementation is inconsistent and the incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis remains high. A two-stage sequential multi-method design was used. In stage 1, the STOPDVTs tool was developed using a review of the literature and focus groups with local clinical experts. Stage 2 involved pilot testing the tool with 38 surgical nurses who conducted repeated assessments on a prospective sample of 50 postoperative orthopaedic patients. Stage 1: The focus group members who were members of the nursing leadership team agreed on eight local and systemic signs and symptoms that should be included in a nursing patient assessment tool for early Deep Vein Thrombosis. Local symptoms were pain in the limbs, calf swelling and tightness, changes in the affected limb's skin temperature. Systemic signs included in the tool were as follows: increased shortness of breath, increased respiratory and heart rates, and decreased oxygen saturation. Stage 2: The STOPDVTs tool had acceptable face and content validity, the agreement between the expert nurse and surgical nurses on assessments of individual signs and symptoms varied between 44%-94%. Surgical nurses were less likely than the expert nurse to identify signs indicative of Deep Vein Thrombosis. Despite finding the STOPDVTs clinical assessment tool was a useful guide for nursing assessment, surgical nurses often underestimated the potential importance of clinical signs. The findings reveal a gap in nursing knowledge and skill in assessing for Deep Vein Thrombosis in postoperative orthopaedic patients. This study identified a possible risk to patient safety related to under-recognition of the signs and symptoms of possible Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) in

  19. Detector-device-independent quantum secret sharing with source flaws.

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Lingan

    2018-04-10

    Measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDI-EW) plays an important role for detecting entanglement with untrusted measurement device. We present a double blinding-attack on a quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol based on GHZ state. Using the MDI-EW method, we propose a QSS protocol against all detector side-channels. We allow source flaws in practical QSS system, so that Charlie can securely distribute a key between the two agents Alice and Bob over long distances. Our protocol provides condition on the extracted key rate for the secret against both external eavesdropper and arbitrary dishonest participants. A tight bound for collective attacks can provide good bounds on the practical QSS with source flaws. Then we show through numerical simulations that using single-photon source a secure QSS over 136 km can be achieved.

  20. On flaw tolerance of nacre: a theoretical study

    Shao, Yue; Zhao, Hong-Ping; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-01-01

    As a natural composite, nacre has an elegant staggered ‘brick-and-mortar’ microstructure consisting of mineral platelets glued by organic macromolecules, which endows the material with superior mechanical properties to achieve its biological functions. In this paper, a microstructure-based crack-bridging model is employed to investigate how the strength of nacre is affected by pre-existing structural defects. Our analysis demonstrates that owing to its special microstructure and the toughening effect of platelets, nacre has a superior flaw-tolerance feature. The maximal crack size that does not evidently reduce the tensile strength of nacre is up to tens of micrometres, about three orders higher than that of pure aragonite. Through dimensional analysis, a non-dimensional parameter is proposed to quantify the flaw-tolerance ability of nacreous materials in a wide range of structural parameters. This study provides us some inspirations for optimal design of advanced biomimetic composites. PMID:24402917

  1. Acoustic emission/flaw relationships for inservice monitoring of LWRs

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.; Friesel, M.A.; Skorpik, J.R.; Dawson, J.F.

    1991-10-01

    The program concerning Acoustic Emission/Flaw Relationships for Inservice Monitoring of LWRs was initiated in FY76 with the objective of validating the application of acoustic emission (AE) to monitor nuclear reactor pressure-containing components during operation to detect cracking. The program has been supported by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Research and development has been performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute. The program has shown the feasibility of continuous, on-line AE monitoring to detect crack growth and produced validated methods for applying the technology. Included are relationships for estimating flaw severity from AE data and field applications at Watts Bar Unit 1 Reactor, Limerick Unit 1 Reactor, and the High Flux Isotope Reactor. This report discusses the program scope and organization, the three program phases and the results obtained, standard and code activities, and instrumentation and software developed under this program

  2. Reconstructing flaw image using dataset of full matrix capture technique

    Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Jeong Seok [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A conventional phased array ultrasonic system offers the ability to steer an ultrasonic beam by applying independent time delays of individual elements in the array and produce an ultrasonic image. In contrast, full matrix capture (FMC) is a data acquisition process that collects a complete matrix of A-scans from every possible independent transmit-receive combination in a phased array transducer and makes it possible to reconstruct various images that cannot be produced by conventional phased array with the post processing as well as images equivalent to a conventional phased array image. In this paper, a basic algorithm based on the LLL mode total focusing method (TFM) that can image crack type flaws is described. And this technique was applied to reconstruct flaw images from the FMC dataset obtained from the experiments and ultrasonic simulation.

  3. AE/flaw characterization for nuclear pressure vessels

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.; Pappas, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of acoustic emission (AE) detected during continuous monitoring to identify and evaluate growing flaws in pressure vessels. Off-reactor testing and on-reactor testing are considered. Relationships for identifying acoustic emission (AE) from crack growth and using the AE data to estimate flaw severity have been developed experimentally by laboratory testing. The purpose of the off-reactor vessel test is to evaluate AE monitoring/interpretation methodology on a heavy section steel vessel under simulated reactor operating conditions. The purpose of on-reactor testing is to evaluate the capability of a monitor system to function in the reactor environment, calibrate the ability to detect AE signals, and to demonstrate that a meaningful criteria can be established to prevent false alarms. An expanded data base is needed from application testing and methodology standardization

  4. Recent changes in French flaw evaluation procedures: RSE-M

    Faidy, C. [Electricite de France (EDF-SEPTEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2001-07-01

    After a general presentation of the RSE-M, the French Code which describes the rules for in-service inspection of nuclear power plant components, this paper will be focused on the major new developments of the flaw evaluation procedure: critical crack size evaluation, material properties, safety factors and the major validation tasks done to support the RSE-M, edition 2000. The paper will conclude on on-going development in this area. (author)

  5. Recent changes in French flaw evaluation procedures: RSE-M

    Faidy, C.

    2001-01-01

    After a general presentation of the RSE-M, the French Code which describes the rules for in-service inspection of nuclear power plant components, this paper will be focused on the major new developments of the flaw evaluation procedure: critical crack size evaluation, material properties, safety factors and the major validation tasks done to support the RSE-M, edition 2000. The paper will conclude on on-going development in this area. (author)

  6. Development of automatic flaw detection systems for magnetic particle examination

    Shirai, T.; Kimura, J.; Amako, T.

    1988-01-01

    Utilizing a video camera and an image processor, development was carried out on automatic flaw detection and discrimination techniques for the purpose of achieving automated magnetic particle examination. Following this, fluorescent wet magnetic particle examination systems for blade roots and rotor grooves of turbine rotors and the non-fluorescent dry magnetic particle examination system for butt welds, were developed. This paper describes these automatic magnetic particle examination (MT) systems and the functional test results

  7. Application of performance assessment as a tool for guiding project work

    McCombie, C.; Zuidema, P.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate aim of the performance assessment methodology developed over the last 10-15 years is to predict quantitatively the behavior of disposal systems over periods of time into the far future. The methodology can, however, also be applied in range of tasks during repository development and is in many programmes used as a tool for improving or optimizing the design of subsystem components of for guiding the course of project planning. In Swiss waste management program, there are several examples of the use of performance assessment as a tool in the manner mentioned above. The interaction between research models, assessment models and simplified models is considered to be of key importance and corresponding measures are taken to properly structure the process and to track the data: first, the results of all applications of the models are included in a consistent manner in the scenario analyses for the different sites and systems and, second, consistency in the underlying assumptions and in the data used in the different model calculations is assured by the consequent application of a configuration data management system (CDM). Almost all the applications of performance assessment have been included in Swiss work, but for this paper, only two examples have been selected: applications of performance assessment in both the HLW and the LLW program; and acceptance of specific waste types and their allocation to an appropriate repository on the basis of simplified safety analyses

  8. Questions for Assessment: A Guide for Tutors’ Practice and Student Development

    Conor McKevitt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is a time consuming and important part of academic life for tutors and students alike. It shapes the teaching and allows the tutor to guide the learning process. However, student learning is more effective when they understand the assessment process. Tutors, as expert assessor, are in the best place to develop such knowledge but, they need to plan for this in advance and consider the students’ perspective. The purpose of this paper is to both inform and influence tutors’ assessment practice using recent literature. Information searches were employed to gather literature from peer reviewed journal articles using keywords that are important within the assessment context: assessment, formative assessment, criteria, feedback, and self-assessment. The literature was collated under each of three question areas that take into account the students’ perspective: 1. If I had some criteria and examples I would know ‘What do I need to do?’, and ‘What should it look like?’ 2. If I had some feedback while doing my work I would know if ‘I am doing what is required?’ and ‘How I can improve?’ 3. If I had support to self-assess ‘Would I be able to assess myself?’ The literature addressed each of the aforementioned questions. The findings suggest that: in order to answer question one student engagement with criteria and exemplars is required; In order to answer question two students need to engage with tutor feedback that is clear, meaningful and related to criteria; Finally, in order to answer question three students must be given the opportunity to self-assess and be supported through this with feedback from the tutor. Practical suggestions are provided to assist tutors’ assessment practice. Proposed elements and benefits of the assessment process for tutors and students are outlined. In general, a formative approach to assessment is ideal for students. While engagement with the assessment process is valuable for the

  9. Estimation of Back-Surface Flaw Depth by Laminated Piezoelectric Highpolymer Film

    Akinobu YAMAMOTO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric thin films have been used to visualize back surface flaws in plates. If the plate with a surface flaw is deformed, the strain distribution appears on the other surface reflecting the location and the shape of the flaw. Such surface strain distribution can be transformed into the electric potential distribution on the piezoelectric film mounted on the plate surface. This paper deals with a NDE technique to estimate the depth of a back-surface flaw from the electric potential distribution on a laminated piezoelectric thin film. It is experimentally verified that the flaw depth can be exactly estimated by the peak height of the electric potential distribution.

  10. Accuracy Assessment of Immediate and Delayed Implant Placements Using CAD/CAM Surgical Guides.

    Alzoubi, Fawaz; Massoomi, Nima; Nattestad, Anders

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of immediately placed implants using Anatomage Invivo5 computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides and compare the accuracy to delayed implant placement protocol. Patients who had implants placed using Anatomage Invivo5 CAD/CAM surgical guides during the period of 2012-2015 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients who received immediate implant placements and/or delayed implant placements replacing 1-2 teeth were included in this study. Pre- and postsurgical images were superimposed to evaluate deviations at the crest, apex, and angle. A total of 40 implants placed in 29 patients were included in this study. The overall mean deviations measured at the crest, apex, and angle were 0.86 mm, 1.25 mm, and 3.79°, respectively. The means for the immediate group deviations were: crest = 0.85 mm, apex = 1.10, and angle = 3.49°. The means for the delayed group deviations were: crest = 0.88 mm, apex = 1.59, and angle = 4.29°. No statistically significant difference was found at the crest and angle; however, there was a statistically significant difference between the immediate and delayed group at the apex, with the immediate group presenting more accurate placements at the apical point than the delayed group. CAD/CAM surgical guides can be reliable tools to accurately place implants immediately and/or in a delayed fashion. No statistically significant differences were found between the delayed and the immediate group at the crest and angle, however apical position was more accurate in the immediate group.

  11. An assessment of thromboelastometry to monitor blood coagulation and guide transfusion support in liver transplantation.

    Blasi, Annabel; Beltran, Joan; Pereira, Arturo; Martinez-Palli, Graciela; Torrents, Abiguei; Balust, Jaume; Zavala, Elizabeth; Taura, Pilar; Garcia-Valdecasas, Juan-Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Rotation thromboelastometry (TEM) has been proposed as a convenient alternative to standard coagulation tests in guiding the treatment of coagulopathy during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This study was aimed at assessing the value of TEM in monitoring blood coagulation and guide transfusion support in OLT. Standard coagulation and TEM (EXTEM and FIBTEM) tests were performed at four preestablished intraoperative time points in 236 OLTs and prospectively recorded in a dedicated database together with the main operative and transfusion data. Transfusion thresholds were based on standard coagulation tests. Spearman's rank correlation (ρ), linear regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used when appropriate. EXTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF(EXTEM)) was the TEM variable that best correlated with the platelet (PLT) and fibrinogen levels (ρ = 0.62 and ρ = 0.69, respectively). MCF(FIBTEM) correlated with fibrinogen level (ρ = 0.70). EXTEM clot amplitude at 10 minutes (A10(EXTEM)) was a good linear predictor of MCF(EXTEM) (R(2) =0.93). The cutoff values that best predicted the transfusion threshold for PLTs and fibrinogen were A10(EXTEM) = 35 mm and A10(FIBTEM) = 8 mm. At these values, the negative and positive predictive accuracies of TEM to predict the transfusion thresholds were 95 and 27%, respectively. A10(EXTEM) is an adequate TEM variable to guide therapeutic decisions during OLT. Patients with A10(EXTEM) of greater than 35 mm are unlikely to bleed because of coagulation deficiencies, but using A10(EXTEM) of not more than 35 mm as the sole transfusion criterion can lead to unnecessary utilization of PLTs and fibrinogen-rich products. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. A Research-Inspired and Computer-Guided Clinical Interview for Mathematics Assessment: Introduction, Reliability and Validity

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Lee, Young-Sun; Pappas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment involves the gathering of information that can guide the teaching of individual or groups of children. This approach requires a sound understanding of children's thinking and learning, as well as an effective method for gaining the information. We propose that formative assessment should employ a version of clinical…

  13. Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)

    Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG ampersand G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort

  14. Severity assessment scores to guide empirical use of antibiotics in community acquired pneumonia.

    Singanayagam, Aran; Chalmers, James D

    2013-10-01

    Severity assessment scores were first developed to predict the 30 day mortality in community acquired pneumonia; however, several guidelines have extended their use to guide empirical antibiotic prescription decisions. This approach has theoretical advantages because a decrease in broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment in low-risk patients might reduce antibiotic-related side-effects, and to give broad-spectrum therapy to patients at higher risk of death is intuitive. However, evidence in support of this approach is not clear. In particular, the British Thoracic Society guidelines suggest withholding a macrolide from patients with low CURB 65 scores, despite evidence that these patients have a higher frequency of atypical pathogens than do those with a higher severity of pneumonia. Severity scores do not perform well in some groups and might overestimate disease severity in elderly people, leading to inappropriate broad-spectrum treatment to those at high risk of complications such as Clostridium difficile infection. In this Review, we discuss the evidence for antibiotic prescribing guided by severity score and suggest that more evidence of effect and implementation is needed before this approach can be universally adopted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Critical Thinking Theory to Practice: Using the Expert's Thought Process as Guide for Learning and Assessment.

    Marshall, Teresa A; Marchini, Leonardo; Cowen, Howard; Hartshorn, Jennifer E; Holloway, Julie A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Gratton, David; Solow, Catherine M; Colangelo, Nicholas; Johnsen, David C

    2017-08-01

    Critical thinking skills are essential for the successful dentist, yet few explicit skillsets in critical thinking have been developed and published in peer-reviewed literature. The aims of this article are to 1) offer an assessable critical thinking teaching model with the expert's thought process as the outcome, learning guide, and assessment instrument and 2) offer three critical thinking skillsets following this model: for geriatric risk assessment, technology decision making, and situation analysis/reflections. For the objective component, the student demonstrates delivery of each step in the thought process. For the subjective component, the student is judged to have grasped the principles as applied to the patient or case. This article describes the framework and the results of pilot tests in which students in one year at this school used the model in the three areas, earning scores of 90% or above on the assessments. The model was thus judged to be successful for students to demonstrate critical thinking skillsets in the course settings. Students consistently delivered each step of the thought process and were nearly as consistent in grasping the principles behind each step. As more critical thinking skillsets are implemented, a reinforcing network develops.

  16. An introductory guide to uncertainty analysis in environmental and health risk assessment

    Hoffman, F.O.; Hammonds, J.S.

    1992-10-01

    To compensate for the potential for overly conservative estimates of risk using standard US Environmental Protection Agency methods, an uncertainty analysis should be performed as an integral part of each risk assessment. Uncertainty analyses allow one to obtain quantitative results in the form of confidence intervals that will aid in decision making and will provide guidance for the acquisition of additional data. To perform an uncertainty analysis, one must frequently rely on subjective judgment in the absence of data to estimate the range and a probability distribution describing the extent of uncertainty about a true but unknown value for each parameter of interest. This information is formulated from professional judgment based on an extensive review of literature, analysis of the data, and interviews with experts. Various analytical and numerical techniques are available to allow statistical propagation of the uncertainty in the model parameters to a statement of uncertainty in the risk to a potentially exposed individual. Although analytical methods may be straightforward for relatively simple models, they rapidly become complicated for more involved risk assessments. Because of the tedious efforts required to mathematically derive analytical approaches to propagate uncertainty in complicated risk assessments, numerical methods such as Monte Carlo simulation should be employed. The primary objective of this report is to provide an introductory guide for performing uncertainty analysis in risk assessments being performed for Superfund sites

  17. Guiding principles for the implementation of non-animal safety assessment approaches for cosmetics: skin sensitisation.

    Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre; Ade, Nadège; Alépée, Nathalie; Aptula, Aynur; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Gilmour, Nicola; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Detlef; Kern, Petra; Kirst, Annette; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Maxwell, Gavin; Rowland, Joanna; Safford, Bob; Schellauf, Florian; Schepky, Andreas; Seaman, Chris; Teichert, Thomas; Tessier, Nicolas; Teissier, Silvia; Weltzien, Hans Ulrich; Winkler, Petra; Scheel, Julia

    2012-06-01

    Characterisation of skin sensitisation potential is a key endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients especially when significant dermal exposure to an ingredient is expected. At present the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) remains the 'gold standard' test method for this purpose however non-animal test methods are under development that aim to replace the need for new animal test data. COLIPA (the European Cosmetics Association) funds an extensive programme of skin sensitisation research, method development and method evaluation and helped coordinate the early evaluation of the three test methods currently undergoing pre-validation. In May 2010, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held to analyse to what extent skin sensitisation safety assessments for cosmetic ingredients can be made in the absence of animal data. In order to propose guiding principles for the application and further development of non-animal safety assessment strategies it was evaluated how and when non-animal test methods, predictions based on physico-chemical properties (including in silico tools), threshold concepts and weight-of-evidence based hazard characterisation could be used to enable safety decisions. Generation and assessment of potency information from alternative tools which at present is predominantly derived from the LLNA is considered the future key research area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. AMEE Guide 32: e-Learning in medical education Part 1: Learning, teaching and assessment.

    Ellaway, Rachel; Masters, Ken

    2008-06-01

    In just a few years, e-learning has become part of the mainstream in medical education. While e-learning means many things to many people, at its heart it is concerned with the educational uses of technology. For the purposes of this guide, we consider the many ways that the information revolution has affected and remediated the practice of healthcare teaching and learning. Deploying new technologies usually introduces tensions, and e-learning is no exception. Some wish to use it merely to perform pre-existing activities more efficiently or faster. Others pursue new ways of thinking and working that the use of such technology affords them. Simultaneously, while education, not technology, is the prime goal (and for healthcare, better patient outcomes), we are also aware that we cannot always predict outcomes. Sometimes, we have to take risks, and 'see what happens.' Serendipity often adds to the excitement of teaching. It certainly adds to the excitement of learning. The use of technology in support of education is not, therefore, a causal or engineered set of practices; rather, it requires creativity and adaptability in response to the specific and changing contexts in which it is used. Medical Education, as with most fields, is grappling with these tensions; the AMEE Guide to e-Learning in Medical Education hopes to help the reader, whether novice or expert, navigate them. This Guide is presented both as an introduction to the novice, and as a resource to more experienced practitioners. It covers a wide range of topics, some in broad outline, and others in more detail. Each section is concluded with a brief 'Take Home Message' which serves as a short summary of the section. The Guide is divided into two parts. The first part introduces the basic concepts of e-learning, e-teaching, and e-assessment, and then focuses on the day-to-day issues of e-learning, looking both at theoretical concepts and practical implementation issues. The second part examines technical

  19. The influence of finite-length flaw effects on PTS analyses

    Keeney-Walker, J.; Dickson, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Current licensing issues within the nuclear industry dictate a need to investigate the effects of cladding on the extension of small finite-length cracks near the inside surface of a vessel. Because flaws having depths of the order of the combined clad and heat affected zone thickness dominate the frequency distribution of flaws, their initiation probabilities can govern calculated vessel failure probabilities. Current pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) analysis computer programs recognize the influence of the inner-surface cladding layer in the heat transfer and stress analysis models, but assume the cladding fracture toughness is the same as that for the base material. The programs do not recognize the influence cladding may have in inhibiting crack initiation and propagation of shallow finite-length surface flaws. Limited experimental data and analyses indicate the cladding can inhibit the propagation of certain shallow flaws. This paper describes an analytical study which was carried out to determine (1) the minimum flaw depth for crack initiation under PTS loading for semicircular surface flaws in a clad reactor pressure vessel and (2) the impact, in terms of the conditional probability of vessel failure, of using a semicircular surface flaw as the initial flaw and assuming that the flaw cannot propagate in the cladding. The analytical results indicate that for initiation a much deeper critical crack depth is required for the finite-length flaw than for the infinite-length flaw, except for the least severe transient. The minimum flaw depths required for crack initiation from the finite-length flaw analyses were incorporated into a modified version of the OCA-P code. The modified code was applied to the analysis of selected PTS transients, and the results produced a substantial decrease in the conditional probability of failure. This initial study indicates a significant effect on probabilistic fracture analyses by incorporating finite-length flaw results

  20. An assessment of methods for monitoring entrance surface dose in fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures

    Waite, J.C.; Fitzgerald, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the light of a growing awareness of the risks of inducing skin injuries as a consequence of fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (FGIPs), this paper compares three methods of monitoring entrance surface dose (ESD). It also reports measurements of ESDs made during the period August 1998 to June 1999 on 137 patients undergoing cardiac, neurological and general FGIPs. Although the sample is small, the results reinforce the need for routine assessments to be made of ESDs in FGIPs. At present, the most reliable and accurate form of ESD measurement would seem to be arrays of TLDs. However, transducer based methods, although likely to be less accurate, have considerable advantages in relation to a continuous monitoring programme. It is also suggested that there may be the potential locally for threshold dose area product (DAP) values to be set for specific procedures. These could be used to provide early warning of the potential for skin injuries. (author)

  1. MASCOT and MOP programs for probabilistic safety assessment. Pt. E. MOP (Version 3A) user guide

    Agg, P.J.; Hopper, M.J.; Sinclair, J.E.; Sumner, P.J.

    1994-04-01

    MOP is a post-processor for the probabilistic safety assessment program MASCOT, which models the consequences of the disposal of radioactive waste. This document provides a general description of the capabilities of the MOP program, together with a comprehensive guide to the MOP user command language. MOP is able to calculate and present various statistical measures of the modelled radiological consequences, in both printed and graphical form. The results of intermediate analyses can be saved from one MOP job to the next, and this allows MOP to be used as many times as desired to process the results of the same MASCOT job. MOP can work with the quantities passed to it from the MASCOT job or with new quantities, defined and calculated according to individual requirements. This is usually done by transforming the MASCOT quantities using algebraic expressions. (Author)

  2. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Teacher Study Guides Used in Conjunction with Educational Television Lessons.

    Gross, Lynne Schafer

    One of three different types of study guide materials was given to teachers whose classes watched televised music lessons. One guide provided a description of the program content, suggested activities to be performed before and after the program, and other supplementary material; a second guide provided only a description of the program content;…

  3. Repository Integration Program: RIP performance assessment and strategy evaluation model theory manual and user's guide

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the theory and capabilities of RIP (Repository Integration Program). RIP is a powerful and flexible computational tool for carrying out probabilistic integrated total system performance assessments for geologic repositories. The primary purpose of RIP is to provide a management tool for guiding system design and site characterization. In addition, the performance assessment model (and the process of eliciting model input) can act as a mechanism for integrating the large amount of available information into a meaningful whole (in a sense, allowing one to keep the ''big picture'' and the ultimate aims of the project clearly in focus). Such an integration is useful both for project managers and project scientists. RIP is based on a '' top down'' approach to performance assessment that concentrates on the integration of the entire system, and utilizes relatively high-level descriptive models and parameters. The key point in the application of such a ''top down'' approach is that the simplified models and associated high-level parameters must incorporate an accurate representation of their uncertainty. RIP is designed in a very flexible manner such that details can be readily added to various components of the model without modifying the computer code. Uncertainty is also handled in a very flexible manner, and both parameter and model (process) uncertainty can be explicitly considered. Uncertainty is propagated through the integrated PA model using an enhanced Monte Carlo method. RIP must rely heavily on subjective assessment (expert opinion) for much of its input. The process of eliciting the high-level input parameters required for RIP is critical to its successful application. As a result, in order for any project to successfully apply a tool such as RIP, an enormous amount of communication and cooperation must exist between the data collectors, the process modelers, and the performance. assessment modelers

  4. Computed-tomography-guided anatomic standardization for quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter SPECT

    Yokoyama, Kota [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Integrative Brain Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan); Sumida, Kaoru; Sone, Daichi; Kimura, Yukio; Sato, Noriko [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Mukai, Youhei; Murata, Miho [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    For the quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter (DAT) using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (DaTscan), anatomic standardization is preferable for achieving objective and user-independent quantification of striatal binding using a volume-of-interest (VOI) template. However, low accumulation of DAT in Parkinson's disease (PD) would lead to a deformation error when using a DaTscan-specific template without any structural information. To avoid this deformation error, we applied computed tomography (CT) data obtained using SPECT/CT equipment to anatomic standardization. We retrospectively analyzed DaTscan images of 130 patients with parkinsonian syndromes (PS), including 80 PD and 50 non-PD patients. First we segmented gray matter from CT images using statistical parametric mapping 12 (SPM12). These gray-matter images were then anatomically standardized using the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. Next, DaTscan images were warped with the same parameters used in the CT anatomic standardization. The target striatal VOIs for decreased DAT in PD were generated from the SPM12 group comparison of 20 DaTscan images from each group. We applied these VOIs to DaTscan images of the remaining patients in both groups and calculated the specific binding ratios (SBRs) using nonspecific counts in a reference area. In terms of the differential diagnosis of PD and non-PD groups using SBR, we compared the present method with two other methods, DaTQUANT and DaTView, which have already been released as software programs for the quantitative assessment of DaTscan images. The SPM12 group comparison showed a significant DAT decrease in PD patients in the bilateral whole striatum. Of the three methods assessed, the present CT-guided method showed the greatest power for discriminating PD and non-PD groups, as it completely separated the two groups. CT-guided anatomic standardization using

  5. Delayed Hydride Cracking Mechanism in Zirconium Alloys and Technical Requirements for In-Service Evaluation of Zr-2.5Nb Tubes with Flaws

    Kim, Young Suk

    2007-01-01

    In association with periodic inspection of CANDU nuclear power plant components, Canadian Standards Association issued CSA N285.8 in 2005 as technical requirements for in-service evaluation of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. This first version, CSA N285.8 involves procedures for, firstly, the evaluation of pressure tube flaws, secondly, the evaluation of pressure tube to calandria tube contact and, thirdly, the assessment of a reactor core, and material properties and derived quantities. The evaluation of pressure tube flaws includes delayed hydride cracking evaluation the procedures of which are stipulated based on the existing delayed hydride cracking models. For example, the evaluation of flaw-tip hydride precipitation during reactor cooldown involves a procedure to calculate the equilibrium hydrogen equivalent concentration in solution at the flaw tip, Htipas follows: Htip=Hfexp[- (VH delta no.)/RT], where Hf is the total bulk hydrogen equivalent concentration, VH partial molar volume of hydrogen in zirconium, δ a difference in hydrostatic stress between the bulk and the crack tip. When Htip ≥TSSP at temperature, then flaw-tip hydride is predicted to precipitate. Eq. (1) suggests that hydrogen concentration at the crack tip would increase due to an work energy given by the difference in the hydrostatic stress

  6. Ultrasonic signal processing for sizing under-clad flaws

    Shankar, R.; Paradiso, T.J.; Lane, S.S.; Quinn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic digital data were collected from underclad cracks in sample pressure vessel specimen blocks. These blocks were weld cladded under different processes to simulate actual conditions in US Pressure Water Reactors. Each crack was represented by a flaw-echo dynamic curve which is a plot of the transducer motion on the surface as a function of the ultrasonic response into the material. Crack depth sizing was performed by identifying in the dynamic curve the crack tip diffraction signals from the upper and lower tips. This paper describes the experimental procedure, digital signal processing methods used and algorithms developed for crack depth sizing

  7. Evaluation of flaws or service induced cracks in pressure vessels

    Riccardella, P.C.; Copeland, J.F.; Gilman, J.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the ASME flaw evaluation procedures for nuclear pressure vessels is presented, with emphasis on fatigue crack growth evaluations. Environmental and load-rate effects are further considered with respect to new crack growth data and a time-dependent crack growth model. This new crack growth model is applied to evaluate feedwater nozzle cracking in boiling water reactors and is compared to current and past ASME crack growth curves. The time-dependent model bounds the observed cracking and indicates that more detailed consideration of material susceptibility, in terms of sulfur content and product form, is needed

  8. Windows Vista Kernel-Mode: Functions, Security Enhancements and Flaws

    Mohammed D. ABDULMALIK

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microsoft has made substantial enhancements to the kernel of the Microsoft Windows Vista operating system. Kernel improvements are significant because the kernel provides low-level operating system functions, including thread scheduling, interrupt and exception dispatching, multiprocessor synchronization, and a set of routines and basic objects.This paper describes some of the kernel security enhancements for 64-bit edition of Windows Vista. We also point out some weakness areas (flaws that can be attacked by malicious leading to compromising the kernel.

  9. MILITARY RESEARCH: Researchers Target Flaws in Ballistic Missile Defense Plan.

    Malakoff, D; Cho, A

    2000-06-16

    More than three dozen scientists journeyed to Washington, D.C., this week to warn lawmakers that a proposed $60 billion U.S. missile defense system, designed to knock incoming warheads out of the sky, is technically flawed because it can't pick out real warheads from decoys. Pentagon officials heatedly deny a new report by one scientist that contractors have rigged trials to hide the problem, although they admit that some tests were simplified to save time. In the wake of these events, a leading Democrat is urging President Bill Clinton to delay a pending decision on building the system.

  10. Data analysis algorithms for flaw sizing based on eddy current rotating probe examination of steam generator tubes

    Bakhtiari, S.; Elmer, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-aided data analysis tools can help improve the efficiency and reliability of flaw sizing based on nondestructive examination data. They can further help produce more consistent results, which is important for both in-service inspection applications and for engineering assessments associated with steam generator tube integrity. Results of recent investigations at Argonne on the development of various algorithms for sizing of flaws in steam generator tubes based on eddy current rotating probe data are presented. The research was carried out as part of the activities under the International Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (ISG-TIP) sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A computer-aided data analysis tool has been developed for off-line processing of eddy current inspection data. The main objectives of the work have been to a) allow all data processing stages to be performed under the same user interface, b) simplify modification and testing of signal processing and data analysis scripts, and c) allow independent evaluation of viable flaw sizing algorithms. The focus of most recent studies at Argonne has been on the processing of data acquired with the +Point probe, which is one of the more widely used eddy current rotating probes for steam generator tube examinations in the U.S. The probe employs a directional surface riding differential coil, which helps reduce the influence of tubing artifacts and in turn helps improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Various algorithms developed under the MATLAB environment for the conversion, segmentation, calibration, and analysis of data have been consolidated within a single user interface. Data acquired with a number of standard eddy current test equipment are automatically recognized and converted to a standard format for further processing. Because of its modular structure, the graphical user interface allows user-developed routines to be easily incorporated, modified, and tested independent of the

  11. Self-guided training for deep brain stimulation planning using objective assessment.

    Holden, Matthew S; Zhao, Yulong; Haegelen, Claire; Essert, Caroline; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Bardinet, Eric; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor; Jannin, Pierre

    2018-04-04

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an increasingly common treatment for neurodegenerative diseases. Neurosurgeons must have thorough procedural, anatomical, and functional knowledge to plan electrode trajectories and thus ensure treatment efficacy and patient safety. Developing this knowledge requires extensive training. We propose a training approach with objective assessment of neurosurgeon proficiency in DBS planning. To assess proficiency, we propose analyzing both the viability of the planned trajectory and the manner in which the operator arrived at the trajectory. To improve understanding, we suggest a self-guided training course for DBS planning using real-time feedback. To validate the proposed measures of proficiency and training course, two experts and six novices followed the training course, and we monitored their proficiency measures throughout. At baseline, experts planned higher quality trajectories and did so more efficiently. As novices progressed through the training course, their proficiency measures increased significantly, trending toward expert measures. We developed and validated measures which reliably discriminate proficiency levels. These measures are integrated into a training course, which quantitatively improves trainee performance. The proposed training course can be used to improve trainees' proficiency, and the quantitative measures allow trainees' progress to be monitored.

  12. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  13. Particle Filter-Based Target Tracking Algorithm for Magnetic Resonance-Guided Respiratory Compensation : Robustness and Accuracy Assessment

    Bourque, Alexandra E; Bedwani, Stéphane; Carrier, Jean-François; Ménard, Cynthia; Borman, Pim; Bos, Clemens; Raaymakers, Bas W; Mickevicius, Nikolai; Paulson, Eric; Tijssen, Rob H N

    PURPOSE: To assess overall robustness and accuracy of a modified particle filter-based tracking algorithm for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided radiation therapy treatments. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An improved particle filter-based tracking algorithm was implemented, which used a normalized

  14. Rotating flux-focusing eddy current probe for flaw detection

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil, The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head.

  15. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor

  16. Eddy current probe and method for flaw detection in metals

    Watjen, John P.

    1987-06-23

    A flaw detecting system is shown which includes a probe having a pair of ferrite cores with in-line gaps in close proximity to each other. An insulating, non-magnetic, non-conducting holder fills the gaps and supports the ferrite cores in a manner such that the cores form a generally V-shape. Each core is provided with an excitation winding and a detection winding. The excitation windings are connected in series or parallel with an rf port for connection thereof to a radio frequency source. The detection windings, which are differentially wound, are connected in series circuit to a detector port for connection to a voltage measuring instrument. The ferrite cores at the in-line gaps directly engage the metal surface of a test piece, and the probe is scanned along the test piece. In the presence of a flaw in the metal surface the detection winding voltages are unbalanced, and the unbalance is detected by the voltage measuring instrument. The insulating holder is provided with a profile which conforms to that of a prominent feature of the test piece to facilitate movement of the probe along the feature, typically an edge or a corner.

  17. Stepped frequency imaging for flaw monitoring: Final report

    Hildebrand, B.P.

    1988-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of research into the usefulness of stepped frequency imaging (SFI) to nuclear power plant inspection. SFI is a method for producing ultrasonic holographic images without the need to sweep a two-dimensional aperture with the transducer. Instead, the transducer may be translated along a line. At each position of the transducer the frequency is stepped over a finite preselected bandwidth. The frequency stepped data is then processed to synthesize the second dimension. In this way it is possible to generate images in regions that are relatively inaccessible to two-dimensional scanners. This report reviews the theory and experimental work verifying the technique, and then explores its possible applications in the nuclear power industry. It also outlines how this new capability can be incorporated into the SDL-1000 Imaging System previously developed for EPRI. The report concludes with five suggestions for uses for the SFI method. These are: monitoring suspect or repaired regions of feedwater nozzles; monitoring pipe cracks repaired by weld overlay; monitoring crack depth during test block production; imaging flaws where access is difficult; and imaging flaws through cladding without distortion

  18. Amplitude-independent flaw length determination using differential eddy current

    Shell, E.

    2013-01-01

    Military engine component manufacturers typically specify the eddy current (EC) inspection requirements as a crack length or depth with the assumption that the cracks in both the test specimens and inspected component are of a similar fixed aspect ratio. However, differential EC response amplitude is dependent on the area of the crack face, not the length or depth. Additionally, due to complex stresses, in-service cracks do not always grow in the assumed manner. It would be advantageous to use more of the information contained in the EC data to better determine the full profile of cracks independent of the fixed aspect ratio amplitude response curve. A specimen with narrow width notches is used to mimic cracks of varying aspect ratios in a controllable manner. The specimen notches have aspect ratios that vary from 1:1 to 10:1. Analysis routines have been developed using the shape of the EC response signals that can determine the length of a surface flaw of common orientations without use of the amplitude of the signal or any supporting traditional probability of detection basis. Combined with the relationship between signal amplitude and area, the depth of the flaw can also be calculated.

  19. A methodology for determining fabrication flaws in a reactor pressure vessel

    Schuster, G.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a program with the major objective of estimating the rate of occurrence of fabrication flaws in US light-water reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). In this study, RPV mate4rial was examined using the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique for Ultrasonic Testing (SAFT-UT) to detect and characterize flaws created during fabrication. The inspection data obtained in this program has been analyzed to address the rates of flaw occurrence

  20. Radiation flaw detector for testing non-uniform surface bodies of revolution

    Valevich, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation flaw detector for testing bodies of revolution with non-uniform surface, welded joints, etc., based on spatial filtration and differentiation of ionizing radiation flux has been described. The calculation of the most important unit of flaw detector - integrators - is made. Experimental studies of the sensitivity have shown, that the radiation flaw detector can be used for rapid testing of products with the sensitivity comparable with the sensitivity of radiographic testing of steel

  1. Flaw-size measurement in a weld samples by ultrasonic frequency analysis

    Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Whaley, H.L. Jr.; McClung, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic frequency-analysis technique was developed and applies to characterize flaws in an 8-in. (203-mm) thick heavy-section steel weld specimen. The technique applies a multitransducer system. The spectrum of the received broad-band signal is frequency analyzed at two different receivers for each of the flaws. From the two spectra, the size and orientation of the flaw are determined by the use of an analytic model proposed earlier. (auth)

  2. Method for the detection of flaws in a tube proximate a contiguous member

    Holt, A.E.; Wehrmeister, A.E.; Whaley, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    A method for deriving the eddy current signature of a flaw in a tube proximate a contiguous member which is obscured in a composite signature of the flaw and contiguous member comprises subtracting from the composite signature a reference eddy current signature generated by scanning a reference or facsimile tube and contiguous member. The method is particularly applicable to detecting flaws in the tubes of heat exchangers of fossil fuel and nuclear power plants to enable the detection of flaws which would otherwise be obscured by contiguous members such as support plates supporting the tubes. (U.K.)

  3. Bounding the conservatism in flaw-related variables for pressure vessel integrity analyses

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The fracture mechanics-based integrity analysis of a pressure vessel, whether performed deterministically or probabilistically, requires use of one or more flaw-related input variables, such as flaw size, number of flaws, flaw location, and flaw type. The specific values of these variables are generally selected with the intent to ensure conservative predictions of vessel integrity. These selected values, however, are largely independent of vessel-specific inspection results, or are, at best, deduced by ''conservative'' interpretation of vessel-specific inspection results without adequate consideration of the pertinent inspection system performance (reliability). In either case, the conservatism associated with the flaw-related variables chosen for analysis remains examination (NDE) technology and the recently formulated ASME Code procedures for qualifying NDE system capability and performance (as applied to selected nuclear power plant components) now provides a systematic means of bounding the conservatism in flaw-related input variables for pressure vessel integrity analyses. This is essentially achieved by establishing probabilistic (risk)-based limits on the assigned variable values, dependent upon the vessel inspection results and on the inspection system unreliability. Described herein is this probabilistic method and its potential application to: (i) defining a vessel-specific ''reference'' flaw for calculating pressure-temperature limit curves in the deterministic evaluation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor vessels, and (ii) limiting the flaw distribution input to a PWR reactor vessel-specific, probabilistic integrity analysis for pressurized thermal shock loads

  4. Experimental verification on limit load estimation method for pipes with an arbitrary shaped circumferential surface flaw

    Li, Yinsheng; Hasegawa, Kunio; Miura, Naoki; Hoshino, Katsuaki

    2010-01-01

    When a flaw is detected in stainless steel pipes during in-service inspection, the limit load criterion given in the codes such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the pipe. However, in these codes, the limit load criterion is only provided for pipes containing a flaw with uniform depth, although many flaws with complicated shape such as stress corrosion cracking have been actually detected in pipes. In order to evaluate the integrity of the flawed pipes for general case, a limit load estimation method has been proposed by authors considering a circumferential surface flaw with arbitrary shape. The plastic collapse bending moment and corresponding stress are obtained by dividing the surface flaw into several segmented sub-flaws. In this paper, the proposed method was verified by comparing with experimental results. Four-point bending experiments were carried out for full scale stainless steel pipes with a symmetrical or non-symmetrical circumferential flaw. Estimated failure bending moments by the proposed method were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, and the proposed method was confirmed to be effective for evaluating bending failure of pipes with flaw. (author)

  5. Assessment of Dog Guides by Users in Japan and Suggestions for Improvement

    Koda, Naoko; Kubo, Masumi; Ishigami, Tomomi; Furuhashi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Dog guide users in Japan were mostly satisfied with and used their dogs frequently; however, they requested some improvements in training and in basic guiding work. The findings of the study suggest the need for further improvement of training methods, considering cultural factors and individual users' needs. (Contains 3 tables.)

  6. THE ASSESSEMENT OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION THROUGH THE TOLEDO GUIDE IN ROMANIA

    Teodora M. FULGA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main actors on the global scene, the State, the Church and society, together with their values, their identity, their faith, and democracy, are involved in a new dilemma of the individual’s relationship to community, with crucial impacts on the position of universality and transcendence in society. The acute crisis in the recent history triggered a new step in the religious, intercultural or confessional education, which must generate an articulated answer in a field cleared of secularism. This is the key for the interpretation of the new State-cults partnerships in education. Thus the interest manifested by students in the non-confessional public schools reveal the need to present in a balanced way the intercultural and interreligious elements, supported in the OSCE vision by the Toledo Guide. The assessment of the religious education class from an intercultural perspective showed that the Orthodox format is quite close to the recommended principles and intercultural values. Nevertheless, in spite of the lack of intercultural education in the structure of these classes the students have a certain level of knowledge from other sources also deserving investigation.

  7. Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment. Operational Guide to the ISO Standards

    Guinee, J.B. [Centre of Environmental Studies, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    In 1992 the Centre of Environmental Science (CML) at Leiden University, The Netherlands, published a Guide on Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, setting the standard for a long time. Since then LCA methodology has progressed enormously and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published a series of Standards on LCA. These developments have now been incorporated into a new Handbook on LCA authored by CML in cooperation with a number of other important institutes in the area of LCA. The general aim of this Handbook on LCA is to provide a stepwise 'cookbook' with operational guidelines for conducting an LCA study step-by-step, justified by a scientific background document, based on the ISO Standards for LCA. The different ISO elements and requirements are made operational to the 'best available practice' for each step. CML is strongly involved in the development of a standard methodology to determine environmental impacts of products, i.e., LCA. This is done within international fora such as the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)

  8. Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation-Guided Huddles Improve Communication and Teamwork in the Emergency Department.

    Martin, Heather A; Ciurzynski, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Thousands of people die annually in hospitals because of poor communication and teamwork between health care team members. Standardized tools and strategies help increase the amount and quality of communication. Two structured communication methods include implementing huddles and the use of the situation, background, assessment, and recommendation (SBAR) communication framework. To improve communication among nurse practitioners and registered nurses within a pediatric emergency department, a performance-improvement project with the structured processes of a joint patient evaluation and huddle was implemented. Data were gathered from 32 nurses and 2 nurse practitioners using structured observation and pre- and post-implementation surveys. The following outcomes were measured: presence or absence of joint patient evaluation and SBAR-guided huddle, verbalization of treatment plan, communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction. Eighty-three percent of patient encounters included a joint evaluation. A huddle structured with SBAR was conducted 86% of the time. Registered nurses and nurse practitioners verbalized patients' treatment plans in 89% of cases and 97% of cases, respectively. Improved teamwork, communication, and nursing satisfaction scores were demonstrated among the nurse practitioners and registered nurses. This project showed the feasibility of a simple and inexpensive joint nurse practitioner-registered nurse patient evaluation followed by a structured huddle, which improved communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction scores. This performance-improvement project has the potential to enhance efficiency by reducing redundancy, as well as to improve patient safety through the use of structured communication techniques. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Methodological guide for risk assessment and management of industrial sites contaminated with radionuclides

    Oudiz, A.; Brenot, J.; Cessac, B.; Charbonneau, P.; Maigne, J.P.; Santucci, P.

    2000-01-01

    At the request of the French ministries of health and environment, IPSN was asked to elaborate a methodological guide for risk assessment and management of industrial sites contaminated with radionuclides. This guide is devoted to local administration, technical organisms and more generally to all the relevant stakeholders involved with the choice of a rehabilitation strategy, according to the future use of the site. The methodology to be presented is designed to fit with the different types of 'risk governance', according to circumstances: - when an industrial site is relatively small, with rather restricted zones of contamination, and no specific social concern, management may rely essentially upon radiological expertise, using generic reference levels, - when the site is larger, with spread out contamination, risk assessment and management of the site may become more controversial, namely because uncertainties remain about the effective magnitude of the contamination and no low cost solution appears to exist in view of rehabilitation. In this case, an open procedure is required, which combines technical expertise and involvement of stakeholders, in view of improving the risk assessment process as well as trying to get a better understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of different rehabilitation strategies. The methodology consists of six main steps : - Initiating the process, Pre-diagnosis, Initial diagnosis, Simplified risk assessment, Detailed risk assessment, Decision aiding in view of letting the stakeholders defining the solution appropriate to the local context. The paper will present how the risk assessment and management process can be aportionated to the importance of the problem to be solved. As far as possible, simplified risk assessment should provide information allowing the definition of the appropriate strategy. In this case, stakeholders involvement is mainly devoted to determine: - whether the site can be affected to a given use without

  10. Preliminary assessment of the dose to the interventional radiologist in fluoro-CT-guided procedures

    Pereira, M. F.; Alves, J. G.; Sarmento, S.; Santos, J. A. M.; Sousa, M. J.; Gouvea, M.; Oliveira, A. D.; Cardoso, J. V.; Santos, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the occupational dose to the intervention radiologist received in fluoroscopy computerised tomography (CT) used to guide the collection of lung and bone biopsies is presented. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of the reading system as well as of the available whole-body (WB) and extremity dosemeters used in routine monthly monitoring periods to measure per procedure dose values. The intervention radiologist was allocated 10 WB detectors (LiF: Mg, Ti, TLD-100) placed at chest and abdomen levels above and below the lead apron, and at both right and left arms, knees and feet. A special glove was developed with casings for the insertion of 11 extremity detectors (LiF:Mg, Cu, P, TLD-100H) for the identification of the most highly exposed fingers. The H p (10) dose values received above the lead apron (ranged 0.20-0.02 mSv) depend mainly on the duration of the examination and on the placement of physician relative to the beam, while values below the apron are relatively low. The left arm seems to receive a higher dose value. H p (0.07) values to the hand (ranged 36.30-0.06 mSv) show that the index, middle and ring fingers are the most highly exposed. In this study, the wrist dose was negligible compared with the finger dose. These results are preliminary and further studies are needed to better characterise the dose assessment in CT fluoroscopy. (authors)

  11. LISA package user guide. Part II: LISA (Long Term Isolation Safety Assessment) program description and user guide

    Prado, P.; Saltelli, A.; Homma, T.

    1992-01-01

    This manual is subdivided into three parts. In this second part, this document describes the LISA (Long term Isolation Safety Assessment) Code and its submodels. LISA is a tool for analysis of the safety of an underground disposal of nuclear waste. It has the capability to handle nuclide chain of arbitrary length and to evaluate the migration of nuclide through a geosphere medium composed of an arbitrary number of segments. LISA makes use of Monte Carlo methodology to evaluate the uncertainty in the quantity being assessed (eg dose) arising from the uncertainty in the model input parameters. In the present version LISA is equipped with a very simple source term submodel, a relatively complex geosphere and a simplified biosphere. The code is closely associated with its statistical pre-processor code (PREP), which generates the input Monte Carlo sample from the assigned parameter probability density functions and with its post-processor code (SPOP) which provides useful statistics on the output sample (uncertainty and sensitivity analysis). This report describes the general structure of LISA, its subroutines and submodels, the code input ant output files. It is intended to provide the user with enough information to know and run the code as well as the capacity to incorporate different submodels. 15 refs., 6 figs

  12. A practical approach to assess depression risk and to guide risk reduction strategies in later life.

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Alfonso, Helman; Pirkis, Jane; Kerse, Ngaire; Sim, Moira; Flicker, Leon; Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Byrne, Gerard; Goldney, Robert; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Stocks, Nigel; Scazufca, Marcia; Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Pfaff, Jon

    2011-03-01

    Many factors have been associated with the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms in later life, although this knowledge is yet to be translated into significant health gains for the population. This study gathered information about common modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for depression with the aim of developing a practical probabilistic model of depression that can be used to guide risk reduction strategies. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of 20,677 community-dwelling Australians aged 60 years or over in contact with their general practitioner during the preceding 12 months. Prevalent depression (minor or major) according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) assessment was the main outcome of interest. Other measured exposures included self-reported age, gender, education, loss of mother or father before age 15 years, physical or sexual abuse before age 15 years, marital status, financial stress, social support, smoking and alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. The mean age of participants was 71.7 ± 7.6 years and 57.9% were women. Depression was present in 1665 (8.0%) of our subjects. Multivariate logistic regression showed depression was independently associated with age older than 75 years, childhood adverse experiences, adverse lifestyle practices (smoking, risk alcohol use, physical inactivity), intermediate health hazards (obesity, diabetes and hypertension), comorbid medical conditions (clinical history of coronary heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema or cancers), and social or financial strain. We stratified the exposures to build a matrix that showed that the probability of depression increased progressively with the accumulation of risk factors, from less than 3% for those with no adverse factors to more than 80% for people reporting the maximum number of risk factors. Our

  13. Scaling up success to improve health: Towards a rapid assessment guide for decision makers

    Jason Paltzer

    2015-01-01

    human rights. The analysis informed the development of a two-step rapid assessment tool that can be used to guide decision-makers in identifying the most appropriate scale-up strategy given their political environment, leadership styles, and program characteristics. Conclusion The rapid assessment proposed in this paper can be used to help bridge the gap in bringing evidence-based health interventions to communities that need them the most. The purpose of the assessment tool is to decrease the time required to scale effective interventions by identifying and applying a strategy appropriate to the innovation, organizational capacity, and social and political environment.

  14. Engineering approach for examining crack growth and stability in flawed structures

    Shih, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Progress made in two research programs sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), to identify viable parameters for characterizing crack initiation and continued extension, and to develop an engineering/design methodology, based on these parameters, for the assessment of crack growth and instability in engineering structures which are stressed beyond the regime of applicability of linear elastic fracture mechanics is reported. The goal in the development of such methodology is to establish an improved basis for analyzing the effect of flaws (postulated or detected) on the safety margins of pressure boundary components of light water-cooled type nuclear steam supply systems. The methodology can also be employed for structural integrity analyses of other engineering structures

  15. Accomplishments: AE characterization program for remote flaw evaluation

    Hutton, P.H.; Schwenk, E.B.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the program is to develop an experimental/analytical evaluation of the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundaries by means of continuously monitoring acoustic emission (AE). The investigation is devoted exclusively to ASTM Type A533, Grade B, Class 1 material. The basic approach to interpretive model development is through laboratory testing of 1 to 1 1 / 2 inch (25.4 to 38 mm) thick fracture mechanics specimens in both fatigue and fracture at both room temperature and 550 0 F (288 0 C). Seven parameters are measured for each AE signal and related to fracture mechanics functions. AE data from fracture testing of 6 inch (152 mm) wall pressure vessels are also incorporated in analysis

  16. Design Flaws and Service System Breakdowns: Learning from Systems Thinking

    David Ing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In what ways might systems thinking be helpful to designers?  In the 21st century, the types of project with which designers have become engaged has expanded to include service systems.  Service systems are typically composites of mechanisms, organisms, human beings and ecologies.  Systems thinking is a perspective with theories, methods and practices that enables transcending disciplinary boundaries.  Application of systems thinking in designing a service system can aid in surfacing potential flaws and/or anticipating future breakdowns in functions, structures and/or processes. Designers and systems thinkers should work together to improve the nature of service systems.  As a starter set into these conversations, seven conditions are proposed as a starting context.  These conditions are presented neither as rigourously defined nor as exhaustive, but as an entry point into future joint engagement.

  17. 'Moral distress'--time to abandon a flawed nursing construct?

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress has been characterised in the nursing literature as a major problem affecting nurses in all healthcare systems. It has been portrayed as threatening the integrity of nurses and ultimately the quality of patient care. However, nursing discourse on moral distress is not without controversy. The notion itself is conceptually flawed and suffers from both theoretical and practical difficulties. Nursing research investigating moral distress is also problematic on account of being methodologically weak and disparate. Moreover, the ultimate purpose and significance of the research is unclear. In light of these considerations, it is contended that the notion of moral distress ought to be abandoned and that concerted attention be given to advancing inquiries that are more conducive to improving the quality and safety of moral decision-making, moral conduct and moral outcomes in nursing and healthcare domains. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. China’s Flawed Banking Market Structure Must be Rectified

    于永臻

    2007-01-01

    There is great disparity between China’s banking management efficiency and the top international standard,with relatively low efficiency in credit monetary allocation.In this paper,Yu Yongzhen sets out the hypothesis that"medium-sized banks promote competition".He believes that an important reason for the low efficiency of Chinese banking is the seriously flawed banking market structure.Namely,credit market shares are highly concentrated in the hands of the four major state-owned banks,with very few shares held by medium-sized banks or the badly undeveloped small banks.Full development of medium-sized banks plays a key role in the promotion of competition and efficiency in banking.

  19. Profitable failure: antidepressant drugs and the triumph of flawed experiments.

    McGoey, Linsey

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on an analysis of Irving Kirsch and colleagues' controversial 2008 article in "PLoS [Public Library of Science] Magazine" on the efficacy of SSRI antidepressant drugs such as Prozac, I examine flaws within the methodologies of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have made it difficult for regulators, clinicians and patients to determine the therapeutic value of this class of drug. I then argue, drawing analogies to work by Pierre Bourdieu and Michael Power, that it is the very limitations of RCTs -- their inadequacies in producing reliable evidence of clinical effects -- that help to strengthen assumptions of their superiority as methodological tools. Finally, I suggest that the case of RCTs helps to explore the question of why failure is often useful in consolidating the authority of those who have presided over that failure, and why systems widely recognized to be ineffective tend to assume greater authority at the very moment when people speak of their malfunction.

  20. A meta-analysis to assess usefulness of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic usage for decision making

    Nusrat Shafiq

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: PCT-guided therapy significantly decreased antibiotics exposure and thus treatment cost. However, the hard endpoints did not demonstrate any significant benefits, possibly due to low power to detect differences and/or the presence of comorbidities.

  1. Assessing the Effectiveness of Guided Preparation for New Venture Creation: Theory and Practice

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel; Gørtz, Mette; Storey, David

    2012-01-01

    Governments in virtually all developed countries subsidise “guided preparation” for entrepreneurial activity. Despite being so widespread, the evidence that this assistance enhances venture performance remains in dispute, primarily because of a lack of consensus over statistical approaches...

  2. Liquid Pipeline Operator's Control Room Human Factors Risk Assessment and Management Guide

    2008-11-26

    The purpose of this guide is to document methodologies, tools, procedures, guidance, and instructions that have been developed to provide liquid pipeline operators with an efficient and effective means of managing the human factors risks in their con...

  3. Potential steam generator tube rupture in the presence of severe accident thermal challenge and tube flaws due to foreign object wear

    Liao, Y.; Guentay, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study develops a methodology to assess the probability for the degraded PWR steam generator to rupture first in the reactor coolant pressure boundary, under severe accident conditions with counter-current natural circulating high temperature gas in the hot leg and SG tubes. The considered SG tube flaws are caused by foreign object wear, which in recent years has emerged as a major inservice degradation mechanism for the new generation tubing materials. The first step develops the statistical distributions for the flaw frequency, size, and the flaw location with respect to the tube length and the tube's tubesheet position, based on data of hundreds of flaws reported in numerous SG inservice inspection reports. The next step performs thermal-hydraulic analysis using the MELCOR code and recent CFD findings to predict the thermal challenge to the degraded tubes and the tube-to-tube difference in thermal response at the SG entrance. The final step applies the creep rupture models in the Monte Carlo random walk to test the potential for the degraded SG to rupture before the surge line. The mean and range of the SG tube rupture probability can be applied to estimate large early release frequency in probabilistic safety assessment.

  4. An corrective method to correct of the inherent flaw of the asynchronization direct counting circuit

    Wang Renfei; Liu Congzhan; Jin Yongjie; Zhang Zhi; Li Yanguo

    2003-01-01

    As a inherent flaw of the Asynchronization Direct Counting Circuit, the crosstalk, which is resulted from the randomicity of the time-signal always exists between two adjacent channels. In order to reduce the counting error derived from the crosstalk, the author propose an effective method to correct the flaw after analysing the mechanism of the crosstalk

  5. Advances in flaw evaluation procedures and acceptance criteria for reactor piping

    Gamble, R.M.; Zahoor, A.; Norris, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    During the past several years, intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC) have been detected in stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) and have resulted in an increased number of flaw evaluations. To reduce the outage time associated with evaluating IGSCC, various research and ASME code groups have spent significant effort to provide utility personnel with efficient means to detect, classify, and size flaws, and to determine suitability for return to service for flawed stainless steel piping. One of the several nondestructive evaluation technologies that has received considerable attention is fracture mechanics, the discipline that considers the failure of flawed material. Fracture mechanics can be used to answer two key questions concerning return to service of flawed pipe: (a) what is the largest flaw size that can be returned to service and still maintain adequate safety margins at the applied loads, and (b) how much operating time remains before the crack reaches the largest allowable size? The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recently developed ASME code Section XI flaw size evaluation procedure and acceptance criteria for stainless steel piping and their application by BWR owners to efficiently determine if flaws found by nondestructive examination are acceptable for continued service

  6. Advances in flaw evaluation procedures and acceptance criteria for reactor piping

    Gamble, R.M.; Zahoor, A.; Norris, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    During the past several years, intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC) have been detected in stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) and have resulted in an increased number of flaw evaluations. To reduce the outage time associated with evaluating IGSCC, various research and ASME code groups have spent significant effort to provide utility personnel with efficient means to detect, classify, and size flaws, and to determine suitability for return to service for flawed stainless steel piping. One of the several nondestructive evaluation technologies that has received considerable attention is fracture mechanics, the discipline that considers the failure of flawed material. Fracture mechanics can be used to answer two key questions concerning return to service of flawed pipe: (a) what is the largest flaw size that can be returned to service and still maintain adequate safety margins at the applied loads, and (b) how much operating time remains before the crack reaches the largest allowable size. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the recently developed ASME code Section XI flaw size evaluation procedure and acceptance criteria for stainless steel piping and their application by BWR owners to efficiently determine if flaws found by nondestructive examination are acceptable for continued service.

  7. Using Bayesian networks to guide the assessment of new evidence in an appeal case.

    Smit, Nadine M; Lagnado, David A; Morgan, Ruth M; Fenton, Norman E

    2016-05-25

    When new forensic evidence becomes available after a conviction there is no systematic framework to help lawyers to determine whether it raises sufficient questions about the verdict in order to launch an appeal. This paper presents such a framework driven by a recent case, in which a defendant was convicted primarily on the basis of audio evidence, but where subsequent analysis of the evidence revealed additional sounds that were not considered during the trial. The framework is intended to overcome the gap between what is generally known from scientific analyses and what is hypothesized in a legal setting. It is based on Bayesian networks (BNs) which have the potential to be a structured and understandable way to evaluate the evidence in a specific case context. However, BN methods suffered a setback with regards to the use in court due to the confusing way they have been used in some legal cases in the past. To address this concern, we show the extent to which the reasoning and decisions within the particular case can be made explicit and transparent. The BN approach enables us to clearly define the relevant propositions and evidence, and uses sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of the evidence under different assumptions. The results show that such a framework is suitable to identify information that is currently missing, yet clearly crucial for a valid and complete reasoning process. Furthermore, a method is provided whereby BNs can serve as a guide to not only reason with incomplete evidence in forensic cases, but also identify very specific research questions that should be addressed to extend the evidence base and solve similar issues in the future.

  8. Toward Smart Aerospace Structures: Design of a Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Analog Interface for Flaw Detection

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Fourniols, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Structural health monitoring using noninvasive methods is one of the major challenges that aerospace manufacturers face in this decade. Our work in this field focuses on the development and the system integration of millimetric piezoelectric sensors/ actuators to generate and measure specific guided waves. The aim of the application is to detect mechanical flaws on complex composite and alloy structures to quantify efficiently the global structures' reliability. The study begins by a physical and analytical analysis of a piezoelectric patch. To preserve the structure's integrity, the transducers are directly pasted onto the surface which leads to a critical issue concerning the interfacing layer. In order to improve the reliability and mitigate the influence of the interfacing layer, the global equations of piezoelectricity are coupled with a load transfer model. Thus we can determine precisely the shear strain developed on the surface of the structure. To exploit the generated signal, a high precision analog charge amplifier coupled to a double T notch filter were designed and scaled. Finally, a novel joined time-frequency analysis based on a wavelet decomposition algorithm is used to extract relevant structures signatures. Finally, this paper provides examples of application on aircraft structure specimens and the feasibility of the system is thus demonstrated. PMID:25365457

  9. Toward smart aerospace structures: design of a piezoelectric sensor and its analog interface for flaw detection.

    Boukabache, Hamza; Escriba, Christophe; Fourniols, Jean-Yves

    2014-10-31

    Structural health monitoring using noninvasive methods is one of the major challenges that aerospace manufacturers face in this decade. Our work in this field focuses on the development and the system integration of millimetric piezoelectric sensors/ actuators to generate and measure specific guided waves. The aim of the application is to detect mechanical flaws on complex composite and alloy structures to quantify efficiently the global structures' reliability. The study begins by a physical and analytical analysis of a piezoelectric patch. To preserve the structure's integrity, the transducers are directly pasted onto the surface which leads to a critical issue concerning the interfacing layer. In order to improve the reliability and mitigate the influence of the interfacing layer, the global equations of piezoelectricity are coupled with a load transfer model. Thus we can determine precisely the shear strain developed on the surface of the structure. To exploit the generated signal, a high precision analog charge amplifier coupled to a double T notch filter were designed and scaled. Finally, a novel joined time-frequency analysis based on a wavelet decomposition algorithm is used to extract relevant structures signatures. Finally, this paper provides examples of application on aircraft structure specimens and the feasibility of the system is thus demonstrated.

  10. Toward Smart Aerospace Structures: Design of a Piezoelectric Sensor and Its Analog Interface for Flaw Detection

    Hamza Boukabache

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring using noninvasive methods is one of the major challenges that aerospace manufacturers face in this decade. Our work in this field focuses on the development and the system integration of millimetric piezoelectric sensors/ actuators to generate and measure specific guided waves. The aim of the application is to detect mechanical flaws on complex composite and alloy structures to quantify efficiently the global structures’ reliability. The study begins by a physical and analytical analysis of a piezoelectric patch. To preserve the structure’s integrity, the transducers are directly pasted onto the surface which leads to a critical issue concerning the interfacing layer. In order to improve the reliability and mitigate the influence of the interfacing layer, the global equations of piezoelectricity are coupled with a load transfer model. Thus we can determine precisely the shear strain developed on the surface of the structure. To exploit the generated signal, a high precision analog charge amplifier coupled to a double T notch filter were designed and scaled. Finally, a novel joined time-frequency analysis based on a wavelet decomposition algorithm is used to extract relevant structures signatures. Finally, this paper provides examples of application on aircraft structure specimens and the feasibility of the system is thus demonstrated.

  11. Development of an Intelligent Ultrasonic Signature Classification Software for Discrimination of Flaws in Weldments

    Kim, H. J.; Song, S. J.; Jeong, H. D.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic pattern recognition is the most effective approach to the problem of discriminating types of flaws in weldments based on ultrasonic flaw signals. In spite of significant progress in the research on this methodology, it has not been widely used in many practical ultrasonic inspections of weldments in industry. Hence, for the convenient application of this approach in many practical situations, we develop an intelligent ultrasonic signature classification software which can discriminate types of flaws in weldments based on their ultrasonic signals using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. This software shows the excellent performance in an experimental problem where flaws in weldments are classified into two categories of cracks and non-cracks. This performance demonstrates the high possibility of this software as a practical tool for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments

  12. Ultrasonic Transducer Design for the Axial Flaw Detection of Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Kim, Yong Sik; Yang, Seung Han

    2011-01-01

    Dissimilar metal welds in nuclear power plant are known as very susceptible to PWSCC flaws, and periodically inspected by the qualified inspector and qualified procedure during in-service inspection period. According to field survey data, the majority of their DMWs are located on tapered nozzle or adjacent to a tapered component. These types of configurations restrict examination access and also limit examination volume coverage. Additionally, circumferential scan for axially oriented flaw is very difficult to detect located on tapered surface because the transducer can't receive flaw response from reflector for miss-orientation. To overcome this miss-orientation, it is necessary adapt skewed ultrasonic transducer accommodate tapered surface. The skewed refracted longitudinal ultrasonic transducer designed by modeling and manufactured from the modelling result for axial flaw detection. Experimental results showed that the skewed refracted longitudinal ultrasonic transducer get higher flaw response than non-skewed refracted longitudinal ultrasonic transducer

  13. Development of technology on natural flaw fabrication and precise diagnosis for the major components in NPPs

    Han, Jung Ho; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Doek Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a fabrication technology of natural flaw specimen of major components in NPPs and a technology of precise diagnosis for failure and degradation of components using natural flaw specimen. 1) Successful development of the natural flaw fabrication technology of SG tube 2) Evaluation of ECT signal and development of precise diagnosis using natural flaws. - Determination of length, depth, width, and multiplicity of fabricated natural flaws. - Informations about detectability and accuracy of ECT evaluation on various kinds of defects are collected when the combination of probe and frequency is changed. - An advanced technology for precise ECT evaluation is established. 3) Application of precise ECT diagnosis to failure analysis of SG tube in operation. - Fretting wear of KSNP SG. - ODSCC at tube expanded region of KSNP SG. - Determination of through/non-through wall of axial crack

  14. Estimation of the number of physical flaws from periodic ISI data of SG tubes using effective POD

    Lee, Jae Bong; Park, Jai Hak; Kim, Hong Deok; Chung, Han Sub

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to know the number of flaws and their size distribution in order to calculate the probability of failure or to estimate the amount of leakage through the tube wall of steam generators. But In-Service Inspection (ISI) flaw data is different from the physical flaw data. In case of a single inspection, it is easy to estimate the number of physical flaws using the POD curve. However, we may be faced with some difficulties in obtaining the number of physical flaws from the periodic in-service inspection data. In this study a method for estimating the number of physical flaws from periodic in-service inspection data is proposed. In order to calculate the number of physical flaws with periodic ISI data, both probabilities of detecting and missing flaws should be considered. And flaw initiation and growth history must be known also. The flaw initiation and growth history can be inferred from appropriate probabilistic flaw growth rate. Two inference methods are proposed and compared. One is Monte Carlo simulation method and the other is transition (stochastic) matrix method. The effective POD, the total possibility of detection considering both probabilities of detecting and missing flaws for each flaw size, can be calculated using above two inference methods. And two methods are compared and the usefulness and convenience are evaluated from several applications

  15. Guide to the assessment of physical activity: Clinical and research applications: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Strath, Scott J; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Ekelund, Ulf; Freedson, Patty S; Gary, Rebecca A; Richardson, Caroline R; Smith, Derek T; Swartz, Ann M

    2013-11-12

    The deleterious health consequences of physical inactivity are vast, and they are of paramount clinical and research importance. Risk identification, benchmarks, efficacy, and evaluation of physical activity behavior change initiatives for clinicians and researchers all require a clear understanding of how to assess physical activity. In the present report, we have provided a clear rationale for the importance of assessing physical activity levels, and we have documented key concepts in understanding the different dimensions, domains, and terminology associated with physical activity measurement. The assessment methods presented allow for a greater understanding of the vast number of options available to clinicians and researchers when trying to assess physical activity levels in their patients or participants. The primary outcome desired is the main determining factor in the choice of physical activity assessment method. In combination with issues of feasibility/practicality, the availability of resources, and administration considerations, the desired outcome guides the choice of an appropriate assessment tool. The decision matrix, along with the accompanying tables, provides a mechanism for this selection that takes all of these factors into account. Clearly, the assessment method adopted and implemented will vary depending on circumstances, because there is no single best instrument appropriate for every situation. In summary, physical activity assessment should be considered a vital health measure that is tracked regularly over time. All other major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and smoking) are assessed routinely. Physical activity status should also be assessed regularly. Multiple physical activity assessment methods provide reasonably accurate outcome measures, with choices dependent on setting-specific resources and constraints. The present scientific statement provides a guide to

  16. Evaluation of Effect by Internal Flow on Ultrasonic Testing Flaw Sizing in Piping

    Lee, Jeong Seok; Yoon, Byung Sik; Kim, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the ultrasonic amplitude difference between air filled and water filled piping in nuclear power plant is compared by modeling approach. In this study, ultrasonic amplitude differences between air and water filled pipe are evaluated by modeling approach. Consequently, we propose the following results. The ultrasonic amplitude difference between air and water filled condition is measured by lower than 1 dB in modeling calculation. The flaw length sizing error between air and water filled condition shows same results based on 12 dB drop method even thought the amplitude difference is 1 dB. Most of the piping welds in nuclear power plants are inspected periodically using ultrasonic techniques to detect service-induced flaws such as IGSCC cracking. The inspection results provide information such as location, maximum amplitude response, ultrasonic length, height and finally the nature or flaw pattern. The founded flaw in ultrasonic inspection is accepted or rejected based on these information. Specially, the amplitude of flaw response is very important to estimate the flaw size. Currently the ultrasonic inspections in nuclear power plant components are performed by specific inspection procedure which describing inspection technique include inspection system, calibration methodology and flaw characterizing methodology. To perform ultrasonic inspection during in-service inspection, reference gain should be established before starting ultrasonic inspection by requirement of ASME code. This reference gain used as basic criteria to evaluate flaw sizing. Sometimes, a little difference in establishing reference gain between calibration and field condition can lead to deviation in flaw sizing. Due to this difference, the inspection result may cause flaw sizing error

  17. Accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy for assessment of pediatric musculoskeletal lesions

    Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L.; Strouse, Peter J.; Biermann, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy has been shown in adults to be an effective diagnostic tool for a large number of musculoskeletal malignancies. To characterize our experience with CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of pediatric bone lesions and determine its utility in diagnosing pediatric osseous lesions, in a population where such lesions are commonly benign. From 2000 to 2009, 61 children underwent 63 CT-guided percutaneous biopsies. Radiological, pathological and clinical records were reviewed. Fourteen biopsies (22%) were performed on malignant lesions, while 49 biopsies (78%) were performed on benign lesions. Forty-nine of the 63 biopsies (78%) were adequate; these children underwent no further tissue sampling. Fourteen of the 63 biopsies (22%) were inadequate or non-conclusive. Of these patients, 12 underwent open biopsy. Retrospective analysis of percutaneous biopsies in these patients demonstrates that 9/12 provided clinically relevant information, and 4/12 patients received final diagnoses that confirmed initial core biopsy findings. No malignancies were diagnosed as benign on percutaneous biopsy. Overall, percutaneous core needle biopsy provided accurate diagnostic information in 84% (53/63) of biopsies. Our results demonstrate that CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is safe and beneficial in children. This study supports the use of CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy for primary diagnosis of pediatric bone lesions. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of Defective Pipings in Nuclear Power Plants and Applications of Guided Ultrasonic Wave Techniques

    Koo, Dae Seo; Cheong, Yong Moo; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Park, Chi Seung; Park, Jae Suck; Choi, H. R.; Jung, S. S.

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the guided ultrasonic techniques to the pipes in nuclear power plants, the cases of defective pipes of nuclear power plants, were investigated. It was confirmed that geometric factors of pipes, such as location, shape, and allowable space were impertinent for the application of guided ultrasonic techniques to pipes of nuclear power plants. The quality of pipes, supports, signals analysis of weldment/defects, acquisition of accurate defects signals also make difficult to apply the guided ultrasonic techniques to pipes of nuclear power plants. Thus, a piping mock-up representing the pipes in the nuclear power plants were designed and fabricated. The artificial flaws will be fabricated on the piping mock-up. The signals of guided ultrasonic waves from the artificial flaws will be analyzed. The guided ultrasonic techniques will be applied to the inspection of pipes of nuclear power plants according to the basis of signals analysis of artificial flaws in the piping mock-up

  19. Assessment of guide vane self-excitation stability at small openings in pump flow

    Nennemann, B; Sallaberger, M; Henggeler, U; Gentner, C; Parkinson, E

    2012-01-01

    A parameter study of self-excited pump turbine guide vane instability at small openings using a combined CFD-1DOF approach shows that clear tendencies are difficult to obtain. Two types of boundary conditions can be used in the simulations: prescribed mass flow and prescribed pressure. Simulations with both show results that - for one specific operating condition - are consistent with a self-excited guide vane incident at a prototype pump turbine. However, over a larger range of reduced velocities, the tendencies obtained with the two boundary condition types are not always consistent. Pressure boundary conditions may be the more realistic option. Results then show that with increasing reduced velocity, guide vanes will eventually reach static instability or divergence. This may not be problematic. In contrast, passing through a zone of dynamic instability during operation should and can be avoided.

  20. VR-based training and assessment in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: from error analysis to system design.

    2011-01-01

    If VR-based medical training and assessment is to improve patient care and safety (i.e. a genuine health gain), it has to be based on clinically relevant measurement of performance. Metrics on errors are particularly useful for capturing and correcting undesired behaviors before they occur in the operating room. However, translating clinically relevant metrics and errors into meaningful system design is a challenging process. This paper discusses how an existing task and error analysis was translated into the system design of a VR-based training and assessment environment for Ultrasound Guided Regional Anesthesia (UGRA).

  1. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design

  2. A development of the Human Factors Assessment Guide for the Study of Erroneous Human Behaviors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Oh, Yeon Ju; Lee, Yong Hee; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Sa Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe a human factors assessment guide for the study of the erroneous characteristic of operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We think there are still remaining the human factors issues such as an uneasy emotion, fatigue and stress, varying mental workload situation by digital environment, and various new type of unsafe response to digital interface for better decisions, although introducing an advanced main control room. These human factors issues may not be resolved through the current human reliability assessment which evaluates the total probability of a human error occurring throughout the completion of a specific task. This paper provides an assessment guide for the human factors issues a set of experimental methodology, and presents an assessment case of measurement and analysis especially from neuro physiology approach. It would be the most objective psycho-physiological research technique on human performance for a qualitative analysis considering the safety aspects. This paper can be trial to experimental assessment of erroneous behaviors and their influencing factors, and it can be used as an index for recognition and a method to apply human factors engineering V and V, which is required as a mandatory element of human factor engineering program plan for a NPP design.

  3. Systematic reviews identify important methodological flaws in stroke rehabilitation therapy primary studies: review of reviews.

    Santaguida, Pasqualina; Oremus, Mark; Walker, Kathryn; Wishart, Laurie R; Siegel, Karen Lohmann; Raina, Parminder

    2012-04-01

    A "review of reviews" was undertaken to assess methodological issues in studies evaluating nondrug rehabilitation interventions in stroke patients. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 2000 to January 2008 within the stroke rehabilitation setting. Electronic searches were supplemented by reviews of reference lists and citations identified by experts. Eligible studies were systematic reviews; excluded citations were narrative reviews or reviews of reviews. Review characteristics and criteria for assessing methodological quality of primary studies within them were extracted. The search yielded 949 English-language citations. We included a final set of 38 systematic reviews. Cochrane reviews, which have a standardized methodology, were generally of higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews. Most systematic reviews used standardized quality assessment criteria for primary studies, but not all were comprehensive. Reviews showed that primary studies had problems with randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding. Baseline comparability, adverse events, and co-intervention or contamination were not consistently assessed. Blinding of patients and providers was often not feasible and was not evaluated as a source of bias. The eligible systematic reviews identified important methodological flaws in the evaluated primary studies, suggesting the need for improvement of research methods and reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. National Security Strategy: A Flawed Guide to the Future, Political Science

    Leahy, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... The effects of 9/11 and the emphasis on global terrorism are unmistakable. The talking heads in the media who focused, their critiques on the overt statement of a policy of preemption missed the forest for the trees...

  5. National Security Strategy: A Flawed Guide to the Future, Political Science

    Leahy, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The Goldwater-Nichols Defense Department Reorganization Act of 1986 requires the executive branch to periodically provide written documentation of the United States National Security Strategy (NSS). The George W...

  6. Guiding students to develop an understanding of scientific inquiry: a science skills approach to instruction and assessment.

    Stone, Elisa M

    2014-01-01

    New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations-for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls-and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level.

  7. Guiding Students to Develop an Understanding of Scientific Inquiry: A Science Skills Approach to Instruction and Assessment

    Stone, Elisa M.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches for teaching and assessing scientific inquiry and practices are essential for guiding students to make the informed decisions required of an increasingly complex and global society. The Science Skills approach described here guides students to develop an understanding of the experimental skills required to perform a scientific investigation. An individual teacher's investigation of the strategies and tools she designed to promote scientific inquiry in her classroom is outlined. This teacher-driven action research in the high school biology classroom presents a simple study design that allowed for reciprocal testing of two simultaneous treatments, one that aimed to guide students to use vocabulary to identify and describe different scientific practices they were using in their investigations—for example, hypothesizing, data analysis, or use of controls—and another that focused on scientific collaboration. A knowledge integration (KI) rubric was designed to measure how students integrated their ideas about the skills and practices necessary for scientific inquiry. KI scores revealed that student understanding of scientific inquiry increased significantly after receiving instruction and using assessment tools aimed at promoting development of specific inquiry skills. General strategies for doing classroom-based action research in a straightforward and practical way are discussed, as are implications for teaching and evaluating introductory life sciences courses at the undergraduate level. PMID:24591508

  8. Microstructure, flaw tolerance, and reliability of Ce-TZP and Y-TZP ceramics

    Readey, M.J.; McCallen, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Ce-TZP and Y-TZP ceramics were heat-treated for various times and temperatures in order to vary the microstructure. Flaw tolerance was investigated using the indentation-strength test. Reliability was quantified using conventional two-parameter Weibull statistics. Some Ce-TZP specimens were indented at slightly elevated temperatures where no transformation was observed. Results indicated that the Ce-TZP specimens were extremely flaw tolerant, and showed a relatively high Weibull modulus that scaled with both R-curve behavior and flaw tolerance. Y-TZP, on the other hand, with very little if any R-curve behavior or flaw tolerance, had a low Weibull modulus. The results also show that flaw history, i.e., whether or not a transformation zone exists along the wake of the crack, has a significant influence on strength. Strength was much less dependent on initial crack size when the crack had an associated transformation zone, whereas strength was highly dependent on cracks typical of natural processing defects. It is argued that the improvement in reliability, flaw tolerance, and dependence on flaw history are all ramifications of pronounced R-curve behavior

  9. Development of an intelligent system for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments

    Song, Sung-Jin; Kim, Hak-Joon; Cho, Hyeon

    2002-01-01

    Even though ultrasonic pattern recognition is considered as the most effective and promising approach to flaw classification in weldments, its application to the realistic field inspection is still very limited due to the crucial barriers in cost, time and reliability. To reduce such barriers, previously we have proposed an intelligent system approach that consisted of the following four ingredients: (1) a PC-based ultrasonic testing (PC-UT) system; (2) an effective invariant ultrasonic flaw classification algorithm; (3) an intelligent flaw classification software; and (4) a database with abundant experimental flaw signals. In the present work, for performing the ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments in a real-time fashion in many real word situations, we develop an intelligent system, which is called the 'Intelligent Ultrasonic Evaluation System (IUES)' by the integration of the above four ingredients into a single, unified system. In addition, for the improvement of classification accuracy of flaws, especially slag inclusions, we expand the feature set by adding new informative features, and demonstrate the enhanced performance of the IUES with flaw signals in the database constructed previously. And then, to take care of the increased redundancy in the feature set due to the addition of features, we also propose two efficient schemes for feature selection: the forward selection with trial and error, and the forward selection with criteria of the error probability and the linear correlation coefficients of individual features

  10. Detection and Characterization of Flaws in Sprayed on Foam Insulation with Pulsed Terahertz Frequency Electromagnetic Waves

    Winfree, William P.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and repair of flaws such as voids and delaminations in the sprayed on foam insulation of the external tank reduces the probability of foam debris during shuttle ascent. The low density of sprayed on foam insulation along with it other physical properties makes detection of flaws difficult with conventional techniques. An emerging technology that has application for quantitative evaluation of flaws in the foam is pulsed electromagnetic waves at terahertz frequencies. The short wavelengths of these terahertz pulses make them ideal for imaging flaws in the foam. This paper examines the application of terahertz pulses for flaw detection in foam characteristic of the foam insulation of the external tank. Of particular interest is the detection of voids and delaminations, encapsulated in the foam or at the interface between the foam and a metal backing. The technique is shown to be capable of imaging small voids and delaminations through as much as 20 cm of foam. Methods for reducing the temporal responses of the terahertz pulses to improve flaw detection and yield quantitative characterizations of the size and location of the flaws are discussed.

  11. Variable flaw shape analysis for a reactor vessel under pressurized thermal shock loading

    Yang, C.Y.; Bamford, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    A study has been conducted to characterize the response of semi-elliptic surface flaws to thermal shock conditions which can result from safety injection actuation in nuclear reactor vessels. A methodology was developed to predict the behavior of a flaw during sample pressurized thermal shock events. The effects of a number of key variables on the flaw propagation were studied, including fracture toughness of the material and its gradient through the thickness, irradiation effects, effects of warm prestressing, and effects of the stainless steel cladding. The results of these studies show that under thermal shock loading conditions the flaw always tends to elongate along the vessel inside surface from the initial aspect ratio. However, the flaw shape always remains finite rather than becoming continuously long, as has often been assumed in earlier analyses. The final shape and size of the flaws were found to be rather strongly dependent on the effects of warm prestressing and the distribution of neutron flux. The improved methodology results in a more accurate and more realistic treatment of flaw shape changes during thermal shock events and provides the potential for quantifying additional margins for reactor vessel integrity analyses

  12. Assessing Changes in Job Behavior Due to Training: A Guide to the Participant Action Plan Approach.

    Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides a brief introduction to the Participant Action Plan Approach (PAPA) and a user's handbook. Part I outlines five steps of PAPA which determine how job behavior is changed by training course or program participation. Part II, the manual, is arranged by the five steps of the PAPA approach. Planning for PAPA discusses making…

  13. Guiding histological assessment of uterine lesions using 3D in vitro ultrasonography and stereotaxis

    Vandermeulen, Liselore; Cornelis, Ann; Rasmussen, Christina Kjærgaard

    2017-01-01

    , the uterus was re-evaluated by 3D in vitro ultrasonography and in vitro gel instillation sonography (iGIS). The lesion of interest was pinpointed by inserting an intramuscular injection needle using a free-hand 2D-ultrasound guided technique to focus the macroscopic and the microscopic examination...

  14. Self-propelled x-ray flaw detector

    Ershov, L.S.; Krasilnikov, S.B.; Lozovoi, L.N.; Losev, J.F.; Morgovsky, L.Y.; Pelix, E.A.; Khakimyanov, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    A self-propelled X-ray flaw detector for radiographic inspection of welded joints in pipelines comprises a carriage mounting a motor, a detector having two Geiger counters, a pulsed X-ray generator, and an exposure and carriage electronic control system. A memory unit in the control system has four storage elements containing information about the motion of the carriage. As the carriage moves in direction A, first one and then the other of the Geiger counters receives radiation from an isotope source positioned near a joint, and by means of logic circuitry in the control system, the information in the storage elements is modified to stop the carriage and to operate a timer to expose the weld. During exposure the X-rays may interfere with the information in the storage elements, but by means of a square-wave generator and the logic circuitry, the stored information is correctly reset in order to eliminate false operation of the memory unit. (author)

  15. Enron Flaws In Organizational Architecture And Its Failure

    Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of corporate scandals at the beginning of last decade has given rise to the doubt on the efficiency of corporate governance practice in the United States. Of these scandals the collapse of Enron has exceptionally captured the public concern. It was the once seventh-largest company in the United States 1. It was rated the most innovative large company in America in Fortunes Most Admired Companies survey 2. In August 2000 its stock reached a peak of nearly 70 billion 3. However within a year its stock had become almost useless papers 2. It just was unbelievable for many people. What went wrong Was it due to the failure of corporate governance in general Actually the central factor leading to the collapse of Enron was the failure in its organizational architecture. This paper starts by providing an overview of corporate governance system with an emphasis on the corporate organizational architecture as its important facet. Then it discusses flaws in the organizational architecture of Enron and argues that these eventually led to the breakdown of the whole corporate governance system at Enron. Finally some implications and lessons for the practice of corporate governance are presented.

  16. Design of Friction Stir Welding Tool for Avoiding Root Flaws.

    Ji, Shude; Xing, Jingwei; Yue, Yumei; Ma, Yinan; Zhang, Liguo; Gao, Shuangsheng

    2013-12-12

    In order to improve material flow behavior during friction stir welding and avoid root flaws of weld, a tool with a half-screw pin and a tool with a tapered-flute pin are suggested. The effect of flute geometry in tool pins on material flow velocity is investigated by the software ANSYS FLUENT. Numerical simulation results show that high material flow velocity appears near the rotational tool and material flow velocity rapidly decreases with the increase of distance away from the axis of the tool. Maximum material flow velocity by the tool with the tapered-flute pin appears at the beginning position of flute and the velocity decreases with the increase of flow length in flute. From the view of increasing the flow velocity of material near the bottom of the workpiece or in the middle of workpiece, the tool with the half-screw pin and the tool with the tapered-flute pin are both better than the conventional tool.

  17. Cracking and Failure in Rock Specimen Containing Combined Flaw and Hole under Uniaxial Compression

    Xiang Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaw is a key factor influencing failure behavior of a fractured specimen. In the present study, rectangular-flawed specimens were prepared using sandstone to investigate the effect of flaw on failure behavior of rock. Open flaw and cylindrical hole were simultaneously precut within rock specimens using high-pressure water jet cutting technology. Five series of specimens including intact, single-hole-alone, two-hole-alone, single-hole and two-flaw, and two-hole and single-flaw blocks were prepared. Uniaxial compressive tests using a rigid servo control instrument were carried out to investigate the fracture processes of these flawed specimens. It is observed that during loading, internal stress always intensively distributed at both sidewalls of open hole, especially at midpoint of sidewalls, so rock crumb flaking was firstly observed among all sandstone specimens containing single hole or two holes. Cracking around open hole is associated with the flaw inclination angle which was observed in Series III and V. Crack easily initiated at the tips of flaw with inclination angles of 0°, 30°, and 60° but hard for 90° in Series III and V. Rock burst was the major failure mode among most tested specimens, which generally induced new cracks and finally created crater shape. Additionally, due to extrusion between blocks, new shear or tensile cracks were generated and the rock specimen surface spalled. Eventually, four typical failure processes including rock crumb flaking, crack initiation and propagation, rock burst, and second rupture, were summarized.

  18. Assessment of structure integrity of top-guide on Chinshan plant

    Lin, Shin-Way; Wang, Li-Hua; Wang, M.T.; Huang, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The BWR top-guide structure is considered potentially susceptible to irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). If the crack initiated and propagated, this would raise a concern for the integrity and function of the guide structure. To understand the possible impact and to establish a guideline for in-service inspection and subsequent repair, an attempt to determine the critical locations and length of cracks is made in this paper. A finite element beam model of the top-guide of Chinshan BWR-4 design is developed based on the as-built design drawing. In order to simulate the clamping effect of the peripheral ring, the model structure is further modified with frame to approach a C-like beam as opposed to the single-ring modeling used by the previous researcher. The results show that the most critical cracks propagated downward from the slot in a top-slotted beam and were mainly located at a beam intersection near the periphery of the top-guide. Although the fluence in the periphery region is lower than the central region, the IASCC can still occur since its fluence exceed the threshold IASSC level. Due to critical importance in the structure integrity of the top-guide, special attention should be paid when examining defects in these locations. Finally in this study, the tearing mode (mode III) is found to be the dominant fracture mode, instead of the normally expected tensile mode (mode I). Both the map of critical crack location and the discussion of dominant fracture mode will be presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Comparison of three flaw-location methods for automated ultrasonic testing

    Seiger, H.

    1982-01-01

    Two well-known methods for locating flaws by measurement of the transit time of ultrasonic pulses are examined theoretically. It is shown that neither is sufficiently reliable for use in automated ultrasonic testing. A third method, which takes into account the shape of the sound field from the probe and the uncertainty in measurement of probe-flaw distance and probe position, is introduced. An experimental comparison of the three methods indicates that use of the advanced method results in more accurate location of flaws. (author)

  20. Behavior of deep flaws in a thick-wall cylinder under thermal shock loading

    Cheverton, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Behavior of inner-surface flaws in thick-walled vessels was studied in a 991-mm OD x 152 mm wall x 1220 mm length cylinder with toughness properties similar to those for HSST Plate. The initial temperature of 93 0 C and a thermal shock medium of liquid nitrogen (-197 0 C) were employed. The initial flaw selected was a sharp, 16 mm deep, long (1220 mm) axial crack. Crack arrest methodology was shown to be valid for deep flaws under severe thermal shock

  1. How to Assess Your CURE: A Practical Guide for Instructors of Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Erin E. Shortlidge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating research experiences into undergraduate life sciences curricula in the form of course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs can meet national calls for education reform by giving students the chance to “do science.” In this article, we provide a step-by-step practical guide to help instructors assess their CUREs using best practices in assessment. We recommend that instructors first identify their anticipated CURE learning outcomes, then work to identify an assessment instrument that aligns to those learning outcomes and critically evaluate the results from their course assessment. To aid instructors in becoming aware of what instruments have been developed, we have also synthesized a table of “off-the-shelf” assessment instruments that instructors could use to assess their own CUREs. However, we acknowledge that each CURE is unique and instructors may expect specific learning outcomes that cannot be assessed using existing assessment instruments, so we recommend that instructors consider developing their own assessments that are tightly aligned to the context of their CURE.

  2. The approach to analysis of significance of flaws in ASME section III and section XI

    Cowan, A.

    1979-01-01

    ASME III Appendix G and ASME XI Appendix A describe linear elastic fracture mechanics methods to assess the significance of defects in thick-walled pressure vessels for nuclear reactor systems. The assessment of fracture toughness, Ksub(Ic), is based upon recommendations made by a Task Group of the USA Pressure Vessel Research Committee and is dependent upon correlations with drop weight and Charpy V-notch data to give a lower bound of fracture toughness Ksub(IR). The methods used in the ASME Appendices are outlined noting that, whereas ASME III Appendix G defines a procedure for obtaining allowable pressure vessel loadings for normal service in the presence of a defect, ASME XI Appendix A defines methods for assessing the significance of defects (found by volumetric inspection) under normal and emergency and faulted conditions. The methods of analysis are discussed with respect to material properties, flaw characterisation, stress analysis and recommended safety factors; a short discussion is given on the applicability of the data and methods to other materials and non-nuclear structures. (author)

  3. Comparison of spontaneous vs. metronome-guided breathing on assessment of vagal modulation using RR variability.

    Bloomfield, D M; Magnano, A; Bigger, J T; Rivadeneira, H; Parides, M; Steinman, R C

    2001-03-01

    R-R interval variability (RR variability) is increasingly being used as an index of autonomic activity. High-frequency (HF) power reflects vagal modulation of the sinus node. Since vagal modulation occurs at the respiratory frequency, some investigators have suggested that HF power cannot be interpreted unless the breathing rate is controlled. We hypothesized that HF power during spontaneous breathing would not differ significantly from HF power during metronome-guided breathing. We measured HF power during spontaneous breathing in 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with heart disease. Each subject's spontaneous breathing rate was determined, and the calculation of HF power was repeated with a metronome set to his or her average spontaneous breathing rate. There was no significant difference between the logarithm of HF power measured during spontaneous and metronome-guided breathing [4.88 +/- 0.29 vs. 5.29 +/- 0.30 ln(ms(2)), P = 0.32] in the group as a whole and when patients and healthy subjects were examined separately. We did observe a small (9.9%) decrease in HF power with increasing metronome-guided breathing rates (from 9 to 20 breaths/min). These data indicate that HF power during spontaneous and metronome-guided breathing differs at most by very small amounts. This variability is several logarithmic units less than the wide discrepancies observed between healthy subjects and cardiac patients with a heterogeneous group of cardiovascular disorders. In addition, HF power is relatively constant across the range of typical breathing rates. These data indicate that there is no need to control breathing rate to interpret HF power when RR variability (and specifically HF power) is used to identify high-risk cardiac patients.

  4. Wetland Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time Salinity Management

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Feldmann, Sara A.

    2004-01-01

    This wetland plant guide was developed to aid moist soil plant identification and to assist in the mapping of waterfowl and shorebird habitat in the Grassland Water District and surrounding wetland areas. The motivation for this habitat mapping project was a concern that real-time salinity management of wetland drainage might have long-term consequences for wildfowl habitat health -- changes in wetland drawdown schedules might, over the long term, lead to increased soil salinity and othe...

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN EXERCISE: AN INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR EXERCISERS AND INSTRUCTORS

    Gomes, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The practice of physical activity is associated to psychological, physical and social benefits. However, in the general population sport practice is still very low and the levels of dropout are very significant (Dishman, 1994; “Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health”, 2004). So it becomes important to understand the factors that can cause these problems. This paper proposes two interview guides for exercisers and instructors that facilitate a deeper analysis of the ps...

  6. Judging the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Assessment Tools to Guide Future Tool Development: The use of Clinimetrics as Opposed to Psychometrics.

    Westgate, Philip M; Gomez-Pomar, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    In the face of the current Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) epidemic, there is considerable variability in the assessment and management of infants with NAS. In this manuscript, we particularly focus on NAS assessment, with special attention given to the popular Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Score (FNAS). A major instigator of the problem of variable practices is that multiple modified versions of the FNAS exist and continue to be proposed, including shortened versions. Furthermore, the validity of such assessment tools has been questioned, and as a result, the need for better tools has been suggested. The ultimate purpose of this manuscript, therefore, is to increase researchers' and clinicians' understanding on how to judge the usefulness of NAS assessment tools in order to guide future tool development and to reduce variable practices. In short, we suggest that judgment of NAS assessment tools should be made on a clinimetrics viewpoint as opposed to psychometrically. We provide examples, address multiple issues that must be considered, and discuss future tool development. Furthermore, we urge researchers and clinicians to come together, utilizing their knowledge and experience, to assess the utility and practicality of existing assessment tools and to determine if one or more new or modified tools are needed with the goal of increased agreement on the assessment of NAS in practice.

  7. Judging the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Assessment Tools to Guide Future Tool Development: The use of Clinimetrics as Opposed to Psychometrics

    Philip M. Westgate

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of the current Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS epidemic, there is considerable variability in the assessment and management of infants with NAS. In this manuscript, we particularly focus on NAS assessment, with special attention given to the popular Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Score (FNAS. A major instigator of the problem of variable practices is that multiple modified versions of the FNAS exist and continue to be proposed, including shortened versions. Furthermore, the validity of such assessment tools has been questioned, and as a result, the need for better tools has been suggested. The ultimate purpose of this manuscript, therefore, is to increase researchers’ and clinicians’ understanding on how to judge the usefulness of NAS assessment tools in order to guide future tool development and to reduce variable practices. In short, we suggest that judgment of NAS assessment tools should be made on a clinimetrics viewpoint as opposed to psychometrically. We provide examples, address multiple issues that must be considered, and discuss future tool development. Furthermore, we urge researchers and clinicians to come together, utilizing their knowledge and experience, to assess the utility and practicality of existing assessment tools and to determine if one or more new or modified tools are needed with the goal of increased agreement on the assessment of NAS in practice.

  8. A colony of dog guides: analysis of the genetic variability assessed by pedigree data

    Roberta Ciampolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the analysis of the genetic variability in a colony of dog guides. Three breeds, Labrador (L, Golden Retriever (GR, and German Shepherd (GS, were evaluated. Pedigrees data on 370 L, 260 GR, and 85 GS dogs bred for guide by the National Guide Dog School (SNCG of Scandicci (Florence, Italy were used. Data were available beginning from 1994. The average coefficient of coancestry and the mean F were 0.8% and 0.45% in GR, 0.7% and 0.38% in L, 1.0% and 0.49% in GS, respectively. The rate of increase in inbreeding was lower in L population (0.17 than in GR population (0.54, while in GS only the dogs with 5 e 7 traced generations resulted inbred. The results of this research point out that the genetic management of the dogs seems to be carefully and rationally monitored. Nevertheless, the population that may require a greater attention seems to be the GR, where a higher increase of the coefficient of inbreeding per generation is observed; therefore, the importation of germplasm from other working dogs is desirable in order to avoid in future an excessive increase of the inbreeding that could lead to adverse consequences for dogs health and fertility.

  9. Wetland Plant Guide for Assessing Habitat Impacts of Real-Time Salinity Management

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Feldmann, Sara A.

    2004-10-15

    This wetland plant guide was developed to aid moist soil plant identification and to assist in the mapping of waterfowl and shorebird habitat in the Grassland Water District and surrounding wetland areas. The motivation for this habitat mapping project was a concern that real-time salinity management of wetland drainage might have long-term consequences for wildfowl habitat health--changes in wetland drawdown schedules might, over the long term, lead to increased soil salinity and other conditions unfavorable to propagation of the most desirable moist soil plants. Hence, the implementation of a program to monitor annual changes in the most common moist soil plants might serve as an index of habitat health and sustainability. Our review of the current scientific and popular literature failed to identify a good, comprehensive field guide that could be used to calibrate and verify high resolution remote sensing imagery, that we had started to use to develop maps of wetland moist soil plants in the Grassland Water District. Since completing the guide it has been used to conduct ground truthing field surveys using the California Native Plant Society methodology in 2004. Results of this survey and a previous wetland plant survey in 2003 are published in a companion LBNL publication summarizing 4 years of fieldwork to advance the science of real-time wetland salinity management.

  10. Guide for the self-assessment of risks brought upon patients in external radiotherapy - ASN guide nr 4, Index 0, Release of the 15/01/2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains a user's guide for radiotherapy centres which is to be read before completing the form of analysis of failure modes, their effects and criticality (AMDEC), this form which must be completed by each radiotherapy centre, and a report explaining the methodology which has been adopted to elaborate this guide

  11. The effectiveness of environment assessment tools to guide refurbishment of Australian residential aged care facilities: A systematic review.

    Neylon, Samantha; Bulsara, Caroline; Hill, Anne-Marie

    2017-06-01

    To determine applicability of environment assessment tools in guiding minor refurbishments of Australian residential aged care facilities. Studies conducted in residential aged care settings using assessment tools which address the physical environment were eligible for inclusion in a systematic review. Given these studies are limited, tools which have not yet been utilised in research settings were also included. Tools were analysed using a critical appraisal screen. Forty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. Ten environment assessment tools were identified, of which four addressed all seven minor refurbishment domains of lighting, colour and contrast, sound, flooring, furniture, signage and way finding. Only one had undergone reliability and validity testing. There are four tools which may be suitable to use for minor refurbishment of Australian residential aged care facilities. Data on their reliability, validity and quality are limited. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  12. The use of fracture mechanics for the evaluation of NDE flaw acceptance standards

    Alicino, A; Capurro, E; Ansaldo, Sp; Corvi, A [Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the use of fracture mechanics criteria to evaluate the Non Destructive Examination (NDE) flaw acceptance standards. The communication discusses the general schemes and the guidelines of the activity carried out. (TEC).

  13. Calculation and evaluation methodology of the flawed pipe and the compute program development

    Liu Chang; Qian Hao; Yao Weida; Liang Xingyun

    2013-01-01

    Background: The crack will grow gradually under alternating load for a pressurized pipe, whereas the load is less than the fatigue strength limit. Purpose: Both calculation and evaluation methodology for a flawed pipe that have been detected during in-service inspection is elaborated here base on the Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM) criteria. Methods: In the compute, the depth and length interaction of a flaw has been considered and a compute program is developed per Visual C++. Results: The fluctuating load of the Reactor Coolant System transients, the initial flaw shape, the initial flaw orientation are all accounted here. Conclusions: The calculation and evaluation methodology here is an important basis for continue working or not. (authors)

  14. A study on the effect of flaw detection probability assumptions on risk reduction achieved by non-destructive inspection

    Cronvall, O.; Simola, K.; Männistö, I.; Gunnars, J.; Alverlind, L.; Dillström, P.; Gandossi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Leakages and ruptures of piping components lead to reduction or loss of the pressure retaining capability of the system, and thus contribute to the overall risk associated with nuclear power plants. In-service inspection (ISI) aims at verifying that defects are not present in components of the pressure boundary or, if defects are present, ensuring that these are detected before they affect the safe operation of the plant. Reliability estimates of piping are needed e.g., in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies, risk-informed ISI (RI-ISI) applications, and other structural reliability assessments. Probabilistic fracture mechanics models can account for ISI reliability, but a quantitative estimate for the latter is needed. This is normally expressed in terms of probability of detection (POD) curves, which correlate the probability of detecting a flaw with flaw size. A detailed POD curve is often difficult (or practically impossible) to obtain. If sufficient risk reduction can be shown by using simplified (but reasonably conservative) POD estimates, more complex PODs are not needed. This paper summarises the results of a study on the effect of piping inspection reliability assumptions on failure probability using structural reliability models. The main interest was to investigate whether it is justifiable to use a simplified POD curve. Further, the study compared various structural reliability calculation approaches for a set of analysis cases. The results indicate that the use of a simplified POD could be justifiable in RI-ISI applications.

  15. Development of the Automated Ultrasonic Testing System for Inspection of the flaw in the Socket Weldment

    Lee, Jeong Ki; Park, Moon Ho; Park, Ki Sung; Lee, Jae Ho; Lim, Sung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Socket weldment used to change the flow direction of fluid nay have flaws such as lack of fusion and cracks. Liquid penetrant testing or Radiography testing have been applied as NDT methods for flaw detection of the socket weldment. But it is difficult to detect the flaw inside of the socket weldment with these methods. In order to inspect the flaws inside the socket weldment, a ultrasonic testing method is established and a ultrasonic transducer and automated ultrasonic testing system are developed for the inspection. The automated ultrasonic testing system is based on the portable personal computer and operated by the program based Windows 98 or 2000. The system has a pulser/receiver, 100MHz high speed A/D board, and basic functions of ultrasonic flaw detector using the program. For the automated testing, motion controller board of ISA interface type is developed to control the 4-axis scanner and a real time iC-scan image of the automated testing is displayed on the monitor. A flaws with the size of less than 1mm in depth are evaluated smaller than its actual site in the testing, but the flaws larger than 1mm appear larger than its actual size on the contrary. This tendency is shown to be increasing as the flaw size increases. h reliable and objective testing results are obtained with the developed system, so that it is expected that it can contribute to safety management and detection of repair position of pipe lines of nuclear power plants and chemical plants

  16. Measurement of flaw size in a weld sample by ultrasonic frequency analysis

    Whaley, H.L. Jr.; Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.

    1975-05-01

    An ultrasonic frequency analysis technique has been developed and applied to the measurement of flaws in an 8-in.-thick heavy-section steel specimen belonging to the Pressure Vessel Research Committee program. Using the technique the flaws occurring in the weld area were characterized in quantitative terms of both dimension and orientation. Several modifications of the technique were made during the study to include the application of several transducers and to consider ultrasonic mode conversion. (U.S.)

  17. A robust indicator based on singular value decomposition for flaw feature detection from noisy ultrasonic signals

    Cui, Ximing; Wang, Zhe; Kang, Yihua; Pu, Haiming; Deng, Zhiyang

    2018-05-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD) has been proven to be an effective de-noising tool for flaw echo signal feature detection in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, the uncertainty in the arbitrary manner of the selection of an effective singular value weakens the robustness of this technique. Improper selection of effective singular values will lead to bad performance of SVD de-noising. What is more, the computational complexity of SVD is too large for it to be applied in real-time applications. In this paper, to eliminate the uncertainty in SVD de-noising, a novel flaw indicator, named the maximum singular value indicator (MSI), based on short-time SVD (STSVD), is proposed for flaw feature detection from a measured signal in ultrasonic NDE. In this technique, the measured signal is first truncated into overlapping short-time data segments to put feature information of a transient flaw echo signal in local field, and then the MSI can be obtained from the SVD of each short-time data segment. Research shows that this indicator can clearly indicate the location of ultrasonic flaw signals, and the computational complexity of this STSVD-based indicator is significantly reduced with the algorithm proposed in this paper. Both simulation and experiments show that this technique is very efficient for real-time application in flaw detection from noisy data.

  18. Tearing stability analysis of an axial surface flaw in thick-walled pressure vessels

    Zahoor, A.; Ghassemi, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents two fracture mechanics models for evaluation of an axial surface flaw in pressure vessels. The surface flaw is located on the outside surface of the vessel. The first model assumes yielding of the remaining ligament directly ahead of the flaw. The second model assumes contained yielding ahead of the flaw and uses a linear elastic fracture mechanics solution. The former model is suitable for cases where the combination of material toughness, flaw size, and load is such that initiation of flaw growth follows ligament yielding. The latter model is suitable for low-toughness materials where initiation of crack growth and potential tearing instability may occur prior to the yielding of the ligament. Both models are suitable for thick-walled vessels. The paper discusses the applicability regime for both models. The models are then applied to a test vessel and the predicted failure pressure is compared against the pressure attained in the test. Results show that both models can be applied successfully. In particular, the contained yielding model when used with the plane-stress assumption can give reasonable predictions even for cases that involve yielding of the ligament. (orig.)

  19. Magnetite Core-Shell Nanoparticles in Nondestructive Flaw Detection of Polymeric Materials.

    Hetti, Mimi; Wei, Qiang; Pohl, Rainer; Casperson, Ralf; Bartusch, Matthias; Neu, Volker; Pospiech, Doris; Voit, Brigitte

    2016-10-04

    Nondestructive flaw detection in polymeric materials is important but difficult to achieve. In this research, the application of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) in nondestructive flaw detection is studied and realized, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Superparamagnetic and highly magnetic (up to 63 emu/g) magnetite core-shell nanoparticles are prepared by grafting bromo-end-group-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (Br-PGMA) onto surface-modified Fe 3 O 4 NPs. These Fe 3 O 4 -PGMA NPs are blended into bisphenol A diglycidylether (BADGE)-based epoxy to form homogeneously distributed magnetic epoxy nanocomposites (MENCs) after curing. The core Fe 3 O 4 of the Fe 3 O 4 -PGMA NPs endows the MENCs with magnetic property, which is crucial for nondestructive flaw detection of the materials, while the shell PGMA promotes colloidal stability and prevents NP aggregation during curing. The eddy current testing (ET) technique is first applied to detect flaws in the MENCs. Through the brightness contrast of the ET image, surficial and subsurficial flaws in MENCs can be detected, even for MENCs with low content of Fe 3 O 4 -PGMA NPs (1 wt %). The incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 -PGMA NPs can be easily extended to other polymer and polymer-based composite systems and opens a new and very promising pathway toward MNP-based nondestructive flaw detection in polymeric materials.

  20. Analytical solution for stress, strain and plastic instability of pressurized pipes with volumetric flaws

    Cunha, Sérgio B.; Netto, Theodoro A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of internally pressurized pipes with volumetric flaws is analyzed. The two possible modes of circumferentially straining the pipe wall are identified and associated to hypothesized geometries. The radial deformation that takes place by bending the pipe wall is studied by means of axisymmetric flaws and the membrane strain developed by unequal hoop deformation is analyzed with the help of narrow axial flaws. Linear elastic shell solutions for stress and strain are developed, the plastic behavior is studied and the maximum hoop stress at the flaw is related to the undamaged pipe hoop stress by means of stress concentration factors. The stress concentration factors are employed to obtain equations predicting the pressure at which the pipe fails by plastic instability for both types of flaw. These analytical solutions are validated by comparison with burst tests on 3″ diameter pipes and finite element simulations. Forty-one burst tests were carried out and two materials with very dissimilar plastic behavior, carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel, were used in the experiments. Both the analytical and the numerical predictions showed good correlation with the experimentally observed burst pressures. - Highlights: ► An analytical model for the burst of a pipe with a volumetric flaw is developed. ► Deformation, strain and stress are modeled in the elastic and plastic domains. ► The model is comprehensively validated by experiments and numerical simulations. ► The burst pressure model’s accuracy is equivalent to finite element simulations.

  1. Tearing stability analysis of an axial surface flaw in thick-walled pressure vessels

    Zahoor, A.; Ghassemi, B.B. (NOVETECH Corp., Rockville, MD (USA))

    1991-04-01

    This paper presents two fracture mechanics models for evaluation of an axial surface flaw in pressure vessels. The surface flaw is located on the outside surface of the vessel. The first model assumes yielding of the remaining ligament directly ahead of the flaw. The second model assumes contained yielding ahead of the flaw and uses a linear elastic fracture mechanics solution. The former model is suitable for cases where the combination of material toughness, flaw size, and load is such that initiation of flaw growth follows ligament yielding. The latter model is suitable for low-toughness materials where initiation of crack growth and potential tearing instability may occur prior to the yielding of the ligament. Both models are suitable for thick-walled vessels. The paper discusses the applicability regime for both models. The models are then applied to a test vessel and the predicted failure pressure is compared against the pressure attained in the test. Results show that both models can be applied successfully. In particular, the contained yielding model when used with the plane-stress assumption can give reasonable predictions even for cases that involve yielding of the ligament. (orig.).

  2. Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Initiation for Volumetric Flaw in Pressure Tube

    Choi, Sung Nam; Yoo, Hyun Joo

    2005-01-01

    CAN/CSA.N285.4-94 requires the periodic inservice inspection and surveillance of pressure tubes in operating CANDU nuclear power reactors. If the inspection results reveal a flaw exceeding the acceptance criteria of the Code, the flaw must be evaluated to determine if the pressure is acceptable for continued service. Currently, the flaw evaluation methodology and acceptance criteria specified in CSA-N285.05-2005, 'Technical requirements for in-service evaluation of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors'. The Code is applicable to zirconium alloy pressure tubes. The evaluation methodology for a crack-like flaw is similar to that of ASME B and PV Sec. XI, 'Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components'. However, the evaluation methodology for a blunt volumetric flaw is described in CSA-N285.05-2005 code. The object of this paper is to address the fatigue crack initiation evaluation for the blunt volumetric flaw as it applies to the pressure tube at Wolsong NPP

  3. Flaw evaluation methodology for class 2, 3 components in light water reactors

    Miura, Naoki; Kashima, Koichi; Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Hasegawa, Kunio; Oritani, Naohiko

    2006-01-01

    It is quite important to validate the structural integrity of operating plant components as aged LWR plants are gradually increasing in Japan. The rules on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants constituted by the JSME provides flaw evaluation methodology. They are mainly focused on Class 1 components, while flaw evaluation criteria for Class 2, 3 components are not consolidated. As such, they also required from the viewpoints of in-service inspection request, reduction of operating cost and systematization of consistent code/standard. In this study, basic concept of flaw evaluation for Class 2, 3 piping was considered, and it is concluded that the same evaluation procedure as Class 1 piping in the current rules is applicable. Some technical issues on practical flaw evaluation for Class 2, 3 piping were listed up, and a countermeasure for each issue was devised. Especially, both allowable flaw sizes in acceptance standards and critical flaw sizes in acceptance criteria have to be determined in consideration of degraded fracture toughness. (author)

  4. A study on the measurement of flaw sizes by acoustical holography

    Yamamoto, M.; Ando, T.; Enami, K.; Yajima, M.; Fukui, S.

    1978-01-01

    As a means of evaluating the safety of flawed pressure vessels and other structures against fracture, fracture mechanics has come to be applied. For the application of fracture mechanics it is necessary to get information concerning the sizes and shapes of flaws. The ultrasonic flaw detection method which is widely used as a nondestructive inspection method cannot measure the sizes and shapes of flaws accurately. Considering that acoustical holography is an useful means for the measurement of flaws, we performed basic tests on this method and obtained the following results: (1) The measured values of artificial flaws (flat bottom drilled holes: 5 -- 36 mm) made on a steel plate with a thickness of 150 mm showed a good linear relation with their actual sizes and scatter in the measured values was +-3 -- 6 mm. (2) The measured values of fatigue cracks (length: 5 -- 57 mm) introduced into a steel plate with thickness of 150 mm also showed a good linear relation with their actual sizes and scatter in the measured values was +-3 mm. (3) It was found that acoustical holography can also be applied to heavy section cast steels. (4) The method of correcting distortion caused by curved surface was investigated by computer-aided simulation and it was considered that such distortion can be corrected by radial scanning of a transducer. (auth.)

  5. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  6. An assessment of auditory-guided locomotion in an obstacle circumvention task.

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Scarfe, Amy C; Moore, Brian C J; Pardhan, Shahina

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated how effectively audition can be used to guide navigation around an obstacle. Ten blindfolded normally sighted participants navigated around a 0.6 × 2 m obstacle while producing self-generated mouth click sounds. Objective movement performance was measured using a Vicon motion capture system. Performance with full vision without generating sound was used as a baseline for comparison. The obstacle's location was varied randomly from trial to trial: it was either straight ahead or 25 cm to the left or right relative to the participant. Although audition provided sufficient information to detect the obstacle and guide participants around it without collision in the majority of trials, buffer space (clearance between the shoulder and obstacle), overall movement times, and number of velocity corrections were significantly (p < 0.05) greater with auditory guidance than visual guidance. Collisions sometime occurred under auditory guidance, suggesting that audition did not always provide an accurate estimate of the space between the participant and obstacle. Unlike visual guidance, participants did not always walk around the side that afforded the most space during auditory guidance. Mean buffer space was 1.8 times higher under auditory than under visual guidance. Results suggest that sound can be used to generate buffer space when vision is unavailable, allowing navigation around an obstacle without collision in the majority of trials.

  7. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  8. Longitudinal diffusion MRI for treatment response assessment: Preliminary experience using an MRI-guided tri-cobalt 60 radiotherapy system.

    Yang, Yingli; Cao, Minsong; Sheng, Ke; Gao, Yu; Chen, Allen; Kamrava, Mitch; Lee, Percy; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Lamb, James; Thomas, David; Low, Daniel; Hu, Peng

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate the preliminary feasibility of a longitudinal diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategy for assessing patient response to radiotherapy at 0.35 T using an MRI-guided radiotherapy system (ViewRay). Six patients (three head and neck cancer, three sarcoma) who underwent fractionated radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. A 2D multislice spin echo single-shot echo planar imaging diffusion pulse sequence was implemented on the ViewRay system and tested in phantom studies. The same pulse sequence was used to acquire longitudinal diffusion data (every 2-5 fractions) on the six patients throughout the entire course of radiotherapy. The reproducibility of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements was assessed using reference regions and the temporal variations of the tumor ADC values were evaluated. In diffusion phantom studies, the ADC values measured on the ViewRay system matched well with reference ADC values with ViewRay MRI. Larger patient cohort studies are warranted to correlate the longitudinal diffusion measurements to patient outcomes. Such an approach may enable response-guided adaptive radiotherapy.

  9. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Part 1, Overview of NUCLARR data retrieval: User's guide

    Gilmore, W.E.; Gentillon, C.D.; Gertman, D.I.; Beers, G.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Gilbert, B.G.

    1988-06-01

    The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) is an automated data base management system for processing and storing human error probability and hardware component failure data. The NUCLARR system software resides on an IBM (or compatible) personal micro-computer. NUCLARR can be used by the end user to furnish data inputs for both human and hardware reliability analysis in support of a variety of risk assessment activities. The NUCLARR system is documented in a five-volume series of reports. Volume IV of this series is the User's Guide for operating the NUCLARR software and is presented in three parts. This document, Part 1: Overview of NUCLARR Data Retrieval provides an introductory overview to the system's capabilities and procedures for data retrieval. The methods and criteria for selection of data sources and entering them into the NUCLARR system are also described in this document

  10. Curriculum-Based Vocational Assessment Handbook: A Guide to the Implementation of Curriculum-Based Vocational Assessment Activities. Revised.

    Stodden, Robert A.; Ianacone, Robert N.

    This handbook is for persons, especially teachers, who collect, evaluate, and apply vocational assessment information for handicapped students in the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS). The approach used is a developmental curriculum-based assessment process which responds to the career/vocational programming sequence through the…

  11. Application of flaw detection methods for detection of fatigue processes in low-alloyed steel

    Zbigniew H. śUREK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the investigations conducted in the Fraunhofer Institute (IZFP Saarbrücken by use of a BEMI microscope (BEMI= Barkhausenrausch- und Wirbelstrom-Mikroskopie or Barkhausen Noise and Eddy Current Microscopy. The ability to detect cyclic and contact fatigue load influences has been investigated. The measurement amplitudes obtained with Barkhausen Noise and Eddy Current probes havebeen analysed. Correlation of measurement results and material’s condition has been observed in case of the eddy current mode method for frequencies above 2 MHz (for contact-loaded material samples. Detection of material’s fatigue process (at 80 % fatiguelife in the sample subjected to series of high-cyclic loads has been proven to be practically impossible. Application of flaw detection methods in material fatigue tests requires modification of test methods and use of investigation methods relevant to physical parameters of the investigated material. The magnetic leakage field method, which has been abandoned by many researchers, may be of significant use in the material fatigue assessment and may provide new research prospects.

  12. The impacts of observing flawed and flawless demonstrations on clinical skill learning.

    Domuracki, Kurt; Wong, Arthur; Olivieri, Lori; Grierson, Lawrence E M

    2015-02-01

    Clinical skills expertise can be advanced through accessible and cost-effective video-based observational practice activities. Previous findings suggest that the observation of performances of skills that include flaws can be beneficial to trainees. Observing the scope of variability within a skilled movement allows learners to develop strategies to manage the potential for and consequences associated with errors. This study tests this observational learning approach on the development of the skills of central line insertion (CLI). Medical trainees with no CLI experience (n = 39) were randomised to three observational practice groups: a group which viewed and assessed videos of an expert performing a CLI without any errors (F); a group which viewed and assessed videos that contained a mix of flawless and errorful performances (E), and a group which viewed the same videos as the E group but were also given information concerning the correctness of their assessments (FA). All participants interacted with their observational videos each day for 4 days. Following this period, participants returned to the laboratory and performed a simulation-based insertion, which was assessed using a standard checklist and a global rating scale for the skill. These ratings served as the dependent measures for analysis. The checklist analysis revealed no differences between observational learning groups (grand mean ± standard error: [20.3 ± 0.7]/25). However, the global rating analysis revealed a main effect of group (d.f.2,36 = 4.51, p = 0.018), which describes better CLI performance in the FA group, compared with the F and E groups. Observational practice that includes errors improves the global performance aspects of clinical skill learning as long as learners are given confirmation that what they are observing is errorful. These findings provide a refined perspective on the optimal organisation of skill education programmes that combine physical and observational practice

  13. An antemortem guide for the assessment of stranded Australian sea snakes (Hydrophiinae).

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    Marine snakes of the subfamily Hydrophiinae are obligate ocean dwellers, unlike their amphibious counterparts, the sea kraits (Laticaudinae), and as such they are often referred to as 'true' sea snakes. This specialization means that the presence of a true sea snake on a beach is atypical and likely indicates disease or injury. Traumatic injuries such as eye, jaw, and spinal lesions have been observed in stranded sea snakes and may present as acute injury or progress to chronic debilitation. Diseases, such as neoplasia, leukemia, and parasite overburden, have also been seen in wild sea snakes, and these animals may present similarly. Sick, moribund, or deceased sea snakes are intermittently found washed ashore along Australian beaches, and these specimens may prove valuable as bioindicators of marine health. This review is intended as a guide to the diagnostic investigation of sick or injured sea snakes by suitably qualified people.

  14. A step-by-step guide for countries conducting a Technology Needs Assessment

    Haselip, James Arthur; Narkeviciute, Rasa; Rogat Castillo, Jorge Enrique

    . For this new TNA Phase II (2015-2017), we reflect upon experience from the 36 countries in the TNA Phase I (2010-2013) and offer country case-study examples to help illustrate how the project can be organised and implemented. Links to the full electronic (.pdf) versions of the guidance documents are provided......The purpose of this document is to summarise the various steps in the implementation of a TNA, serving as the ‘go-to’ document for national coordinators and consultants. It also points to the various materials that are available to further guide and support project management and methodology...... in this guidance note and can be downloaded from the TNA project website www.tech-action.org under ‘Publications’....

  15. Progress in evaluation and improvement in nondestructive examination reliability for inservice inspection of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and characterize fabrication flaws in reactor pressure vessels

    Doctor, S.R.; Bowey, R.E.; Good, M.S.; Friley, J.R.; Kurtz, R.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Taylor, T.T.; Heasler, P.G.; Andersen, E.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Greenwood, M.S.; Hockey, R.L.; Schuster, G.J.; Spanner, J.C.; Vo, T.V.

    1991-10-01

    This paper is a review of the work conducted under two programs. One (NDE Reliability Program) is a multi-year program addressing the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for the inservice inspection (ISI) of light water reactor components. This program examines the reliability of current NDE, the effectiveness of evolving technologies, and provides assessments and recommendations to ensure that the NDE is applied at the right time, in the right place with sufficient effectiveness that defects of importance to structural integrity will be reliably detected and accurately characterized. The second program (Characterizing Fabrication Flaws in Reactor Pressure Vessels) is assembling a data base to quantify the distribution of fabrication flaws that exist in US nuclear reactor pressure vessels with respect to density, size, type, and location. These programs will be discussed as two separate sections in this report. 4 refs., 7 figs

  16. Assessment and Diagnosis of Eating Disorders: A Guide for Professional Counselors

    Berg, Kelly C.; Peterson, Carol B.; Frazier, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of and risk associated with disordered eating, there are few guidelines for counselors on how to conduct an eating disorder assessment. Given the importance of the clinical interview, the purpose of this article is to provide recommendations for the assessment and diagnosis of eating disorders that (a) specifically focus on…

  17. Guide to the measurement and assessment of heat stress in Gold Mines

    Stewart, JM

    1978-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is intended primarily for ventilation staff on mines, but is also of importance to management. In the gold mining industry the assessment of heat stress is likely to be for one of three purposes: to assess either the average or the worst...

  18. A Best Practice Guide to Assessment and Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Schools. Second Edition

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated to reflect DSM-5 and current assessment tools, procedures and research, this award-winning book provides a practical and scientifically-based approach to identifying, assessing, and treating children and adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in school settings. Integrating current research evidence with theory and…

  19. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (External Review Draft)

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments...

  20. Complete removal of a breast mass by US-guided mammotome biopsy: histologic assessment by marginal sampling

    Kim, Youn Jeong; Choi, Hye Young; Moon, Byung In; Lee, Shi Nae

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the complete removal of a breast mass using ultrasound (US) guided mammotome biopsy was successful using a marginal biopsy after insuring the total visual excision of the breast mass on US images. The relationship of complete breast mass removal, and the hematoma, mass size and shape were also evaluated. A US guided mammotome biopsy was performed in a total of 136 cases in 133 patients, with marginal biopsies also added when the complete removal of breast mass had been identified by sonography. The results of the marginal biopsies were serially dividing into three groups, as follows: group I were the cases in the initial 6 months, group II after the initial 6 months and group III having undergone two marginal biopsies. The marginal biopsies were performed in four directions around the probe, with 'marginal positivity' defined as the same histopathological findings to that of the main mass in at least one direction. A statistical analysis was also used to evaluate between the marginal positivity and the hematoma, mass size and shape. The marginal positivities of groups I, II and III were 48.8, 29.4 and 45.5%, respectively. The marginal positivity of those with a lobular shaped mass was significantly higher (ρ = 0.0121) than those with round or oval shaped masses (61.5 vs 33.7 vs 50%), but showed no statistical relationship with hematoma size of the lesions. Although the lesions were removed by US using a US-guided mammotome biopsy, many residual lesions were still histologically present in the marginal samplings, especially in the lobular shaped masse

  1. Use of the cumulative sum method (CUSUM) to assess the learning curves of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block.

    Kollmann-Camaiora, A; Brogly, N; Alsina, E; Gilsanz, F

    2017-10-01

    Although ultrasound is a basic competence for anaesthesia residents (AR) there is few data available on the learning process. This prospective observational study aims to assess the learning process of ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and to determine the number of procedures that a resident would need to perform in order to reach proficiency using the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method. We recruited 19 AR without previous experience. Learning curves were constructed using the CUSUM method for ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block considering 2 success criteria: a decrease of pain score>2 in a [0-10] scale after 15minutes, and time required to perform it. We analyse data from 17 AR for a total of 237 ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve blocks. 8/17 AR became proficient for pain relief, however all the AR who did more than 12 blocks (8/8) became proficient. As for time of performance 5/17 of AR achieved the objective of 12minutes, however all the AR who did more than 20 blocks (4/4) achieved it. The number of procedures needed to achieve proficiency seems to be 12, however it takes more procedures to reduce performance time. The CUSUM methodology could be useful in training programs to allow early interventions in case of repeated failures, and develop competence-based curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. A guide to assessing the cumulative effects of wind energy development

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guidance provides advice on how to assess the cumulative effects of wind energy developments in an area and is aimed at developers, planners, and stakeholders interested in the development of wind energy in the UK. The principles of cumulative assessment, wind energy development in the UK, cumulative assessment of wind energy development, and best practice conclusions are discussed. The identification and assessment of the cumulative effects is examined in terms of global environmental sustainability, local environmental quality and socio-economic activity. Supplementary guidance for assessing the principle cumulative effects on the landscape, on birds, and on the visual effect is provided. The consensus building approach behind the preparation of this guidance is outlined in the annexes of the report.

  3. Preliminary study of the application of transthoracic echocardiography-guided three-dimensional printing for the assessment of structural heart disease.

    Zhu, Yanbo; Liu, Jianshi; Wang, Lianqun; Guan, Xin; Luo, Yongjuan; Geng, Jie; Geng, Qingguo; Lin, Yunjia; Zhang, Lixia; Li, Xixue; Lu, Yaping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility and diagnostic value of a preoperative transthoracic echocardiography-guided three-dimensional printed model (TTE-guided 3DPM) for the assessment of structural heart disease (SHD). Fourty-four patients underwent cardiac surgery at Tianjin Chest Hospital. The patients were preoperatively assessed using TTE-guided 3DPM, which was compared to conventional three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3DTTE) along with direct intraoperative findings, which were considered the "gold standard." Twelve patients had SHD, including four with mitral prolapse, two with partial endocardial cushion defects, two with secondary atrial septal defects, two with rheumatic mitral stenosis, one with tetralogy of Fallot, and one with a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Thirty-two patients who did not have SHDs were designated as the negative control group. The sensitivity and specificity of the TTE-guided 3DPM were greater than or equal to those of the 3DTTE. The P-value of the McNemar test of 3DTTE was >.05, which indicates that the difference was not statistically significant (Kappa = 0.745, P guided 3DPM was >.05, which indicates that the difference was not statistically significant (Kappa = 0.955, P guided 3DPM resulted in a P-value >.05, which indicates that the difference was not statistically significant (Kappa = 0.879, P guided 3DPM displayed the 3D structure of SHDs and cardiac lesions clearly and was consistent with the intra-operative findings. Transthoracic echocardiography-guided three-dimensional printed model (TTE-guided 3DPM) provides essential information for preoperative evaluation and decision making for patients with SHDs. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Guide on a national system for collecting, assessing and disseminating information on safety-related events in nuclear power plants

    1983-02-01

    There is a wide spectrum of safety significance in the events that can occur during nuclear power plant operations. It is important that lessons be learned from safety-related events (hereinafter referred to as unusual events) so as to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. Hence formal procedures should be established for this purpose. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to Member States for establishing a system (hereinafter referred to as a national system) for collecting, storing, retrieving, assessing and disseminating information on unusual events in nuclear power plants. The guidance given is based on experience gained in the use of existing national and international systems. This guide covers a national system that is part of a programme to improve nuclear power plant safety using experience gained from operating plants both within and outside the country. Implementing the recommendations in this guide would render any national system compatible with other national systems and facilitate the participation in the IAEA System for Reporting Unusual Events with Safety Significance (hereinafter referred to as the IAEA Incident Reporting System, IAEA-IRS) for more widespread dissemination of lessons learned from nuclear power plant operation

  5. Assessing Organizational Capabilities: Reviewing and Guiding the Development of Maturity Grids

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2012-01-01

    Managing and improving organizational capabilities is a significant and complex issue for many companies. To support management and enable improvement, performance assessments are commonly used. One way of assessing organizational capabilities is by means of maturity grids. Whilst maturity grids...... than twenty maturity grids places particular emphasis on embedded assumptions about organizational change in the formulation of the maturity ratings. The suggested roadmap encompasses four phases: planning, development, evaluation and maintenance. Each phase discusses a number of decision points...

  6. Development and application of an LWR reactor pressure vessel-specific flaw distribution

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kennedy, E.L.; Foulds, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Previous efforts by the US Department of Energy have shown that the PWR reactor vessel integrity predictions performed through probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis for a pressurized thermal shock event are significantly sensitive to the overall flaw distribution input. It has also been shown that modern vessel in-service inspection (ISI) results can be used for development of vessel flaw distribution(s) that are more representative of US vessels. This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to analyze ISI data for the purpose of flaw distribution determination. The resultant methodology considers detection reliability, flaw sizing accuracy, and flaw detection threshold in its application. Application of the methodology was then demonstrated using four recently acquired US PWR vessel inspection data sets. The methodology helped provide original insight into several key inspection performance and vessel integrity prediction practice issues that will impact future vessel integrity evaluation. This paper briefly discusses the development and application of the methodology and the impact to future vessel integrity analyses

  7. Application of elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to surface flaws

    McCabe, Donald E.; Ernst, Hugo A.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    Fuel tanks that are a part of the External Tank assembly for the Space Shuttle are made of relatively thin 2219-T87 aluminum plate. These tanks contain about 917 m of fusion weld seam, all of which is nondestructively inspected for flaws and all those found are repaired. The tanks are subsequently proof-tested to a pressure that is sufficiently severe to cause weld metal yielding in a few local regions of the weld seam. The work undertaken in the present project was to develop a capability to predict flaw growth from undetected surface flaws that are assumed to be located in the highly stressed regions. The technical challenge was to develop R-curve prediction capability for surface cracks in specimens that contain the flaws of unusual sizes and shapes deemed to be of interest. The test techniques developed and the elastic-plastic analysis concepts adopted are presented. The flaws of interest were quite small surface cracks that were narrow-deep ellipses that served to exacerbate the technical difficulties involved.

  8. Effect of combined loading due to bending and internal pressure on pipe flaw evaluation criteria

    Miura, Naoki; Sakai, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    Considering a rational maintenance rule of Light Water Reactor piping, reliable flaw evaluation criteria are essential to determine how a detected flaw is detrimental to continuous plant operation. Ductile fracture is one of the dominant failure modes to be considered for carbon steel piping, and can be analyzed by the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Some analytical efforts have been provided as flaw evaluation criteria using load correction factors such like the Z-factors in the JSME codes on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants or the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code section XI. The present correction factors were conventionally determined taken conservatism and simplicity into account, however, the effect of internal pressure which would be an important factor under an actual plant condition was not adequately considered. Recently, a J-estimation scheme, 'LBB. ENGC' for ductile fracture analysis of circumferentially through-wall-cracked pipes subjected combined loading was newly developed to have a better prediction with more realistic manner. This method is explicitly incorporated the contribution of both bending and tension due to internal pressure by means of the scheme compatible with an arbitrary combined loading history. In this paper, the effect of internal pressure on the flaw evaluation criteria was investigated using the new J-estimation scheme. A correction factor based on the new J-estimation scheme was compared with the present correction factors, and the predictability of the current flaw evaluation criteria was quantitatively evaluated in consideration of internal pressure. (author)

  9. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture-toughness

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Uniaxial tests of single-edged notched bend (SENB) specimens with both deep- and shallow-flaws have shown elevated fracture-toughness for the shallow flaws. The elevation in fracture-toughness for shallow flaws has been shown to be the result of reduced constraint at the crack-tip. Biaxial loading has the potential to increase constraint at the crack-tip and thereby reduce some of the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation. Biaxial fracture-toughness tests have shown that the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation is reduced but not eliminated by biaxial loading. Dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations have been proposed to reflect the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture-toughness. Test results from the uniaxial and biaxial tests were analyzed using the dual-parameter technology. Discrepancies between analysis results and cleavage initiation site data from fractographic examinations indicate that the analysis models are in need of further refinement. Addition of a precleavage, ductile-tearing element to the analysis model has the potential to resolve the noted discrepancies

  10. Regulation No. 0-31 on handling of radiation flaw-detectors

    1975-01-01

    The regulation contains mandatory design, commissioning, and operational requirements for laboratories using flaw-detectors emitting ionizing radiation; also, design, manufacturing, and operational requirements for the production of any type of X-ray or gamma-ray flaw-detectors. Laboratories carrying out non-destructive testing are either stationary or mobile. Conceptual and operating designs are elaborated, including the building and the laboratory lay-outs, the mains, water supply, and sewerage system technological lay-out, explanatory comments, and a lay-out of the shielding equipment. Approbated designs are implemented, and the laboratories commissioned to representatives of the State Sanitary Inspectorate. Licences are issued by the Ministry of Public Health (MPH) and the Committee on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy (CPUAE). Any flaw-detector has to conform to the Bulgarian State Standards and be coordinated with the MPH, the CPUAE, and the Central Laboratory for Nuclear Flaw-Detection (CLNFD). The laboratories are required to have operational instructions, an emergency plan, and to keep technological and dosimetric records. The latter are provided and processed by the relevant service at the Research Institute of Radiobiology and Radiation Hygiene. For operations involving of flaw-detectors, presence of at least two workers is required. (G.G.)

  11. Simulating the x-ray image contrast to setup techniques with desired flaw detectability

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2015-04-01

    The paper provides simulation data of previous work by the author in developing a model for estimating detectability of crack-like flaws in radiography. The methodology is developed to help in implementation of NASA Special x-ray radiography qualification, but is generically applicable to radiography. The paper describes a method for characterizing the detector resolution. Applicability of ASTM E 2737 resolution requirements to the model are also discussed. The paper describes a model for simulating the detector resolution. A computer calculator application, discussed here, also performs predicted contrast and signal-to-noise ratio calculations. Results of various simulation runs in calculating x-ray flaw size parameter and image contrast for varying input parameters such as crack depth, crack width, part thickness, x-ray angle, part-to-detector distance, part-to-source distance, source sizes, and detector sensitivity and resolution are given as 3D surfaces. These results demonstrate effect of the input parameters on the flaw size parameter and the simulated image contrast of the crack. These simulations demonstrate utility of the flaw size parameter model in setting up x-ray techniques that provide desired flaw detectability in radiography. The method is applicable to film radiography, computed radiography, and digital radiography.

  12. A study on the development of a real-time intelligent system for ultrasonic flaw classification

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Hyun; Lee, Seung Seok

    1998-01-01

    In spite of significant progress in research on ultrasonic pattern recognition it is not widely used in many practical field inspection in weldments. For the convenience of field application of this methodology, following four key issues have to be suitably addressed; 1) a software where the ultrasonic pattern recognition algorithm is efficiently implemented, 2) a real-time ultrasonic testing system which can capture the digitized ultrasonic flaw signal so the pattern recognition software can be applied in a real-time fashion, 3) database of ultrasonic flaw signals in weldments, which is served as a foundation of the ultrasonic pattern recognition algorithm, and finally, 4) ultrasonic features which should be invariant to operational variables of the ultrasonic test system. Presented here is the recent progress in the development of a real-time ultrasonic flaw classification by the novel combination of followings; an intelligent software for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments, a computer-base real-time ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation system, database of ultrasonic flaw signals, and invariant ultrasonic features called 'normalized features.'

  13. Navigating manuscript assessment: The new practitioner's guide to primary literature peer review.

    Smith, Devlin V; Stokes, Laura B; Marx, Kayleigh; Aitken, Samuel L

    2018-01-01

    For pharmacists, the first years after graduation are spent developing their knowledge base, advancing as a practitioner, and honing their abilities as healthcare providers and drug information experts. New practitioners encounter many challenges during this time, which for many include publishing original research or reviewing manuscripts for colleagues and medical journals. Inexperience navigating the publication process, from submission to receipt of (and response to) peer review commentary, is often cited as a major barrier to timely publication of resident and new practitioner research. Serving as a peer reviewer in turn provides the new practitioner with insight on this process and can be an enlightening experience used to garner confidence in subsequently submitting their own formal manuscripts. A number of publications describing steps for peer review are available, however, many of these articles address more experienced reviewers or critique the peer review process itself. No definitive resource exists for new pharmacy practitioners interested in developing their peer review skills. The information presented in this summative guide should be used in conjunction with practice opportunities to help new practitioners develop proficiency at peer review.

  14. CT-guided radiolabelled aerosol studies for assessing pulmonary impairment in children with bronchiectasis

    Pifferi, M.; Baldini, M.; Caramella, D.; Bartolozzi, C.; Di Mauro, M.; Cangiotti, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether CT-guided mucociliary clearance studies allow differentiation between bronchiectasis associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and those unrelated to congenital or genetically transmitted defects. Materials and methods. Fifteen children aged 4-18 years with a CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis were included in the study. Six had PCD, while in nine cases no congenital disorder was demonstrated. Results. CT showed bronchiectasis in 26 (29 %) of 90 lung regions. Radiolabelled aerosol studies were conducted globally for each lung and on the regions affected by bronchiectasis. Global half-time of activity (t 1/2 ) values of patients with PCD were significantly higher (P 1/2 values. Patients with bronchiectasis unrelated to congenital disorders showed significantly higher regional t 1/2 values in the affected regions with respect to the corresponding global pulmonary t 1/2 (P < 0.06). Conclusions. The combination of morphological CT information with functional data concerning the clearance of radiolabelled aerosol adds to our understanding of pulmonary impairment in children with bronchiectasis. In particular, regional studies allow the recognition of different mucociliary clearance patterns in bronchiectasis associated with PCD and those unrelated to congenital or genetically transmitted defects. (orig.)

  15. Landscape integration and harmonization assessment guide : wind farm siting project on public land

    Bouchard, M.A.; Boudart, M.; Arsenault, M.; Lauzon, M.; Lizotte, C.; Munoz, P.; Poirier, C.; Guimont, C.; Sainte-Marie, L.

    2005-07-01

    The development of a wind farm industry depends greatly on obtaining land use rights. This paper describes a program created by the Quebec Government to make public land available for wind farm construction. In particular, the program allows the government to set aside public land to promote the development of the wind industry in the Gaspe Region and the Matane Regional County Municipality. It also awards land rights for wind farm construction to bidders who have signed wind energy sales contracts with Hydro-Quebec Distribution. The program allows the government to set lease rates for public land used for wind farms based on market rates. This document is a guide used by Quebec's Ministry of Natural Resources to evaluate projects and issue leases for parcels of public land to be used for wind turbine arrays. It identifies major landscape issues associated with wind farms and allows proponents to demonstrate the natural and anthropogenic impacts of a wind farm on the landscape and present mitigative measures to minimize these impacts. This document also identifies the wind farm landscape integration and harmonization principles for public lands in Quebec. It was noted that wind farm projects with 10 MW capacity or less are not subject to guidelines established by the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Assessing cognitive processes related to insomnia: A review and measurement guide for Harvey's cognitive model for the maintenance of insomnia.

    Hiller, Rachel M; Johnston, Anna; Dohnt, Hayley; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive processes play an important role in the maintenance, and treatment of sleep difficulties, including insomnia. In 2002, a comprehensive model was proposed by Harvey. Since its inception the model has received >300 citations, and provided researchers and clinicians with a framework for understanding and treating insomnia. The aim of this review is two-fold. First, we review the current literature investigating each factor proposed in Harvey's cognitive model of insomnia. Second, we summarise the psychometric properties of key measures used to assess the model's factors and mechanisms. From these aims, we demonstrate both strengths and limitations of the current knowledge of appropriate measurements associated with the model. This review aims to stimulate and guide future research in this area; and provide an understanding of the resources available to measure, target, and resolve cognitive factors that may maintain chronic insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Probabilistic Risk Assessment Procedures Guide for NASA Managers and Practitioners (Second Edition)

    Stamatelatos,Michael; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Apostolakis, George; Everline, Chester; Guarro, Sergio; Mathias, Donovan; Mosleh, Ali; Paulos, Todd; Riha, David; Smith, Curtis; hide

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a comprehensive, structured, and logical analysis method aimed at identifying and assessing risks in complex technological systems for the purpose of cost-effectively improving their safety and performance. NASA's objective is to better understand and effectively manage risk, and thus more effectively ensure mission and programmatic success, and to achieve and maintain high safety standards at NASA. NASA intends to use risk assessment in its programs and projects to support optimal management decision making for the improvement of safety and program performance. In addition to using quantitative/probabilistic risk assessment to improve safety and enhance the safety decision process, NASA has incorporated quantitative risk assessment into its system safety assessment process, which until now has relied primarily on a qualitative representation of risk. Also, NASA has recently adopted the Risk-Informed Decision Making (RIDM) process [1-1] as a valuable addition to supplement existing deterministic and experience-based engineering methods and tools. Over the years, NASA has been a leader in most of the technologies it has employed in its programs. One would think that PRA should be no exception. In fact, it would be natural for NASA to be a leader in PRA because, as a technology pioneer, NASA uses risk assessment and management implicitly or explicitly on a daily basis. NASA has probabilistic safety requirements (thresholds and goals) for crew transportation system missions to the International Space Station (ISS) [1-2]. NASA intends to have probabilistic requirements for any new human spaceflight transportation system acquisition. Methods to perform risk and reliability assessment in the early 1960s originated in U.S. aerospace and missile programs. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is an example. It would have been a reasonable extrapolation to expect that NASA would also become the world leader in the application of PRA. That was

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Mobile App-Guided Training in Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (eFAST): A Randomized Trial.

    Nilsson, Philip Mørkeberg; Todsen, Tobias; Subhi, Yousif; Graumann, Ole; Nolsøe, Christian Pallson; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2017-12-01

     Ultrasound training is associated with a long learning curve and use of substantial faculty resources. Self-directed ultrasound training may decrease the need for faculty-led teaching. Mobile apps seem promising for use in self-directed ultrasound training, but no studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of mobile app-guided training versus traditional formats such as textbook-guided training. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of mobile app-guided versus textbook-guided ultrasound training.  First-year residents (n = 38) with no previous ultrasound experience were randomized into mobile app-guided versus textbook-guided self-directed ultrasound training groups. Participants completed a transfer test involving four patient cases and a theoretical test on diagnostic accuracy. Two ultrasound experts assessed the residents' performance using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. The costs of developing mobile app and textbook material were calculated and used for the analysis of cost-effectiveness.  34 participants completed the transfer test. There was no statistically significant difference in test performance or diagnostic accuracy between the mobile app-guided (mean-OSAUS 42.3 % [95 %CI38.5 - 46.0 %]) and textbook-guided groups (mean-OSAUS 45.3 % [95 %CI39.3 - 51.3 %]) (d.f. [1.33] = 0.45, p = 0.41). However, development costs differed greatly for each instructional format. Textbook-guided training was significantly more cost-effective than mobile app-guided training (Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio -861 967 [95 %CI-1071.7 to-3.2] USD/pct. point change in OSAUS score).  Mobile app-guided ultrasound training is less cost-effective than textbook-guided self-directed training. This study underlines the need for careful evaluation of cost-effectiveness when introducing technological innovations for clinical skills training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Creative engineering design assessment background, directions, manual, scoring guide and uses

    Charyton, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The Creative Engineering Design Assessment or CEDA is a newly developed tool to assess creativity specific to engineering design which is vital for innovation. The revised CEDA assesses usefulness in addition to originality.  Both originality and usefulness are key constructs in creativity but are primarily essential and emphasized ever more in engineering design.  Since the preliminary research was presented to the National Science Foundation, further reliability and validity has been developed and established. The CEDA is different from other general creativity measures as it demonstrates discriminant validity with the Creative Personality Scale, Creative Temperament Scale, and the Cognitive Risk Tolerance Scale, and has demonstrated convergent validity with the Purdue Creativity Test and the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test- Rotations. It focuses on engineering specific measures, measuring engineering creativity and spatial skills. The aim of this book is to disseminate the CEDA tool for use in engin...

  20. Flaw evaluation of thermally aged cast stainless steel in light-water reactor applications

    Lee, S.; Kuo, P.T.; Wichman, K.; Chopra, O.

    1997-01-01

    Cast stainless steel may be used in the fabrication of the primary loop piping, fittings, valve bodies, and pump casings in light-water reactors. However, this material is subject to embrittlement due to thermal aging at the reactor temperature, that is 290 o C (550 o F). The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently completed a research program and the results indicate that the lower-bound fracture toughness of thermally aged cast stainless steel is similar to that of submerged arc welds (SAWs). Thus, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has accepted the use of SAW flaw evaluation procedures in IWB-3640 of Section XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code to evaluate flaws in thermally aged cast stainless steel for a license renewal evaluation. Alternatively, utilities may estimate component-specific fracture toughness of thermally aged cast stainless steel using procedures developed at ANL for a case-by-case flaw evaluation. (Author)

  1. Experimental study on flaw detectability of remote field eddy current testing

    Kamimura, T.; Fukui, S.; Iwahashi, Y.; Yamada, H.

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of comprehending the effect in practical use of the remote field eddy current (RFEC) testing that becomes noticeable for the ISI technique of steel tubes, its flaw detectability was clarified through a model test. This study used straight and bending tubes of 3.8 mm in wall thickness and 31.8 mm in outside diameter. These tubes were inspected from their inside. After relations among the pickup coil output, coil distance, testing frequency, etc. were measured, a probe of the practical use type was manufactured to investigate its flaw detectability by means of simulated flaws. The authors discuss how it has been found that light local wall thinning on the outside surfaces can be detected by this technique and its effect in practical use can be expected with small influences due to magnetic permeability variations of tube materials, bending of tubes, etc

  2. Flaw density examinations of a clad boiling water reactor pressure vessel segment

    Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Flaw density is the greatest uncertainty involved in probabilistic analyses of reactor pressure vessel failure. As part of the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program, studies have been conducted to determine flaw density in a section of reactor pressure vessel cut from the Hope Creek Unit 2 vessel [nominally 0.7 by 3 m (2 by 10 ft)]. This section (removed from the scrapped vessel that was never in service) was evaluated nondestructively to determine the as-fabricated status. We had four primary objectives: (1) evaluate longitudinal and girth welds for flaws with manual ultrasonics, (2) evaluate the zone under the nominal 6.3-mm (0.25-in.) clad for cracking (again with manual ultrasonics), (3) evaluate the cladding for cracks with a high-sensitivity fluorescent penetrant method, and (4) determine the source of indications detected

  3. Origin and type of flaws in heat engine ceramic materials and components

    Govila, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    A number of ceramic materials such as Silicon Nitrides and Carbides, Sialons, Whisker-Reinforced Ceramic Composites and Partially-Stabilized Zirconias (PSZs) have been developed for use as structural components in heat engine applications. The reliability and durability of a structural engine component is critically dependent on the size, density of distribution and location of flaws. This information is critical for the processing and design engineers in order to design structural components using suitable materials and thus minimize stress intensity. In general, the failure initiating flaws are associated or produced due to material impurity, processing methods and parameters, and fabrication techniques (machining and grinding). Examples of each type of flaws associated with material impurity, processing methods and fabrication techniques are illustrated

  4. Investigation with automatic ultrasonic equipment to trace flaws in a large test piece, and experience gained in carrying out inspections

    Lindner, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Based on the FRG codes providing guide lines for the Reactor Safety Commission regarding the size and location of flaws to be detected during in-service inspections, investigations were carried out into the possibility of detecting defects in thick-walled reactor pressure vessel components with the aid of ultrasonic inspection systems. A large test rig was used and, in a similar manner to the in-service inspections on a reactor, the tests were carried out with remote-controlled, automatically guided inspection equipment. For this purpose, a test specimen weighing about 10 tons was produced and provided with two weld seams having a large number of artificial defects. Essential parameters for the various reflectors in the test specimen were the size, location, angle and roughness or structure of the reflecting surfaces. As it is known that austenitic cladding has a considerable influence on flaw detection, the tests were undertaken first without cladding and then with cladding. A manipulator was designed for automatic remote-controlled inspection with which the inspection system travels on a meandering route over the area to be inspected. The inspection system employed was of the same type as the one used for baseline tests during external inspections of reactor vessel walls with parallel surfaces. Digital data collection was by a magnetic tape recorder designed to store both the data of the ultrasonic inspection system as well as the allied position data. The data stored on the tape are evaluated with electronic data processing programmes especially developed for this purpose. These programmes allow locally coherent indication patterns to be prepared, thus simplifying the interpretation of the data obtained. The author initially describes the equipment with the aid of which the studies were undertaken. A detailed discussion is then presented on the design of the test specimen and the inspection systems employed. Following this, the results obtained are explained and

  5. Guiding principles for good practices in hospital-based health technology assessment units

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Lach, Krzysztof; Pasternack, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Health technology assessment (HTA) carried out for policy decision making has well-established principles unlike hospital-based HTA (HB-HTA), which differs from the former in the context characteristics and ways of operation. This study proposes principles for good practices in HB-HTA...

  6. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  7. EMDS users guide (version 2.0): knowledge-based decision support for ecological assessment.

    Keith M. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station in Corvallis, Oregon, has developed the ecosystem management decision support (EMDS) system. The system integrates the logical formalism of knowledge-based reasoning into a geographic information system (GIS) environment to provide decision support for ecological landscape assessment and evaluation. The...

  8. Template for assessing climate change impacts and management options: TACCIMO user guide version 2.2

    Emrys Treasure; Steven McNulty; Jennifer Moore Myers; Lisa Nicole Jennings

    2014-01-01

    The Template for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Management Options (TACCIMO) is a Web-based tool developed by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture to assist Federal, State, and private land managers and planners with evaluation of climate change science implications for sustainable natural resource management. TACCIMO is a dynamic information...

  9. Assessing recreational values of Danish forests to guide national plans for afforestation

    Zandersen, Marianne; Termansen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Forests provide a range of recreational benefits and it is essential to include these benefits in decisions related to forest management and/or afforestation. The assessment of recreational values and preferences in North Zealand (DK) found that the per hectare value of recreational services prov...

  10. Practitioner's Guide to Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Infants and Toddlers

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Goldsmith, Tina R.; Snow, Anne V.; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in clinical research have made it possible to diagnosis autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as early as the second year of life. The diagnostic process early in development is often complex, and thus, familiarity with the most recent findings in clinical assessment instruments, early symptoms, and developmental trajectories of young…

  11. Using TRAILS to Assess Student Learning: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Owen, Patricia L.

    2010-01-01

    School librarians nationwide seek to produce evidence of the library's impact on student learning and achievement. While classroom teachers demonstrate their impact through the use of standardized test scores including end-of-grade tests and SAT/ACT tests, school librarians have long used informal or in-class assessments to gauge student learning.…

  12. Analytical solution for stress, strain and plastic instability of pressurized pipes with volumetric flaws

    Cunha, Sergio B., E-mail: sbcunha@petrobras.com.br [PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO, Av. Pres. Vargas 328 - 7th floor, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20091-060 (Brazil); Netto, Theodoro A., E-mail: tanetto@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [COPPE, Federal University ot Rio de Janeiro, Ocean Engineering Department, PO BOX 68508, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    The mechanical behavior of internally pressurized pipes with volumetric flaws is analyzed. The two possible modes of circumferentially straining the pipe wall are identified and associated to hypothesized geometries. The radial deformation that takes place by bending the pipe wall is studied by means of axisymmetric flaws and the membrane strain developed by unequal hoop deformation is analyzed with the help of narrow axial flaws. Linear elastic shell solutions for stress and strain are developed, the plastic behavior is studied and the maximum hoop stress at the flaw is related to the undamaged pipe hoop stress by means of stress concentration factors. The stress concentration factors are employed to obtain equations predicting the pressure at which the pipe fails by plastic instability for both types of flaw. These analytical solutions are validated by comparison with burst tests on 3 Double-Prime diameter pipes and finite element simulations. Forty-one burst tests were carried out and two materials with very dissimilar plastic behavior, carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel, were used in the experiments. Both the analytical and the numerical predictions showed good correlation with the experimentally observed burst pressures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analytical model for the burst of a pipe with a volumetric flaw is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deformation, strain and stress are modeled in the elastic and plastic domains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is comprehensively validated by experiments and numerical simulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The burst pressure model's accuracy is equivalent to finite element simulations.

  13. Repository Integration Program: RIP performance assessment and strategy evaluation model theory manual and user`s guide

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the theory and capabilities of RIP (Repository Integration Program). RIP is a powerful and flexible computational tool for carrying out probabilistic integrated total system performance assessments for geologic repositories. The primary purpose of RIP is to provide a management tool for guiding system design and site characterization. In addition, the performance assessment model (and the process of eliciting model input) can act as a mechanism for integrating the large amount of available information into a meaningful whole (in a sense, allowing one to keep the ``big picture`` and the ultimate aims of the project clearly in focus). Such an integration is useful both for project managers and project scientists. RIP is based on a `` top down`` approach to performance assessment that concentrates on the integration of the entire system, and utilizes relatively high-level descriptive models and parameters. The key point in the application of such a ``top down`` approach is that the simplified models and associated high-level parameters must incorporate an accurate representation of their uncertainty. RIP is designed in a very flexible manner such that details can be readily added to various components of the model without modifying the computer code. Uncertainty is also handled in a very flexible manner, and both parameter and model (process) uncertainty can be explicitly considered. Uncertainty is propagated through the integrated PA model using an enhanced Monte Carlo method. RIP must rely heavily on subjective assessment (expert opinion) for much of its input. The process of eliciting the high-level input parameters required for RIP is critical to its successful application. As a result, in order for any project to successfully apply a tool such as RIP, an enormous amount of communication and cooperation must exist between the data collectors, the process modelers, and the performance. assessment modelers.

  14. Assessment of Color Changes in Vita 3D-Master Shade Guide after Sterilization and Disinfection

    Hossein Dashti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:Dental shade guides are commonly used for color determination and should be disinfected and sterilized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color change of Vita 3D Master shade tabs after disinfection and sterilization. Material and methods:Overall, 98 samples (shade tabs were randomly selected from 14 new, unused Vita 3D sets, including the following shades: 2M1, 3L1.5, 3M1, 3M2, 3M3, 3R1.5 and 4M1. In each set, values of 2, 3 and 4, chroma of 1, 2 and 3 and hue were selected for the comparison of different shades. All tabs were measured using the Vita Easyshade device at baseline. The first group was disinfected with Deconex and the second group was sterilized by autoclaving in a simulated annual application. All the tabs were measured again using the same device. This process was repeated to simulate 2 and 3 years of usage. Statistical analysis was conducted by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test and paired sample t-test. Results:In the disinfected group, we observed significant differences in value and chroma in all periods (p˂0.001. However, hue showed no significant difference after the first year of simulated treatment (p=0.527, though it was significantly different in the second and third simulations (p˂0.001. In the sterilized group, all variables showed a significant difference for each year (p˂0.05. Considering total color difference (ΔE, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the first, second and third simulated years; ΔE increased in the sterilized group more than in the disinfected samples (p˂0.001.  Conclusions:  The color change of shade tabs was significant both after disinfection by a chemical solution and by sterilization through autoclaving. However, although disinfectants may not have a clinically important effect, sterilization should be considered as an interfering factor during color-matching procedure.

  15. Feasibility assessment of visual quality analyzer KR-1W guiding personalized aspheric IOL implantation

    Xiao-Li Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the feasibility of using the visual quality analyzer KR-1W to guide the relatively personalized aspheric intraocular lens(IOLimplants to make the whole eye spherical aberration close to 0.1μm.METHODS: In this prospective case series study, the corneal spherical aberration with 6mm aperture of 73 patients(100 eyeswas measured with KR-1W Visual Function Analyzer 1d before surgery. For the sake of the whole postoperative spherical aberration were close to 0.1μm, 9 cases(16 eyeswith corneal spherical aberration 0.35μm were implanted Tecnis ZA9003 IOL, named Tecnis group. Aspherical IOL was implanted after phacoemulsification through a cornea 2.75mm incision without suture.Uncorrected visual acuity, beat corrected visual acuity, spherical aberration of the whole eye and jnternal optics(mainly IOLat 6mm pupil diameter were examined at 3mo postoperatively. The relevant data were analyzed using t-test and variance analysis.RESULTS: The whole ocular spherical aberration at 6mm pupil diameter in all postoperative were 0.084±0.032μm; in Tecnis group, the data were 0.091 ± 0.021μm; in AO group, the data were 0.0814-0.013μm; IQ group were 0.093±0.042μm. There was no significantly different between the predicted value and actual value of ocular spherical aberration at 6 mm pupil diameter in all postoperative(t=1.932, P=0.061and in the three groups. The difference value in the predicted values of the preoperative spherical aberrations of the whole eye and the actual values after surgery was 0.013±0.041μm; there was no statistically significant difference(F=2.537, P=0.091. Respectively compared the uncorrected visual acuity and besta corrected visual acuity among three groups of postoperative, no significant difference were found(F=0.897, P=0.421; F=1.423, P=0.097.CONCLUSION: Personality selection of aspheric IOL based on preoperative corneal spherical aberration of patients is feasible and produces satisfactory target postoperative

  16. Potential change in flaw geometry of an initially shallow finite-length surface flaw during a pressurized-thermal-shock transient

    Shum, D.K.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1993-09-01

    This study presents preliminary estimates on whether an shallow, axially oriented, inner-surface finite-length flaw in a PWR-RPV would tend to elongate in the axial direction and/or deepen into the wall of the vessel during a postulated PTS transient. Analysis results obtained based on the assumptions of (1) linear-elastic material response, and (2) cladding with same toughness as the base metal, indicate that a nearly semicircular flaw would likely propagate in the axial direction followed by propagation into the wall of the vessel. Note that these results correspond to initiation within the lower-shelf fracture toughness temperature range, and that their general validity within the lower-transition temperature range remains to be determined. The sensitivity of the numerical results aid conclusions to the following analysis assumptions are evaluated: (1) reference flaw geometry along the entire crack front and especially within the cladding region; (2) linear-elastic vs elastic-plastic description of material response; and (3) base-material-only vs bimaterial cladding-base vessel-model assumption. The sensitivity evaluation indicates that the analysis results are very sensitive to the above assumptions

  17. Influence of circumferential flaw length on internal burst pressure of a wall-thinned pipe

    Tsuji, Masataka, E-mail: tsuji-m@u-fukui.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Meshii, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The effect of θ on p{sub f} was examined by experimental analysis and FEA. ► Here θ is the circumferential angle of a flaw, p{sub f} is the internal burst pressure. ► p{sub f} decreased as θ increased in some cases. ► The effect of θ on p{sub f} should be taken into consideration in evaluating p{sub f}. -- Abstract: This paper examines the effect of the circumferential angle of a flaw θ on the internal burst pressure p{sub f} of pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws. The effect of θ has conventionally been regarded as unimportant in the evaluation of the p{sub f} of wall-thinned straight pipes. Therefore, a burst pressure equation for an axial crack inside a cylinder (Fig. 1, left), such as Kiefner's equation (Kiefner et al., 1973), has been widely applied (ANSI/ASME B31.G., 1991; Hasegawa et al., 2011). However, the following implicit assumptions notably exist when applying the equation to planar flaws in situations with non-planar flaws. 1)The fracture mode of the non-planar flaw under consideration is identical to that of the crack. 2)The effect of θ on p{sub f}, which is not considered for an axial crack, is small or negligible. However, the experimental results from the systematic burst tests for carbon steel pipes with artificial wall-thinned flaws examined in this paper showed that these implicit assumptions may be incorrect. In this paper the experimental results are evaluated in further detail. The purpose of the evaluation was to clarify the effect of θ on p{sub f}. Specifically, the significance of the flaw configuration (axial length δ{sub z} and wall-thinning ratio t{sub 1}/t) was studied for its effects on θ and p{sub f}. In addition, a simulation of this effect was conducted using a large strain elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. As observed from the experimental results, θ tended to affect p{sub f} in cases with large δ{sub z}, and t{sub 1}/t was also correlated with a decrease in p{sub f

  18. Evaluating empirical/analytical techniques to predict structural integrity of pipe containing surface flaws

    Reuter, W.G.; Server, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    Data from flat-plate specimens containing either triangular-, ellipsoidal- or rectangular-shaped surface flaws were evaluated by several potential analytical techniques. These techniques were modified as needed to predict conditions for initiation of subcritical crack growth, for the defect to penetrate the 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) wall thickness, and for instability (plastic or unstable). The modified analytical techniques developed from the plate specimens were then used to make predictions which are compared with test results obtained from pipe specimens containing triangular-shaped surface flaws

  19. Internal Rot Detection with the Use of Low-Frequency Flaw Detector

    Proskórnicki, Marek; Ligus, Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    The issue of rot detection in standing timber or stocked wood is very important in forest management. Rot flaw detection used for that purpose is represented by invasive and non-invasive devices. Non-invasive devices are very accurate, but due to the cost and complicated operation they have not been applied on a large scale in forest management. Taking into account the practical needs of foresters a prototype of low-frequency flaw was developed. The principle of its operation is based on the difference in acoustic wave propagation in sound wood and wood with rot.

  20. Imaging flaws in thin metal plates using a magneto-optic device

    Wincheski, B.; Prabhu, D. R.; Namkung, M.; Birt, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the capabilities of the magnetooptic/eddy-current imager (MEI) apparatus in the case of aging aircraft structure-type flaws in 2024-T3 Al alloy plates. Attention is given to images of cyclically grown fatigue cracks from rivetted joints in fabricated lap-joint structures, electrical discharge machining notches, and corrosion spots. Although conventional eddy-current methods could have been used, the speed and ease of MEI's use in these tests is unmatched by such means. Results are displayed in real time as a test piece is scanned, furnishing easily interpreted flaw images.

  1. Twenty years of fracture mechanics and flaw evaluation applications in the ASME Nuclear Code

    Riccardella, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a retrospective on the development and applications of fracture mechanics-based toughness requirements and flaw evaluation methodology in Sections III and XI of the ASME Code. Section III developments range from the rules and requirements for thick section Class 1 pressure vessels to thinner section components in other Classes. Section XI applications include flaw acceptance standards and evaluation methodology for various components ranging from pressure vessels to thins section piping of carbon and austenitic steels. The experience gained in operating plant applications of these rules and procedures are also discussed

  2. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Westby, R.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes the strategic importance of energy to its mission, and is working to reduce energy consumption and enhance energy self-sufficiency by drawing on local clean energy sources. A joint initiative formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to address military energy use led to a task force to examine the potential for net zero energy military installations, which would produce as much energy on site as they consume in buildings, facilities, and fleet vehicles. This report presents an assessment and planning process to examine military installations for net zero energy potential. Net Zero Energy Installation Assessment (NZEIA) presents a systematic framework to analyze energy projects at installations while balancing other site priorities such as mission, cost, and security.

  3. Pandora - a simulation tool for safety assessments. Technical description and user's guide

    Ekstroem, Per-Anders (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report documents a flexible simulation tool, Pandora, used in several post closure safety assessments in both Sweden and Finland to assess the radiological dose to man due to releases from radioactive waste repositories. Pandora allows the user to build compartment models to represent the migration and fate of radionuclides in the environment. The tool simplifies the implementation and simulation of radioecological biosphere models in which there exist a large set of radionuclides and input variables. Based on the well-known technical computing software MATLAB and especially its interactive graphical environment Simulink, Pandora receives many benefits. MATLAB/Simulink is a highly flexible tool used for simulations of practically any type of dynamic system; it is widely used, continuously maintained, and often upgraded. By basing the tool on this commercial software package, we gain both the graphical interface provided by Simulink, as well as the ability to access the advanced numerical equation solving routines in MATLAB. Since these numerical methods are well established and quality assured in their MATLAB implementation, the solution methods used in Pandora can be considered to have high level of quality assurance. The structure of Pandora provides clarity in the model format, which means the model itself assists its own documentation, since the model can be understood by inspecting its structure. With the introduction of the external tool Pandas (Pandora assessment tool), version handling and an integrated way of performing the entire calculation chain has been added. Instead of being dependent on other commercial statistical software as @Risk for performing probabilistic assessments, they can now be performed within the tool

  4. Pandora - a simulation tool for safety assessments. Technical description and user's guide

    Ekstroem, Per-Anders

    2010-12-01

    This report documents a flexible simulation tool, Pandora, used in several post closure safety assessments in both Sweden and Finland to assess the radiological dose to man due to releases from radioactive waste repositories. Pandora allows the user to build compartment models to represent the migration and fate of radionuclides in the environment. The tool simplifies the implementation and simulation of radioecological biosphere models in which there exist a large set of radionuclides and input variables. Based on the well-known technical computing software MATLAB and especially its interactive graphical environment Simulink, Pandora receives many benefits. MATLAB/Simulink is a highly flexible tool used for simulations of practically any type of dynamic system; it is widely used, continuously maintained, and often upgraded. By basing the tool on this commercial software package, we gain both the graphical interface provided by Simulink, as well as the ability to access the advanced numerical equation solving routines in MATLAB. Since these numerical methods are well established and quality assured in their MATLAB implementation, the solution methods used in Pandora can be considered to have high level of quality assurance. The structure of Pandora provides clarity in the model format, which means the model itself assists its own documentation, since the model can be understood by inspecting its structure. With the introduction of the external tool Pandas (Pandora assessment tool), version handling and an integrated way of performing the entire calculation chain has been added. Instead of being dependent on other commercial statistical software as Risk for performing probabilistic assessments, they can now be performed within the tool

  5. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H.

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management.''

  6. Assessment of residual error for online cone-beam CT-guided treatment of prostate cancer patients

    Letourneau, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Lockman, David; Yan Di; Vargas, Carlos; Ivaldi, Giovanni; Wong, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) implemented on board a medical accelerator is available for image-guidance applications in our clinic. The objective of this work was to assess the magnitude and stability of the residual setup error associated with CBCT online-guided prostate cancer patient setup. Residual error pertains to the uncertainty in image registration, the limited mechanical accuracy, and the intrafraction motion during imaging and treatment. Methods and Materials: The residual error for CBCT online-guided correction was first determined in a phantom study. After online correction, the phantom residual error was determined by comparing megavoltage portal images acquired every 90 deg. to the corresponding digitally reconstructed radiographs. In the clinical study, 8 prostate cancer patients were implanted with three radiopaque markers made of high-winding coils. After positioning the patient using the skin marks, a CBCT scan was acquired and the setup error determined by fusing the coils on the CBCT and planning CT scans. The patient setup was then corrected by moving the couch accordingly. A second CBCT scan was acquired immediately after the correction to evaluate the residual target setup error. Intrafraction motion was evaluated by tracking the coils and the bony landmarks on kilovoltage radiographs acquired every 30 s between the two CBCT scans. Corrections based on soft-tissue registration were evaluated offline by aligning the prostate contours defined on both planning CT and CBCT images. Results: For ideal rigid phantoms, CBCT image-guided treatment can usually achieve setup accuracy of 1 mm or better. For the patients, after CBCT correction, the target setup error was reduced in almost all cases and was generally within ±1.5 mm. The image guidance process took 23-35 min, dictated by the computer speed and network configuration. The contribution of the intrafraction motion to the residual setup error was small, with a standard deviation of

  7. An introductory guide to uncertainty analysis in environmental and health risk assessment. Environmental Restoration Program

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Bartell, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents guidelines for evaluating uncertainty in mathematical equations and computer models applied to assess human health and environmental risk. Uncertainty analyses involve the propagation of uncertainty in model parameters and model structure to obtain confidence statements for the estimate of risk and identify the model components of dominant importance. Uncertainty analyses are required when there is no a priori knowledge about uncertainty in the risk estimate and when there is a chance that the failure to assess uncertainty may affect the selection of wrong options for risk reduction. Uncertainty analyses are effective when they are conducted in an iterative mode. When the uncertainty in the risk estimate is intolerable for decision-making, additional data are acquired for the dominant model components that contribute most to uncertainty. This process is repeated until the level of residual uncertainty can be tolerated. A analytical and numerical methods for error propagation are presented along with methods for identifying the most important contributors to uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation with either Simple Random Sampling (SRS) or Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is proposed as the most robust method for propagating uncertainty through either simple or complex models. A distinction is made between simulating a stochastically varying assessment endpoint (i.e., the distribution of individual risks in an exposed population) and quantifying uncertainty due to lack of knowledge about a fixed but unknown quantity (e.g., a specific individual, the maximally exposed individual, or the mean, median, or 95%-tile of the distribution of exposed individuals). Emphasis is placed on the need for subjective judgement to quantify uncertainty when relevant data are absent or incomplete

  8. Intra-operative Cerenkov Imaging for Guiding Breast Cancer Surgery and Assessing Tumor Margins

    2014-03-01

    application, 13/492,606 • One travel award to attend WMIC in Dublin (2012) • One class taught as lead instructor ( Mechatronics system ) • Three classes...paraffin- embedded tissue: five years on. Cytometry. 1989;10:229–241. 15. Meng LJ, Fu G, Roy EJ, Suppe B, Chen CT. An ultrahigh resolution SPECT system for...residual cancer. This grant aims to develop a system to assess tumor margins during surgery, with the eventual goal of reducing re-excision surgery

  9. Assessment of left ventricular function with single breath-hold highly accelerated cine MRI combined with guide-point modeling

    Heilmaier, Christina; Nassenstein, Kai; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Hunold, Peter; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of highly accelerated cine MRI in multi-orientations combined with a new guide-point modeling post-processing technique (GPM approach) for assessment of left ventricular (LV) function compared to the standard summation of slices method based on a stack of short axis views (SoS approach). Materials and methods: 33 consecutive patients were examined on a 1.5 T scanner with a standard steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence (TR, 3.0 ms; TE, 1.5 m; flip angle (FA), 60 o ; acceleration factor (AF), 2) analyzed with the SoS method and a highly accelerated, single breath-hold temporal parallel acquisition SSFP sequence (TR, 4.6 ms; TE, 1.1 ms; AF, 3) post-processed with the GPM method. LV function values were measured by two independent readers with different experience in cardiac MRI and compared by using the paired t-test and F-test. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were calculated using Bland-Altman-Plots. Results: Mean acquisition and post-processing time was significantly shorter with the GPM approach (15 s/3 min versus 360 s/6 min). For all LV function parameters interobserver agreement between the experienced and non-experienced reader was significantly improved when the GPM approach was used. However, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were larger for the GPM technique when compared to the SoS method (P 0.121). In both readers and for all parameters variances did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.409) and the two approaches showed an excellent linear correlation (r > 0.951). Conclusion: Due to its accurate, fast and reproducible assessment of LV function parameters highly accelerated MRI combined with the GPM technique may become the technique of first choice for assessment of LV function in clinical routine.

  10. A review on the conservatism embodied in the integrity assessment procedure of CANDU pressure tubes

    Chung, Han Sub; Kim, Hong Duk

    2009-01-01

    Excessive conservatism may be embodied in the integrity assessment procedure for PTs of CANDUs, as guided in the CSA N285.8-05 code. Four sources of conservatism are suggested as (1) the effect of thermal history on DHC, (2) the effect of manufacturing variables on properties of PTs, (3) poor definition or limited availability of databases regarding the aging degradation trends and probability density functions of important material properties, and (4) the simplified equations defining threshold condition for the initiation of DHC at the volumetric flaws. It is suggested that both extensive review of databases available and extensive calculation case studies are required to remove the potential excessive conservatism.

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Assessment of Cervical Metastasis in Patients Undergoing Elective Neck Dissection

    Dabirmoghaddam, Payman; Sharifkashany, Shervin; Mashali, Leila

    2014-01-01

    In head and neck cancer patients, diagnosis of metastatic cervical adenopathy is essential for treatment planning and prognosis assessment. Treatment of patients with head and neck cancer with clinically negative cervical lymph node (N0) remains controversial. While routine neck treatment would result in overtreatment in many patients, observation may delay the diagnosis and decrease the patients’ survival. To gain insights into the unclear questions regarding the value of diagnostic modalities in patients with N0 neck, this study was designed to compare the diagnostic efficacy of palpation, ultrasonography (US) and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USGFNA) in detecting cervical lymph node metastasis. Forty-two patients with head and neck cancer who underwent US and USGFNA prior to elective neck dissection were studied. Histopathologic findings of the neck specimens were compared with each diagnostic technique. Of the 53 neck dissection specimens, histopathology showed metastases in 16 cases. The overall accuracy of USGFNA, US and palpation was 96%, 68% and 70%, respectively. The specificity of USGFNA was superior to palpation and US alone. USGFNA had the highest sensitivity, predictive value and accuracy in detecting cervical metastases compared with other performed tests. In our study, USGFNA was superior to palpation and US in detecting metastasis in clinically negative necks. This method can be recommended as a diagnostic tool in preoperative assessment of patients without palpable metastasis, but further investigations are needed before this modality could be considered as an alternative to elective neck dissection

  12. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked

  13. Have recent earthquakes exposed flaws in or misunderstandings of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis?

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Beroza, Gregory C.; Toda, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    In a recent Opinion piece in these pages, Stein et al. (2011) offer a remarkable indictment of the methods, models, and results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). The principal object of their concern is the PSHA map for Japan released by the Japan Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP), which is reproduced by Stein et al. (2011) as their Figure 1 and also here as our Figure 1. It shows the probability of exceedance (also referred to as the “hazard”) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity 6–lower (JMA 6–) in Japan for the 30-year period beginning in January 2010. JMA 6– is an earthquake-damage intensity measure that is associated with fairly strong ground motion that can be damaging to well-built structures and is potentially destructive to poor construction (HERP, 2005, appendix 5). Reiterating Geller (2011, p. 408), Stein et al. (2011, p. 623) have this to say about Figure 1: The regions assessed as most dangerous are the zones of three hypothetical “scenario earthquakes” (Tokai, Tonankai, and Nankai; see map). However, since 1979, earthquakes that caused 10 or more fatalities in Japan actually occurred in places assigned a relatively low probability. This discrepancy—the latest in a string of negative results for the characteristic model and its cousin the seismic-gap model—strongly suggest that the hazard map and the methods used to produce it are flawed and should be discarded. Given the central role that PSHA now plays in seismic risk analysis, performance-based engineering, and design-basis ground motions, discarding PSHA would have important consequences. We are not persuaded by the arguments of Geller (2011) and Stein et al. (2011) for doing so because important misunderstandings about PSHA seem to have conditioned them. In the quotation above, for example, they have confused important differences between earthquake-occurrence observations and ground-motion hazard calculations.

  14. The performance assessment of undergraduate students in physics laboratory by using guided inquiry

    Mubarok, H.; Lutfiyah, A.; Kholiq, A.; Suprapto, N.; Putri, N. P.

    2018-03-01

    The performance assessment of basic physics experiment among undergraduate physics students which includes three stages: pre-laboratory, conducting experiment and final report was explored in this study. The research used a descriptive quantitative approach by utilizing guidebook of basic physics experiment. The findings showed that (1) the performance of pre-laboratory rate among undergraduate physics students in good category (average score = 77.55), which includes the ability of undergraduate physics students’ theory before they were doing the experiment. (2) The performance of conducting experiment was in good category (average score = 78.33). (3) While the performance of final report was in moderate category (average score = 73.73), with the biggest weakness at how to analyse and to discuss the data and writing the abstract.

  15. Methodological Flaws, Conflicts of Interest, and Scientific Fallacies: Implications for the Evaluation of Antidepressants' Efficacy and Harm.

    Hengartner, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    In current psychiatric practice, antidepressants are widely and with ever-increasing frequency prescribed to patients. However, several scientific biases obfuscate estimates of antidepressants' efficacy and harm, and these are barely recognized in treatment guidelines. The aim of this mini-review is to critically evaluate the efficacy and harm of antidepressants for acute and maintenance treatment with respect to systematic biases related to industry funding and trial methodology. Narrative review based on a comprehensive search of the literature. It is shown that the pooled efficacy of antidepressants is weak and below the threshold of a minimally clinically important change once publication and reporting biases are considered. Moreover, the small mean difference in symptom reductions relative to placebo is possibly attributable to observer effects in unblinded assessors and patient expectancies. With respect to trial dropout rates, a hard outcome not subjected to observer bias, no difference was observed between antidepressants and placebo. The discontinuation trials on the efficacy of antidepressants in maintenance therapy are systematically flawed, because in these studies, spontaneous remitters are excluded, whereas half of all patients who remitted on antidepressants are abruptly switched to placebo. This can cause a severe withdrawal syndrome that is easily misdiagnosed as a relapse when assessed on subjective symptom rating scales. In accordance, the findings of naturalistic long-term studies suggest that maintenance therapy has no clear benefit, and non-drug users do not show increased recurrence rates. Moreover, a growing body of evidence from hundreds of randomized controlled trials suggests that antidepressants cause suicidality, but this risk is underestimated because data from industry-funded trials are systematically flawed. Unselected, population-wide observational studies indicate that depressive patients who use antidepressants are at an increased

  16. Methodological Flaws, Conflicts of Interest, and Scientific Fallacies: Implications for the Evaluation of Antidepressants’ Efficacy and Harm

    Michael P. Hengartner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn current psychiatric practice, antidepressants are widely and with ever-increasing frequency prescribed to patients. However, several scientific biases obfuscate estimates of antidepressants’ efficacy and harm, and these are barely recognized in treatment guidelines. The aim of this mini-review is to critically evaluate the efficacy and harm of antidepressants for acute and maintenance treatment with respect to systematic biases related to industry funding and trial methodology.MethodsNarrative review based on a comprehensive search of the literature.ResultsIt is shown that the pooled efficacy of antidepressants is weak and below the threshold of a minimally clinically important change once publication and reporting biases are considered. Moreover, the small mean difference in symptom reductions relative to placebo is possibly attributable to observer effects in unblinded assessors and patient expectancies. With respect to trial dropout rates, a hard outcome not subjected to observer bias, no difference was observed between antidepressants and placebo. The discontinuation trials on the efficacy of antidepressants in maintenance therapy are systematically flawed, because in these studies, spontaneous remitters are excluded, whereas half of all patients who remitted on antidepressants are abruptly switched to placebo. This can cause a severe withdrawal syndrome that is easily misdiagnosed as a relapse when assessed on subjective symptom rating scales. In accordance, the findings of naturalistic long-term studies suggest that maintenance therapy has no clear benefit, and non-drug users do not show increased recurrence rates. Moreover, a growing body of evidence from hundreds of randomized controlled trials suggests that antidepressants cause suicidality, but this risk is underestimated because data from industry-funded trials are systematically flawed. Unselected, population-wide observational studies indicate that depressive patients

  17. Wright LM, Leahey M. Nurses and families: a guide to assessment and intervention in family. 5th ed. São Paulo (SP: Roca; 2012

    Ronaldo de Sousa Moreira Baia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Nurses and families: a guide to assessment and intervention in the family, translated to Portuguese, French, Japanese, Korean and Swedish languages , is known as the Calgary Model. The material covers the Family Nursing action aiming to improve clinical knowledge and service skills, with a focus on the family unit, in addition to providing updates on the topic.

  18. Measure for Measure: A Critical Consumers' Guide to Reading Comprehension Assessments for Adolescents. Final Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York's Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy

    Morsy, Leila; Kieffer, Michael; Snow, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Although millions of dollars and weeks of instructional time are spent nationally on testing students, educators often have little information on how to choose appropriate assessments of adolescent reading for informing instruction. This guide is designed to meet that need, by drawing together evidence about nine of the most commonly-used,…

  19. Assessment of a daily online implanted fiducial marker-guided prostate radiotherapy process.

    Greer, P B; Dahl, K; Ebert, M A; White, M; Wratten, C; Ostwald, P; Pichler, P; Denham, J W

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether intrafraction prostate motion can affect the accuracy of online prostate positioning using implanted fiducial markers and to determine the effect of prostate rotations on the accuracy of the software-predicted set-up correction shifts. Eleven patients were treated with implanted prostate fiducial markers and online set-up corrections. Orthogonal electronic portal images were acquired to determine couch shifts before treatment. Verification images were also acquired during treatment to assess whether intrafraction motion had occurred. A limitation of the online image registration software is that it does not allow for in-plane prostate rotations (evident on lateral portal images) when aligning marker positions. The accuracy of couch shifts was assessed by repeating the registration measurements with separate software that incorporates full in-plane prostate rotations. Additional treatment time required for online positioning was also measured. For the patient group, the overall postalignment systematic prostate errors were less than 1.5 mm (1 standard deviation) in all directions (range 0.2-3.9 mm). The random prostate errors ranged from 0.8 to 3.3 mm (1 standard deviation). One patient exhibited intrafraction prostate motion, resulting in a postalignment prostate set-up error of more than 10 mm for one fraction. In 14 of 35 fractions, the postalignment prostate set-up error was greater than 5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction for this patient. Maximum prostate rotations measured from the lateral images varied from 2 degrees to 20 degrees for the patients. The differences between set-up shifts determined by the online software without in-plane rotations to align markers, and with rotations applied, was less than 1 mm (root mean square), with a maximum difference of 4.1 mm. Intrafraction prostate motion was found to reduce the effectiveness of the online set-up for one of the patients. A larger study is required

  20. A study on the extraction of feature variables for the pattern recognition for welding flaws

    Kim, J. Y.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, B. H.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the researches classifying the artificial and natural flaws in welding parts are performed using the pattern recognition technology. For this purpose the signal pattern recognition package including the user defined function was developed and the total procedure including the digital signal processing, feature extraction, feature selection and classifier selection is treated by bulk. Specially it is composed with and discussed using the statistical classifier such as the linear discriminant function classifier, the empirical Bayesian classifier. Also, the pattern recognition technology is applied to classification problem of natural flaw(i.e multiple classification problem-crack, lack of penetration, lack of fusion, porosity, and slag inclusion, the planar and volumetric flaw classification problem). According to this results, if appropriately teamed the neural network classifier is better than stastical classifier in the classification problem of natural flaw. And it is possible to acquire the recognition rate of 80% above through it is different a little according to domain extracting the feature and the classifier.

  1. Modeling validation to structural flaws in the foundations of oil tanks

    Couto, Larissa Goncalves; Leite, Sandro Passos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of an experiment used to study the application of backscattered neutrons in the identification of structural flaws in the foundations of oil tanks. This modeling was a preliminary validation procedure of the method of calculation, performed with the radiation transport code MCNP, to study the application of backscattered neutrons as inspection tool. (author)

  2. Flawed Implementation or Inconsistent Logics? Lessons from Higher Education Reform in Ukraine

    Shaw, Marta A.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates two competing explanations of why reforms associated with the Bologna process brought disappointing results in Ukraine. The lack of anticipated benefits from the reforms may stem either from a flawed implementation of the Bologna process, or from more fundamental differences between the models of higher education…

  3. Acoustic emission and estimation of flaw significance in reactor pressure boundaries

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The work discussed is intended to establish the feasibility of using acoustic emission (AE) to detect and evaluate growing flaws in nuclear reactor pressure boundaries. Basic AE identification and interpretation methods have grown out of Phase 1. Phases 2 and 3 to test and demonstrate developed methodology on a vessel test and on a reactor are in progress

  4. Stabilized transistor transformer for self-moving Sirena-1 X-ray flaw detector

    Krasil'nikov, S.B.; Kristalinskij, A.L.; Lozovoj, L.N.; Markov, S.N.; Sindalovskij, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    Electric circuit of stabilized transistor transformer for self-moving ''Sirena'' type X-ray flaw detector is described. Specifications of the transformer and results of the experimental studies, which can be used when tuning and adjusting the transformer under industrial conditions

  5. Crack propagation from a filled flaw in rocks considering the infill influences

    Chang, Xu; Deng, Yan; Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Shuren; Tang, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    This study presents a numerical and experimental study of the cracking behaviour of rock specimen containing a single filled flaw under compression. The primary aim is to investigate the influences of infill on crack patterns, load-displacement response and specimen strength. The numerical code RFPA2D (Rock Failure Process Analysis) featured by the capability of modeling heterogeneous materials is employed to develop the numerical model, which is further calibrated by physical tests. The results indicate that there exists a critical infill strength which controls crack patterns for a given flaw inclination angle. For case of infill strength lower than the critical value, the secondary or anti-cracks are disappeared by increasing the infill strength. If the infill strength is greater than the critical value, the filled flaw has little influence on the cracking path and the specimen fails by an inclined crack, as if there is no flaw. The load-displacement responses show specimen stiffness increases by increasing infill strength until the infill strength reaches its critical value. The specimen strength increases by increasing the infill strength and almost keeps constant as the infill strength exceeds its critical value.

  6. Intentionally Flawed Manuscripts as Means for Teaching Students to Critically Evaluate Scientific Papers

    Ferenc, Jaroslav; Cervenák, Filip; Bircák, Erik; Juríková, Katarína; Goffová, Ivana; Gorilák, Peter; Huraiová, Barbora; Plavá, Jana; Demecsová, Loriana; Duríková, Nikola; Galisová, Veronika; Gazdarica, Matej; Puškár, Marek; Nagy, Tibor; Nagyová, Sona; Mentelová, Lucia; Slaninová, Miroslava; Ševcovicová, Andrea; Tomáška, Lubomír

    2018-01-01

    As future scientists, university students need to learn how to avoid making errors in their own manuscripts, as well as how to identify flaws in papers published by their peers. Here we describe a novel approach on how to promote students' ability to critically evaluate scientific articles. The exercise is based on instructing teams of students to…

  7. CLEAVAGE FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF CLADDED BEAMS WITH AN EMBEDDED FLAW UNDER FOUR-POINT BENDING

    Yin, Shengjun; Williams, Paul T; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2008-01-01

    Semi-large scale embedded flaw beams were tested at Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Rez in the Czech Republic for the 6th Network for Evaluating Structural Components (NESC-VI) project. The experiments included, among others, a series of semi-large scale tests on cladded beam specimens containing simulated sub-clad flaws. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted numerical studies to analyze the constraint issues associated with embedded flaws using various fracture mechanics methods, including T-Stress, hydrostatic stress based QH stress, and the Weibull stress model. The recently developed local approach using the modified Weibull stress model combined with the Master Curve methodology was also utilized to predict the failure probability (Pf) of semi-large scale beams. For this study, the Weibull statistical model associated with the Master Curve methodology was employed to stochastically simulate the fracture toughness data using the available Master Curve reference temperature T0 for the tested base material from the 'aged' WWER-440 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The study was also conducted to investigate the sensitivity of predicated probability of failure of semi-large scale beams with embedded flaw with different Weibull shape parameters, m

  8. Advantages of using 192Ir γ-ray flaw detector for some products

    Qin Xiqi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of 192 Ir γ-ray flaw detector made in China in welding seam testings. The authors made a comparison between 192 Ir γ-ray and X-ray machine. 192 Ir γ-ray machine showed many advantages, such as shorter working hours and less labour intensity

  9. Tactile pavement for guiding walking direction: An assessment of heading direction and gait stability.

    Pluijter, Nanda; de Wit, Lieke P W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Plaisier, Myrthe A

    2015-10-01

    For maintaining heading direction while walking we heavily rely on vision. Therefore, walking in the absence of vision or with visual attention directed elsewhere potentially leads to dangerous situations. Here we investigated whether tactile information from the feet can be used as a (partial) substitute for vision in maintaining a stable heading direction. If so, participants should be better able to keep a constant heading direction on tactile pavement that indicates directionality than on regular flat pavement. However, such a pavement may also be destabilizing. Thus we asked participants to walk straight ahead on regular pavement, and on tactile pavement (tiles with ridges along the walking direction) while varying the amount of vision. We assessed the effects of the type of pavement as well as the amount of vision on the variability of the heading direction as well as gait stability. Both of these measures were calculated from accelerations and angular velocities recorded from a smartphone attached to the participants trunk. Results showed that on tactile pavement participants had a less variations in their heading direction than on regular pavement. The drawback, however, was that the tactile pavement used in this study decreased gait stability. In sum, tactile pavement can be used as a partial substitute for vision in maintaining heading direction, but it can also decrease gait stability. Future work should focus on designing tactile pavement that does provided directional clues, but is less destabilizing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Third Molars on the Internet: A Guide for Assessing Information Quality and Readability

    Brennan, David; Sambrook, Paul; Armfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background Directing patients suffering from third molars (TMs) problems to high-quality online information is not only medically important, but also could enable better engagement in shared decision making. Objectives This study aimed to develop a scale that measures the scientific information quality (SIQ) for online information concerning wisdom tooth problems and to conduct a quality evaluation for online TMs resources. In addition, the study evaluated whether a specific piece of readability software (Readability Studio Professional 2012) might be reliable in measuring information comprehension, and explored predictors for the SIQ Scale. Methods A cross-sectional sample of websites was retrieved using certain keywords and phrases such as “impacted wisdom tooth problems” using 3 popular search engines. The retrieved websites (n=150) were filtered. The retained 50 websites were evaluated to assess their characteristics, usability, accessibility, trust, readability, SIQ, and their credibility using DISCERN and Health on the Net Code (HoNCode). Results Websites’ mean scale scores varied significantly across website affiliation groups such as governmental, commercial, and treatment provider bodies. The SIQ Scale had a good internal consistency (alpha=.85) and was significantly correlated with DISCERN (r=.82, Preadability grade (10.3, SD 1.9) was above the recommended level, and was significantly correlated with the Scientific Information Comprehension Scale (r=.45. PReadability Studio software estimates were associated with scientific information comprehensiveness measures. PMID:26443470

  11. Third Molars on the Internet: A Guide for Assessing Information Quality and Readability.

    Hanna, Kamal; Brennan, David; Sambrook, Paul; Armfield, Jason

    2015-10-06

    Directing patients suffering from third molars (TMs) problems to high-quality online information is not only medically important, but also could enable better engagement in shared decision making. This study aimed to develop a scale that measures the scientific information quality (SIQ) for online information concerning wisdom tooth problems and to conduct a quality evaluation for online TMs resources. In addition, the study evaluated whether a specific piece of readability software (Readability Studio Professional 2012) might be reliable in measuring information comprehension, and explored predictors for the SIQ Scale. A cross-sectional sample of websites was retrieved using certain keywords and phrases such as "impacted wisdom tooth problems" using 3 popular search engines. The retrieved websites (n=150) were filtered. The retained 50 websites were evaluated to assess their characteristics, usability, accessibility, trust, readability, SIQ, and their credibility using DISCERN and Health on the Net Code (HoNCode). Websites' mean scale scores varied significantly across website affiliation groups such as governmental, commercial, and treatment provider bodies. The SIQ Scale had a good internal consistency (alpha=.85) and was significantly correlated with DISCERN (r=.82, Psoftware estimates were associated with scientific information comprehensiveness measures.

  12. Dissemination of health technology assessments: identifying the visions guiding an evolving policy innovation in Canada.

    Lehoux, Pascale; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tailliez, Stéphanie; Hivon, Myriam

    2005-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) has received increasing support over the past twenty years in both North America and Europe. The justification for this field of policy-oriented research is that evidence about the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of technology should contribute to decision and policy making. However, concerns about the ability of HTA producers to increase the use of their findings by decision makers have been expressed. Although HTA practitioners have recognized that dissemination activities need to be intensified, why and how particular approaches should be adopted is still under debate. Using an institutional theory perspective, this article examines HTA as a means of implementing knowledge-based change within health care systems. It presents the results of a case study on the dissemination strategies of six Canadian HTA agencies. Chief executive officers and executives (n = 11), evaluators (n = 19), and communications staff (n = 10) from these agencies were interviewed. Our results indicate that the target audience of HTA is frequently limited to policy makers, that three conflicting visions of HTA dissemination coexist, that active dissemination strategies have only occasionally been applied, and that little attention has been paid to the management of diverging views about the value of health technology. Our discussion explores the strengths, limitations, and trade-offs associated with the three visions. Further efforts should be deployed within agencies to better articulate a shared vision and to devise dissemination strategies that are consistent with this vision.

  13. Effective Grid Utilization: A Technical Assessment and Application Guide; April 2011 - September 2012

    Balser, S.; Sankar, S.; Miller, R.; Rawlins, A.; Israel, M.; Curry, T.; Mason, T.

    2012-09-01

    In order to more fully integrate renewable resources, such as wind and solar, into the transmission system, additional capacity must be realized in the short term using the installed transmission capacity that exists today. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Transmission and Grid Integration Group supported this study to assemble the history of regulations and status of transmission technology to expand existing grid capacity. This report compiles data on various transmission technology methods and upgrades for increased capacity utilization of the existing transmission system and transmission corridors. The report discusses the technical merit of each method and explains how the method could be applied within the current regulatory structure to increase existing transmission conductor and/or corridor capacity. The history and current state of alternatives to new construction is presented for regulators, legislators, and other policy makers wrestling with issues surrounding integration of variable generation. Current regulations are assessed for opportunities to change them to promote grid expansion. To support consideration of these alternatives for expanding grid capacity, the report lists relevant rules, standards, and policy changes.

  14. Quantitative assessment of a data-limited recreational bonefish fishery using a time-series of fishing guides reports.

    Rolando O Santos

    Full Text Available Recreational fisheries can be prone to severe declines, yet these fisheries, particularly catch-and-release, are often data-limited, constraining our ability to conduct stock assessments. A combination of catch and effort indices derived from fisheries-dependent data (FDD gathered from fishing logbooks could be a powerful approach to inform these data gaps. This study demonstrates the utility of using different catch metrics such as indices of abundance, species richness associated with reported catch, and the success rate of targeted trips, to assess historical shifts in the trajectory of the data-limited bonefish (Albula vulpes fishery in Florida Bay, an economically-important recreational fishery within the Caribbean Basin. We used FDD from fishing guide reports submitted to Everglades National Park to determine temporal patterns in the bonefish population over the past 35 years. These reports indicated a decline in recreational catches in Florida Bay since the late 1980s, with an accelerated decline starting in the late 1990s-early 2000s. Analyses showed an overall 42% reduction in bonefish catches. Trends in the proportion of positive trips (i.e., the probability of catching success followed the declining catch patterns, suggesting major population changes starting in 1999-2000. As bonefish catches declined, species richness in bonefish trips increased by 34%, suggesting a decrease in bonefish abundance and/or shift in fishing effort (e.g., giving-up time, changes in preferred species. Results provide additional resolution to a pattern of decline for bonefish in South Florida and highlight the value of reconstructing time-series for the development of hypotheses about the potential driving mechanisms of species decline. Further, the data-limited nature of most recreational fisheries, and the increase in a use of catch-and-release as a fisheries management strategy point to the need to develop further data integration tools to assess

  15. Methods and means of the radioisotope flaw detection of the nuclear power reactors components

    Dekopov, A.S.; Majorov, A.N.; Firsov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    Methods and means are considered for the radioisotopic flaw detection of the nuclear reactors pressure vessels and structural components of the reactor circuit. Methods of control are described as in the technological process of fabrication of the power reactors assemblies as during the systematic-preventive repair of the nuclear power station equipment during exploitation. Methodological base is given of the technology of radiation control of welded joints of the pressure vessel branch piper of the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors in the process of assembling and exploitation and joining pipes with the pipe-plate of the steamgenerator in the process of fabrication. Methods of the radioisotope flaw detection in the process of exploitation take into consideration the influence of the radioisotope background, and ensure obtaining of the demanded by the rules of control, sensitivity. Methods of control of welded joints of the steamgenerator of nuclear power plants are based on the simultaneous examination of all joints with application of the shaped radiographic plate-holders. Special gamma-flaw-detection equipment is developed for control of the welded joints of the main branch-pipes. Design peculiarities are given of the installation for flaw detection. These installations are equipped with the system for emergency return of the radiation source into the storage position from the position for exposure. They have automatic exposure-meters for determination of the exposure time. Successfull exploitation of such installations in the Finland during assembling equipment for the nuclear reactor of the nuclear power plant ''Loviisa-1'' and in the USSR on the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant has shown possibility for detection of flaws having dimensions about 1% of the equipment used. For control of welded joints of pipes with pipe-plates at the steam generators, portable flaw-detectors are used. Sensitivity of these flaw-detectors towards detection of the wire standards has

  16. Proposal of limit moment equation applicable to planar/non-planar flaw in wall thinned pipes under bending

    Tsuji, Masataka; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A limit moment equation applicable to planar/non-planar flaw of 0 ≤ θ ≤ π found in wall thinned straight pipes was proposed. → An idea to rationally classify planar/non-planar flaw in wall thinned pipes was proposed. → The equation based on the experimental observation focused on the fracture mode. - Abstract: In this paper, a limit bending moment equation applicable to all types of planar and non-planar flaws in wall-thinned straight pipes under bending was proposed. A system to rationally classify the planar/non-planar flaws in wall-thinned pipes was suggested based on experimental observations focused on the fracture mode. The results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between axial and circumferential long flaws in wall-thinned pipes.

  17. Characterization of type, position and dimension of flaws by transit time locus curves of ultrasonic inspections - ALOK. Pt. 2

    Grohs, B.; Barbian, O.A.; Kappes, W.; Paul, H.

    1981-01-01

    With automatic ultrasonic testing, flaws can be detected and described and thus characterized according to their type, position and dimensions. During scanning of a test object, the flaws are registered by many different pathways and many different acoustic irradiation directions. The transit time locus curve represents the distance between the relfecting points of a flaw and the source in dependence of the probe position; hence, information on flaw position and dimensions can be derived from this curve. If the sound velocity is known, the transit path can then be calculated from the transit time. This requires, above all, a constant sound velocity along the whole transit path. Various methods are presented for reconstructing the flaw border in the plane of incidence. (orig./RW) [de

  18. A Social-Ecological Resilience Assessment and Governance Guide for Urbanization Processes in East China

    Chen Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a social-ecological resilience assessment and attempts to explicitly examine the impacts of urbanization on resilience, with a view to explore how to strengthen social-ecological governance of the resilience of urban ecosystems. We use a combined Grey-Fuzzy evaluation model to discuss a case study of the Su-Xi-Chang city cluster, a metropolitan area in East China, in which total social-ecological resilience scores generally exhibited an upward trend, from 0.548 in 2001 to 0.760 in 2013. In the same period, resilience increased in relation to deterioration of environmental quality, pollution discharge, and landscape and ecological governance change, but decreased in relation to social-economic development. Besides, different contributions of indicators to their related resilience values reveal the heterogeneity of the resilience in terms of various disturbances. In addition, several scenarios are posited in an attempt to detect the relationship between social-ecological resilience and urbanization with the goal of improving urban governance. The results suggested that rapid urbanization under rigid and vertically organized forms of governance would cause the social-ecological system to lose resilience, or even to bring it near collapse. When the growth rate of urban land expansion reaches 16%, disturbances caused by urbanization would push the social-ecological system over a particular threshold, where the way it functions changes. However, it is found that adaptive and collaborative governance, incorporating increases in both public participation and the efficiency of environment administration, would strengthen social-ecological governance of resilience to provide the urban system with a wide operating space, and even with accelerated urbanization ratios.

  19. Flawed Political Party Primaries In Nigeria's Fourth Republic: The ...

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... However, through an assessment of extant secondary data, this paper submits that the experience in the Peoples Democratic Party; the ruling party, during the 2007 General Elections was a case of deliberate imposition of candidates by powerful party leaders.

  20. Effect of combined loading due to bending and internal pressure on pipe flaw evaluation criteria

    Miura, Naoki; Sakai, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Considering a rule for the rationalization of maintenance of Light Water Reactor piping, reliable flaw evaluation criteria are essential for determining how a detected flaw will be detrimental to continuous plant operation. Ductile fracture is one of the dominant failure modes that must be considered for carbon steel piping and can be analyzed by elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Some analytical efforts have provided various flaw evaluation criteria using load correction factors, such as the Z-factors in the JSME codes on fitness-for-service for nuclear power plants and the section XI of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code. The present Z-factors were conventionally determined, taking conservativity and simplicity into account; however, the effect of internal pressure, which is an important factor under actual plant conditions, was not adequately considered. Recently, a J-estimation scheme, LBB.ENGC for the ductile fracture analysis of circumferentially through-wall-cracked pipes subjected to combined loading was developed for more accurate prediction under more realistic conditions. This method explicitly incorporates the contributions of both bending and tension due to internal pressure by means of a scheme that is compatible with an arbitrary combined-loading history. In this study, the effect of internal pressure on the flaw evaluation criteria was investigated using the new J-estimation scheme. The Z-factor obtained in this study was compared with the presently used Z-factors, and the predictability of the current flaw evaluation criteria was quantitatively evaluated in consideration of the internal pressure. (author)

  1. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  2. Safety Assessment for Research Reactors and Preparation of the Safety Analysis Report. Specific Safety Guide

    2011-01-01

    . The standards are also applied by regulatory bodies and operators around the world to enhance safety in nuclear power generation and in nuclear applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Safety is not an end in itself but a prerequisite for the purpose of the protection of people in all States and of the environment - now and in the future. The risks associated with ionizing radiation must be assessed and controlled without unduly limiting the contribution of nuclear energy to equitable and sustainable development. Governments, regulatory bodies and operators everywhere must ensure that nuclear material and radiation sources are used beneficially, safely and ethically. The IAEA safety standards are designed to facilitate this, and I encourage all Member States to make use of them.

  3. Stress-induced light scattering method for the detection of latent flaws on fine polished glass substrates.

    Sakata, Y; Sakai, K; Nonaka, K

    2014-08-01

    Fine polishing techniques, such as the chemical mechanical polishing treatment, are one of the most important technique to glass substrate manufacturing. Mechanical interaction in the form of friction occurs between the abrasive and the substrate surface during polishing, which may cause formation of latent flaws on the glass substrate surface. Fine polishing-induced latent flaws may become obvious during a subsequent cleaning process if glass surfaces are corroded away by chemical interaction with the cleaning liquid. Latent flaws thus reduce product yield. In general, non-destructive inspection techniques, such as the light-scattering methods, used to detect foreign matters on the glass substrate surface. However, it is difficult to detect latent flaws by these methods because the flaws remain closed. Authors propose a novel inspection technique for fine polishing-induced latent flaws by combining the light scattering method with stress effects, referred to as the stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM). SILSM is able to distinguish between latent flaws and particles on the surface. In this method, samples are deformed by an actuator and stress effects are induced around the tips of latent flaws. Due to the photoelastic effect, the refractive index of the material around the tip of a latent flaw is changed. This changed refractive index is in turn detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera as variations in light scattering intensity. In this report, surface latent flaws are detected non-destructively by applying SILSM to glass substrates, and the utility of SILSM evaluated as a novel inspection technique.

  4. User’s guide for MapMark4—An R package for the probability calculations in three-part mineral resource assessments

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2017-06-27

    MapMark4 is a software package that implements the probability calculations in three-part mineral resource assessments. Functions within the software package are written in the R statistical programming language. These functions, their documentation, and a copy of this user’s guide are bundled together in R’s unit of shareable code, which is called a “package.” This user’s guide includes step-by-step instructions showing how the functions are used to carry out the probability calculations. The calculations are demonstrated using test data, which are included in the package.

  5. IEEE Std 1205-1993: IEEE guide for assessing, monitoring, and mitigating aging effects on Class 1E equipment used in nuclear power generating stations

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The guidelines are provided for assessing, monitoring, and mitigating degradation of Class 1E equipment used in nuclear power generating stations due to aging. The methods described can be used to identify the performance capability of Class 1E equipment beyond its qualified life. A discussion of stressors and aging mechanisms is included. If aging considerations have been satisfactorily addressed through other means (e.g., equipment qualification), then use of this guide may not be warranted. For some equipment, only partial application of this guide may be warranted

  6. Survey of materials and other problems of relevance in safety engineering, and an assessment of their reflection in regulatory guides for conventional and nuclear engineering (1. technical report)

    Trunk, M.; Herter, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    Survey and assessment of nuclear engineering specifications and regulatory guides (ASME-BPVC Section III, division 1,2 and KTA, BS 5500) with regard to materials, dimensioning and testing for the purpose of showing to what extent available technical codes, regulatory guides and safety codes are useful in preventing failures and defining the safe limit. The other question examined is that of how these codes ought to be brought up to date in order to reflect the latest state of the art in science and technology. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Traditional and Irregular Warfare: A Flawed Concept for Categorizing Conflict

    2009-05-18

    cultures, religious beliefs , economic conditions, available resources, wealth and poverty, access to information, levels and...Boulder, CO: Westview Press 1994), 187. 11 This assessment is based on Taoism , a Chinese philosophy that was becoming popular at about the time Art of...who openly challenged beliefs about the nature of the universe. Some even challenged the role of religion and the various gods of the time. This was

  8. Ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology versus core biopsy in the preoperative assessment of non-palpable breast lesions

    Ahmed, M.E.; Ahmad, I.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Breast screening is a method of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. Most of the lesions detected by screening are not malignant. Objective of this study was to compare ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology and core biopsy in the preoperative assessment of non-palpable breast lesions. Methods: The study was conducted prospectively at Department of Radiology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Pakistan from March 2004 to February 2005. All the patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology and core biopsy. Later on, all of them had excision biopsy/ mastectomy. Prospectively 80 patients were studied; information was collected on a specifically designed form according to inclusion criteria. The patient age, sex, medical record number and side of lesion were recorded. Clinical history of duration of lump was also taken. Informed consent was obtained. Results: The age of patients were ranges from 20-71 years, with mean of 44.31+- 11.002 and the maximum number of patients 28 (35.3%) was between the ages 50 - 59 years. The sensitivity of FNAC was 92.85%, while the specificity of was 90% and the accuracy rate was 92.1%. The sensitivity of core biopsy was 94.64%, specificity 91.30% and accuracy rate was 94.87%. Conclusion: Fine Needle Aspiration has been found to be an extremely useful method for the diagnosis of lumps of breast. The accuracy and the sensitivity of diagnosis on fine needle aspiration cytology were high. (author)

  9. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.

  10. Development of flaw evaluation and acceptance procedures for flaw indications in the cooling water system at the Savannah River site K reactor

    Tandon, S.; Bamford, W.H.; Cowfer, C.D.; Ostrowski, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in determining the criteria for acceptance of inspection indications in the K-Reactor Cooling Water System at the Savannah River Plant. These criteria have been developed in a manner consistent with the development of similar criteria in the ASME Code Section XI for commercial light water reactors, but with a realistic treatment of the operating conditions in the cooling water system. The technical basis for the development of these criteria called ''Acceptance Standards'' is contained in this paper. A second portion of this paper contains the methodology used in the construction of flaw evaluation charts which have been developed for each specific line size in the cooling water system. The charts provide the results of detailed fracture mechanics calculations which have been completed to determine the largest flaw which can be accepted in the cooling water system without repair. These charts are designed for use in conjunction with in-service inspections of the cooling water system, and only require inspection results to determine acceptability

  11. MRI-guided attenuation correction in whole-body PET/MR. Assessment of the effect of bone attenuation

    Akbarzadeh, A.; Ay, M.R.; Ahmadian, A.; Riahi Alam, N.; Zaidi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI presents many advantages in comparison with its counterpart PET/CT in terms of improved soft-tissue contrast, decrease in radiation exposure, and truly simultaneous and multi-parametric imaging capabilities. However, the lack of well-established methodology for MR-based attenuation correction is hampering further development and wider acceptance of this technology. We assess the impact of ignoring bone attenuation and using different tissue classes for generation of the attenuation map on the accuracy of attenuation correction of PET data. This work was performed using simulation studies based on the XCAT phantom and clinical input data. For the latter, PET and CT images of patients were used as input for the analytic simulation model using realistic activity distributions where CT-based attenuation correction was utilized as reference for comparison. For both phantom and clinical studies, the reference attenuation map was classified into various numbers of tissue classes to produce three (air, soft tissue and lung), four (air, lungs, soft tissue and cortical bones) and five (air, lungs, soft tissue, cortical bones and spongeous bones) class attenuation maps. The phantom studies demonstrated that ignoring bone increases the relative error by up to 6.8% in the body and up to 31.0% for bony regions. Likewise, the simulated clinical studies showed that the mean relative error reached 15% for lesions located in the body and 30.7% for lesions located in bones, when neglecting bones. These results demonstrate an underestimation of about 30% of tracer uptake when neglecting bone, which in turn imposes substantial loss of quantitative accuracy for PET images produced by hybrid PET/MRI systems. Considering bones in the attenuation map will considerably improve the accuracy of MR-guided attenuation correction in hybrid PET/MR to enable quantitative PET imaging on hybrid PET/MR technologies. (author)

  12. Computational reduction of specimen noise to enable improved thermography characterization of flaws in graphite polymer composites

    Winfree, William P.; Howell, Patricia A.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    2014-05-01

    Flaw detection and characterization with thermographic techniques in graphite polymer composites are often limited by localized variations in the thermographic response. Variations in properties such as acceptable porosity, fiber volume content and surface polymer thickness result in variations in the thermal response that in general cause significant variations in the initial thermal response. These result in a "noise" floor that increases the difficulty of detecting and characterizing deeper flaws. A method is presented for computationally removing a significant amount of the "noise" from near surface porosity by diffusing the early time response, then subtracting it from subsequent responses. Simulations of the thermal response of a composite are utilized in defining the limitations of the technique. This method for reducing the data is shown to give considerable improvement characterizing both the size and depth of damage. Examples are shown for data acquired on specimens with fabricated delaminations and impact damage.

  13. Development of portable phased array UT system for real-time flaw imaging

    Goto, M.

    1995-01-01

    Many functions and features of phased array UT technology must be useful for NDE in the industrial field. Some phased array UT systems have been developed for the inspection of nuclear pressure vessel and turbine components. However, phased array UT is still a special NDE technique and it has not been used widely in the past. The reasons of that are system size, cost, operator performance, equipment design and others. TOSHIBA has newly developed PC controlled portable phased array system to solve those problems. The portable phased array UT system is very compact and light but it is able to drive up to 32-channel linear array probe, to display real-time linear/sector B-scan, to display accumulated B-scan with an encoder and to display profile overlaid B-scan. The first applications were turbine component inspections for precise flaw investigation and flaw image data recording

  14. Computational Reduction of Specimen Noise to Enable Improved Thermography Characterization of Flaws in Graphite Polymer Composites

    Winfree, William P.; Howell, Patricia A.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    Flaw detection and characterization with thermographic techniques in graphite polymer composites are often limited by localized variations in the thermographic response. Variations in properties such as acceptable porosity, fiber volume content and surface polymer thickness result in variations in the thermal response that in general cause significant variations in the initial thermal response. These result in a "noise" floor that increases the difficulty of detecting and characterizing deeper flaws. A method is presented for computationally removing a significant amount of the "noise" from near surface porosity by diffusing the early time response, then subtracting it from subsequent responses. Simulations of the thermal response of a composite are utilized in defining the limitations of the technique. This method for reducing the data is shown to give considerable improvement characterizing both the size and depth of damage. Examples are shown for data acquired on specimens with fabricated delaminations and impact damage.

  15. Visualization of flaws within heavy section ultrasonic test blocks using high energy computed tomography

    House, M.B.; Ross, D.M.; Janucik, F.X.; Friedman, W.D.; Yancey, R.N.

    1996-05-01

    The feasibility of high energy computed tomography (9 MeV) to detect volumetric and planar discontinuities in large pressure vessel mock-up blocks was studied. The data supplied by the manufacturer of the test blocks on the intended flaw geometry were compared to manual, contact ultrasonic test and computed tomography test data. Subsequently, a visualization program was used to construct fully three-dimensional morphological information enabling interactive data analysis on the detected flaws. Density isosurfaces show the relative shape and location of the volumetric defects within the mock-up blocks. Such a technique may be used to qualify personnel or newly developed ultrasonic test methods without the associated high cost of destructive evaluation. Data is presented showing the capability of the volumetric data analysis program to overlay the computed tomography and destructive evaluation (serial metallography) data for a direct, three-dimensional comparison

  16. Arc-discharge system for nondestructive detection of flaws in thin ceramic coatings

    Scott, G.W.; Davis, E.V.

    1978-04-01

    The feasibility of nondestructively detecting small cracks or holes in plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings with an electric arc-discharge system was studied. We inspected ZrO 2 coatings 0.46 mm (0.018 in.) thick on Incoloy alloy 800 substrates. Cracks were artificially induced in controlled areas of the specimens by straining the substrates in tension. We designed and built a system to scan the specimen's surface at approximately 50 μm (0.002 in.) clearance with a sharp-pointed metal-tipped probe at high dc potential. The system measures the arc currents occurring at flaws, or plots a map of the scanned area showing points where the arc current exceeds a preset threshold. A theoretical model of the probe-specimen circuit shows constant dc potential to be the best choice for arc-discharge inspection of insulating coatings. Experimental observations and analysis of the data disclosed some potential for flaw description

  17. Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and…

  18. COLLABORATIVE GUIDE: A REEF MANAGER'S GUIDE TO ...

    Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Referred to as A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching, the guide will provide coral reef managers with the latest scientific information on the causes of coral bleaching and new management strategies for responding to this significant threat to coral reef ecosystems. Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Dr. Jordan West, of the National Center for Environmental Assessment, was a major contributor to the guide. Referred to as

  19. [Assessment of venous thromboembolism risk in hospitalized medical patients. Concordance between PRETEMED guide and the recommendations of the viii conference of the American College of Chest Physicians].

    Gallardo Jiménez, Patricia; Guijarro Merino, Ricardo; Vallejo Herrera, Verónica; Sánchez Morales, David; Villalobos Sánchez, Aurora; Perelló González-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo

    2012-11-03

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients using 2 clinical practice guidelines and to analyze the agreement between them. Cross-sectional study of medical services in a third level hospital. We calculated the thromboembolic risk and the thromboprophylaxis adequacy by implementing the recommendations of viii conference of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and PRETEMED guide as well as their agreement. One hundred and twenty eight patients were included in the study. According to the PRETEMED guide, 34.4% of patients were low risk, 6.3% moderate and 59.4% high, with appropriate prophylaxis in 72.7% of patients (CI95%: 64.4-79.9), 18.8% (CI95%: 12.7-26.2) were undertreated and 8.6% (CI95%: 4.6-14.4) overtreated. According to ACCP recommendations, 50% of patients were low risk and 50% high, with appropriate prophylaxis in 74.2% of patients (CI95%: 66.1-81.2), 10.9% (CI95%: 6.4-17.3) were undertreated and 14.8% (CI95%: 9.4-21.8) overtreated. When PRETEMED risk was classified into low or moderate-high group versus ACCP risk low or high, the grade of concordance between both guides was 0.68 (CI95%: 0.56-0.81). When PRETEMED risk was classified into low-moderate or high group versus ACCP risk low or high, the grade of concordance between both guides was 0.81 (CI95%: 0.71-0.91). About a quarter of hospitalized medical patients did not receive adequate prophylaxis, showing an important room for improvement. PRETEMED guide and ACCP recommendations differ in risk assessment mainly because PRETEMED guide overestimates the risk of venous thromboembolism since it includes more risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous AE monitoring of nuclear plants to detect flaws - status and future

    Hutton, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a brief commentary on the evolution of acoustic emission (AE) technology for continuous monitoring of nuclear reactors and the current status. The technical work described to support the status description has the objective of developing and validating the use of AE to detect, locate, and evaluate growing flaws in reactor pressure boundaries. The future of AE for continuous monitoring is discussed in terms of envisioned applications and further accomplishments required to achieve them. 12 refs.

  1. A procedure to detect flaws inside large size marble blocks by ultrasound

    Bramanti, Mauro; Bozzi, Edoardo

    1999-01-01

    In stone and marble industry there is considerable interest in the possibility of using ultrasound diagnostic techniques for non-destructive testing of large size blocks in order to detect internal flaws such as faults, cracks and fissures. In this paper some preliminary measurements are reported in order to acquire basic knowledge of the fundamental properties of ultrasound, such as propagation velocity and attenuation, in the media here considered. We then outline a particular diagnostic pr...

  2. Detection and characterization of flaws in segments of light water reactor pressure vessels

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; McClung, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to determine flaw density in segments cut from light water reactor )LWR) pressure vessels as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Heavy-Section Steel Technology (H SST) Program. Segments from the Hope Creek Unit 2 vessel and the Pilgrim Unit 2 Vessel were purchased from salvage dealers. Hope Creek was a boiling water reactor (BWR) design and Pilgrim was a pressurized water reactor (PWR) design. Neither were ever placed in service. Objectives were to evaluate these LWR segments for flaws with ultrasonic and liquid penetrant techniques. Both objectives were successfully completed. One significant indication was detected in a Hope Creek seam weld by ultrasonic techniques and characterized by further analyses terminating with destructive correlation. This indication [with a through-wall dimension of ∼6 mm (∼0.24 in.)] was detected in only 3 m (10 ft) of weldment and offers extremely limited data when compared to the extent of welding even in a single pressure vessel. However, the detection and confirmation of the flaw in the arbitrarily selected sections implies the Marshall report estimates (and others) are nonconservative for such small flaws. No significant indications were detected in the Pilgrim material by ultrasonic techniques. Unfortunately, the Pilgrim segments contained relatively little weldment; thus, we limited our ultrasonic examinations to the cladding and subcladding regions. Fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection of the cladding surfaces for both LWR segments detected no significant indications [i.e., for a total of approximately 6.8 m 2 (72 ft 2 ) of cladding surface]. (author)

  3. Automated eddy-current installation AVD-01 for detecting flaws in fuel element cans

    Varvaritsa, V.P.; Martishchenko, L.G.; Popov, V.K.; Romanov, M.L.; Shlepnev, I.O.; Shmatok, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an automated installation for eddy-current flaw detection in thin-walled pipes with small diameter; its unified transport system makes it possible to use the installation in inspection lines and production lines of fuel elements. The article describes the structural diagrams of the installation and presents the results of investigations connected with the selection for establishing the optimum regimes and sensitivity of feedthrough transducers with focusing screens

  4. Current and historical perspectives on methodological flaws in processing umbilical cord blood.

    Mehrishi, J N

    2013-11-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-CD34+) are valuable for treating malignant or nonmalignant disease. Processing UCB by HESPAN-6% and anti-CD34-Miltenyi particles provides insufficient cells for treating adults. Physicochemical-electrokinetic studies on UCB-mononuclear cells (MNCs) under conditions of delayed processing, ice or very low temperatures, and some cell separation media identified artifacts introduced by procedures. Adsorption of biomaterials from cell damage by temperature, degradation products after using enzymes, harsh reagents, dithiothreitol, and HESPAN affect cell properties and distribution. Miltenyi particles internalized by cells could release iron that accumulating in liver or spleen would then risk toxicity. Summary topics included the effects of temperature, HESPAN (fast sedimenting agent), glycoproteases, DNase, and dithiothreitol risk affecting cell receptors in recognition, "homing," leading to possible unintended iatrogenic bioeffects should such cells be transfused into humans. The loss of undetectable and uncaptured low CD34 antigen-bearing cells by Miltenyi particles seems to occur when the current methods of isolation of CD34+ cells and other cells are critically assessed. The purpose here is to highlight and suggest avoiding the procedural flaws involved. Preventing ice temperatures avoids ice-damaged platelets releasing biomaterials that are adsorbed on cells altering UBC-MNCs/HSC properties and cell loss. Omitting the positive selection with antibody-linked Miltenyi particles obviates the use of harsh reagents to release the cells. Internalized Miltenyi particles are a toxicity hazard that needs investigations. Achieving approximately 5% yields of CD34+ cells (153 × 10(5) /110 mL cord-placenta blood) is a major advance holding great promise, for the first time increasing the prospect of stem cell therapy of 70-kg adults, using a single UCB donation (with dose of 1.5 × 10(5) cells/kg) and

  5. Long-Range Piping Inspection by Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    Joo, Young Sang; Lim, Sa Hoe; Eom, Heung Seop; Kim, Jae Hee

    2005-01-01

    The ultrasonic guided waves are very promising for the long-range inspection of large structures because they can propagate a long distance along the structures such as plates, shells and pipes. The guided wave inspection could be utilized for an on-line monitoring technique when the transmitting and receiving transducers are positioned at a remote point on the structure. The received signal has the information about the integrity of the monitoring area between the transmitting and receiving transducers. On-line monitoring of a pipe line using an ultrasonic guided wave can detect flaws such as corrosion, erosion and fatigue cracking at an early stage and collect useful information on the flaws. However the guided wave inspection is complicated by the dispersive characteristics for guided waves. The phase and group velocities are a function of the frequency-thickness product. Therefore, the different frequency components of the guided waves will travel at different speeds and the shape of the received signal will changed as it propagates along the pipe. In this study, we analyze the propagation characteristics of guided wave modes in a small diameter pipe of nuclear power plant and select the suitable mode for a long-range inspection. And experiments will be carried out for the practical application of a long-range inspection in a 26m long pipe by using a high-power ultrasonic inspection system

  6. Assessment and model guided cancer screening promotion by village doctors in China: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Feng, Rui; Shen, Xingrong; Chai, Jing; Chen, Penglai; Cheng, Jing; Liang, Han; Zhao, Ting; Sha, Rui; Li, Kaichun; Wang, Debin

    2015-10-12

    Proven cost-effectiveness contrasted by low uptake of cancer screening (CS) calls for new methodologies promoting the service. Contemporary interventions in this regard relies primarily on strategies targeting general or specific groups with limited attention being paid to individualized approaches. This trial tests a novel package promoting CS utilization via continuous and tailored counseling delivered by primary caregivers. It aims at demonstrating that high risk individuals in the intervention arm will, compared to those in the delayed intervention condition, show increased use of CS service. The trial adopts a quasi-randomized controlled trial design and involves 2160 high risk individuals selected, via rapid and detailed risk assessments, from about 72,000 farmers aged 35+ in 36 administrative villages randomized into equal intervention and delayed intervention arms. The CS intervention package uses: a) village doctors and village clinics to deliver personalized and thus relatively sophisticated CS counseling; b) two-stage risk assessment models in identifying high risk individuals to focus the intervention on the most needed; c) standardized operation procedures to guide conduct of counseling; d) real-time effectiveness and quality monitoring to leverage continuous improvement; e) web-based electronic system to enable prioritizing complex determinants of CS uptake and tailoring counseling sessions to the changing needs of individual farmers. The intervention arm receives baseline and semiannual follow up evaluations plus CS counseling for 5 years; while the delayed intervention arm, only the same baseline and follow-up evaluations for the first 5 years and CS counseling starting from the 6th year if the intervention proved effective. Evaluation measures include: CS uptake by high risk farmers and changes in their knowledge, perceptions and self-efficacy about CS. Given the complexity and heterogeneity in the determinant system of individual CS service

  7. Personalized Assessment of kV Cone Beam Computed Tomography Doses in Image-guided Radiotherapy of Pediatric Cancer Patients

    Zhang Yibao [Beijing Key Lab of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Yan Yulong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Bao Shanglian [Beijing Key Lab of Medical Physics and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Deng Jun, E-mail: jun.deng@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To develop a quantitative method for the estimation of kV cone beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) doses in pediatric patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-two children were retrospectively analyzed in subgroups of different scanned regions: one group in the head-and-neck and the other group in the pelvis. Critical structures in planning CT images were delineated on an Eclipse treatment planning system before being converted into CT phantoms for Monte Carlo simulations. A benchmarked EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions of kVCBCT scans with full-fan high-quality head or half-fan pelvis protocols predefined by the manufacturer. Based on planning CT images and structures exported in DICOM RT format, occipital-frontal circumferences (OFC) were calculated for head-and-neck patients using DICOMan software. Similarly, hip circumferences (HIP) were acquired for the pelvic group. Correlations between mean organ doses and age, weight, OFC, and HIP values were analyzed with SigmaPlot software suite, where regression performances were analyzed with relative dose differences (RDD) and coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}). Results: kVCBCT-contributed mean doses to all critical structures decreased monotonically with studied parameters, with a steeper decrease in the pelvis than in the head. Empirical functions have been developed for a dose estimation of the major organs at risk in the head and pelvis, respectively. If evaluated with physical parameters other than age, a mean RDD of up to 7.9% was observed for all the structures in our population of 42 patients. Conclusions: kVCBCT doses are highly correlated with patient size. According to this study, weight can be used as a primary index for dose assessment in both head and pelvis scans, while OFC and HIP may serve as secondary indices for dose estimation in corresponding regions. With the proposed empirical functions, it is possible

  8. Flaw evaluation of Nd:YAG laser welding based plume shape by infrared thermal camera

    Kim, Jae Yeol; Yoo, Young Tae; Yang, Dong Jo; Song, Kyung Seol; Ro, Kyoung Bo

    2003-01-01

    In Nd:YAG laser welding evaluation methods of welding flaw are various. But, the method due to plume shape is difficult to classification od welding flaw. The Nd:YAG laser process is known to have high speed and deep penetration capability to become one of the most advanced welding technologies. At the present time, some methods are studied for measurement of plume shape by using high-speed camera and photo diode. This paper describes the machining characteristics of SM45C carbon steel welding by use of an Nd:YAG laser. In spite of its good mechanical characteristics, SM45C carbon steel has a high carbon contents and suffers a limitation in the industrial application due to the poor welding properties. In this study, plume shape was measured by infrared thermal camera that is non-contact/non-destructive thermal measurement equipment through change of laser generating power, speed, focus. Weld was performed on bead-on method. Measurement results are compared as two equipment. Here, two results are composed of measurement results of plume quantities due to plume shape by infrared thermal camera and inspection results of weld bead include weld flaws by ultrasonic inspector.

  9. Ligament rupture and unstable burst behaviors of axial flaws in steam generator U-bends

    Bahn, Chi Bum, E-mail: bahn@pusan.ac.kr [Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehak-ro 63 beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin [KEPCO Engineering & Construction Co. Inc., Seongnam 463-870 (Korea, Republic of); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Ligament rupture and unstable burst pressure tests were conducted with U-bends. • In general, U-bends showed higher ligament rupture and burst pressures than straight tubes. • U-bend test data was bounded by 90% lower limit of the probabilistic models for straight tubes. • Prediction models for straight tubes could be conservatively applied to U-bends. - Abstract: Incidents of U-bend cracking in steam generator (SG) tubes have been reported, some of which have led to tube rupture. Experimental and analytical modeling efforts to determine the failure criteria of flawed SG U-bends are limited. To evaluate structural integrity of flawed U-bends, ligament rupture and unstable burst pressure tests were conducted on 57 and 152 mm bend radius U-bends with axial electrical discharge machining notches. In general, the ligament rupture and burst pressures of the U-bends were higher than those of straight tubes with similar notches. To quantitatively address the test data scatter issue, probabilistic models were introduced. All ligament rupture and burst pressures of U-bends were bounded by 90% lower limits of the probabilistic models for straight tubes. It was concluded that the prediction models for straight tubes could be applied to U-bends to conservatively evaluate the ligament rupture and burst pressures of U-bends with axial flaws.

  10. Ligament rupture and unstable burst behaviors of axial flaws in steam generator U-bends

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Oh, Young-Jin; Majumdar, Saurin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ligament rupture and unstable burst pressure tests were conducted with U-bends. • In general, U-bends showed higher ligament rupture and burst pressures than straight tubes. • U-bend test data was bounded by 90% lower limit of the probabilistic models for straight tubes. • Prediction models for straight tubes could be conservatively applied to U-bends. - Abstract: Incidents of U-bend cracking in steam generator (SG) tubes have been reported, some of which have led to tube rupture. Experimental and analytical modeling efforts to determine the failure criteria of flawed SG U-bends are limited. To evaluate structural integrity of flawed U-bends, ligament rupture and unstable burst pressure tests were conducted on 57 and 152 mm bend radius U-bends with axial electrical discharge machining notches. In general, the ligament rupture and burst pressures of the U-bends were higher than those of straight tubes with similar notches. To quantitatively address the test data scatter issue, probabilistic models were introduced. All ligament rupture and burst pressures of U-bends were bounded by 90% lower limits of the probabilistic models for straight tubes. It was concluded that the prediction models for straight tubes could be applied to U-bends to conservatively evaluate the ligament rupture and burst pressures of U-bends with axial flaws.

  11. Gamma flaw detectors for radiographic control of welded joint quality under mounting conditions

    Khoroshev, V.N.; Galash, T.F.; Andreev, V.L.; Grigor'ev, V.M.; Medvedev, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    Main characteristics are presented of gamma flaw detector models used for radiographic control of the quality of welded steel and pipeline joints during assembly. Specially developed experimental models, operating with 75 Se, 90 Sr, 170 Tm, 137 Cs and 192 Ir sources are considered. The new instruments have been made on a single structural base, which creates a foundation for standardizing individual units of radiation heads, manual control panels, containers, exterior packings, devices and accessories, maintenance techniques, and repair techniques. They are distinguished by small sizes and weight, possibility of using a set of radiation sources ensuring control of 3-40 mm thick joints, and reliable protection. Special devices permit to reduce 2-3-folds the time needed for installing and orienting the flaw detectors. The expected economic effect from implementation of the new gamma flaw detectors into industry will amount to 1.5-10.0 thousand roubles per annum for one detector at approximate cost of each detector equal to 3.5-6.0 thousand roubles

  12. Flaw tolerance vs. performance: A tradeoff in metallic glass cellular structures

    Chen, Wen; Liu, Ze; Robinson, Hannah Mae; Schroers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic cellular structures are prevalent in nature and engineering materials alike. They are difficult to manipulate and study systematically and almost always contain imperfections. To design and characterize various degrees of imperfections in perfect periodic, stochastic and natural cellular structures, we fabricate a broad range of metallic glass cellular structures from perfectly periodic to highly stochastic by using a novel artificial microstructure approach based on thermoplastic replication of metallic glasses. For these cellular structures, precisely controlled imperfections are implemented and their effects on the mechanical response are evaluated. It is found that the mechanical performance of the periodic structures is generally superior to that of the stochastic structures. However, the stochastic structures experience a much higher tolerance to flaws than the periodic structure, especially in the plastic regime. The different flaw tolerance is explained by the stress distribution within the various structures, which leads to an overall 'strain-hardening' behavior of the stochastic structure compared to a 'strain-softening' behavior in the periodic structure. Our findings reveal how structure, 'strain-hardening' and flaw tolerance are microscopically related in structural materials

  13. On self-propagating methodological flaws in performance normalization for strength and power sports.

    Arandjelović, Ognjen

    2013-06-01

    Performance in strength and power sports is greatly affected by a variety of anthropometric factors. The goal of performance normalization is to factor out the effects of confounding factors and compute a canonical (normalized) performance measure from the observed absolute performance. Performance normalization is applied in the ranking of elite athletes, as well as in the early stages of youth talent selection. Consequently, it is crucial that the process is principled and fair. The corpus of previous work on this topic, which is significant, is uniform in the methodology adopted. Performance normalization is universally reduced to a regression task: the collected performance data are used to fit a regression function that is then used to scale future performances. The present article demonstrates that this approach is fundamentally flawed. It inherently creates a bias that unfairly penalizes athletes with certain allometric characteristics, and, by virtue of its adoption in the ranking and selection of elite athletes, propagates and strengthens this bias over time. The main flaws are shown to originate in the criteria for selecting the data used for regression, as well as in the manner in which the regression model is applied in normalization. This analysis brings into light the aforesaid methodological flaws and motivates further work on the development of principled methods, the foundations of which are also laid out in this work.

  14. Collegiate Drug Management Guide.

    Janosik, Steven M.; Anderson, David S.

    A checklist to help colleges and universities reevaluate their policies and procedures regarding drug use among college students is presented. It is designed to supplement the "Collegiate Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide." In this guide drugs other than alcohol are of concern, although alcohol is viewed by many as the "drug of choice" among college…

  15. Application of Fourier elastodynamics to direct and inverse problems for the scattering of elastic waves from flaws near surfaces

    Richardson, J.M.; Fertig, K.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In order to inspect flaws which lie too close to the surface a Fourier elastodynamic formalism is proposed which enables one to decompose the elastodynamic system into separately charterizable parts by means of planes perpendicular to the z-axis. The process can be represented by a generalized transfer function relating the near-field scattered waves to the waves incident on a slab of material containing the flaw. The Fourier elastodynamics are applied to the characterization of the total scattering process involving a flaw at various distances from a plastic-water interface. An abbreviated discussion of Fourier elastodynamics is presented, and the results specialized to the case of spherical voids and inclusions bear an interface. Finally, the computational results for several ranges of temporal frequency and for a sequence of values of the distance from the flaw center to the interface are discussed

  16. Evaluation of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    During a recent inservice inspection (ISI) of a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) in an inlet (hot leg) steam generator nozzle at North Anna Power Station Unit 1, several axially oriented flaws went undetected by the licensee's manual ultrasonic testing (UT) technique. The flaws were subsequently detected as a result of outside diameter (OD) surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the DMW. Further ultrasonic tests were then performed, and a total of five axially oriented flaws, classified as primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference.

  17. Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws

    Simon Spedding

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of Vitamin D supplements in depression is controversial, awaiting further literature analysis. Biological flaws in primary studies is a possible reason meta-analyses of Vitamin D have failed to demonstrate efficacy. This systematic review and meta-analysis of Vitamin D and depression compared studies with and without biological flaws. The systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature search was un...

  18. A dynamic fatigue study of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses using small scale indentation flaws

    Dabbs, T.P.; Lawn, B.R.; Kelly, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic fatigue characteristics of two glasses, soda-lime silicate and borosilicate, in water have been studied using a controlled indentation flaw technique. It is argued that the indentation approach offers several advantages over more conventional fatigue testing procedures: (i) the reproducibility of data is relatively high, eliminating statistics as a basis of analysis: (ii) the flaw ultimately responsible for failure is well defined and may be conveniently characterised before and after (and during, if necessary) the strength test; (iii) via adjustment of the indentation load, the size of the flaw can be suitably predetermined. Particular attention is devoted to the third point because of the facility it provides for systematic investigation of the range of flaw sizes over which macroscopic crack behaviour remains applicable. The first part of the paper summarises the essential fracture mechanics theory of the extension of an indentation flaw to failure. In the next part of the paper the results of dynamic fatigue tests on glass rods in distilled water are described. Data are obtained for Vickers indentation loads in the range 0.05 to 100 N, corresponding to contact dimensions of 2 to 100 μm. Finally, the implications of the results in relation to the response of 'natural' flaws are discussed. (author)

  19. Vitamin D and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing studies with and without biological flaws.

    Spedding, Simon

    2014-04-11

    Efficacy of Vitamin D supplements in depression is controversial, awaiting further literature analysis. Biological flaws in primary studies is a possible reason meta-analyses of Vitamin D have failed to demonstrate efficacy. This systematic review and meta-analysis of Vitamin D and depression compared studies with and without biological flaws. The systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature search was undertaken through four databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies were critically appraised for methodological quality and biological flaws, in relation to the hypothesis and study design. Meta-analyses were performed for studies according to the presence of biological flaws. The 15 RCTs identified provide a more comprehensive evidence-base than previous systematic reviews; methodological quality of studies was generally good and methodology was diverse. A meta-analysis of all studies without flaws demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression with Vitamin D supplements (+0.78 CI +0.24, +1.27). Studies with biological flaws were mainly inconclusive, with the meta-analysis demonstrating a statistically significant worsening in depression by taking Vitamin D supplements (-1.1 CI -0.7, -1.5). Vitamin D supplementation (≥800 I.U. daily) was somewhat favorable in the management of depression in studies that demonstrate a change in vitamin levels, and the effect size was comparable to that of anti-depressant medication.

  20. Vitamin D and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing Studies with and without Biological Flaws

    Simon Spedding

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of Vitamin D supplements in depression is controversial, awaiting further literature analysis. Biological flaws in primary studies is a possible reason meta-analyses of Vitamin D have failed to demonstrate efficacy. This systematic review and meta-analysis of Vitamin D and depression compared studies with and without biological flaws. The systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. The literature search was undertaken through four databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Studies were critically appraised for methodological quality and biological flaws, in relation to the hypothesis and study design. Meta-analyses were performed for studies according to the presence of biological flaws. The 15 RCTs identified provide a more comprehensive evidence-base than previous systematic reviews; methodological quality of studies was generally good and methodology was diverse. A meta-analysis of all studies without flaws demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in depression with Vitamin D supplements (+0.78 CI +0.24, +1.27. Studies with biological flaws were mainly inconclusive, with the meta-analysis demonstrating a statistically significant worsening in depression by taking Vitamin D supplements (−1.1 CI −0.7, −1.5. Vitamin D supplementation (≥800 I.U. daily was somewhat favorable in the management of depression in studies that demonstrate a change in vitamin levels, and the effect size was comparable to that of anti-depressant medication.

  1. USING THE SELECTIVE FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT ASSESSMENT AND REGIONAL INTERDEPENDENCE THEORY TO GUIDE TREATMENT OF AN ATHLETE WITH BACK PAIN: A CASE REPORT.

    Goshtigian, Gabriella R; Swanson, Brian T

    2016-08-01

    Despite the multidirectional quality of human movement, common measurement procedures used in physical therapy examination are often uni-planar and lack the ability to assess functional complexities involved in daily activities. Currently, there is no widely accepted, validated standard to assess movement quality. The Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA) is one possible system to objectively assess complex functional movements. The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the application of the SFMA as a guide to the examination, evaluation, and management of a patient with non-specific low back pain (LBP). An adolescent male athlete with LBP was evaluated using the SFMA. It was determined that the patient had mobility limitations remote to the site of pain (thoracic spine and hips) which therapists hypothesized were leading to compensatory hypermobility at the lumbar spine. Guided by the SFMA, initial interventions focused on local (lumbar) symptom management, progressing to remote mobility deficits, and then addressing the local stability deficit. All movement patterns became functional/non-painful except the right upper extremity medial rotation-extension pattern. At discharge, the patient demonstrated increased soft tissue extensibility of hip musculature and joint mobility of the thoracic spine along with normalization of lumbopelvic motor control. Improvements in pain exceeded minimal clinically important differences, from 2-7/10 on a verbal analog scale at initial exam to 0-2/10 at discharge. Developing and progressing a plan of care for an otherwise healthy and active adolescent with non-specific LBP can be challenging. Human movement is a collaborative effort of muscle groups that are interdependent; the use of a movement-based assessment model can help identify weak links affecting overall function. The SFMA helped guide therapists to dysfunctional movements not seen with more conventional examination procedures. Level 4.

  2. Assessment of decay in standing timber using stress wave timing nondestructive evaluation tools : a guide for use and interpretation

    Xiping Wang; Ferenc Divos; Crystal Pilon; Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Roy F. Pellerin

    2004-01-01

    This guide was prepared to assist field foresters in the use of stress wave timing instruments to locate and define areas of decay in standing timber. The first three sections provide background information, the principles of stress wave nondestructive testing, and measurement techniques for stress wave nondestructive testing. The last section is a detailed description...

  3. Assessing Online Learning Objects: Student Evaluation of a Guide on the Side Interactive Learning Tutorial Designed by SRJC Libraries

    Virtue, Alicia; Dean, Ellen; Matheson, Molly

    2014-01-01

    More and more of today's scholars conduct their research in a digital realm rather than using a print collection. The University of Arizona Libraries Guide on the Side tutorial software offers an opportunity to apply the principles of active learning with real world research scenarios. This paper reports on the design and introduction of…

  4. The Search for Underlying Principles of Health Impact Assessment: Progress and Prospects; Comment on “Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment”

    Mirko S. Winkler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Islamic Republic of Iran, the authors identified multiple issues that are relevant for guiding HIA practice. At the same time, the study unravelled current shortcomings in the understanding and definition of HIA principles and best practice at national, regional, and global levels. In this commentary we scrutinise the research presented, highlight strengths and limitations, and discuss the findings in the context of other recent attempts to guide HIA.

  5. Intercomparison of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of heavy water reactor pressure tubes: Flaw detection and characterization [Phase 1

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear power plants with heavy water reactors (HWRs) comprise nine percent of today's operating nuclear units, and more are under construction. Efficient and accurate inspection and diagnostic techniques for various reactor components and systems are an important factor in assuring reliable and safe plant operation. To foster international collaboration in the efficient and safe use of nuclear power, the IAEA conducted a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Inter-comparison of Techniques for HWR Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics. This CRP was carried out within the frame of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for HWRs (the TWG-HWR). The TWG-HWR is a group of experts nominated by their governments and designated by the IAEA to provide advice and to support implementation of the IAEA's project on advanced technologies for HWRs. The objective of the CRP was to inter-compare non-destructive inspection and diagnostic techniques, in use and being developed, for structural integrity assessment of HWR pressure tubes. During the first phase of this CRP, participants have investigated the capability of different techniques to detect and characterize flaws. During the second phase of this CRP, participants collaborated to detect and characterize hydride blisters and to determine the hydrogen concentration in Zirconium alloys. The intent was to identify the most effective pressure tube inspection and diagnostic methods, and to identify further development needs. The organizations that have participated in this CRP are: - The Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Argentina; - Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL); Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Canada; - The Research Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (RINPO), China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), China; - Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India; - The Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), Republic of Korea; - The Korea Atomic Energy

  6. Is the Carli index flawed?: assessing the case for the new retail price index RPIJ.

    Levell, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The paper discusses the recent decision of the UK's Office for National Statistics to replace the controversial Carli index with the Jevons index in a new version of the retail price index-RPIJ. In doing so we make three contributions to the way that price indices should be selected for measures of consumer price inflation when quantity information is not available (i.e. at the 'elementary' level). Firstly, we introduce a new price bouncing test under the test approach for choosing index numbers. Secondly, we provide empirical evidence on the performance of the Carli and Jevons indices in different contexts under the statistical approach. Thirdly, applying something analogous to the principle of insufficient reason, we argue contrary to received wisdom in the literature, that the economic approach can be used to choose indices at the elementary level, and moreover that it favours the use of the Jevons index. Overall, we conclude that there is a case against the Carli index and that the Jevons index is to be preferred.

  7. EFAM ETM-CREEP 03 - the engineering flaw assessment method for creep

    Landes, J.D.; Schwalbe, K.H.

    2002-01-01

    EFAM ETM-CREEP is a document that describes the GKSS procedure for estimating residual lives for structural components that contain crack-like defects and operating in a high temperature regime where they undergo creep deformation. It uses the traditional parameters C t and C * and the ETM parameters δ 5 and δ 5 to characterize the crack extension rates. It relies on input from EFAM ETM 97 for calculating these parameters and from EFAM GTP-CREEP 02 to provide the material property data for crack extension rates and fracture toughness data. (orig.) [de

  8. Textual and language flaws: problems for Spanish doctors in producing abstracts in English

    Lourdes Divasson Cilveti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific journals are the primary source of information for researchers. The number of articles currently indexed in databases is so large that it has become almost impossible to read every relevant article in a particular field. Thus, research paper abstracts (RPAs have acquired increasing importance. Several studies have shown that they are the skipping point, particularly among non-native English speakers. To our knowledge, little research has been carried out on RPA writing by Spanish doctors. It is thus the objective of this article to analyse the way abstracts are structured and linguistically realized by these professionals. We selected 30 RPAs written in English by Spanish speaking doctors from three leading Spanish journals on internal medicine. We recorded their textual level flaws by measuring the degree of informativeness with regard to three main variables: move patterning, ordering and structuring, and their language use flaws under two broad categories: ortho-typographic and grammatical. Length, use of hedges and keywords were also identified. 86.6% of the abstracts were informative, 13.3% uninformative while none of them could be classified as highly informative. With regard to the authors' use of language, over 70% presented some kind of flaws: 21.55% of these mistakes were ortho-typographic while 78.44% were grammatical. Our results support the need of designing specific units geared on the one hand towards explicit teaching of structured abstracts and on the other, towards the difficulties found by doctors because they lack language competence. They would also benefit from clearer guidelines from journal editors.

  9. Does an inter-flaw length control the accuracy of rupture forecasting in geological materials?

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Heap, Michael J.; Main, Ian G.; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-10-01

    Multi-scale failure of porous materials is an important phenomenon in nature and in material physics - from controlled laboratory tests to rockbursts, landslides, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. A key unsolved research question is how to accurately forecast the time of system-sized catastrophic failure, based on observations of precursory events such as acoustic emissions (AE) in laboratory samples, or, on a larger scale, small earthquakes. Until now, the length scale associated with precursory events has not been well quantified, resulting in forecasting tools that are often unreliable. Here we test the hypothesis that the accuracy of the forecast failure time depends on the inter-flaw distance in the starting material. We use new experimental datasets for the deformation of porous materials to infer the critical crack length at failure from a static damage mechanics model. The style of acceleration of AE rate prior to failure, and the accuracy of forecast failure time, both depend on whether the cracks can span the inter-flaw length or not. A smooth inverse power-law acceleration of AE rate to failure, and an accurate forecast, occurs when the cracks are sufficiently long to bridge pore spaces. When this is not the case, the predicted failure time is much less accurate and failure is preceded by an exponential AE rate trend. Finally, we provide a quantitative and pragmatic correction for the systematic error in the forecast failure time, valid for structurally isotropic porous materials, which could be tested against larger-scale natural failure events, with suitable scaling for the relevant inter-flaw distances.

  10. Ductile growth of crack like flawing during hydrotest; Propagacao dutil de defeitos planares durante teste hidrostatico

    Teixeira, Jose C; Donato, Guilherme V [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Silva, Marcinei S. da; Bastian, Fernando L [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Lima, Romulo S. de [PETROBRAS/AB-RE, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper effects of hydrostatic testing on ductile propagation of crack like flaw defects were evaluated in API X-60 steel. The model used was based on the J-tearing theory, supported by elastic - plastic fracture mechanics. The J-initiation resistance values (JIc) were determined by fracture mechanic tests using potential drop technique and compact test specimen. The JIc values were also determined from flow stress and Charpy V-notch at plateau, which are both usually available in mill-test data. Despite of being based on small database it seems it could be extended and it will be useful for future analysis. (author)

  11. Modelling molecular adsorption on charged or polarized surfaces: a critical flaw in common approaches.

    Bal, Kristof M; Neyts, Erik C

    2018-03-28

    A number of recent computational material design studies based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations have put forward a new class of materials with electrically switchable chemical characteristics that can be exploited in the development of tunable gas storage and electrocatalytic applications. We find systematic flaws in almost every computational study of gas adsorption on polarized or charged surfaces, stemming from an improper and unreproducible treatment of periodicity, leading to very large errors of up to 3 eV in some cases. Two simple corrective procedures that lead to consistent results are proposed, constituting a crucial course correction to the research in the field.

  12. The shallow flaw effect and the local approach to cleavage fracture

    Moinereau, D.

    1996-10-01

    The capability of Beremin model to explain the shallow flaw effect in cleavage fracture is evaluated. Numerous two-dimensional finite element calculations are performed on several cracked specimens (cladded and un-cladded specimens with different values of a/W ratio) submitted to mechanical or thermal loading. The behavior of different specimens is examined using the Weibull stress σ w versus stress intensity factor K J curves. The stress fields and plastic zones at the crack tip are also compared on respective cracked specimens. (K.A.)

  13. Focussed probes ultrasonic follow-up of actual flaw growth during fatigue testing

    Cinotti, C.; Dufresne, J.; Prot, A.C.; Touffait, A.M.; Saglio, R.

    1979-01-01

    A programme was undertaken to follow-up the growth of actual flaws purposely introduced during the welding process of five test specimens. The aim of this programme is to measure the actual size of the cracks which develop from the known defects during the fatigue testing. The sizing method is based on the use of focussed probes, which allow good accuracy and repeatability, as well as good sensitivity. Examples are given of the first results: sizing before testing, then step by step during the fatigue testing and also under compression. This last point is very important in view of the ultrasonic testing during periodic in-service inspection

  14. RSE-M code progress in the field of examination evaluation and flaw acceptance criteria

    Barthelet, B.; Le Delliou, P.; Heliot, J.; Faidy, C.; Drubay, B.

    1995-01-01

    The RSE-M Code provides rules and requirements for in service inspection of light water cooled nuclear power plants. The code first edition was established by EDF and published in 1990 by AFCEN. In 1992, a second RSE-M project was launched by EDF and FRAMATOME with the objective to address a 1995 edition more completed considering the needs of owners, users, manufacturers and inspectors. This paper focuses on evaluation of examination results and presents the work done in the field of flaw acceptance criteria over the last three years. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  15. Probabilistic Estimation of Critical Flaw Sizes in the Primary Structure Welds of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Hoge, Peter A.; Patel, B. M.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary structure of the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) launch vehicle is constructed of welded mild steel plates. There is some concern over the possibility of structural failure due to welding flaws. It was considered critical to quantify the impact of uncertainties in residual stress, material porosity, applied loads, and material and crack growth properties on the reliability of the welds during its pre-flight and flight. A criterion--an existing maximum size crack at the weld toe must be smaller than the maximum allowable flaw size--was established to estimate the reliability of the welds. A spectrum of maximum allowable flaw sizes was developed for different possible combinations of all of the above listed variables by performing probabilistic crack growth analyses using the ANSYS finite element analysis code in conjunction with the NASGRO crack growth code. Two alternative methods were used to account for residual stresses: (1) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 41 ksi and a limit was set on the net section flow stress during crack propagation. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if this limit was exceeded during four complete flight cycles, and (2) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 49.6 ksi (the parent material s yield strength) and the net section flow stress limit was ignored. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if catastrophic crack growth occurred during four complete flight cycles. Both surface-crack models and through-crack models were utilized to characterize cracks in the weld toe.

  16. Assessment of pain score and specimen adequacy for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules

    Liao LJ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Li-Jen Liao,1 Wu-Chia Lo,1 Wan-Lun Hsu,2 Po-Wen Cheng,1 Cheng-Ping Wang3 1Department of Otolaryngology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, 2Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 3Department of Otolaryngology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate pain scores and specimen adequacy for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB of thyroid nodules without and with local anesthesia (LA. Materials and methods: The US-FNAB procedure was performed on 183 patients with and without LA. One puncture was made for solid nodules, and if patients could tolerate it, a two-puncture technique was used for nodules with a cystic change. Four-point verbal rating scores were assessed by a nursing assistant after completion of US-FNAB. To be an adequate specimen, at least six groups of follicular cells are required, and each group should contain at least 10 cells.Results: Immediately after US-FNAB, 92% of patients with LA and 80% without LA reported no or mild pain (p=0.01. Most patients tolerated the procedure well, with no pain (82.5% reported 5 minutes after the procedure. In univariate logistic regression, irregular boundary (odds ratio [OR]: 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–6.06, p=0.04, calcification (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.06–7.76, p=0.04, and LA (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.15–0.86, p=0.02 were significantly associated with immediate moderate or severe pain. Specimen adequacy was significantly associated with age (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92–0.97, p<0.01, heterogeneous echo-texture (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.23–5.17, p=0.01, predominate solid architecture (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42–5.41, p<0.01, and the use of LA (OR: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.70–6.56, p<0.01. In multivariate logistic regression, patients receiving LA had lower risk of moderate or severe pain (OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09–0.67, p=0.01 and higher chances of specimen adequacy (OR: 4.84, 95% CI: 2.17–10.7, p<0

  17. Assessing variation in life-history tactics within a population using mixture regression models: a practical guide for evolutionary ecologists.

    Hamel, Sandra; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Mixed models are now well-established methods in ecology and evolution because they allow accounting for and quantifying within- and between-individual variation. However, the required normal distribution of the random effects can often be violated by the presence of clusters among subjects, which leads to multi-modal distributions. In such cases, using what is known as mixture regression models might offer a more appropriate approach. These models are widely used in psychology, sociology, and medicine to describe the diversity of trajectories occurring within a population over time (e.g. psychological development, growth). In ecology and evolution, however, these models are seldom used even though understanding changes in individual trajectories is an active area of research in life-history studies. Our aim is to demonstrate the value of using mixture models to describe variation in individual life-history tactics within a population, and hence to promote the use of these models by ecologists and evolutionary ecologists. We first ran a set of simulations to determine whether and when a mixture model allows teasing apart latent clustering, and to contrast the precision and accuracy of estimates obtained from mixture models versus mixed models under a wide range of ecological contexts. We then used empirical data from long-term studies of large mammals to illustrate the potential of using mixture models for assessing within-population variation in life-history tactics. Mixture models performed well in most cases, except for variables following a Bernoulli distribution and when sample size was small. The four selection criteria we evaluated [Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and two bootstrap methods] performed similarly well, selecting the right number of clusters in most ecological situations. We then showed that the normality of random effects implicitly assumed by evolutionary ecologists when using mixed models was often

  18. Validation of statistical assessment method for the optimization of the inspection need for nuclear steam generators

    Wallin, K.; Voskamp, R.; Schmibauer, J.; Ostermeyer, H.; Nagel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The cost of steam generator inspections in nuclear power plants is high. A new quantitative assessment methodology for the accumulation of flaws due to stochastic causes like fretting has been developed for cases where limited inspection data is available. Additionally, a new quantitative assessment methodology for the accumulation of environment related flaws, caused e.g. by corrosion in steam generator tubes, has been developed. The method that combines deterministic information regarding flaw initiation and growth with stochastic elements connected to environmental aspects requires only knowledge of the experimental flaw accumulation history. The method, combining both types of flaw types, provides a complete description of the flaw accumulation and there are several possible uses of the method. The method can be used to evaluate the total life expectancy of the steam generator and simple statistically defined plugging criteria can be established based on flaw behaviour. This way the inspection interval and inspection coverage can be optimized with respect to allowable flaws and the method can recognize flaw type subsets requiring more frequent inspection intervals. The method can also be used to develop statistically realistic safety factors accounting for uncertainties in inspection flaw sizing and detection. The statistical assessment method has been showed to be robust and insensitive to different assessments of plugged tubes. Because the procedure is re-calibrated after each inspection, it reacts effectively to possible changes in the steam generator environment. Validation of the assessment method is provided for real steam generators, both in the case of stochastic damage as well as environment related flaws. (authors)

  19. Human factors guides

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  20. Human factors guides

    Penington, J [PHF Services Inc., (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.