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Sample records for flavor health color

  1. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-15

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  2. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid 3 He), the A and A * phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A * phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A * phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  3. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... potential mu or increasing M_s, there is a quantum phase transition from the CFL phase to a new ``gapless CFL phase'' in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap. The transition occurs where M_s^2/mu is approximately equal to 2*Delta, with Delta the gap parameter. Gapless CFL, like CFL, leaves unbroken...... a linear combination Qtilde of electric and color charges, but it is a Qtilde-conductor with a nonzero electron density. These electrons and the gapless quark quasiparticles make the low energy effective theory of the gapless CFL phase and, consequently, its astrophysical properties are qualitatively...

  4. Enforced Electrical Neutrality of the Color-Flavor Locked Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that quark matter in the color-flavor locked phase of QCD is rigorously electrically neutral, despite the unequal quark masses, and even in the presence of an electron chemical potential. As long as the strange quark mass and the electron chemical potential do not preclude the color-flavor locked phase, quark matter is automatically neutral. No electrons are required and none are admitted

  5. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Actinidia: applications of a cross species EST database for gene discovery in the areas of flavor, health, color and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. are a relatively new, but economically important crop grown in many different parts of the world. Commercial success is driven by the development of new cultivars with novel consumer traits including flavor, appearance, healthful components and convenience. To increase our understanding of the genetic diversity and gene-based control of these key traits in Actinidia, we have produced a collection of 132,577 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results The ESTs were derived mainly from four Actinidia species (A. chinensis, A. deliciosa, A. arguta and A. eriantha and fell into 41,858 non redundant clusters (18,070 tentative consensus sequences and 23,788 EST singletons. Analysis of flavor and fragrance-related gene families (acyltransferases and carboxylesterases and pathways (terpenoid biosynthesis is presented in comparison with a chemical analysis of the compounds present in Actinidia including esters, acids, alcohols and terpenes. ESTs are identified for most genes in color pathways controlling chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis. In the health area, data are presented on the ESTs involved in ascorbic acid and quinic acid biosynthesis showing not only that genes for many of the steps in these pathways are represented in the database, but that genes encoding some critical steps are absent. In the convenience area, genes related to different stages of fruit softening are identified. Conclusion This large EST resource will allow researchers to undertake the tremendous challenge of understanding the molecular basis of genetic diversity in the Actinidia genus as well as provide an EST resource for comparative fruit genomics. The various bioinformatics analyses we have undertaken demonstrates the extent of coverage of ESTs for genes encoding different biochemical pathways in Actinidia.

  6. Food Color and Its Impact on Taste/Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, Charles; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Color is perhaps the single most important product-intrinsic sensory cue when it comes to setting our expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of food and drink. To date, a large body of research has demonstrated that changing the hue or intensity/saturation of the color of a variety of

  7. The color-flavor transformation of induced QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnir, Ya.

    2002-09-01

    The color-flavor transformation is applied to the U(N c ) lattice model, in which the gauge theory is induced by the chiral scalar field associated with an elementary plaquette. The flavor degrees of freedom are related with the number of generations of the auxiliary field, and flavor components of each generation are associated with all the plaquettes having a lattice site in common. The property of the dual color-flavor transformed theory, which is expressed in terms of the gauge singlets, are analyzed in d=2 and d=3 dimensions. The saddle point solution of the model in the large-N c limit is discussed. The correlations between the plaquettes, which are described by the dual theory, allows to define the dual lattice. In d=3 dimensions it is made of tetradecahedra which correspond to the cubes of the original lattice. The continuum limit of d=2 effective theory is discussed. (author)

  8. The color-flavor transformation of induced QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Shnir, Ya M

    2002-01-01

    The color-flavor transformation is applied to the $U(N_c)$ lattice model, in which the gauge theory is induced by the chiral scalar field associated with an elementary plaquette. The flavor degrees of freedom are related with the number of generations of the auxiliary field, and flavor components of each generation are associated with all the plaquettes having a lattice site in common. The property of the dual color-flavor transformed theory, which is expressed in terms of the gauge singlets, are analyzed in $d=2$ and $d=3$ dimensions. The saddle point solution of the model in the large-$N_c$ limit is discussed. The correlations between the plaquettes, which are described by the dual theory, allows to define the dual lattice. In $d=3$ dimensions it is made of tetradecahedra which correspond to the cubes of the original lattice. The continuum limit of $d=2$ effective theory is discussed.

  9. Magnetized color flavor locked state and compact stars

    CERN Document Server

    Felipe, R Gonzalez; Martinez, A Perez

    2010-01-01

    The stability of the color flavor locked phase in the presence of a strong magnetic field is investigated within the phenomenological MIT bag model, taking into account the variation of the strange quark mass, the baryon density, the magnetic field, as well as the bag and gap parameters. It is found that the minimum value of the energy per baryon in a color flavor locked state at vanishing pressure is lower than the corresponding one for unpaired magnetized strange quark matter and, as the magnetic field increases, the energy per baryon decreases. This implies that magnetized color flavor locked matter is more stable and could become the ground state inside neutron stars. The mass-radius relation for such stars is also studied.

  10. Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labelled with specific flavors in a Stroop-like manner. Across two experiments, a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors is documented and we demonstrate that people are able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging is congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato than when it is incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato. In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  11. Searching for flavor labels in food products: the influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang; Knoeferle, Klemens; Zhou, Xi; Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent) combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labeled with specific flavors. The two experiments reported here document a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors. The participants were able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging was congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato) than when it was incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato). In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference) than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  12. Unlocking color and flavor in superconducting strange quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Berges, Juergen; Rajagopal, Krishna

    1999-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter with massless u and d quarks as a function of the strange quark mass m s and the chemical potential μ for baryon number. Neglecting electromagnetism, we describe the different baryonic and quark matter phases at zero temperature. For quark matter, we support our model-independent arguments with a quantitative analysis of a model which uses a four-fermion interaction abstracted from single-gluon exchange. For any finite m s , at sufficiently large μ we find quark matter in a color-flavor-locked state which leaves a global vector-like SU(2) color+L+R symmetry unbroken. As a consequence, chiral symmetry is always broken in sufficiently dense quark matter. As the density is reduced, for sufficiently large m s we observe a first-order transition from the color-flavor-locked phase to color superconducting phase analogous to that in two-flavor QCD. At this unlocking transition chiral symmetry is restored. For realistic values of m s our analysis indicates that chiral symmetry breaking may be present for all densities down to those characteristic of baryonic matter. This supports the idea that quark matter and baryonic matter may be continuously connected in nature. We map the gaps at the quark Fermi surfaces in the high density color-flavor-locked phase onto gaps at the baryon Fermi surfaces at low densities

  13. Heating (Gapless) Color-Flavor Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram of neutral quark matter at high baryon density as a function of the temperature T and the strange quark mass Ms. At T=0, there is a sharp distinction between the insulating color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, which occurs where Ms^2/mu 0 and Delta_2->0) cross. Because we...

  14. From ultra-dense QCD towards NICA densities: Color-flavor locking and other color superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Andreas [University of Southampton, Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    At asymptotically large densities and sufficiently low temperatures, quark matter is a color superconductor in the color-flavor locked phase. I present a brief discussion of this phase and of possible other color superconductors that may appear at densities reached at NICA and in the interior of compact stars. (orig.)

  15. WHY COLOR-FLAVOR LOCKING IS JUST LIKE CHIRAL SYMMETRY BREAKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PISARSKI, R.D.; RISCHKE, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review how a classification into representations of color and flavor can be used to understand the possible patterns of symmetry breaking for color superconductivity in dense quark matter. In particular, the authors show how for three flavors, color-flavor locking is precisely analogous to the usual pattern of chiral symmetry breaking in the QCD vacuum

  16. Evaluating the Gapless Color-Flavor Locked Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We recently argued that the next phase down in density (as...... a function of decreasing quark chemical potential mu or increasing strange quark mass M_s) is the new ``gapless CFL'' (``gCFL'') phase in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap, while there are gapless quasiparticles described by two dispersion relations at three momenta. There is a continuous quantum...... phase transition from CFL to gCFL quark matter at M_s^2/mu approximately equal to 2*Delta, with Delta the gap parameter. Gapless CFL, like CFL, leaves unbroken a linear combination "Q-tilde" of electric and color charges, but it is a Q-tilde-conductor with gapless Q-tilde-charged quasiparticles...

  17. Grape expectations: the role of cognitive influences in color-flavor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Maya U; Levitan, Carmel A; Spence, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Color conveys critical information about the flavor of food and drink by providing clues as to edibility, flavor identity, and flavor intensity. Despite the fact that more than 100 published papers have investigated the influence of color on flavor perception in humans, surprisingly little research has considered how cognitive and contextual constraints may mediate color-flavor interactions. In this review, we argue that the discrepancies demonstrated in previously-published color-flavor studies may, at least in part, reflect differences in the sensory expectations that different people generate as a result of their prior associative experiences. We propose that color-flavor interactions in flavor perception cannot be understood solely in terms of the principles of multisensory integration (the currently dominant theoretical framework) but that the role of higher-level cognitive factors, such as expectations, must also be considered.

  18. Single-flavor color superconductivity with color-sextet pairing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 9-16 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/02/0847 Keywords : color superconductivity * spontaneous symmetry breaking Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005

  19. Whole grain rice flavor asssociated with assorted bran colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognition of the health benefits of whole grain and pigmented bran rice has resulted in their increased consumption. The bran contributes fiber, minerals, vitamins, and an array of phytonutrients to the diet. Understanding flavor differences arising from bran pigmentation helps consumers choose ...

  20. Influence of color on acceptance and identification of flavor of foods by adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane Aparecida Araújo Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics color and flavor of food play an important role not only in the selection, but also in the determination of consumption, satiation, and ingestion. With the objective to determine and evaluate the influence of color on the acceptance and identification of flavor of foods for adults, sensory analysis was performed on jellies by non-trained tasters of both sexes aged between 18 and 60 years (1750 tests. A hedonic scale and combinations of five colors (red, yellow, green, blue and purple and three flavors (strawberry, pineapple, and limes were used in the acceptance test totaling 15 samples. In the duo-trio discrimination test, together with the reference sample (R, one sample identical to the reference and another of identical color and different flavor were offered, and the judges were requested to identify the sample that was different from the reference sample. The colors used did not influence the acceptance of the samples (P > 0.05, and as there was not significant interaction between color and flavor. However, the limes flavor negatively influenced acceptance when compared to the other flavors. With regard to flavor differentiation, the colors used did not influence flavor identification (P > 0.05; However, differentiated behavior was identified between females and males, and the latter were more error-prone. Therefore, under the experimental conditions tested, color did not influence the acceptance and identification of the flavor of the samples by adults.

  1. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of artificial flavoring or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring...

  2. Vortex structure in superfluid color-flavor locked quark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alford Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The core region of a neutron star may feature quark matter in the color-flavor-locked (CFL phase. The CFL condensate breaks the baryon number symmetry, such that the phenomenon of superfluidity arises. If the core of the star is rotating, vortices will form in the superfluid, carrying the quanta of angular momentum. In a previous study we have solved the question of stability of these vortices, where we found numerical proof of a conjectured instability, according to which superfluid vortices will decay into an arrangement of so-called semi-superfluid fluxtubes. Here we report first results of an extension of our framework that allows us to study multi-vortex dynamics. This will in turn enable us to investigate the structure of semi-superfluid string lattices, which could be relevant to study pinning phenomena at the boundary of the core.

  3. Twelve massless flavors and three colors below the conformal window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Zoltan; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Nogradi, Daniel; Schroeder, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We report new results for a frequently discussed gauge theory with twelve fermion flavors in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. The model, controversial with respect to its conformality, is important in non-perturbative studies searching for a viable composite Higgs mechanism beyond the Standard Model (BSM). In comparison with earlier work, our new simulations apply larger volumes and probe deeper in fermion and pion masses toward the chiral limit. Investigating the controversy, we subject the model to opposite hypotheses with respect to the conformal window. In the first hypothesis, below the conformal window, we test chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) with its Goldstone spectrum, F π , the χSB condensate, and several composite hadron states as analytic functions of the fermion mass when varied in a limited range with our best effort to control finite volume effects. In the second test, for the alternate hypothesis inside the conformal window, we probe conformal behavior driven by a single anomalous mass dimension under the assumption of unbroken chiral symmetry at vanishing fermion mass. Our results at fixed gauge coupling, based on the assumptions of the two hypotheses we define, show low level of confidence in the conformal scenario with leading order scaling analysis. Relaxing the important assumption of leading mass-deformed conformality with its conformal finite size scaling would require added theoretical understanding of the scaling violation terms in the conformal analysis and a comprehensive test of its effects on the confidence level of the fits. Results for the running coupling, based on the force between static sources, and preliminary indications for the finite temperature transition are also presented. Staggered lattice fermions with stout-suppressed taste breaking are used throughout the simulations.

  4. Crossmodal correspondences in product packaging. Assessing color-flavor correspondences for potato chips (crisps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2011-12-01

    We report a study designed to investigate consumers' crossmodal associations between the color of packaging and flavor varieties in crisps (potato chips). This product category was chosen because of the long-established but conflicting color-flavor conventions that exist for the salt and vinegar and cheese and onion flavor varieties in the UK. The use of both implicit and explicit measures of this crossmodal association revealed that consumers responded more slowly, and made more errors, when they had to pair the color and flavor that they implicitly thought of as being "incongruent" with the same response key. Furthermore, clustering consumers by the brand that they normally purchased revealed that the main reason why this pattern of results was observed could be their differing acquaintance with one brand versus another. In addition, when participants tried the two types of crisps from "congruently" and "incongruently" colored packets, some were unable to guess the flavor correctly in the latter case. These strong crossmodal associations did not have a significant effect on participants' hedonic appraisal of the crisps, but did arouse confusion. These results are relevant in terms of R&D, since ascertaining the appropriate color of the packaging across flavor varieties ought normally to help achieve immediate product recognition and consumer satisfaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enforced neutrality and color-flavor unlocking in the three-flavor Polyakov-loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuki, H.; Ciminale, M.; Nardulli, G.; Ruggieri, M.; Gatto, R.

    2008-01-01

    We study how the charge neutrality affects the phase structure of the three-flavor Polyakov-loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. We point out that, within the conventional PNJL model at finite density, the color neutrality is missing because the Wilson line serves as an external colored field coupled to dynamical quarks. In this paper we heuristically assume that the model may still be applicable. To get color neutrality, one has then to allow nonvanishing color chemical potentials. We study how the quark matter phase diagram in (T,m s 2 /μ)-plane is affected by imposing neutrality and by including the Polyakov-loop dynamics. Although these two effects are correlated in a nonlinear way, the impact of the Polyakov loop turns out to be significant in the T direction, while imposing neutrality brings a remarkable effect in the m s 2 /μ direction. In particular, we find a novel unlocking transition, when the temperature is increased, even in the chiral SU(3) limit. We clarify how and why this is possible once the dynamics of the colored Polyakov loop is taken into account. Also we succeed in giving an analytic expression for T c for the transition from two-flavor pairing (2SC) to unpaired quark matter in the presence of the Polyakov loop.

  6. Properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔帅帅; 彭光雄; 陆振烟; 彭程; 徐建峰

    2015-01-01

    The properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field are investigated in a quark model with density-dependent quark masses. Parameters are determined by stability arguments. It is found that the minimum energy per baryon of the color-flavor locked (MCFL) matter decreases with increasing magnetic-field strength in a certain range, which makes MCFL matter more stable than other phases within a proper magnitude of the external magnetic field. However, if the energy of the field itself is added, the total energy per baryon will increase.

  7. Effect of kernel characteristics on color and flavor development during peanut roasting: two years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with Crop Year (CY) 2014 samples from the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) revealed that color and flavor profile development were related to kernel moisture content (MC) during dry roasting. That work was repeated with CY 2015 UPPT samples with additional replication. Raw MC, ...

  8. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce[Gamma irradiation; Fermented anchovy; Color; Flavor compounds; Electronic nose; Sensory evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2004-02-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy (P<0.05), while the alcohols and furan groups were increased by irradiation. Different odor patterns were observed among samples using electronic nose system analysis. Gamma-irradiated samples showed better sensory score and the quality was sustained during storage. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

  9. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo

    2004-02-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy ( Psauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

  10. Relativistic Hydrodynamics of Color-Flavor Locking Phase with Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Sun; WANG Fan

    2004-01-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of color-flavor locking phase of three flavors of light quarks in high density QCD with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The basic hydrodynamic equations are presented based on the Poisson bracket method and the Goldstone phonon and the thermo phonon are compared. The dissipative equations are constructed in the frame of the first-order theory and all the transport coefficients are also defined, which could be looked on as the general case including the Landau's theory and the Eckart's theory

  11. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  12. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part I: Effect of raw material and processing technology on flavor, color and fatty acid composition of peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, V.; Capuano, E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts have a strong impact on consumer acceptability. They can be influenced by
    raw material and processing technology. Raw peanuts of various market types, origins and grades were processed
    by different technologies to produce 134 unique samples, which were

  13. The effect of microfiltration on color, flavor, and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y; Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2015-09-01

    The residual annatto colorant in fluid Cheddar cheese whey is bleached to provide a neutral-colored final product. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide are used for bleaching liquid whey. However, previous studies have shown that chemical bleaching causes off-flavor formation, mainly due to lipid oxidation and protein degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of microfiltration (MF) on norbixin removal and to compare flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) from MF whey to WPC80 from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase (LP). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured from colored, pasteurized milk. The fluid whey was pasteurized and fat separated. Liquid whey was subjected to 4 different treatments: control (no bleaching; 50°C, 1 h), HP (250 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), and LP (20 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), or MF (microfiltration; 50°C, 1 h). The treated whey was then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried to 80% concentrate. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Proximate analyses, color, functionality, descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analysis were conducted on WPC80. The MF and HP- and LP-bleached WPC80 displayed a 39.5, 40.9, and 92.8% norbixin decrease, respectively. The HP and LP WPC80 had higher cardboard flavors and distinct cabbage flavor compared with the unbleached and MF WPC80. Volatile compound results were consistent with sensory results. The HP and LP WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (especially heptanal, hexanal, pentanal, 1-hexen-3-one, 2-pentylfuran, and octanal) compared with unbleached and MF WPC80. All WPC80 had >85% solubility across the pH range of 3 to 7. The microstructure of MF gels determined by confocal laser scanning showed an increased protein particle size in the gel network. MF WPC80 also had larger storage modulus values, indicating higher gel firmness. Based on bleaching efficacy comparable to chemical bleaching with HP

  14. Effects of Density-Dependent Quark Mass on Phase Diagram of Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Considering the density dependence of quark mass, we investigate the phase transition between the (unpaired) strange quark matter and the color-flavor-locked matter, which are supposed to be two candidates for the ground state of strongly interacting matter. We find that if the current mass of strange quark ms is small, the strange quark matter remains stable unless the baryon density is very high. If ms is large, the phase transition from the strange quark matter to the color-flavor-locked matter in particular to its gapless phase is found to be different from the results predicted by previous works. A complicated phase diagram of three-flavor quark matter is presented, in which the color-flavor-locked phase region is suppressed for moderate densities.

  15. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo

    2004-01-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy (P<0.05), while the alcohols and furan groups were increased by irradiation. Different odor patterns were observed among samples using electronic nose system analysis. Gamma-irradiated samples showed better sensory score and the quality was sustained during storage. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell

  16. Color-flavor locked strange quark matter in a mass density-dependent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuede; Wen Xinjian

    2007-01-01

    Properties of color-flavor locked (CFL) strange quark matter have been studied in a mass-density-dependent model, and compared with the results in the conventional bag model. In both models, the CFL phase is more stable than the normal nuclear matter for reasonable parameters. However, the lower density behavior of the sound velocity in this model is completely opposite to that in the bag model, which makes the maximum mass of CFL quark stars in the mass-density-dependent model larger than that in the bag model. (authors)

  17. Effect of salt on color and warmed over flavor in charqui meat processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Elza Y.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of salt (NaCl high concentration and curing salt was investigated for their role in warmed-over flavor (WOF and color changes during charqui meats processing. WOF was measured by TBARS method in uncured charqui meat (CH and in cured charqui known in Brazil as Jerked beef (JB. WOF occurred substantially in CH and sodium nitrite was able to inhibit 40-45% (p<0.05 in JB samples stored for 30 days. Color parameters also changed as evaluated by CIELAB system. The a*/b* ratio showed that CH samples presented brown color indicating the formation of metmyoglobin (Fe3+ whilst JB samples presented deep red color an indication of nitrosylmyoglobin (Fe2+ formation. Under cooking, a*/b* ratio indicated the presence of denatured metmyoglobin (Fe3+ in CH and formation of nitrosylmyochromogen (Fe2+ in JB samples. The actual iron state influenced the color of charqui meat and apparently nitrite was able to chelate Fe ions, thus inhibiting development of WOF.

  18. Short term toxicity of strawberry flavor and carmoisine color in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElShamy, K.AI.; Morsy, F.A.; Elsheikh, E.A.B.; Hassanin, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain

  19. Color superconductivity: Phase diagrams and Goldstone bosons in the color-flavor locked phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhaus, Verena

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is studied with great experimental and theoretical effort and is one of the most fascinating research areas in modern particle physics. It is believed that color superconducting phases, in which quarks form Cooper pairs, appear at very high densities and low temperatures. Such phases could appear in the cores of neutron stars. In this work color superconducting phases are studied within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. First of all, the phase diagram of neutral matter in beta equilibrium is calculated for two different diquark couplings. To this end, we determine the dynamical quark masses self-consistently together with the order parameters of color superconductivity. The interplay between neutrality and quark masses results in an interesting phase structure, in particular for the smaller diquark coupling. In the following, we additionally include a conserved lepton number to map the situation in the first few seconds of the evolution of a protoneutron star when neutrinos are trapped. This has a huge influence on the phase structure and favors the 2SC phase compared to the CFL phase. In the second part of this work we concentrate on the CFL phase which is characterized by a special symmetry breaking pattern. The properties of the resulting nine pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons (GB) are studied by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for quark-quark scattering. The GB are the lowest-lying excitations in the CFL phase and therefore play an important role for the thermodynamics of the system. The properties of the GB can also be described by the low-energy effective theory (LEET) for the CFL phase. There the respective low-energy constants are derived for asymptotically high densities where the strong force is weak and can be treated perturbatively. Our aim is the comparison of our results with these predictions, on the one hand to check our model in the weak-coupling limit and on the other hand to derive information about

  20. Color superconductivity. Phase diagrams and Goldstone bosons in the color-flavor locked phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhaus, Verena

    2009-04-29

    The phase diagram of strongly interacting matter is studied with great experimental and theoretical effort and is one of the most fascinating research areas in modern particle physics. It is believed that color superconducting phases, in which quarks form Cooper pairs, appear at very high densities and low temperatures. Such phases could appear in the cores of neutron stars. In this work color superconducting phases are studied within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. First of all, the phase diagram of neutral matter in beta equilibrium is calculated for two different diquark couplings. To this end, we determine the dynamical quark masses self-consistently together with the order parameters of color superconductivity. The interplay between neutrality and quark masses results in an interesting phase structure, in particular for the smaller diquark coupling. In the following, we additionally include a conserved lepton number to map the situation in the first few seconds of the evolution of a protoneutron star when neutrinos are trapped. This has a huge influence on the phase structure and favors the 2SC phase compared to the CFL phase. In the second part of this work we concentrate on the CFL phase which is characterized by a special symmetry breaking pattern. The properties of the resulting nine pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons (GB) are studied by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for quark-quark scattering. The GB are the lowest-lying excitations in the CFL phase and therefore play an important role for the thermodynamics of the system. The properties of the GB can also be described by the low-energy effective theory (LEET) for the CFL phase. There the respective low-energy constants are derived for asymptotically high densities where the strong force is weak and can be treated perturbatively. Our aim is the comparison of our results with these predictions, on the one hand to check our model in the weak-coupling limit and on the other hand to derive information about

  1. Flavor production in PB(160 AGEV) on PB collisions: Effect of color ropes and hadronic rescattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorge, H.

    1995-09-01

    Collective interactions in the preequilibrium quark matter and hadronic resonance gas stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the framework fo the transport theoretical approach RQMD. The paper reviews string fusion into color ropes and hadronic rescattering which serve as models for these interactions. Hadron production in central Pb(160 AGeV) on Pb collisions has been calculated. The changes of the final flavor composition are more pronounced than in previous RQMD studies of light ion induced reactions at 200 AGeV. The ratio of created quark pairs s anti s/(u anti u+d anti d) is enhanced by a factor of 2.4 in comparison to pp results. Color rope formation increases the initially produced antibaryons to 3 times the value in the 'NN mode', but only one quarter of the produced antibaryons survives because of subsequent strong absorption. The differences in the final particle composition for Pb on Pb collisions compared to S induced reactions are attributed to the hadronic resonance gas stage which is baryon-richer and lasts longer. (orig.)

  2. Conformal window in QCD for large numbers of colors and flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2014-01-01

    We conjecture that the phase transitions in QCD at large number of colors N≫1 is triggered by the drastic change in the instanton density. As a result of it, all physical observables also experience some sharp modification in the θ behavior. This conjecture is motivated by the holographic model of QCD where confinement–deconfinement phase transition indeed happens precisely at temperature T=T c where θ-dependence of the vacuum energy experiences a sudden change in behavior: from N 2 cos(θ/N) at T c to cosθexp(−N) at T>T c . This conjecture is also supported by recent lattice studies. We employ this conjecture to study a possible phase transition as a function of κ≡N f /N from confinement to conformal phase in the Veneziano limit N f ∼N when number of flavors and colors are large, but the ratio κ is finite. Technically, we consider an operator which gets its expectation value solely from non-perturbative instanton effects. When κ exceeds some critical value κ>κ c the integral over instanton size is dominated by small-size instantons, making the instanton computations reliable with expected exp(−N) behavior. However, when κ c , the integral over instanton size is dominated by large-size instantons, and the instanton expansion breaks down. This regime with κ c corresponds to the confinement phase. We also compute the variation of the critical κ c (T,μ) when the temperature and chemical potential T,μ≪Λ QCD slightly vary. We also discuss the scaling (x i −x j ) −γ det in the conformal phase

  3. Collective excitations in a superfluid of color-flavor locked quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Iida, Kei

    2005-01-01

    We investigate collective excitations coupled with baryon density in a system of massless three-flavor quarks in the collisionless regime. By using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the mean-field approximation, we field-theoretically derive the spectra both for the normal and color-flavor locked (CFL) superfluid phases at zero temperature. In the normal phase, we obtain usual zero sound as a low-lying collective mode in the particle-hole (vector) channel. In the CFL phase, the nature of collective excitations varies in a way dependent on whether the excitation energy, ω, is larger or smaller than the threshold given by twice the pairing gap Δ, at which pair excitations with nonzero total momentum become allowed to break up into two quasiparticles. For ω H =1/√(3) in the low momentum regime; the decay constant f H obtained in the NJL model is identical with the QCD result obtained in the mean-field approximation. We also find that, as the momentum of the phonon increases, the excitation energy goes up and asymptotically approaches ω=2Δ. Above the threshold for pair excitations (ω>2Δ), zero sound manifests itself in the vector channel. By locating the zero sound pole of the vector propagator in the complex energy plane, we investigate the attenuation and energy dispersion relation of zero sound. In the long wavelength limit, the phonon mode, the only low-lying excitation, has its spectral weight in the H channel alone, while the spectral function vanishes in the vector channel. This is due to nontrivial mixing between the H and vector channels in the superfluid medium. We finally extend our study to the case of nonzero temperature. We demonstrate how Landau damping smears the phonon peak in the finite temperature spectral function. We find a pure imaginary pole of the H propagator in the complex energy plane, which can be identified as a diffusive mode responsible for the Landau damping. From the pole position we derive the thermal diffusion constant

  4. Color anomaly and flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton in the chiral bag: the Cheshire Cat revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.; Vento, V.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum effects inside the chiral bag induce a color anomaly which requires a compensating surface term to prevent breakdown of color gauge invariance. We show that the presence of this surface term first discovered several years ago allows one to derive in a gauge-invariant way a chiral-bag version of the Shore-Veneziano two-component formula for the flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton. This has relevance to what is referred to as the ''proton spin problem'' on the one hand and to the Cheshire-Cat phenomenon in hadron structure on the other. We show that when calculated to the leading order in the color gauge coupling and for a specific color electric monopole configuration in the bag, one can obtain a striking Cheshire-Cat phenomenon with a negligibly small singlet axial charge. (orig.)

  5. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. Artificial flavor includes... products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than... or retard deterioration thereof, but does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils...

  6. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  7. SU(3)味极限附近色味连锁型超导体中的束缚双夸克态%Bound Diquark States in Color-Flavor-Locked Type Superconductor near the SU(3) Flavor Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春福; 张一; 张小兵

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the ideal color-flavor locked phase, an approximate description for three-flavor quark superconductor is proposed near the SU (3) flavor limit. Under the physical influence from explicitly chiral-symmetry-breaking, we investigate the behaviors for two species of diquark states and the formations of bound diquark states at the mean-field level. In strongly coupling density regime, a theoretical possibility is pointed out at the first time,that Bose-Einstein condensation of light-flavor diquark states occur in the environment where all three-flavor and three-color quarks participate the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing.%从理想的色味连锁相出发,在SU(3)味极限附近,给出了一个3味夸克超导体的近似描述.在手征对称性明显破缺的物理影响下,运用Nambu-Jona-Lasinio(NJL)模型在平均场层次上研究了两种双夸克态和束缚双夸克态的形成.当夸克之间的相互作用非常强时,首次指出了在3色和3味夸克参与Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer配对的环境下,轻味双夸克态发生玻色-爱因斯坦凝聚的可能性.

  8. Differential color space analysis for investigating nutrient content in a puréed food dilution-flavor matrix: a step toward objective malnutrition risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Amelard, Robert; Wong, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing difficulty) increases risk for malnutrition and affects at least 15% of American older adults, and 590 million people worldwide. Malnutrition is associated with increased mortality, increased morbidity, decreased quality of life, and accounts for over $15 billion (USD) health-care related costs each year. While modified texture diets (e.g., puréed food) reduce the risk of choking, quality assurance is necessary for monitoring nutrient density to ensure food meets nutritional requirements. However, current methods are subjective and time consuming. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of optical techniques for an objective assessment of food nutrient density in puréed samples. Motivated by a theoretical optical dilution model, broadband spectral images of commercially prepared purée samples were acquired. Specifically, 13 flavors at five dilutions relative to initial concentration, each with six replicates, were acquired for a total of 390 samples. Purée samples were prepared and loaded onto a white reflectance back plane to maximize photon traversal path length through the purée. The sample was illuminated with a tungsten-halogen illumination source fitted with a front glass fabric diffuser for spatially homogeneous illumination. This broadband illuminant was chosen to observe as many food-light spectral absorbance interactions as possible. Flavor-stratified correlation analysis was performed on this food image dataset to investigate the relationship between nutritional information and color space transformations. A special case of blueberry is presented as the effect of anthocyanins was quantitatively observed through normalized spectral trends in response to pH perturbations across dilutions.

  9. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator with a coupling. We identify a number of ''flavor-safe'' scenarios for the structure of which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed

  10. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a $U(3)_\\chi$ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter $\\chi$ which transforms as triplet under $U(3)_\\chi$, and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator $\\phi$ with a coupling $\\lambda$. We identify a number of "flavor-safe" scenarios for the structure of $\\lambda$ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of $b$-...

  11. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  12. Heavy flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs

  13. Symmetry restoration at high-temperature in two-color and two-flavor lattice gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Wan [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, SA2 8PP, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Pusan National University,Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Extreme Physics Institute, Pusan National University,Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, SA2 8PP, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-07

    We consider the SU(2) gauge theory with N{sub f}=2 flavors of Dirac fundamental fermions. We study the high-temperature behavior of the spectra of mesons, discretizing the theory on anisotropic lattices, and measuring the two-point correlation functions in the temporal direction as well as screening masses in various channels. We identify the (pseudo-)critical temperature as the temperature at which the susceptibility associated with the Polyakov loop has a maximum. At high temperature both the spin-1 and spin-0 sectors of the light meson spectra exhibit enhanced symmetry properties, indicating the restoration of both the global SU(4) and the axial U(1){sub A} symmetries of the model.

  14. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  15. On the chiral perturbation theory for two-flavor two-color QCD at finite chemical potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2006), s. 559-569 ISSN 0217-7323 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : two-color QCD * chiral perturbation theory * chemical potential Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.564, year: 2006

  16. Influence of color on acceptance and identification of flavor of foods by adults Influência da cor na aceitação e identificação do sabor dos alimentos por adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane Aparecida Araújo Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics color and flavor of food play an important role not only in the selection, but also in the determination of consumption, satiation, and ingestion. With the objective to determine and evaluate the influence of color on the acceptance and identification of flavor of foods for adults, sensory analysis was performed on jellies by non-trained tasters of both sexes aged between 18 and 60 years (1750 tests. A hedonic scale and combinations of five colors (red, yellow, green, blue and purple and three flavors (strawberry, pineapple, and limes were used in the acceptance test totaling 15 samples. In the duo-trio discrimination test, together with the reference sample (R, one sample identical to the reference and another of identical color and different flavor were offered, and the judges were requested to identify the sample that was different from the reference sample. The colors used did not influence the acceptance of the samples (P > 0.05, and as there was not significant interaction between color and flavor. However, the limes flavor negatively influenced acceptance when compared to the other flavors. With regard to flavor differentiation, the colors used did not influence flavor identification (P > 0.05; However, differentiated behavior was identified between females and males, and the latter were more error-prone. Therefore, under the experimental conditions tested, color did not influence the acceptance and identification of the flavor of the samples by adults.As características sensoriais cor e sabor dos alimentos desempenham papel importante não somente na seleção, como também na determinação do consumo, ingestão e saciedade. Objetivando determinar e avaliar a influência da cor na aceitação e identificação do sabor dos alimentos por adultos, foram realizados testes de análise sensorial com gelatinas por provadores não treinados, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre 18 e 60 anos (1750 provas. No teste

  17. For fashion and health (coloring of gems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Iwao

    1998-01-01

    Artificial coloration of colorless jewel grade diamonds can be made by fast neutron irradiation using a research reactor or high energy electron beam bombardment by a linear accelerator. The irradiated color diamonds are from blue to green. After irradiation, the blue-green diamonds change color to yellow or orange by subsequent annealing using an electric furnace. The colored diamond hue depends on the treatment conditions. Fancy hue can be produced under some suitable conditions. Some special absorption bands in the spectrum obtained by a spectrophotometer can discriminate artificially colored diamonds from natural fancy color diamonds. Diamonds become to be radioactive immediately after irradiation by a reactor, but the radioactivity decay rapidly and become safe after a month. Some imported gems without diamond as blue topaz etc. are sometimes discovered to be radioactive artificially. Cultured pearls are covered by 0.4 mm thick nacreous layer on the pearl nucleus made of fresh-water unionidae thick shell. White pearls turn color to silver by 60 Co γ-ray irradiation. The pearl nucleus contained Mn turns color to brown by irradiation and absorbs red light from reflection on the surface, whereas the nacreous layer is little color change by irradiation because of small quantity of Mn and remains the luster. White pearls turn beautiful blue-silver of like natural color pearls seemingly, by γ-ray irradiation in suitable solution. Cubic zirconia made from ZrO 2 is a man-made colorless crystal looked like a diamond. The crystals turn color to orange by irradiation. (J.P.N)

  18. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  19. Pre-critical phenomena of two-flavor color superconductivity in heated quark matter. Diquark-pair fluctuations and non-Fermi liquid behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Kunihiro, Teiji; Koide, Tomoi; Nemoto, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the fluctuations of the diquark-pair field and their effects on observables above the critical temperature T c in two-flavor color superconductivity (CSC) at moderate density using a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type effective model of QCD. Because of the strong-coupling nature of the dynamics, the fluctuations of the pair field develop a collective mode, which has a prominent strength even well above T c . We show that the collective mode is actually the soft mode of CSC. We examine the effects of the pair fluctuations on the specific heat and the quark spectrum for T above but close to T c . We find that the specific heat exhibits singular behavior because of the pair fluctuations, in accordance with the general theory of second-order phase transitions. The quarks display a typical non-Fermi liquid behavior, owing to the coupling with the soft mode, leading to a pseudo-gap in the density of states of the quarks in the vicinity of the critical point. Some experimental implications of the precursory phenomena are also discussed. (author)

  20. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  1. Health safety issues of synthetic food colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amchova, Petra; Kotolova, Hana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Increasing attention has been recently paid to the toxicity of additives used in food. The European Parliament and the Council published the REGULATION (EC) No. 1333/2008 on food additives establishing that the toxicity of food additives evaluated before 20th January 2009 must be re-evaluated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The aim of this review is to survey current knowledge specifically on the toxicity issues of synthetic food colorants using official reports published by the EFSA and other available studies published since the respective report. Synthetic colorants described are Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow, Sunset Yellow, Azorubine, Ponceau 4R, Erythrosine, Allura Red, Patent Blue, Indigo Carmine, Brilliant Blue FCF, Green S, Brilliant Black and Brown HT. Moreover, a summary of evidence on possible detrimental effects of colorant mixes on children's behaviour is provided and future research directions are outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The experiences of lesbians of color in health care encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, P E

    1998-01-01

    Abstract In this feminist narrative study, lesbians of color gave testimony to the effects of prejudice in face-to-face health care interactions. A major objective was to involve participants from a broad range of ethnic/racial backgrounds and socio-economic circumstances in open-ended interviews about their experiences receiving health care. Half of the 45 women in the sample were lesbians of color: 20% (9) African American, 18% (8) Latina, 11% (5) Asian/Pacific Islander, and 2% (1) Native American. Results suggest that if we wish to improve access to and quality of health services, those in the health care field must address race, class, gender, and sexual orientation prejudice in health care interactions, acknowledging the role discriminatory behavior plays in diminishing the availability of health care for lesbians of color.

  3. FlavorDB: a database of flavor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neelansh; Sethupathy, Apuroop; Tuwani, Rudraksh; Nk, Rakhi; Dokania, Shubham; Iyer, Arvind; Gupta, Ayushi; Agrawal, Shubhra; Singh, Navjot; Shukla, Shubham; Kathuria, Kriti; Badhwar, Rahul; Kanji, Rakesh; Jain, Anupam; Kaur, Avneet; Nagpal, Rashmi; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-04

    Flavor is an expression of olfactory and gustatory sensations experienced through a multitude of chemical processes triggered by molecules. Beyond their key role in defining taste and smell, flavor molecules also regulate metabolic processes with consequences to health. Such molecules present in natural sources have been an integral part of human history with limited success in attempts to create synthetic alternatives. Given their utility in various spheres of life such as food and fragrances, it is valuable to have a repository of flavor molecules, their natural sources, physicochemical properties, and sensory responses. FlavorDB (http://cosylab.iiitd.edu.in/flavordb) comprises of 25,595 flavor molecules representing an array of tastes and odors. Among these 2254 molecules are associated with 936 natural ingredients belonging to 34 categories. The dynamic, user-friendly interface of the resource facilitates exploration of flavor molecules for divergent applications: finding molecules matching a desired flavor or structure; exploring molecules of an ingredient; discovering novel food pairings; finding the molecular essence of food ingredients; associating chemical features with a flavor and more. Data-driven studies based on FlavorDB can pave the way for an improved understanding of flavor mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Safety evaluation of food flavorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrankel, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Food flavorings are an essential element in foods. Flavorings are a unique class of food ingredients and excluded from the legislative definition of a food additive because they are regulated by flavor legislation and not food additive legislation. Flavoring ingredients naturally present in foods, have simple chemical structures, low toxicity, and are used in very low levels in foods and beverages resulting in very low levels of human exposure or consumption. Today, the overwhelming regulatory trend is a positive list of flavoring substances, e.g. substances not listed are prohibited. Flavoring substances are added to the list following a safety evaluation based on the conditions of intended use by qualified experts. The basic principles for assessing the safety of flavoring ingredients will be discussed with emphasis on the safety evaluation of flavoring ingredients by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the US Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Expert Panel (FEXPAN). The main components of the JECFA evaluation process include chemical structure, human intake (exposure), metabolism to innocuous or harmless substances, and toxicity concerns consistent with JECFA principles. The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) evaluation is very similar to the JECFA procedure. Both the JECFA and FEMA evaluation procedures are widely recognized and the results are accepted by many countries. This implies that there is no need for developing countries to conduct their own toxicological assessment of flavoring ingredients unless it is an unique ingredient in one country, but it is helpful to survey intake or exposure assessment. The global safety program established by the International Organization of Flavor Industry (IOFI) resulting in one worldwide open positive list of flavoring substances will be reviewed

  5. Flavor Dependence of the S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    of flavors, colors and matter representation. We show that S, normalized to the number of flavors, increases as we decrease the number of flavors and gives a direct measure of the anomalous dimension of the mass of the fermions. Our findings support the conjecture presented in [arXiv:1006.0207 [hep...... constitute important constraints on models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and unparticle physics....

  6. Microbial lipase mediated by health beneficial modification of cholesterol and flavors in food products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranjana; Sharma, Nivedita

    2017-06-14

    The tremendous need of lipase in varied applications in biotechnological increases its economical value in food and allied industries. Lipase has an impressive number of applications viz. enhancements of flavor in food products (Cheese, butter, alcoholic beverages, milk chocolate and diet control food stuffs), detergent industry in removing oil, grease stain, organic chemical processing, textile industry, oleochemical industry, cosmetic industry and also as therapeutic agents in pharmaceutical industries. This communication extends the frontier of lipase catalyzed benefits to human body by lowering serum cholesterol and enhancement of flavor in different food products. Among all, multiple innovations going on in the field of lipase applications are widening its scope in food industries consistently. Therefore in the present work an effort has been made to explore the utilization of lipase in the field of food product enhancement. Supplementation of food products with lipase results in modification of its physical, chemical and biochemical properties by enhancing its therapeutic activity. Lipases are the most important enzymes used in food industries. They are utilized as industrial catalysts for lipid hydrolysis. Because of lipases hydrolysis nature it is widely exploited to catalyze lipids or fats in different food products and enhancement of food flavors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Flavor-singlet spectrum in multi-flavor QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Aoyama, Tatsumi; Bennett, Ed; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Miura, Kohtaroh; Nagai, Kei-ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Rinaldi, Enrico; Shibata, Akihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    Studying SU(3) gauge theories with increasing number of light fermions is relevant both for understanding the strong dynamics of QCD and for constructing strongly interacting extensions of the Standard Model (e.g. UV completions of composite Higgs models). In order to contrast these many-flavors strongly interacting theories with QCD, we study the flavor-singlet spectrum as an interesting probe. In fact, some composite Higgs models require the Higgs boson to be the lightest flavor-singlet scalar in the spectrum of a strongly interacting new sector with a well defined hierarchy with the rest of the states. Moreover, introducing many light flavors at fixed number of colors can influence the dynamics of the lightest flavor-singlet pseudoscalar. We present the on-going study of these flavor-singlet channels using multiple interpolating operators on high-statistics ensembles generated by the LatKMI collaboration and we compare results with available data obtained by the Lattice Strong Dynamics collaboration. For the theory with 8 flavors, the two collaborations have generated configurations that complement each others with the aim to tackle the massless limit using the largest possible volumes.

  8. Flavor-singlet spectrum in multi-flavor QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yasamichi; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2017-06-18

    Studying SU(3) gauge theories with increasing number of light fermions is relevant both for understanding the strong dynamics of QCD and for constructing strongly interacting extensions of the Standard Model (e.g. UV completions of composite Higgs models). In order to contrast these many-flavors strongly interacting theories with QCD, we study the flavor-singlet spectrum as an interesting probe. In fact, some composite Higgs models require the Higgs boson to be the lightest flavor-singlet scalar in the spectrum of a strongly interacting new sector with a well defined hierarchy with the rest of the states. Moreover, introducing many light flavors at fixed number of colors can influence the dynamics of the lightest flavor-singlet pseudoscalar. We present the on-going study of these flavor-singlet channels using multiple interpolating operators on high-statistics ensembles generated by the LatKMI collaboration and we compare results with available data obtained by the Lattice Strong Dynamics collaboration. For the theory with 8 flavors, the two collaborations have generated configurations that complement each others with the aim to tackle the massless limit using the largest possible volumes.

  9. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N_f quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N_f flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N_c color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  10. Flavor physics without flavor symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Patel, Ketan M.

    2018-04-01

    We quantitatively analyze a quark-lepton flavor model derived from a six-dimensional supersymmetric theory with S O (10 )×U (1 ) gauge symmetry, compactified on an orbifold with magnetic flux. Two bulk 16 -plets charged under the U (1 ) provide the three quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. At the orbifold fixed points mass matrices are generated with rank one or two. Moreover, the zero modes mix with heavy vectorlike split multiplets. The model possesses no flavor symmetries. Nevertheless, there exist a number of relations between Yukawa couplings, remnants of the underlying grand unified theory symmetry and the wave function profiles of the zero modes, which lead to a prediction of the light neutrino mass scale, mν 1˜10-3 eV and heavy Majorana neutrino masses in the range from 1 012 to 1 014 GeV . The model successfully includes thermal leptogenesis.

  11. FlavorDB: a database of flavor molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Neelansh; Sethupathy, Apuroop; Tuwani, Rudraksh; NK, Rakhi; Dokania, Shubham; Iyer, Arvind; Gupta, Ayushi; Agrawal, Shubhra; Singh, Navjot; Shukla, Shubham; Kathuria, Kriti; Badhwar, Rahul; Kanji, Rakesh; Jain, Anupam; Kaur, Avneet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flavor is an expression of olfactory and gustatory sensations experienced through a multitude of chemical processes triggered by molecules. Beyond their key role in defining taste and smell, flavor molecules also regulate metabolic processes with consequences to health. Such molecules present in natural sources have been an integral part of human history with limited success in attempts to create synthetic alternatives. Given their utility in various spheres of life such as food and ...

  12. Efficient color correction method for smartphone camera-based health monitoring application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc Dang; Chae Ho Cho; Daeik Kim; Oh Seok Kwon; Jo Woon Chong

    2017-07-01

    Smartphone health monitoring applications are recently highlighted due to the rapid development of hardware and software performance of smartphones. However, color characteristics of images captured by different smartphone models are dissimilar each other and this difference may give non-identical health monitoring results when the smartphone health monitoring applications monitor physiological information using their embedded smartphone cameras. In this paper, we investigate the differences in color properties of the captured images from different smartphone models and apply a color correction method to adjust dissimilar color values obtained from different smartphone cameras. Experimental results show that the color corrected images using the correction method provide much smaller color intensity errors compared to the images without correction. These results can be applied to enhance the consistency of smartphone camera-based health monitoring applications by reducing color intensity errors among the images obtained from different smartphones.

  13. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  14. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  15. Flavor changing lepton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2002-01-01

    The flavor changing lepton processes, or in another words the lepton flavor changing processes, are described with emphasis on the updated theoretical motivations and the on-going experimental progress on a new high-intense muon source. (author)

  16. Health risks occurring when color is percepted under led lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of color perception under LED lighting. We revealed that inadequate perception of a signal color by a driver led to greater risks of transport accidents. We reviewed both Jung-Helmholtz three-color hypothesis and a modern one based on fiber-optical approach to functioning of "Mueller cells and cones" system. We made an attempt to explain a number of effects related to visibility curves and time delays when defining color of light signals. Our research on assessing influence exerted by LED lighting on functional state and working capacity of railway workers during which we applied occupational selection techniques revealed negative changes. We proved there was a decrease in functional resistance to color sense between red and green signals as well as longer response time for complicated sight-motor reaction and significant decrease in readiness to emergency actions (resistance to monotony in examined individuals. The article also contains data on time peculiarities which are characteristic for defining signals color in relation to red signal (650 nm. We showed that when red color LEDs with wave length much shorter than 650 nm were used in signaling devices it caused risks of inadequate color detection, longer reaction to inhibiting signals, and greater possibility of transport accidents and negative events in everyday life. These peculiarities should be taken into account when designing traffic lights and other signaling devices which provide transport safety. We also proved that signaling traffic lights for transport systems should be designed allowing for physiology of color perception by a human visual analyzer; application of LEDs with wave length shorter than 650 nm should be absolutely excluded

  17. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  18. LHC benchmarks from flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ierushalmi, N.; Iwamoto, S.; Lee, G.; Nepomnyashy, V.; Shadmi, Y. [Physics Department, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology,Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2016-07-12

    We present benchmark points for LHC searches from flavored gauge mediation models, in which messenger-matter couplings give flavor-dependent squark masses. Our examples include spectra in which a single squark — stop, scharm, or sup — is much lighter than all other colored superpartners, motivating improved quark flavor tagging at the LHC. Many examples feature flavor mixing; in particular, large stop-scharm mixing is possible. The correct Higgs mass is obtained in some examples by virtue of the large stop A-term. We also revisit the general flavor and CP structure of the models. Even though the A-terms can be substantial, their contributions to EDM’s are very suppressed, because of the particular dependence of the A-terms on the messenger coupling. This holds regardless of the messenger-coupling texture. More generally, the special structure of the soft terms often leads to stronger suppression of flavor- and CP-violating processes, compared to naive estimates.

  19. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...... many, past and current, aspects (sensory, surroundings, social, somatic, sentimental) of a (flavor) perception, together result in the perception of a flavor, its liking. or its choice. This model borrows on ideas from priming, situated/embodied cognition, and (food-related) perception.......Flavor is multisensory; several interacting sensory systems-taste, smell, and mouthfeel-together comprise "flavor," making it a cognitively constructed percept rather than a bottom-up sensory one. In this chapter, some of the complications this entails for flavor priming are introduced, along...

  20. Irradiation and flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineccius, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Flavor will not be a significant factor in determining the success of irradiated foods entering the U.S. market. The initial applications will use low levels of irradiation that may well result in products with flavor superior to that of products from alternative processing techniques (thermal treatment or chemical fumigation). The success of shelf-stable foods produced via irradiation may be much more dependent upon our ability to deal with the flavor aspects of high levels of irradiation

  1. "Does Hope Change? Testing a Project-Based Health Intervention among Urban Students of Color"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusevics, Kaija L.; Johnson, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    Hope is positively correlated with educational attainment and health. Interventions based on project-based learning (PBL) may increase youth hope. This study examined how a PBL intervention affected hope among urban students of color. Students in health classes were invited to participate. A PBL health class was implemented in four classrooms. The…

  2. Flavor physics and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidori, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Lectures on flavor physics presented at the 2012 CERN HEP Summer School. Content: 1) flavor physics within the Standard Model, 2) phenomenology of B and D decays, 3) flavor physics beyond the Standard Model

  3. The health care system: factoring in the ethnicity, cultural and health care needs of women and children of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, F N

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on factors which influence the health of African Americans. The concept of poverty as a health problem is discussed as well as the feminization of poverty. The author implores health care workers, to begin to implement the concepts of ethnicity and culture when giving care to clients of color.

  4. Color, flavor, duality, and the Pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    At Nsub(c)/Nsub(f) = infinitely such that quark loops are absent the Harari-Freund (HF) P+f model of diffraction can be motivated through the identification Pomeron approx. glueball, f approx. leading planar trajectory. At Nsub(c) = 3, the presence of confinement-related mass scales introduced by quark loops is a basic complication that can easily change this situation to, e.g. a dominant P - f identity structure. Aurenche and Gonzales Mestres (AGM) have argued that diffraction is essentially identical at Nsub(c)/Nsub(f) = infinitely and at Nsub(c) = 3. They further claim to have generated the HF scheme directly at Nsub(c) = 3 through the novel mechanism of a multiperipheral iteration of daughters that becomes the P. We respond to these arguments. We give a general qualitative discussion of changes expected in the Nsub(c)/Nsub(f) = infinitely to Nsub(c) = 3 transition. Important hadron scattering quantities like particle multiplicities are very different in dynamics dominated by glue and at Nsub(c) = 3, unlike other quantities like resonance width to mass ratio. We argue that the weak coupling disal model is not a reliable guide to Nsub(c) = 3 dynamics. We criticize AGM's 'daughter generated Pomeron' and we close with a brief summary of other attempts to generate the P + f model. (orig./HSI)

  5. Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Tang, Sou Teng; Lim, See Meng

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins are colored water-soluble pigments belonging to the phenolic group. The pigments are in glycosylated forms. Anthocyanins responsible for the colors, red, purple, and blue, are in fruits and vegetables. Berries, currants, grapes, and some tropical fruits have high anthocyanins content. Red to purplish blue-colored leafy vegetables, grains, roots, and tubers are the edible vegetables that contain a high level of anthocyanins. Among the anthocyanin pigments, cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in most of the plants. The colored anthocyanin pigments have been traditionally used as a natural food colorant. The color and stability of these pigments are influenced by pH, light, temperature, and structure. In acidic condition, anthocyanins appear as red but turn blue when the pH increases. Chromatography has been largely applied in extraction, separation, and quantification of anthocyanins. Besides the use of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural dyes, these colored pigments are potential pharmaceutical ingredients that give various beneficial health effects. Scientific studies, such as cell culture studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, show that anthocyanidins and anthocyanins possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various non-communicable diseases. These studies confer the health effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins, which are due to their potent antioxidant properties. Different mechanisms and pathways are involved in the protective effects, including free-radical scavenging pathway, cyclooxygenase pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and inflammatory cytokines signaling. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural food colorants and their nutraceutical properties for health. Abbreviations : CVD: Cardiovascular disease VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.

  6. Heavy flavor spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Marques, J.; Spiegel, L.

    1993-09-01

    As a useful by-product of the unfolding searches for mixing and CP-violation effects in the beauty sector there will accrue very large data samples for the study of heavy flavor spectroscopy. Interest in this field may be provisionally divided into two general classes: Hidden flavor states, i.e. c bar c and b bar b onium states; open flavor states: The D, D s , B, B s , and B c meson systems; and charm and beauty flavored baryons. In this brief note we emphasize that there are many missing states in both categories -- states which are not readily produced exclusively due to quantum number preferences or states which are not readily observed inclusively due to experimentally difficult decay channels. As recorded luminosities increase it may be possible to fill in some of the holes in the present listings of heavy flavor states. Of particular interest to us would be the identification of heavy flavor mesons which are not easily explained in terms of a q bar q paradigm but rather may be evidence for hadro-molecular states. At Snowmass 1993 the topic of self-tagging schemes in B meson production was very much in vogue. Whether or not excited B-meson flavor-tagging will prove to be competitive with traditional methods based on the partner bar B decay remains to be seen. We suggest however that the richness of the excited B-system may undermine the efficacy of self-tagging schemes

  7. Heavy flavor spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Marques, J.; Spiegel, L.

    1993-01-01

    As a useful by-product of the unfolding searches for mixing and CP-violation effects in the beauty sector there will accrue very large data samples for the study of heavy flavor spectroscopy. (I) Hidden flavor states, i.e. c bar c and b bar b onium states. (II) Open flavor states (a) the D, D s , B, B s , and B c meson systems; (b) Charm and beauty flavored baryons. In this brief note the authors emphasize that there are many missing (undiscovered) states in both categories - states which are not readily produced exclusively due to quantum number preferences or states which are not readily observed inclusively due to experimentally difficult decay channels. As recorded luminosities increase it may be possible to fill in some of the holes in the present listings of heavy flavor states. Of particular interest to the authors would be the identification of heavy flavor mesons which are not easily explained in terms of a q bar q paradigm but rather may be evidence for hadro-molecular status. At Snowmass 1993 the topic of self-tagging schemes in B meson production was very much in vogue. Whether or not excited B-meson flavor-tagging will prove to be competitive with traditional methods based on the partner B decay remains to be seen. The authors suggest however that the richness of the excited B-system may undetermine the efficacy of self-tagging schemes

  8. Health is Power: an ecological, theory-based health intervention for women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Medina, Ashley V; Mama, Scherezade K; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; O'Connor, Daniel P; Brosnan, Marcella; Cubbin, Catherine; McMillan, Tracy; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2011-11-01

    Physical inactivity and poor dietary habits plague Americans as health challenges, with women of color most vulnerable to their detrimental effects. Individually focused interventions have not demonstrated lasting success, possibly due to the lack of focus on sustainable social and physical environment factors. This manuscript describes the rationale, design and methodology of Health Is Power (HIP), a transcultural, community based, randomized controlled trial that investigated the effectiveness of a group cohesion intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American and Hispanic or Latina women in Houston and Austin, Texas. The intervention development was guided by group dynamics principles anchored within an ecologic model. Women participated in three health assessments and a six month face to face intervention that included evidence-based behavioral methods - integrated into strategies to promote group cohesion - framed to account for environmental factors contributing to health disparities. Women participated in team building activities, environmental mapping exercises, and supervised walks or taste tests. Neighborhood contextual and environmental measures are described to test ecologic factors that may contribute to behavioral maintenance. Theoretically guided interventions that account for multiple levels of influence in behavior initiation and maintenance stand to improve health outcomes in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health Is Power: an Ecological Theory-based Health Intervention for Women of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Medina, Ashley V.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Brosnan, Marcella; Cubbin, Catherine; McMillan, Tracy; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity and poor dietary habits plague Americans as health challenges, with women of color most vulnerable to their detrimental effects. Individually focused interventions have not demonstrated lasting success, possibly due to the lack of focus on sustainable social and physical environment factors. This manuscript describes the rationale, design and methodology of Health Is Power (HIP), a transcultural, community based, randomized controlled trial that investigated the effectiveness of a group cohesion intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American and Hispanic or Latina women in Houston and Austin, Texas. Methods The intervention development was guided by group dynamics principles anchored within an ecologic model. Results Women participated in three health assessments and a six month face to face intervention that included evidence-based behavioral methods—integrated into strategies to promote group cohesion—framed to account for environmental factors contributing to health disparities. Women participated in team building activities, environmental mapping exercises, and supervised walks or taste tests. Conclusions Neighborhood contextual and environmental measures are described to test ecologic factors that may contribute to behavioral maintenance. Theoretically guided interventions that account for multiple levels of influence in behavior initiation and maintenance stand to improve health outcomes in vulnerable populations. PMID:21782975

  10. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  11. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  12. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  13. Theories of Leptonic Flavor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    I discuss different theories of leptonic flavor and their capability of describing the features of the lepton sector, namely charged lepton masses, neutrino masses, lepton mixing angles and leptonic (low and high energy) CP phases. In particular, I show examples of theories with an abelian flavor...... symmetry G_f, with a non-abelian G_f as well as theories with non-abelian G_f and CP....

  14. Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste

  15. Comparison between two race/skin color classifications in relation to health-related outcomes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwarcwald Celia L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper aims to compare the classification of race/skin color based on the discrete categories used by the Demographic Census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE and a skin color scale with values ranging from 1 (lighter skin to 10 (darker skin, examining whether choosing one alternative or the other can influence measures of self-evaluation of health status, health care service utilization and discrimination in the health services. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the World Health Survey carried out in Brazil in 2003 with a sample of 5000 individuals older than 18 years. Similarities between the two classifications were evaluated by means of correspondence analysis. The effect of the two classifications on health outcomes was tested through logistic regression models for each sex, using age, educational level and ownership of consumer goods as covariables. Results Both measures of race/skin color represent the same race/skin color construct. The results show a tendency among Brazilians to classify their skin color in shades closer to the center of the color gradient. Women tend to classify their race/skin color as a little lighter than men in the skin color scale, an effect not observed when IBGE categories are used. With regard to health and health care utilization, race/skin color was not relevant in explaining any of them, regardless of the race/skin color classification. Lack of money and social class were the most prevalent reasons for discrimination in healthcare reported in the survey, suggesting that in Brazil the discussion about discrimination in the health care must not be restricted to racial discrimination and should also consider class-based discrimination. The study shows that the differences of the two classifications of race/skin color are small. However, the interval scale measure appeared to increase the freedom of choice of the respondent.

  16. Multisensory flavor perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Charles

    2015-03-26

    The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new vision for the science of human flavor perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M Shepherd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conference was organized and welcomed by Lisa Sasson, representing the NYU Steinhardt School and its Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Public Health in cooperation with the NYU School of Dentistry. As a co-organizer, I added my welcome, and explained how the many disciplines brought together in the conference constituted a new vision for the science of human flavor perception, which can be summarized by the term “neurogastronomy” (1. The speakers and the disciplines they represent were bound together by several principles. First, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This is understood to apply to most research in biology; here we wished to show that it applies especially to the human behavior of choosing foods to eat, a view put forward most prominently by Richard Wrangham based on his book "Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human". We also wished to show that the sensory and motor apparatus of the mouth and nose need to be understood as adaptations through human evolution, as carefully documented by Daniel Lieberman, based on his recent "Evolution of the Human Head". Many of the speakers picked up this theme in their presentations. It is clear that an evolutionary framework must be part of understanding flavor and healthy eating. A second principle was that "Flavor is not in the food; it is created by the brain". Just as color is created out of different wavelengths of light by neural processing mechanisms in our brains, so is flavor created by neural processing mechanisms out of different molecules emitted by the food and drink in our mouths. This requires understanding neural mechanisms at all levels of organization of the brain, a vast field that our conference only began to address, starting with the sensory receptors and sensory systems as discussed by Gary Beauchamp for taste and Stuart Firestein for olfaction. Current research reported by Ivan De Araujo on sugars is dissociating their sweet

  18. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    ... solid-phase micro extraction procedures. It also presents important updates on GC-olfactometry as a tool for studying flavor synergy effects"-- "Sample preparation techniques for isolating and concentrating flavor and odor-active chemicals...

  19. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  20. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears

  1. Lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D. Brooks, M.; Hogan, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    The connection of rare decays to supersymmetric grand unification is highlighted, and a review of the status of rare decay experiments is given. Plans for future investigations of processes that violate lepton flavor are discussed. A new result from the MEGA experiment, a search for μ + → e + γ, is reported to be B.R. -11 with 90% confidence

  2. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  3. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D 4 , the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D 14 . In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V ud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  4. The mystery of flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed

  5. Beyond the flavor: A green formulation of Ferula asafoetida oleo-gum-resin with fenugreek dietary fibre and its gut health potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liju Vijayasteltar

    Full Text Available Albeit the fact that asafotida is a popular kitchen spice and Indian folklore medicine for gut disorders, its consumption at physiologically relevant dosage is greatly challenged by the unpleasant flavor characteristics. Herein we report a green approach to derive stable powder formulations of asafoetida gum with minimized taste and odor suitable for dietary applications and gut health-related disorders. Employing a water based ultrasound mediated gel-phase dispersion of asafoetida gum on fenugreek derived soluble galactomannan fibre matrix. Microencapsulated particles (1 ± 0.3 μm of asafoetida was prepared as water dispersible free flowing powder (Asafin. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, accelerated stability and in vitro dissolution studies confirmed the stability, sustained release and microencapsulated structure of Asafin. Further investigations revealed significant (p < 0.01 reduction in acetic acid-induced writings and inhibition of ethanol-induced ulcer (94.1% in rats orally administered with Asafin at 250 mg kg−1 b.w. Asafin also exhibited anti-inflammatory effects (p < 0.01, in acute and chronic paw edema mice models. The safety of Asafin was further demonstrated by acute toxicity studies at 4 g kg−1  b.w. and by 28 days of sub-acute toxicity studies at 2.0 g kg−1 b.w. Keywords: Ferula asafoetida, Green formulation, Oral delivery, Gastroprotective, Ethanol-induced ulcer, Gut health

  6. Implications of Tobacco Industry Research on Packaging Colors for Designing Health Warning Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-09-01

    Health warning labels (HWLs) are an important way to educate the public about the dangers of tobacco products. Tobacco companies conducted research to understand how pack colors affect consumers' perceptions of the products and make packages and their labeling more visually prominent. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents concerning the tobacco industry's internal research on how cigarette package colors and design influence the visual prominence of packages and consumers' perceptions of the harmfulness of the products. The companies found that black is visually prominent, placing dark pack elements on a contrasting light background makes them stand out more, and black text on a white background is more prominent than white text on a black background. Yellow most quickly and effectively seizes and holds consumers' attention and signals warning or danger, while white connotes health and safety. Using black text on a bright contrasting background color, particularly yellow, attracts consumers' attention to the message. Tobacco industry research on pack color choices that make pack elements more prominent, attract and keep consumers' attention, and convey danger instead of health should guide governments in specifying requirements for HWLs. These factors suggest that HWLs printed on a yellow background with black lettering and borders would most effectively seize and keep consumers' attention and signal the danger of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Tobacco companies' internal research on improving the prominence of pack elements suggests that HWLs using black lettering on a contrasting yellow background would most effectively seize and hold consumers' attention and signal the danger of cigarettes and other tobacco products. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Discrimination, mental health, and suicidal ideation among LGBTQ people of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Megan; Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination based on race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity has been linked to many negative psychological and physical health outcomes in previous research, including increased suicidal ideation. Two hundred lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people of color (POC) were surveyed on their experiences of LGBTQ-based discrimination, racism, mental health (depression, anxiety, satisfaction with life), and suicidal ideation in a national online study based in the United States. A structural equation model (SEM) was created and found that LGBTQ-based discrimination exerted an indirect effect on suicidal ideation through mental health. Racism exerted a direct effect on mental health but was not associated with suicidal ideation in the SEM. The effects of LGBTQ-based discrimination on mental health may be a key area for interventions to reduce suicidal ideation in LGBTQ POC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Flavored quantum Boltzmann equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Lee, Christopher; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Tulin, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We derive from first principles, using nonequilibrium field theory, the quantum Boltzmann equations that describe the dynamics of flavor oscillations, collisions, and a time-dependent mass matrix in the early universe. Working to leading nontrivial order in ratios of relevant time scales, we study in detail a toy model for weak-scale baryogenesis: two scalar species that mix through a slowly varying time-dependent and CP-violating mass matrix, and interact with a thermal bath. This model clearly illustrates how the CP asymmetry arises through coherent flavor oscillations in a nontrivial background. We solve the Boltzmann equations numerically for the density matrices, investigating the impact of collisions in various regimes.

  9. The mystery of flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  10. Adolescents’ Interest in Trying Flavored E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, J.K.; Ribisl, K.M.; Brewer, N.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background More U.S. adolescents use e-cigarettes than smoke cigarettes. Research suggests flavored e-cigarettes appeal to youth, but little is known about perceptions of and reasons for attraction to specific flavors. Methods A national sample of adolescents (n=1,125) ages 13-17 participated in a phone survey from November 2014-June 2015. We randomly assigned adolescents to respond to survey items about 1 of 5 e-cigarette flavors (tobacco, alcohol, menthol, candy, or fruit) and used regression analysis to examine the impact of flavor on interest in trying e-cigarettes and harm beliefs. Results Adolescents were more likely to report interest in trying an e-cigarette offered by a friend if it were flavored like menthol (OR=4.00, 95% CI 1.46-10.97), candy (OR=4.53, 95% CI 1.67-12.31), or fruit (OR=6.49, 95% CI 2.48-17.01) compared to tobacco. Adolescents believed that fruit-flavored e-cigarettes were less harmful to health than tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes (preasons for the appeal of individual flavors, such as novelty and perceived prestige. PMID:27633762

  11. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Itsios

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2+1-dimensional intersections, we further study alternative quantization and the zero sound of the resulting anyonic fluid. We finally extend these results to non-zero temperature and magnetic field and compute the diffusion constant in the hydrodynamic regime. The numerical results we find match the predictions by the Einstein relation.

  12. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    ...)-olfactometry, and electronic-nose technology, this new edition discusses the significant advantage of these methods for flavor and odor studies in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries...

  13. Flavor, fragrance, and odor analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsili, Ray

    2012-01-01

    .... Written from a practical, problem-solving perspective, it discusses the chemical structures of key flavor and fragrance compounds, contains numerous examples and chromatograms, and emphasizes novel...

  14. CAMBIOS DE COLOR Y PERFIL AROMÁTICO EN SOLUCIONES OSMÓTICAS USADAS EN DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE TOMATE DE ÁRBOL COR E SABOR MUDANÇAS NO SOLUÇÃO OSMÓTICA, UTILIZADO NA DESIDRATAÇÃO OSMÓTICA DE TOMATE DE ÁRVORE COLOR AND FLAVOR CHANGES ON THE OSMOTIC SOLUTION, USED IN THE OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF TREE TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Ivonne Pinzón

    2011-12-01

    alimenticios. Neste trabalho avaliar as alterações do perfil de cor e aroma do SO, uma vez que é reutilizada em 9 ciclos fazer considerando que estas duas propriedades terão grande influência sobre as características sensoriais nos de novos produtos concebidos. Cubos de tomate de árvore deformadas foram utilizados, seca por 240 minutos em 65° Brix OS com uma solução Ratio:fruto de 5:1. Em cada ciclo de DO, foram renovadas as frutas e reutilizando o SO sem reorientação, esforçando a cada 4 ciclos de 9 ciclos de DO. Ele analisa a cor dos encontrando assim uma tendencia descendente em L* no SO e outras alterações em outros parâmetros da cor: a*,b*,C* e h° que só foram valorizados instrumentalmente, essas mudanças de cor SO não demonstraram um efeito drástico sobre a cor das frutas desidratado, além de encontrar o aparecimento de componentes de aroma de tomate na árvore OS como era reutilizado.The reusing of the osmotic solution (OS in the osmotic dehydration (OD process of tropical fruits, enriched with exotic flavors like the tree tomatoes (Cyphomadra betecea (Cav Sendth, from which very satisfactory results have been obtained, changes the different properties of the OS. The most important one being the enrichment in different sustains that came from the fruit; this makes the OS a very interesting raw matter in the formulation and desing of new food products. In this paper we study the changes in the color and flavor of the OS when being reused, taking into account that these properties will have a bigger impact in the sensatory properties of the new food product. Deformed tree tomatoes cubes were used, dehydrate during 240 minutes, using a 65°Brix OS, with a fruit:solution rate of 5:1. In each OD cycle fresh fruit was used and the same OS, without re-concentration, filtrating every four cycles during 9 OD cycles. The color of the OS was analyzed finding a descent in the L* values and changes in the other color parameters: a*, b* C*, h°, that were only

  15. Moving beyond the trickle-down approach: addressing the unique disparate health experiences of adolescents of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Barbara J; Low, Lisa Kane

    2006-01-01

    Health disparities in adults have received significant attention and research, yet the healthcare experiences of adolescents of color have been ignored. The purpose of this paper is to identify the shortcomings of our state of knowledge regarding adolescent health disparities and argue for the use of an inter-sectional, contextually embedded understanding of healthcare experiences. To understand health disparities, deficit-based models should be replaced with the framework proposed in this paper. Using the proposed model in practice will aid in identifying and preventing the health disparities experienced by adolescents of color.

  16. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  17. Extended investigation of the twelve-flavor β-function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Zoltán; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Nógrádi, Dániel; Wong, Chik Him

    2018-04-01

    We report new results from high precision analysis of an important BSM gauge theory with twelve massless fermion flavors in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. The range of the renormalized gauge coupling is extended from our earlier work [1] to probe the existence of an infrared fixed point (IRFP) in the β-function reported at two different locations, originally in [2] and at a new location in [3]. We find no evidence for the IRFP of the β-function in the extended range of the renormalized gauge coupling, in disagreement with [2,3]. New arguments to guard the existence of the IRFP remain unconvincing [4], including recent claims of an IRFP with ten massless fermion flavors [5,6] which we also rule out. Predictions of the recently completed 5-loop QCD β-function for general flavor number are discussed in this context.

  18. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part II: Correlation of volatile compounds to sensory characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts are important research areas due to their significant influence on consumer preference. The aim of the present study was to explore correlations between sensory attributes of peanuts, volatile headspace compounds and color parameters. Different raw peanuts were

  19. Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Induced by Exposure to Commonly Used e-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals and Flavored e-Liquids without Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Muthumalage, Thivanka; Prinz, Melanie; Ansah, Kwadwo O.; Gerloff, Janice; Sundar, Isaac K.; Rahman, Irfan

    2018-01-01

    Background: The respiratory health effects of inhalation exposure to e-cigarette flavoring chemicals are not well understood. We focused our study on the immuno-toxicological and the oxidative stress effects by these e-cigarette flavoring chemicals on two types of human monocytic cell lines, Mono Mac 6 (MM6) and U937. The potential to cause oxidative stress by these flavoring chemicals was assessed by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that the flavorin...

  20. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Adrion, Marius; Gamauf, Anita

    2018-01-01

    As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus) of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests) along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner-city nestlings are

  1. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sumasgutner

    Full Text Available As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner

  2. The flavor-locked flavorful two Higgs doublet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Gori, Stefania; Robinson, Dean J.; Tuckler, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new framework to generate the Standard Model (SM) quark flavor hierarchies in the context of two Higgs doublet models (2HDM). The `flavorful' 2HDM couples the SM-like Higgs doublet exclusively to the third quark generation, while the first two generations couple exclusively to an additional source of electroweak symmetry breaking, potentially generating striking collider signatures. We synthesize the flavorful 2HDM with the `flavor-locking' mechanism, that dynamically generates large quark mass hierarchies through a flavor-blind portal to distinct flavon and hierarchon sectors: dynamical alignment of the flavons allows a unique hierarchon to control the respective quark masses. We further develop the theoretical construction of this mechanism, and show that in the context of a flavorful 2HDM-type setup, it can automatically achieve realistic flavor structures: the CKM matrix is automatically hierarchical with | V cb | and | V ub | generically of the observed size. Exotic contributions to meson oscillation observables may also be generated, that may accommodate current data mildly better than the SM itself.

  3. Flavored model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S 4 , the dihedral group D 5 and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, √((m d )/(m s ))= vertical stroke V us vertical stroke and √((m d )/(m s ))= vertical stroke (V td )/(V ts ) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D n and D' n . As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle θ C , i.e. vertical stroke V us(cd) vertical stroke cos((3π)/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, θ 23 =(π)/(4), and vanishing θ 13 in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  4. Heavy Flavor Production in Heavy Ion Collisions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Heavy flavor production are of great interest in heavy ion collisions. In the produced medium, the binding potential between a quark and antiquark in quarkonium is screened by surrounding light quarks and antiquarks. Thus, the various quarkonium states are expected to be melt at different temperatures depending on their binding energies, which allows us to characterize the QCD phase transition. In addition, open heavy flavor production are relevant for flavor-dependence of the in-medium parton energy loss. In QCD, gluons are expected to lose more energy compared to quarks when passing through the QGP due to the larger color charge. Compared to light quarks, heavy quarks are expected to lose less radiative energy because gluon radiation is suppressed at angles smaller than the ratio of the quark mass to its energy. This dead cone effect (and its disappearance at high transverse momentum) can be studied using open heavy flavor mesons and heavy flavor tagged jets. With CMS detector, quarkonia, open he...

  5. Engaging youth of color in applied science education and public health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague Martinez, Linda; Bowers, Edmond; Reich, Amanda J.; Ndulue, Uchenna J.; Le, Albert An; Peréa, Flavia C.

    2016-03-01

    Participation in inquiry-based science education, which focuses on student-constructed learning, has been linked to academic success. Whereas the benefits of this type of science education are evident, access to such high-quality science curriculum and programming is not equitable. Black and Latino students in particular have less access to supplementary science programming, and fewer opportunities to engage in inquiry-based education. This paper describes outcomes associated with an inquiry-based out-of-school time science education program, Nuestro Futuro: Applied Science Education to Engage Black and Latino Youth (NFASE), which sought to build the capacity of middle school students of color to 'think' like health scientists from diverse disciplinary perspectives. The program was designed with the intent of (1) improving student attitudes toward and motivation for science and (2) increasing active and engaged citizenship (AEC). NFASE students explored health inequity and the social determinants of health locally and engaged in developing health promotion, outreach and education efforts targeted to their peers, parents/families, and community. Interest in the program was high overall, but implementation was not without challenges. Although evaluation outcomes indicate that there were no statistically significant changes in science-related attitudes or motivation, students reported significant increases in neighborhood social connection, as well as overall AEC.

  6. An investigation of the health hazards of some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short piece takes a limited look at the health hazards of the chemical contents of seven fruit juices sold in The Gambia. All of them have very negative effects on health. The following additives were considered: sweeteners, coloring agents, flavoring agents and acidifiers vis-à-vis established studies. [African Journal of ...

  7. The use of diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) and related flavoring substances as flavorings added to foods-Workplace safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallagan, John B

    2017-08-01

    In 2001, staff of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) identified diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) as a "marker" of exposure in a microwave popcorn manufacturing facility in which workers developed severe respiratory illness. Subsequent investigations identified additional workers in food and flavor manufacturing facilities also with severe respiratory illness. The flavor industry, NIOSH, and federal and state regulators conducted significant programs to address workplace safety concerns related to the manufacture of flavors and foods containing added flavors. These programs, initiated in 2001, continue today. Key to the success of these programs is understanding what flavors added to foods are and how they are manufactured, how they are incorporated into foods, the specific characteristics of diacetyl and related flavoring substances, and what actions may be taken to assure the safest workplaces possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Some restrictions on possible supergroups and flavor groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saclioglu, C.

    1977-01-01

    It is pointed out that a suggestion of Nambu which yields diquark currents from the usual flavor or color quark currents may be relevant for classifying similar currents which arise in gauge theories unifying strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. The requirement that charges of SU(3)/sub color/ x SU(n)/sub flavor/ plus the new diquark currents complete the generators of a simple vectorlike supergroup G can be met only in the cases n = 3,G = F 4 ; n = 6,G = E 7 ; and n = 7,G = SU(15) for n 2 and E 6 result from an analogous generalization of SU(3) and SU(3) x SU(3) x SU(3). Explicit generators involving diquark and leptoquark charges are constructed for the groups G 2 and F 4

  9. Health care experiences of pregnant, birthing and postnatal women of color at risk for preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Monica R; Altman, Molly R; Cooper, Norlissa; Williams, Shanell; Rand, Larry; Franck, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Chronic stress is a known risk factor for preterm birth, yet little is known about how healthcare experiences add to or mitigate perceived stress. In this study, we described the pregnancy-related healthcare experiences of 54 women of color from Fresno, Oakland, and San Francisco, California, with social and/or medical risk factors for preterm birth. This study was a secondary analysis of focus group data generated as part of a larger project focused on patient and community involvement in preterm birth research. English and Spanish speaking women, age 18 or greater with social and/or medical risk factors for preterm birth participated in two focus groups, six weeks apart. Data from the first focus groups are included in this analysis. Five themes emerged from thematic analysis of the transcripts. Participants described disrespect during healthcare encounters, including experiences of racism and discrimination; stressful interactions with all levels of staff; unmet information needs; and inconsistent social support. Despite these adverse experiences, women felt confidence in parenting and newborn care. Participant recommendations for healthcare systems improvement included: greater attention to birth plans, better communication among multiple healthcare providers, more careful listening to patients during clinical encounters, increased support for social programs such as California's Black Infant Health, and less reliance on past carceral history and/or child protective services involvement. The women in this study perceived their prenatal healthcare as a largely disrespectful and stressful experience. Our findings add to the growing literature that women of color experience discrimination, racism and disrespect in healthcare encounters and that they believe this affects their health and that of their infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nurses' uniform color and feelings/emotions in school-aged children receiving health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Burke, Jane; Bena, James F; Morrison, Shannon M; Forney, Jennifer; Krajewski, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Children may fear nurses wearing white uniforms. When emotions and uniform color were studied in 233 children, many positive emotions were most often associated with blue, bold pink-patterned, or yellow-patterned tops (all p ≤ .002). Negative emotions were not associated with uniform top colors (all p uniform color does not matter," 8 negative emotions were most often associated with white uniform color (p uniform tops were preferred. In conclusion, children's emotions were associated with nurse uniform color. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flavored model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-15

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S{sub 4}, the dihedral group D{sub 5} and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke and {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke (V{sub td})/(V{sub ts}) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D{sub n} and D'{sub n}. As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle {theta}{sub C}, i.e. vertical stroke V{sub us(cd)} vertical stroke = cos((3{pi})/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, {theta}{sub 23}=({pi})/(4), and vanishing {theta}{sub 13} in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  12. Crystallography of three-flavor quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Sharma, Rishi

    2006-01-01

    We analyze and compare candidate crystal structures for the crystalline color superconducting phase that may arise in cold, dense but not asymptotically dense, three-flavor quark matter. We determine the gap parameter Δ and free energy Ω(Δ) for many possible crystal structures within a Ginzburg-Landau approximation, evaluating Ω(Δ) to order Δ 6 . In contrast to the two-flavor case, we find a positive Δ 6 term and hence an Ω(Δ) that is bounded from below for all the structures that we analyze. This means that we are able to evaluate Δ and Ω as a function of the splitting between Fermi surfaces for all the structures we consider. We find two structures with particularly robust values of Δ and the condensation energy, within a factor of 2 of those for the CFL phase which is known to characterize QCD at asymptotically large densities. The robustness of these phases results in their being favored over wide ranges of density. However, it also implies that the Ginzburg-Landau approximation is not quantitatively reliable. We develop qualitative insights into what makes a crystal structure favorable, and use these to winnow the possibilities. The two structures that we find to be most favorable are both built from condensates with face-centered cubic symmetry: in one case, the and condensates are separately face-centered cubic; in the other case and combined make up a face-centered cube

  13. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V ub /V cb = √m u /m c and V td /V ts = √m d /m s , are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanΒ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model

  15. The flavoring of the pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, J.W.; Manesis, E.K.

    1977-03-01

    A theoretical review and a detailed phenomenological description of the 'flavoring' of the bare Pomeron pole at t=0 (i.e. the non-diffractive renormalization of its multiperipheral unitarity sum by strange quarks, charmed quarks, diquarks,...) are presented. From an 'unflavored' intercept α=0.85 to a 'flavored' intercept α approximately 1.08, probably close to the bare intercept of the Reggeon Field Theory. NN, πN, and KN total cross sections and real to imaginary amplitude ratios are treated. No oscillations are observed. Particular attention is paid to 2 sigmasub(KN) - sigmasub(πN) which rises monotonically. A closely related combination of inelastic diffraction cross sections is presented which decreases monotonically, indicating that vacuum amplitudes are not simply the sum of a Pomeron pole and an ideally mixed f. In fact it is argued that a Pomeron +f structure is neither compatible with flavoring nor with schemes in which flavoring is somehow absorbed away. In contrast, flavoring is required for consistency with experiment by the Chew-Rosenzweig hypothesis of the Pomeron-f identity. A description of flavoring threshold effects on the Reggeon Field Theory at current energies is presented

  16. Frequency of color blindness in pre-employment screening in a tertiary health care center in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipa, Shaukat Ali; Hashmi, Farzeen K; Ali, Shehreen; Kamal, Mustafa; Ahmad, Khabir

    2017-01-01

    To describe the frequency of color vision deficiency among Pakistani adults presenting for pre-employment health screening in a tertiary care hospital. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and the data was collected for color vision deficiency, age, gender, and job applied for from pre-employment examination during 2013-2014. IBM SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Three thousand four hundred and thirty seven persons underwent pre-employment screening during 2013 and 2014; 1837 (53.44%) were males and 1600 (46.65%) females. The mean age was 29.01 (±6.53) years. A total of 0.9% (32/3437) persons had color vision deficiency with male being 1.4% and female 0.4%. Color vision deficiency was observed in 0.9% of candidates screened for pre-employment health check up in a tertiary care hospital. The color vision deficiency was predominantly present in male individuals.

  17. Flavor profile of radiation processed food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Flavor is one of the major quality attributes that play an important role in driving consumer choices and preferences for food. Among the several attributes that decide the flavor quality of any food, aroma and taste are the most important. While volatile constituents contribute to aroma, taste is a perception stimulated by non-volatile principles of food. Radiation processing of food has in recent years assumed increasing importance as a method for hygenization. At the doses employed for food irradiation no significant qualitative changes in the aroma constituents have been reported in most cases. An increase in perceived aroma has however been observed in several radiation processed foods. Besides volatile aroma compounds non-volatile aroma precursors are ubiquitous in plant kingdom. These compounds have been reported to exist largely as bound glycosidic conjugates and are known to undergo breakdown during processing and storage. This results in release of free aroma, thereby, modifying the flavor quality of the product. No report, however, exists on the effect of radiation processing on these bound aroma precursors. Four major class of food namely spices, oil seeds, fruits and beverages were therefore taken up for a detailed study. With respect to aroma, an enhanced breakdown of aroma precursors namely isoeugenol and 4-vinyl guaiacol glycosides and release of free aglycones was demonstrated to result in an increased aroma quality of radiation processed monsooned coffee. Breakdown of phenyl ethanol glucoside resulted in a fruitier note to pomegranate while enhanced spicy note of irradiated nutmeg arise as a result of radiolytic break down p-cymene-7-ol rutinoside precursor and release of free p-cymene-7-ol. An increased color quality of irradiated saffron was a result of the formation of free carotene aglycones namely crocetin from its glycosidic precursors while changes in perceived taste quality of radiation processed soybean could be attributed to

  18. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Izaguirre, I.; Raffelt, G.G.; Hansen, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency Δ m 2 /2E. However, even in the simple case of a ν e beam interacting with an opposite-moving ν-bar e beam, and allowing for spatial inhomogeneities, the growth rate of the fastest-growing Fourier mode is of order μ=√2 G F  n ν , a typical ν–ν interaction energy. This growth rate is much larger than the vacuum oscillation frequency and gives rise to flavor conversion on a much shorter time scale. This phenomenon of 'fast flavor conversion' occurs even for vanishing Δ m 2 /2E and thus does not depend on energy, but only on the angle distributions. Moreover, it does not require neutrinos to mix or to have masses, except perhaps for providing seed disturbances. We also construct a simple homogeneous example consisting of intersecting beams and study a schematic supernova model proposed by Ray Sawyer, where ν e and ν-bar e emerge with different zenith-angle distributions, the key ingredient for fast flavor conversion. What happens in realistic astrophysical scenarios remains to be understood

  19. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; Flanigan, Skye S; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H; Christiani, David C

    2016-06-01

    There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as "popcorn lung." There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes. We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA method 1012. At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection in 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from below the limit of quantification to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-Pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively. Because of the associations between diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes. Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. 2016. Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733-739; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185.

  20. Influence of Flavors on the Propagation of E-Cigarette-Related Information: Social Media Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qingpeng; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2018-03-23

    Modeling the influence of e-cigarette flavors on information propagation could provide quantitative policy decision support concerning smoking initiation and contagion, as well as e-cigarette regulations. The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of flavors on e-cigarette-related information propagation on social media. We collected a comprehensive dataset of e-cigarette-related discussions from public Pages on Facebook. We identified 11 categories of flavors based on commonly used categorizations. Each post's frequency of being shared served as a proxy measure of information propagation. We evaluated a set of regression models and chose the hurdle negative binomial model to characterize the influence of different flavors and nonflavor control variables on e-cigarette-related information propagation. We found that 5 flavors (sweet, dessert & bakery, fruits, herbs & spices, and tobacco) had significantly negative influences on e-cigarette-related information propagation, indicating the users' tendency not to share posts related to these flavors. We did not find a positive significance of any flavors, which is contradictory to previous research. In addition, we found that a set of nonflavor-related factors were associated with information propagation. Mentions of flavors in posts did not enhance the popularity of e-cigarette-related information. Certain flavors could even have reduced the popularity of information, indicating users' lack of interest in flavors. Promoting e-cigarette-related information with mention of flavors is not an effective marketing approach. This study implies the potential concern of users about flavorings and suggests a need to regulate the use of flavorings in e-cigarettes. ©Jiaqi Zhou, Qingpeng Zhang, Daniel Dajun Zeng, Kwok Leung Tsui. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 23.03.2018.

  1. Discrimination, work outcomes, and mental health among women of color: The protective role of womanist attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Brandon L; Cox, Robert; Polihronakis, Charles J; Moradi, Bonnie

    2018-03-01

    With a sample of employed women of color (N = 276), we tested the associations of sexist and racist discrimination with poor work outcomes (job-related burnout and turnover intentions) and mental health outcomes (i.e., psychological distress). Drawing from the Theory of Work Adjustment, Organizational Support Theory, and scholarship on discrimination, we tested perceived person-organization (P-O) fit, perceived organizational support, and self-esteem as mediators of the associations of workplace discrimination with the outcomes. Based on intersectionality scholarship, womanist attitudes were tested as a moderator. Participants provided cross-sectional data via an online survey. Latent variable structural equation modeling results indicated that a second-order latent workplace discrimination variable yielded better fit to the data than modeling sexist and racist discrimination separately. Workplace discrimination was directly and indirectly (via the mediating role of self-esteem) associated with higher psychological distress. Furthermore, workplace discrimination was indirectly associated with poor work outcomes through the mediating roles of perceived P-O fit, perceived organizational support, and self-esteem. Last, moderation analyses indicated that higher womanist attitudes weakened the direct association of workplace discrimination with psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Physical, Chemicals and Flavors of Some Varieties of Arabica Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005, using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were

  3. The effect of salt replacers and flavor enhancer on the processing characteristics and consumer acceptance of turkey sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Zeb; Gaudette, Nicole J

    2015-07-01

    Producing high-quality processed meats that contain reduced amounts of sodium chloride is a major challenge facing industry owing to the importance of sodium chloride toward the functional, microbial stability and sensory properties of these products. In order to create reduced sodium alternatives, a number of commercial salt replacers and flavor enhancers have entered the market; however, their ability to be applied in processed meats requires investigation. In this study, two salt replacers (Ocean's Flavor - OF45, OF60) and one flavor enhancer (Fonterra™ Savoury Powder - SP) were evaluated for their ability to effectively reduce sodium while maintaining the functional and sensory properties of turkey sausages. Functionality via instrumental measures (yield, purge loss, pH, expressible moisture, proximate composition, sodium content, color, texture), safety (microbiological assessment) and consumer acceptability were obtained on all samples. All non-control treatments resulted in products with sodium chloride contents below Canada's Health Check™ Program target for processed meats. There was no detrimental effect on water binding and texture in treatments when NaCl was substituted with OF60 sea salt replacers. Sodium reduction had no negative effect on the shelf life of the turkey sausages with up to 60 days of refrigerated storage. Consumer acceptability for all attributes did not differ significantly, except for aftertaste, which scored lowest for OF45 compared with the control (regular NaCl content). This work demonstrated that salt replacers could potentially substitute for NaCl in smoked turkey sausages; however, further flavor optimization may be required to suppress undesirable levels of bitterness elicited by some of these ingredients. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Lepton-flavor violating mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galon, Iftah; Kwa, Anna [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California,Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Tanedo, Philip [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California,Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2017-03-13

    We present a framework where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model through a light, spin-0 mediator that couples chirally to pairs of different-flavor leptons. This flavor violating final state weakens bounds on new physics coupled to leptons from terrestrial experiments and cosmic-ray measurements. As an example, we apply this framework to construct a model for the Fermi-LAT excess of GeV γ-rays from the galactic center. We comment on the viability of this portal for self-interacting dark matter explanations of small scale structure anomalies and embeddings in flavor models. Models of this type are shown to be compatible with the muon anomalous magnetic moment anomaly. We review current experimental constraints and identify possible future theoretical and experimental directions.

  5. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  6. Flavorful Ways to New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The workshop is intended to bring together young PhD students and postdocs with international renown representatives of the field of flavor physics. The workshop is specifically intended for PhD students and young postdocs. The overview talks about four big topics in flavor physics are given by international experts. The informal atmosphere should lead to fruitful discussions between the young and the experienced scientists. Furthermore, the participants themselves are invited to present their own work. Thus all young academics will get insights into selected fields of current research.

  7. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  8. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  9. The effect of cigarillo packaging elements on young adult perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Ranney, Leah M; Lazard, Allison J; Kim, KyungSu; Queen, Tara L; Avishai, Aya; Boynton, Marcella H; Sheeran, Paschal J; Goldstein, Adam O

    2018-01-01

    Product packaging has long been used by the tobacco industry to target consumers and manipulate product perceptions. This study examines the extent to which cigarillo packaging influences perceptions of product flavor, taste, smell, and appeal. A web-based experiment was conducted among young adults. Participants viewed three randomly selected cigarillo packs, varying on pack flavor descriptor, color, type, branding, and warning-totaling 180 pack images. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the effect of pack elements on product perceptions. A total of 2,664 current, ever, and never little cigar and cigarillo users participated. Cigarillo packs with a flavor descriptor were perceived as having a more favorable taste (β = 0.21, p product taste (pictorial: β = -0.07, p = .03) and smell (text-only: β = -0.08, p = .01; pictorial: β = -0.09, p = .007), warnings did not moderate the effects of flavor descriptor or color. To our knowledge, this study provides the first quantitative evidence that cigarillo packaging alters consumers' cognitive responses, and warnings on packs do not suffice to overcome the effects of product packaging. The findings support efforts at federal, state, and local levels to prohibit flavor descriptors and their associated product flavoring in non-cigarette products such as cigarillos, along with new data that supports restrictions on flavor cues and colors.

  10. 21 CFR 182.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. 182.10 Section 182.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Provisions § 182.10 Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. Spices and other natural seasonings...

  11. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. 582.10 Section 582.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... General Provisions § 582.10 Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. Spices and other natural...

  12. SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOME WHITE WINES, FLAVORED WINES AND VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, PREPARED BY USING OWN RECIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize, from sensorial point of view, the basic white wines White Fetească, Italian Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, as well as flavored wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to basic wines, tasting technique was used. It is known that sensory analysis is a method that can provide an overview of a wine. The main features analyzed were: appearance, color, smell and taste. Initial, wines presented specific features of grapes variety from which they belong, being characterized by harmony and complex flavor. The hydroalcoholic macerates were obtained by preparing two recipes (labeled I and II of different mixtures of plants. Recipes I A in 45% alcohol and I B in 60% alcohol, had characteristics of appearance, color, taste and smell, very intense, specific, prevailing the taste of anise, fennel and coriander. The macerates prepared with recipes II A in 45% alcohol and II B in 60% alcohol (mixture of a few herbs and peel of citrus fruits showed peculiarities of taste, odor, flavor less intense, prevailing the smell of nutmeg and citrus flavor. Recipes I A and I B of hydroalcoholic plants macerates decisively influenced the color, taste, flavor, smell and appearance of flavored wines. Recipes II A and II B influenced discreetly the sensory properties of flavored wines. Vermouth type wines obtained by addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates + other ingredients (citric acid, alcohol, sugar, presented harmonious sensory characteristics, balanced, discreet, subtle, compared with flavored wines obtained only by the addition of hydroalcoholic plants macerates to the basic wines. The latter had a color, aroma, taste, smell, more intense, more rustic. Herbal recipes I B and II B (prepared in 60% alcohol, have strongly influenced the sensory properties of flavored wines, compared to recipes I A and II A (prepared in 45% alcohol.

  13. Chiral flavor violation from extended gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jared A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Shih, David; Thalapillil, Arun [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2015-07-08

    Models of extended gauge mediation, in which large A-terms arise through direct messenger-MSSM superpotential couplings, are well-motivated by the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs. However, since these models are not necessarily MFV, the flavor constraints could be stringent. In this paper, we perform the first detailed and quantitative study of the flavor violation in these models. To facilitate our study, we introduce a new tool called FormFlavor for computing precision flavor observables in the general MSSM. We validate FormFlavor and our qualitative understanding of the flavor violation in these models by comparing against analytical expressions. Despite being non-MFV, we show that these models are protected against the strongest constraints by a special flavor texture, which we dub chiral flavor violation (χFV). This results in only mild bounds from current experiments, and exciting prospects for experiments in the near future.

  14. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  15. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. 172.510 Section 172.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. Natural...

  16. Electroweak and flavor dynamics at hadron colliders - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elchtent, E.; Lane, K.

    1998-02-01

    This is the first of two reports cataloging the principal signatures of electroweak and flavor dynamics at anti pp and pp colliders. Here, we discuss some of the signatures of dynamical electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking. The framework for dynamical symmetry breaking we assume is technicolor, with a walking coupling α TC , and extended technicolor. The reactions discussed occur mainly at subprocess energies √s approx-lt 1 TeV. They include production of color-singlet and octet technirhos and their decay into pairs of technipions, longitudinal weak bosons, or jets. Technipions, in turn, decay predominantly into heavy fermions. This report will appear in the Proceedings of the 1996 DPF/DPB Summer Study on New Directions for High Energy Physics (Snowmass 96)

  17. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ueji, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS) is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction) or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure) signal (unconditioned stimulus, US), animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning) are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammillary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  18. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tanβ ≅ mt/mb ≅ 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models

  19. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Santopinto, E.

    2008-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  20. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)]. e-mail: bijker@nucleares.unam.mx

    2008-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  1. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e + e - annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed

  2. Suppressing supersymmetric flavor violations through quenched gaugino-flavor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James D.; Zhao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    Realizing that couplings related by supersymmetry (SUSY) can be disentangled when SUSY is broken, it is suggested that unwanted flavor and C P -violating SUSY couplings may be suppressed via quenched gaugino-flavor interactions, which may be accomplished by power-law running of sfermion anomalous dimensions. A simple theoretical framework to accomplish this is exemplified, where a strongly coupled conformal field theory is achieved after SUSY is softly broken. The defeated constraints are tallied. One key implication of the scenario is the expectation of enhanced top, bottom and tau production at the LHC, accompanied by large missing energy. Also, direct detection signals of dark matter may be more challenging to find than in conventional SUSY scenarios.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition color blindness color vision defects defective color vision vision defect, color ... Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness MalaCards: color vision deficiency Orphanet: Blue cone monochromatism Orphanet: NON ...

  4. Supersymmetry: Compactification, flavor, and dualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Benjamin Jones

    We describe several new research directions in the area of supersymmetry. In the context of low-energy supersymmetry, we show that the assumption of R-parity can be replaced with the minimal flavor violation hypothesis, solving the issue of nucleon decay and the new physics flavor problem in one stroke. The assumption of minimal flavor violation uniquely fixes the form of the baryon number violating vertex, leading to testable predictions. The NLSP is unstable, and decays promptly to jets, evading stringent bounds on vanilla supersymmetry from LHC searches, whereas the gravitino is long-lived, and can be a dark matter component. In the case of a sbottom LSP, neutral mesinos can form and undergo oscillations before decaying, leading to same sign tops, and allowing us to place constraints on the model in this case. We show that this well-motivated phenomenology can be naturally explained by spontaneously breaking a gauged flavor symmetry at a high scale in the presence of additional vector-like quarks, leading to mass mixings which simultaneously generate the flavor structure of the baryon-number violating vertex and the Standard Model Yukawa couplings, explaining their minimal flavor violating structure. We construct a model which is robust against Planck suppressed corrections and which also solves the mu problem. In the context of flux compactifications, we begin a study of the local geometry near a stack of D7 branes supporting a gaugino condensate, an integral component of the KKLT scenario for Kahler moduli stabilization. We obtain an exact solution for the geometry in a certain limit using reasonable assumptions about symmetries, and argue that this solution exhibits BPS domain walls, as expected from field theory arguments. We also begin a larger program of understanding general supersymmetric compactifications of type IIB string theory, reformulating previous results in an SL(2, R ) covariant fashion. Finally, we present extensive evidence for a new class of

  5. Flavor symmetry in the large Nc limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, G.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Lipkin, H.J.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1991-01-01

    An essential difference between two-flavor and three-flavor descriptions of baryons in large N c QCD is discussed in detail. For N c ≥3 a state with the SU(3) flavor quantum numbers of the proton must contain a number of strange quarks n s ≥(N c -3)/3, while a state with no strange quarks must have extra hypercharge Y-1 = 3/N c -1. The extra strangeness or extra hypercharge which vanishes for N c = 3 is spurious for the physical proton. This problem does not arise in two-flavor QCD, where the flavor-SU(2) Skyrmion may give a good approximation for nucleon-pion physics at low energies below strangeness threshold. But any nucleon model with SU(3) flavor symmetry which is interpreted as arising from the large N c limit in QCD can lead to erroneous conclusions about the spin and flavor structure of the proton. 12 refs

  6. The Effects of School-Based Discrimination on Adolescents of Color Sexual Health Outcomes: A Social Determinants Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respress, Brandon N; Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka N; Opara, Ijeoma

    2018-01-01

    Social inequalities are at the heart of disparities in sexual health outcomes among African American and Latino/a adolescents living in the United States. Schools are typically the largest and primary context in youth development. School characteristics such as peer and teacher discrimination and school performance were examined to determine whether such characteristics predict sexual behavior in adolescents of color. This study utilized a representative sample of high school age students to assess sexual risk behavior. Findings indicate that there was a clear disparity in sexually transmitted infection diagnoses. School characteristics such as teacher discrimination and Grade Point Average were significant predictors to sexual risky behaviors among adolescents of color. The study adds to the literature in examining contextual factors that are associated with adolescent sexual risk behavior, and findings provide implications for future prevention work.

  7. Flavor Beyond the Standard Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian F; Soreq, Yotam

    2012-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the observed pattern of quark masses is the consequence of a statistical distribution of Yukawa couplings within the multiverse. We employ the anthropic condition that only two ultra light quarks exist, justifying the observed richness of organic chemistry. Moreover, the mass of the recently discovered Higgs boson suggests that the top Yukawa coupling lies near the critical condition where the electroweak vacuum becomes unstable, leading to a new kind of flavor puzzle and to a new anthropic condition. We scan Yukawa couplings according to distributions motivated by high-scale flavor dynamics and find cases in which our pattern of quark masses has a plausible probability within the multiverse. Finally we show that, under some assumptions, these distributions can significantly ameliorate the runaway behavior leading to weakless universes.

  8. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare decays is presented.

  9. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the precise measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare FCNC decays is presented.

  10. Identity Safety and Relational Health in Youth Spaces: A Needs Assessment with LGBTQ Youth of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Walker, Ja'Nina J.; Rivera, Lillian; Golub, Sarit A.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the function of youth organizations for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) communities of color. LGBTQ young people (N = 29) participated in a series of focus groups, completed a brief demographic survey, and created individual community maps. The youth organization was described as providing LGBTQ youth…

  11. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  12. Flavor Physics & CP Violation 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Flavor Physics & CP violation 2015" (FPCP 2015) was held in Nagoya, Japan, at Nagoya University, from May 25 to May 29 2015. This is the 13th meeting of the series of annual conferences started in Philadelphia, PA, USA in 2002. The aim of the conference is to review developments in flavor physics and CP violation, in both theory and experiment, exploiting the potential to study new physics at the LHC and future facilities. The topics include CP violation, rare decays, CKM elements with heavy quark decays, flavor phenomena in charged leptons and neutrinos, and also interplay between flavor and LHC high Pt physics. The FPCP2015 conference had more than 140 participants, including researchers from abroad and many young researchers (postdocs and students). The conference consisted of plenary talks and poster presentations. The plenary talks include 2 overview talks, 48 review talks, and 2 talks for outlook in theories and experiments, given by world leading researchers. There was also a special lecture by Prof. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the Nobel laureates in 2008. The poster session had 41 contributions. Many young researchers presented their works. These proceedings contain written documents for these plenary and poster presentations. The full scientific program and presentation materials can be found at http://fpcp2015.hepl.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp/. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for their invaluable assistance in coordinating the scientific program and in helping to identifying many speakers. Thanks are also due to the Local Organizing Committee for tireless efforts for smooth running of the conference and very enjoyable social activities. We also thank the financial supports provided by Japanese Scociety for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) unfer the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) "Probing New Physics with Tau-Lepton" (No. 26220706), by Nagoya University under the Program for Promoting the Enhancement of Research Universities, and

  13. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eYamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure signal (unconditioned stimulus, US, animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammilary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  14. Flavor extrapolation in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Explicit calculation of the effect of virtual quark-antiquark pairs in lattice QCD has eluded researchers. To include their effect explicitly one must calculate the determinant of the fermion-fermion coupling matrix. Owing to the large number of sites in a continuum limit size lattice, direct evaluation of this term requires an unrealistic amount of computer time. The effect of the virtual pairs can be approximated by ignoring this term and adjusting lattice couplings to reproduce experimental results. This procedure is called the valence approximation since it ignores all but the minimal number of quarks needed to describe hadrons. In this work the effect of the quark-antiquark pairs has been incorporated in a theory with an effective negative number of quark flavors contributing to the closed loops. Various particle masses and decay constants have been calculated for this theory and for one with no virtual pairs. The author attempts to extrapolate results towards positive numbers of quark flavors. The results show approximate agreement with experimental measurements and demonstrate the smoothness of lattice expectations in the number of quark flavors

  15. Flavor changing Z0 decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, A.

    1982-01-01

    The discovery of the Z 0 , the particle mediating the weak neutral interaction of the SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) electroweak theory, is anxiously awaited and is expected to occur at the next generation of accelerators. Large projected Z 0 production rates will make the study of rare decay modes possible. The predicted sixth quark flavor, or top, has also not been discovered and may be too heavy to produce by t anti t. Therefore it is natural to study the feasibility of producing the top quark via a flavor changing neutral current decay process such as t anti c. Flavor changing neutral currents are also of interest for the constraints on theories that they give. For three generations, the branching ratios are found to be no larger than about 10 -10 , thus essentially ruling out discovery of the top quark by this process. If there is a fourth generation, however, a supermassive b' quark can greatly increase the rates. As the b' mass is varied from 25 GeV to 1 TeV, and for reasonable choices of the other parameters, the branching ratios can be as large as about 10 -8 to about 10 -3 . A potential form of CP violation is also considered in that latter case, but is small

  16. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, H [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Fuller, G M [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Carlson, J [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: hduan@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: gfuller@ucsd.edu, E-mail: carlson@lanl.gov

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}.

  17. Flavorful leptoquarks at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Gudrun; Loose, Dennis; Nišandžić, Ivan

    2018-04-01

    B -physics data and flavor symmetries suggest that leptoquarks can have masses as low as a few O (TeV ) , predominantly decay to third generation quarks, and highlight p p →b μ μ signatures from single production and p p →b b μ μ from pair production. Abandoning flavor symmetries could allow for inverted quark hierarchies and cause sizable p p →j μ μ and j j μ μ cross sections, induced by second generation couplings. Final states with leptons other than muons including lepton flavor violation (LFV) ones can also arise. The corresponding couplings can also be probed by precision studies of the B →(Xs,K*,ϕ )e e distribution and LFV searches in B -decays. We demonstrate sensitivity in single leptoquark production for the large hadron collider (LHC) and extrapolate to the high luminosity LHC. Exploration of the bulk of the parameter space requires a hadron collider beyond the reach of the LHC, with b -identification capabilities.

  18. The Flavor World of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    2014-07-01

    Although some may view food choice as a cultural trait, not directly related to our biology, overwhelming evidence suggests that children’s biology makes them especially vulnerable to the current food environment of processed foods high in salt and refined sugars. Emerging research in humans and animal models suggests that, beginning very early in life, sensory experiences shape and modify flavor and food preferences and have far-reaching effects on behavior. Such early life experiences with healthy levels of salt and sweet tastes and repeated exposure to healthy food flavors may go a long way toward promoting healthy eating and growth, which could have a significant impact in addressing the many chronic illnesses associated with poor food choice. Yet because of the lack of research, many feeding practices are based on idiosyncratic parental behavior, family traditions, or medical lore, rather than research. One of the keys to continued advances and applications on how to develop good food habits comes from studying the fundamental principles underlying flavor learning, which provides an understanding and appreciation of essential aspect of cultural food practices and habits.

  19. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  20. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  1. Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Induced by Exposure to Commonly Used e-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals and Flavored e-Liquids without Nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumalage, Thivanka; Prinz, Melanie; Ansah, Kwadwo O; Gerloff, Janice; Sundar, Isaac K; Rahman, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The respiratory health effects of inhalation exposure to e-cigarette flavoring chemicals are not well understood. We focused our study on the immuno-toxicological and the oxidative stress effects by these e-cigarette flavoring chemicals on two types of human monocytic cell lines, Mono Mac 6 (MM6) and U937. The potential to cause oxidative stress by these flavoring chemicals was assessed by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that the flavoring chemicals used in e-juices/e-liquids induce an inflammatory response, cellular toxicity, and ROS production. Methods: Two monocytic cell types, MM6 and U937 were exposed to commonly used e-cigarette flavoring chemicals; diacetyl, cinnamaldehyde, acetoin, pentanedione, o-vanillin, maltol and coumarin at different doses between 10 and 1,000 μM. Cell viability and the concentrations of the secreted inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8) were measured in the conditioned media. Cell-free ROS produced by these commonly used flavoring chemicals were also measured using a 2',7'dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. These DCF fluorescence data were expressed as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) equivalents. Cytotoxicity due to the exposure to selected e-liquids was assessed by cell viability and the IL-8 inflammatory cytokine response in the conditioned media. Results: Treatment of the cells with flavoring chemicals and flavored e-liquid without nicotine caused cytotoxicity dose-dependently. The exposed monocytic cells secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8) chemokine in a dose-dependent manner compared to the unexposed cell groups depicting a biologically significant inflammatory response. The measurement of cell-free ROS by the flavoring chemicals and e-liquids showed significantly increased levels of H 2 O 2 equivalents in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control reagents. Mixing a variety of flavors resulted in greater cytotoxicity and cell-free ROS levels compared to the treatments

  2. Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Induced by Exposure to Commonly Used e-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals and Flavored e-Liquids without Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thivanka Muthumalage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory health effects of inhalation exposure to e-cigarette flavoring chemicals are not well understood. We focused our study on the immuno-toxicological and the oxidative stress effects by these e-cigarette flavoring chemicals on two types of human monocytic cell lines, Mono Mac 6 (MM6 and U937. The potential to cause oxidative stress by these flavoring chemicals was assessed by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We hypothesized that the flavoring chemicals used in e-juices/e-liquids induce an inflammatory response, cellular toxicity, and ROS production.Methods: Two monocytic cell types, MM6 and U937 were exposed to commonly used e-cigarette flavoring chemicals; diacetyl, cinnamaldehyde, acetoin, pentanedione, o-vanillin, maltol and coumarin at different doses between 10 and 1,000 μM. Cell viability and the concentrations of the secreted inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8 were measured in the conditioned media. Cell-free ROS produced by these commonly used flavoring chemicals were also measured using a 2′,7′dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. These DCF fluorescence data were expressed as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 equivalents. Cytotoxicity due to the exposure to selected e-liquids was assessed by cell viability and the IL-8 inflammatory cytokine response in the conditioned media.Results: Treatment of the cells with flavoring chemicals and flavored e-liquid without nicotine caused cytotoxicity dose-dependently. The exposed monocytic cells secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8 chemokine in a dose-dependent manner compared to the unexposed cell groups depicting a biologically significant inflammatory response. The measurement of cell-free ROS by the flavoring chemicals and e-liquids showed significantly increased levels of H2O2 equivalents in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control reagents. Mixing a variety of flavors resulted in greater cytotoxicity and cell-free ROS levels compared to the

  3. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-flavor solvent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-05

    The release kinetics of l-menthol dissolved in propylene glycol (PG), Miglyol, or 1,8-cineole (two common odorless flavor solvents differing in polarity and a hydrophobic flavor compound) were monitored from a model aqueous system via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Breath analysis was also conducted via APCI-MS to monitor release of l-menthol from hard candy that used PG and Miglyol for l-menthol incorporation. The quantities of l-menthol released when dissolved in PG or Miglyol from the model aqueous system were found to be similar and overall significantly greater in comparison to when dissolved in 1,8-cineole. Analogous results were reported by the breath analysis of hard candy. The release kinetics of l-menthol from PG or Miglyol versus from 1,8-cineole were notably more rapid and higher in quantity. Results from the sensory time-intensity study also indicated that there was no perceived difference in the overall cooling intensity between the two flavor solvent delivery systems (PG and Miglyol).

  4. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  5. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Gilbert, Jessica L; Tieman, Denise M; Odabasi, Asli Z; Moskowitz, Howard R; Folta, Kevin M; Klee, Harry J; Sims, Charles A; Whitaker, Vance M; Clark, David G

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  6. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Schwieterman

    Full Text Available Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  7. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flavor physics and CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paoti; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, Wei-Shu

    2017-11-01

    We currently live in the age of the CKM paradigm. The 3 × 3 matrix that links (d , s , b) quarks to (u , c , t) in the charged current weak interaction, being complex and nominally with 18 parameters, can be accounted for by just 3 rotation angles and one CP violating (CPV) phase, with unitarity and the CKM phases triumphantly tested at the B factories. But the CKM picture is unsatisfactory and has too many parameters. The main aim of Flavor Physics and CP violation (FPCP) studies is the pursuit to uncover New Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Two highlights of LHC Run 1 period are the CPV phase ϕs of Bs mixing and Bs →μ+μ- decay, which were found to be again consistent with SM, though the saga is yet unfinished. We also saw the emergence of the P5‧ angular variable anomaly in B0 →K∗0μ+μ- decay and R K (∗) anomaly in B →K (∗)μ+μ- to B →K (∗)e+e- rate ratios, and the BaBar anomaly in B →D (∗) τν decays, which suggest possible New Physics in these flavor processes, pointing to extra Z‧, charged Higgs, or leptoquarks. Charmless hadronic, semileptonic, purely leptonic and radiative B decays continue to offer various further windows on New Physics. Away from B physics, the rare K → πνν decays and ε‧ / ε in the kaon sector, μ → e transitions, muon g - 2 and electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, τ → μγ , μμμ , eee, and a few charm physics probes, offer broadband frontier windows on New Physics. Lastly, flavor changing neutral transitions involving the top quark t and the 125 GeV Higgs boson h, such as t → ch and h → μτ, offer a new window into FPCP, while a new Z‧ related or inspired by the P5‧ anomaly, could show up in analogous top quark processes, perhaps even link with low energy phenomena such as muon g - 2 or rare kaon processes. In particular, we advocate the potential new SM, the two Higgs doublet model without discrete symmetries to control flavor violation, as SM2. As we are

  9. Heavy flavor measurements and new physics searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidori, G.

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in measuring and theoretically understanding flavor-changing processes, and the corresponding constraints derived on possible extensions of the Standard Model (SM). A clear message emerges from present data: if physics beyond the SM is not far from the TeV scale (hence it is directly accessible with present and future high-energy facilities), it must have a highly non-trivial flavor structure in order to satisfy the existing low-energy flavor-physics bounds. However, this structure has not been clearly identified yet and its investigation is the main purpose of future experiments in flavor physics

  10. An E-liquid Flavor Wheel: A Shared Vocabulary based on Systematically Reviewing E-liquid Flavor Classifications in Literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krüsemann, Erna Johanna Zegerina; Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Kees; Talhout, Reinskje

    2018-01-01

    E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors

  11. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  12. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Hypercentral constituent quark model; charmed and beauty baryons; hyper-Coulomb plus power potential. Abstract. Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body problem. The confinement ...

  13. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  14. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  15. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi, A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-01-01

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era

  16. Effective Prevention of Oxidative Deterioration of Fish Oil: Focus on Flavor Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Kazuo; Uemura, Mariko; Hosokawa, Masashi

    2018-03-25

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), both abundant in fish oil, are known to have significant biochemical and physiological effects primarily linked to the improvement of human health, especially cardiovascular and brain health. However, the incorporation of fish oil into foods and beverages is often challenging, as fish oil is very easily oxidized and can cause undesirable flavors. This review discusses this rapid formation of the fishy and metallic off-flavors, focusing especially on an early stage of fish oil oxidation. Although oxidative stability and quality of commercialized fish oil have improved over the past few years, there is a still a problem with its application: Flavor deterioration can be found even at very low oxidation levels. This review also notes the effective way to inhibit the formation of the volatile compounds responsible for the flavor deterioration.

  17. Quark color-hyperfine interactions in baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Lichtenberg, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the contribution from the color-hyperfine interaction to the energies of groundstate hadrons, with an emphasis on baryons. We use experimental information about how the color-hyperfine term depends on flavor to make predictions about the masses of baryons containing a heavy quark. We then generalize some relations between color-hyperfine matrix elements in mesons and baryons to obtain a number of additional predictions about the masses of as-yet unobserved baryons. Most of our predictions are in the form of inequalities. (orig.)

  18. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. (Japan). YITP; Okada, Y. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba (Japan). Dept. of Particle and Nucelar Physics; Shindou, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Tanaka, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-11-15

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b{yields}s(d) transition observables in B{sub d} and B{sub s} decays, taking the constraint from the B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma} and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  19. A flavor sector for the composite Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchi, Luca, E-mail: vecchi@lanl.gov

    2013-11-25

    We discuss flavor violation in large N Composite Higgs models. We focus on scenarios in which the masses of the Standard Model fermions are controlled by hierarchical mixing parameters, as in models of Partial Compositeness. We argue that a separation of scales between flavor and Higgs dynamics can be employed to parametrically suppress dipole and penguin operators, and thus effectively remove the experimental constraints arising from the lepton sector and the neutron EDM. The dominant source of flavor violation beyond the Standard Model is therefore controlled by 4-fermion operators, whose Wilson coefficients can be made compatible with data provided the Higgs dynamics approaches a “walking” regime in the IR. Models consistent with all flavor and electroweak data can be obtained with a new physics scale within the reach of the LHC. Explicit scenarios may be realized in a 5D framework, the new key ingredient being the introduction of flavor branes where the wave functions of the bulk fermions end.

  20. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2007-11-01

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b→s(d) transition observables in B d and B s decays, taking the constraint from the B s - anti B s mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes μ → eγ, τ → μγ and τ → eγ for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  1. Perceived Flavored Smokeless Tobacco Ease-of-use and Youth Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Urata, Janelle; Couch, Elizabeth T; Gansky, Stuart A

    2017-07-01

    Beliefs that flavored smokeless tobacco (ST) is more pleasant, less potent, or otherwise easier to use could contribute to youth initiation. We evaluated associations between perceived ease-of-use of flavored ST (moist snuff and chewing tobacco) and ST initiation susceptibility in a representative sample of US youth. Among 7,718 tobacco never-users in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study (age: 12-17; collected: 2013-2014), we compared 4 ST susceptibility items (curiosity, expectation, willingness to try, and a composite) according to whether participants reported flavored ST to be "easier to use" than unflavored ST. We calculated marginal prevalences of ST susceptibility and odds ratios adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco advertisement receptivity, warning label exposure, and sensation seeking. ST susceptibility was greatest among tobacco never-users who perceived flavored ST as easier to use. Adjusted odds of potential ST susceptibility (≥1 item) were 1.5-fold higher (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 1.8) among adolescents who perceived flavored ST as easier to use than unflavored ST. ST flavors could contribute to perceptions that facilitate youth initiation. Alternatively, youth susceptible to ST use may perceive flavored varieties differently. Prospective studies are warranted to strengthen causal evidence and measure ST initiation according to perceived ease-of-use.

  2. Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara G. Sears

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-values and multivariable logistic regression were employed to compare perceptions among participants considering e-cigarette flavorings as safe and those considering e-cigarette flavorings to be unsafe. The total sample size was 567 participants. Only 22% knew that GRAS designation meant that a product is safe to ingest, not inhale, inject, or use topically. Of participants who considered flavorings to be GRAS, the majority recognized that the designation meant a product is safe to ingest but also considered it safe to inhale. Although scientific uncertainty on the overall safety of flavorings in e-cigarettes remains, health messaging can educate the public about the GRAS designation and its irrelevance to e-cigarette safety.

  3. The effect of flavoring oral rehydration solution on its composition and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Loo, D Maroeska; van der Graaf, Fedde; Ten, Walther Tjon A

    2004-11-01

    As a number of mild to moderately dehydrated children refuse to drink oral rehydration solution (ORS) because of its strong salty taste, many parents and health workers flavor ORS with the childs favorite juice. The effects of flavoring ORS on electrolyte content and osmolality were assessed and the palatability of various solutions were compared with commercially flavored ORS. Osmolality, sodium, potassium, chloride and glucose content after flavoring with varying concentrations of apple juice, orange juice or orangeade was determined. Two of the solutions were offered to 30 children and adults to assess palatability. All additions to ORS (apple juice, orange juice or orangeade) caused a decrease of sodium (-30 to -53 mmol/L) and chloride (-27 to -47 mmol/L) content, whereas osmolality increased to greater than 311 mOsm/kg. These homemade oral rehydration solutions did not fulfill ESPGAN criteria for ORS, and rehydration will therefore be less effective. The majority of subjects also preferred the commercially flavored ORS. Only very small amounts of apple juice or orange juice can be added to the ORS without significantly altering electrolyte composition and osmolality. Palatability, however, does not improve compared with commercially flavored ORS. We therefore recommend using commercially flavored ORS, the composition of which fulfills ESPGAN criteria.

  4. Flavoring Compounds Dominate Toxic Aldehyde Production during E-Cigarette Vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, Andrey; Samburova, Vera

    2016-12-06

    The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors. E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids (propylene glycol and glycerol), while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored. In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds. These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes.

  5. Lepton flavor non-conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmas, T.S.; Tuebingen Univ.; Leontaris, G.K.; Vergados, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the present work we review the most prominent lepton flavor violating processes (μ → eγ, μ → 3e, (μ - , e -) conversion, M - M oscillations etc.), in the context of unified gauge theories. Many currently fashionable extensions of the standard model are considered, such as: i) extensions of the fermion sector (right-handed neutrino); ii) minimal extensions involving additional Higgs scalars (more than one isodoublets, singly and doubly charged isosinglets, isotriplets with doubly charged members etc.); iii) supersymmetric or superstring inspired unified models emphasizing the implications of the renormalization group equations in the leptonic sector. Special attention is given to the experimentally most interesting (μ - , e - ) conversion in the presence of nuclei. The relevant nuclear aspects of the amplitudes are discussed in a number of fashionable nuclear models. The main features of the relevant experiments are also discussed, and detailed predictions of the above models are compared to the present experimental limits. (Author)

  6. Searches for lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryman, D.

    1986-01-01

    The search for lepton flavor violation has reached considerable sensitivity, but with only null results so far. The experiments are sensitive to new particle in the 1 to 100 TeV range arising in a variety of theories, although the constraints on the masses of such particles improve only as the inverse fourth power of branching ratios. Presenting, neutrinoless μe conversion in the field of a nucleus provides the most serious constraints for many models. New experiments on rare kaon decays γe conversion and μ → eγ will result in improved sensitivity in the next few years. Ignoring theoretical prejudice, it is important to study many different processes in the hope uncovering some new effects

  7. Tetraquark states with open flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Liang [Hebei Normal University, Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China); Qiao, Cong-Feng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    In this work, we estimate the masses of tetraquark states with four different flavors by virtue of QCD sum rules, in both b and c sectors. We construct four [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub bs} x [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub du} tetraquark currents with J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, and then we perform an analytic calculation up to dimension eight in the operator product expansion. We keep terms which are linear in the strange quark mass m{sub s}, and in the end we find two possible tetraquark states with masses (5.57 ± 0.15) and (5.58 ± 0.15) GeV. We find that their charmed-partner masses lie in (2.54 ± 0.13) and (2.55 ± 0.13) GeV, respectively, and are hence accessible in experiments like BESIII and Belle. (orig.)

  8. Preventing HIV among U.S. women of color with severe mental illness: perceptions of mental health care providers working in urban community clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Collins, Pamela Y

    2013-01-01

    Given their knowledge of the behavioral issues related to psychiatric illness, mental health care providers are in a unique position to help prevent HIV among women with severe mental illness (SMI). We conducted in-depth interviews with providers at two New York City community clinics. We identified three major, interrelated themes pertaining to HIV prevention among women of color with SMI. Interventions that address the barriers that clinicians face in discussing sex, sexuality, and HIV with patients and train providers in the cultural considerations of cross-cultural mental health care are needed to help prevent HIV among women of color with SMI.

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ...

  10. Tobacco Products Sold by Internet Vendors Following Restrictions on Flavors and Light Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act bans characterizing flavors (e.g., grape, strawberry) in cigarettes, excluding tobacco and menthol, and prohibits companies from using misleading descriptors (e.g., light, low) that imply reduced health risks without submitting scientific data to support the claim and obtaining a marketing authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This observational study examines tobacco products offered by Internet cigarette vendors (ICV) pre- and postimplementation of the ban on characterizing flavors in cigarettes and the restriction on misleading descriptors. Methods: Cross-sectional samples of the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were identified. Data were analyzed in 2012 and 2013. Results: In 2011 the odds for selling cigarettes with banned flavors or misleading descriptors were 0.40 times that for selling the products in 2009 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.88). However, 89% of vendors continued to sell the products, including 95.8% of international vendors. Following the ban on characterizing flavors, ICVs began selling potential alternative products. In 2010, the odds for selling flavored little cigars were 1.71 (95% CI = 1.09, 2.69) times that for selling the product in 2009 and, for clove cigars, were 5.50 (95% CI = 2.36, 12.80) times that for selling the product in 2009. Conclusions: Noncompliance with the ban on characterizing flavors and restriction on misleading descriptors has been high, especially among international vendors. Many vendors appear to be circumventing the intent of the flavors ban by selling unbanned flavored cigars, in some cases in lieu of flavored cigarettes. PMID:25173777

  11. Tobacco products sold by Internet vendors following restrictions on flavors and light descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Catherine L; Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-03-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act bans characterizing flavors (e.g., grape, strawberry) in cigarettes, excluding tobacco and menthol, and prohibits companies from using misleading descriptors (e.g., light, low) that imply reduced health risks without submitting scientific data to support the claim and obtaining a marketing authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This observational study examines tobacco products offered by Internet cigarette vendors (ICV) pre- and postimplementation of the ban on characterizing flavors in cigarettes and the restriction on misleading descriptors. Cross-sectional samples of the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were identified. Data were analyzed in 2012 and 2013. In 2011 the odds for selling cigarettes with banned flavors or misleading descriptors were 0.40 times that for selling the products in 2009 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.88). However, 89% of vendors continued to sell the products, including 95.8% of international vendors. Following the ban on characterizing flavors, ICVs began selling potential alternative products. In 2010, the odds for selling flavored little cigars were 1.71 (95% CI = 1.09, 2.69) times that for selling the product in 2009 and, for clove cigars, were 5.50 (95% CI = 2.36, 12.80) times that for selling the product in 2009. Noncompliance with the ban on characterizing flavors and restriction on misleading descriptors has been high, especially among international vendors. Many vendors appear to be circumventing the intent of the flavors ban by selling unbanned flavored cigars, in some cases in lieu of flavored cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  13. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  14. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  15. A couplet from flavored dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek [Fermilab,P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States); Chacko, Zackaria [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD, 20742-4111 (United States); Kilic, Can [Theory Group, Department of Physics and Texas Cosmology Center,The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway Stop C1608, Austin, TX, 78712-1197 (United States); Verhaaren, Christopher B. [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD, 20742-4111 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In such a scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to three photon lines. Two of these lines are closely spaced, and constitute the couplet. Provided the flavor violation is sufficiently small, the ratios of the line energies are determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a prediction of this framework. For dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 keV line. The next generation of X-ray telescopes may have the necessary resolution to resolve the double line structure of such a couplet.

  16. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele; Weiler, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3) U x SU(3) D which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  17. A flavor protection for warped Higgsless models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Curtin, David

    2009-01-01

    We examine various possibilities for realistic 5D Higgsless models on a Randall-Sundrum (RS) background, and construct a full quark sector featuring next-to-minimal flavor violation (with an exact bulk SU(2) protecting the first two generations) which satisfies electroweak and flavor constraints. The 'new custodially protected representation' is used for the third generation to protect the light quarks from flavor violations induced due to the heavy top. A combination of flavor symmetries, and an 'RS-GIM' mechanism for the right-handed quarks suppresses flavor-changing neutral currents below experimental bounds, assuming Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-type mixing on the UV brane. In addition to the usual Higgsless RS signals, this model predicts an exotic charge-5/3 quark with mass of about 0.5 TeV which should show up at the LHC very quickly, as well as nonzero flavor-changing neutral currents which could be detected in the next generation of flavor experiments. In the course of our analysis, we also find quantitative estimates for the errors of the fermion zero-mode approximation, which are significant for Higgsless-type models.

  18. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Weiler, Andreas [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3){sub U} x SU(3){sub D} which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  19. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 °C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  20. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula, E-mail: mpaula.junqueira@usach.c [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ecuador 3769, Santiago (Chile); Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEP 36570-000, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Miltz, Joseph [Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 {sup o}C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  1. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 o C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  2. Two flavor QCD and Confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elia, M.; Di Giacomo, A.; Pica, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We argue that the order of the chiral transition for N_f=2 is a sensitive probe of the QCD vacuum, in particular of the mechanism of color confinement. A strategy is developed to investigate the order of the transition by use of finite size scaling analysis. An in-depth numerical investigation is...

  3. (S3)3 theories of flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    The author presents a supersymmetric theory of flavor based on the discrete flavor group (S 3 ) 3 . The model can account for the masses and mixing angles of the standard model, while maintaining sufficient sfermion degeneracy to evade the supersymmetric flavor problem. The author demonstrates that the model has a viable phenomenology and makes one very striking prediction: the nucleon decays predominantly to Kl where l is a first generation lepton. He shows that the modes n → K 0 bar ν e , p → K + bar ν e , and p → K 0 e + occur at comparable rates, and could well be discovered simultaneously at the SuperKamiokande experiment

  4. Topological phase in two flavor neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Poonam

    2009-01-01

    We show that the phase appearing in neutrino flavor oscillation formulae has a geometric and topological contribution. We identify a topological phase appearing in the two flavor neutrino oscillation formula using Pancharatnam's prescription of quantum collapses between nonorthogonal states. Such quantum collapses appear naturally in the expression for appearance and survival probabilities of neutrinos. Our analysis applies to neutrinos propagating in vacuum or through matter. For the minimal case of two flavors with CP conservation, our study shows for the first time that there is a geometric interpretation of the neutrino oscillation formulae for the detection probability of neutrino species.

  5. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Bhavin; Vinodkumar, P.C.; Rai, Ajay Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three- body problem. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index υ. The ground state masses of the heavy flavor, J P = 1/2 + and 3/2 + baryons are computed for different power indices, υ starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value in each case of quark combinations beyond the power index υ = 1.0. (author)

  6. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  7. The phases of isospin-asymmetric matter in the two-flavor NJL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawley, S. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia) and Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: slawley@jlab.org; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-01-19

    We investigate the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetric matter at T=0 in the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Our approach describes the single nucleon as a confined quark-diquark state, the saturation properties of nuclear matter at normal densities, and the phase transition to normal or color superconducting quark matter at higher densities. The resulting equation of state of charge-neutral matter and the structure of compact stars are discussed.

  8. On the flavor problem in strongly coupled theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Martin

    2012-11-28

    Randall Sundrum model in the literature, which try to attenuate this bound are reviewed and categorized. Subsequently, a novel solution to this flavor problem, based on an extended color gauge group in the bulk and its thorough implementation in the RS model, will be presented, as well as an analysis of the observables mentioned above in the extended model. This solution is especially motivated from the point of view of the strongly coupled dual theory and the implications for strongly coupled models of new physics, which do not possess a holographic dual, are examined. Finally, the top quark plays a special role in models with a geometric explanation of flavor hierarchies and the predictions in the Randall-Sundrum model with and without the proposed extension for the forward-backward asymmetry A{sup t}{sub FB} in top pair production are computed.

  9. On the flavor problem in strongly coupled theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    . Subsequently, a novel solution to this flavor problem, based on an extended color gauge group in the bulk and its thorough implementation in the RS model, will be presented, as well as an analysis of the observables mentioned above in the extended model. This solution is especially motivated from the point of view of the strongly coupled dual theory and the implications for strongly coupled models of new physics, which do not possess a holographic dual, are examined. Finally, the top quark plays a special role in models with a geometric explanation of flavor hierarchies and the predictions in the Randall-Sundrum model with and without the proposed extension for the forward-backward asymmetry A t FB in top pair production are computed.

  10. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  11. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  12. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is...

  13. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  14. Multicultural Mental Health: Does Your Skin Color Matter More Than Your Mind? CEO Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satel, Sally; Forster, Greg

    A disturbing new movement in the mental health field called "Culture Competence" or "multicultural therapy" threatens to discredit traditional therapy and replace it with identity politics. In its most radical form, multicultural therapy holds that human behavior is primarily culture dependent, that doctors and patients will…

  15. Reducing health care-associated infections by implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Swee Siang; Huang, Cheng Hua; Yang, Chiu Chu; Hsieh, Yi Pei; Kuo, Chen Ni; Chen, Yi Ru; Chen, Li Ching

    2018-01-01

    Environmental cleaning is a fundamental principle of infection control in health care settings. We determined whether implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures in MICU reduced the density of HAI. We performed a 4-month prospective cohort intervention study between August and December 2013, at the MICU of Cathay General hospital. We arranged a training program for all the cleaning staff regarding separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors to clean the patients' bedside areas, areas at a high risk of contamination, paperwork areas, and public areas. Fifteen high-touch surfaces were selected for cleanliness evaluation by using the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence test. Then data regarding HAI densities in the MICU were collected during the baseline, intervention, and late periods. A total of 120 ATP readings were obtained. The total number of clean high-touch surfaces increased from 13% to 53%, whereas that of unclean high-touch surface decreased from 47% to 20%. The densities of HAI were 14.32‰ and 14.90‰ during the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. The HAI density did not decrease after the intervention period, but it decreased to 9.07‰ during the late period. Implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors effectively improves cleanliness in MICU environments. However, no decrease in HAI density was observed within the study period. Considering that achieving high levels of hand-hygiene adherence is difficult, improving environmental cleaning is a crucial adjunctive measure for reducing the incidence of HAIs.

  16. Progress in Flavor Physics (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    We present a pedagogical introduction to quark flavor physics, within and beyond the Standard Model. Particular attention is devoted to the phenomenology of B and D decays, in view of recent and possible future results at the LHC experiments.

  17. Theoretically palatable flavor combinations of astrophysical neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Mauricio

    2015-07-01

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of the flux in each flavor to the total. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the allowed ranges of flavor ratios at Earth for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their data imply standard physics, a general class of new physics with arbitrary (incoherent) combinations of mass eigenstates, or new physics that goes beyond that, e.g., with terms that dominate the Hamiltonian at high energy.

  18. Prospects in lepton-flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental situation regarding lepton-flavor conservation is reviewed and upcoming experiments are described. It is concluded that future improvements in experimental sensitivities will require higher flux, higher quality muon and kaon beams

  19. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    periments have generated much interest in the spectroscopy of heavy flavor baryons ... the point of view of simple systems to study three-body problems. ..... One of the authors (PCV) acknowledges the financial support from the University.

  20. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamín

    2016-12-20

    These lectures on flavor physics are an introduction to the subject. First lec- ture: We discuss the meaning of flavor and the importance of flavor physics in restricting extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak interactions. We explain the origin of the KM matrix and how its elements are determined. We discuss FCNC and the GIM mechanism, followed by how a principle of Minimal Flavor Violation leads to SM extensions that are safe as far as FCNC are concerned even if the new physics comes in at low, TeVish scales. This is illustrated by the example of B radiative decays ( b → sγ ). Second lecture: We then turn our attention to CP-violation. We start by presenting neutral meson mixing. Then we consider various CP-asymmetries, culminating in the theoretically clean interference between mixing and decay into CP eigenstates.

  1. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  2. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  3. Charmless B→VP decays using flavor SU(3) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang Chengwei; Gronau, Michael; Luo Zumin; Rosner, Jonathan L.; Suprun, Denis A.

    2004-01-01

    The decays of B mesons to a charmless vector (V) and pseudoscalar (P) meson are analyzed within a framework of flavor SU(3) in which symmetry breaking is taken into account through ratios of decay constants in tree (T) amplitudes but exact SU(3) is assumed for color-suppressed and penguin amplitudes. The magnitudes and relative phases of tree and penguin amplitudes are extracted from data, the symmetry assumption is tested, and predictions are made for rates and CP asymmetries in as-yet-unseen decay modes. A key assumption for which we perform some tests and suggest others is a relation between penguin amplitudes in which the spectator quark is incorporated into either a pseudoscalar meson or a vector meson. Values of γ slightly restricting the range currently allowed by fits to other data are favored, but outside this range there remain acceptable solutions which cannot be excluded solely on the basis of present B→VP experiments

  4. Bi-local baryon interpolating fields with two flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrasinovic, V. [Belgrade University, Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, Zemun, P.O. Box 57, Beograd (RS); Chen, Hua-Xing [Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Peking University, Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2011-02-15

    We construct bi-local interpolating field operators for baryons consisting of three quarks with two flavors, assuming good isospin symmetry. We use the restrictions following from the Pauli principle to derive relations/identities among the baryon operators with identical quantum numbers. Such relations that follow from the combined spatial, Dirac, color, and isospin Fierz transformations may be called the (total/complete) Fierz identities. These relations reduce the number of independent baryon operators with any given spin and isospin. We also study the Abelian and non-Abelian chiral transformation properties of these fields and place them into baryon chiral multiplets. Thus we derive the independent baryon interpolating fields with given values of spin (Lorentz group representation), chiral symmetry (U{sub L}(2) x U{sub R}(2) group representation) and isospin appropriate for the first angular excited states of the nucleon. (orig.)

  5. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  7. On flavor violation for massive and mixed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Capolupo, A.; Ji, C.R.; Vitiello, G.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss flavor charges and states for interacting mixed neutrinos in QFT. We show that the Pontecorvo states are not eigenstates of the flavor charges. This implies that their use in describing the flavor neutrinos produces a violation of lepton charge conservation in the production/detection vertices. The flavor states defined as eigenstates of the flavor charges give the correct representation of mixed neutrinos in charged current weak interaction processes.

  8. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  9. The Influence of Color on the Consumer's Experience of Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Felipe Reinoso; Moors, Pieter; Wagemans, Johan; Spence, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Visual appearance (e.g., color) cues set expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor properties of food and drink. These expectations may, in turn, anchor the subsequent tasting experience. In the present study, we examined the influence of the color of a beer on the consumer's experience. Dark and pale beers were evaluated both before and after tasting. Importantly, these beers were indistinguishable in terms of their taste/flavor when tasted without any visual cues. The results indicate that the differing visual appearance of the beers led to clear differences in expected taste/flavor. However, after tasting, no differences in flavor ratings were observed, indicating that the expectations based on visual cues did not influence the actual tasting experience. The participants also expected the dark beer to be more expensive than the pale one. These outcomes suggest that changes in the visual appearance of a beer lead to significant changes in the way in which consumers expect the beer to taste. At the same time, however, our findings also suggest the need for more evidence to be collected in order to determine the boundary conditions on when such crossmodal expectations may vs. may not affect the tasting experience. Highlights: The expected flavor of a beer is affected by its visual appearance. No differences in flavor ratings were observed on tasting. Consumers expect dark beers to be more expensive than pale/amber beers.

  10. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment from colored scalars⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfer Svjetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment induced by a color octet, weak doublet scalar, accommodated within a modified Minimal Flavor Violating framework. These flavor non-diagonal couplings of the color octet scalar might account for an assymmetry of order 3 × 10−3 for aCP(D0 → K−K+ − aCP(D0 → π+π− at tree level. The same couplings constrained by this assymmetry also induce two-loop contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment. We find that the direct CP violating asymmetry in neutral D-meson decays is more constraining on the allowed parameter space than the current experimental bound on neutron electric dipole moment.

  11. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  12. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  13. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  14. Crystallography of color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2002-01-01

    We develop the Ginzburg-Landau approach to comparing different possible crystal structures for the crystalline color superconducting phase of QCD, the QCD incarnation of the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase. In this phase, quarks of different flavor with differing Fermi momenta form Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum, yielding a condensate that varies in space like a sum of plane waves. We work at zero temperature, as is relevant for compact star physics. The Ginzburg-Landau approach predicts a strong first-order phase transition (as a function of the chemical potential difference between quarks) and for this reason is not under quantitative control. Nevertheless, by organizing the comparison between different possible arrangements of plane waves (i.e., different crystal structures) it provides considerable qualitative insight into what makes a crystal structure favorable. Together, the qualitative insights and the quantitative, but not controlled, calculations make a compelling case that the favored pairing pattern yields a condensate which is a sum of eight plane waves forming a face-centered cubic structure. They also predict that the phase is quite robust, with gaps comparable in magnitude to the BCS gap that would form if the Fermi momenta were degenerate. These predictions may be tested in ultracold gases made of fermionic atoms. In a QCD context, our results lay the foundation for a calculation of vortex pinning in a crystalline color superconductor, and thus for the analysis of pulsar glitches that may originate within the core of a compact star

  15. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  16. Dihyperons in chiral color dielectric model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are the usual Gell-Mann matrices acting in color and flavor space respectively. The fla- vor symmetry breaking is incorporated in the Lagrangian through the quark mass term. (m0 + (m χ)U5), where m0 = 0 for u and d quarks. So masses of u d and s quarks are m, m0 and m0 +m respectively. The meson matrix consists of η, ...

  17. The Relative Importance of Sexual Dimorphism, Fluctuating Asymmetry, and Color Cues to Health during Evaluation of Potential Partners' Facial Photographs : A Conjoint Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilski, Justin K; Welling, Lisa L M

    2017-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism, symmetry, and coloration in human faces putatively signal information relevant to mate selection and reproduction. Although the independent contributions of these characteristics to judgments of attractiveness are well established, relatively few studies have examined whether individuals prioritize certain features over others. Here, participants (N = 542, 315 female) ranked six sets of facial photographs (3 male, 3 female) by their preference for starting long- and short-term romantic relationships with each person depicted. Composite-based digital transformations were applied such that each image set contained 11 different versions of the same identity. Each photograph in each image set had a unique combination of three traits: sexual dimorphism, symmetry, and color cues to health. Using conjoint analysis to evaluate participants' ranking decisions, we found that participants prioritized cues to sexual dimorphism over symmetry and color cues to health. Sexual dimorphism was also found to be relatively more important for the evaluation of male faces than for female faces, whereas symmetry and color cues to health were relatively more important for the evaluation of female faces than for male faces. Symmetry and color cues to health were more important for long-term versus short-term evaluations for female faces, but not male faces. Analyses of utility estimates reveal that our data are consistent with research showing that preferences for facial masculinity and femininity in male and female faces vary according to relationship context. These findings are interpreted in the context of previous work examining the influence of these facial attributes on romantic partner perception.

  18. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  19. Heavy-flavor parton distributions without heavy-flavor matching prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertone, Valerio; Glazov, Alexandre; Mitov, Alexander; Papanastasiou, Andrew S.; Ubiali, Maria

    We show that the well-known obstacle for working with the zero-mass variable flavor number scheme, namely, the omission of O(1) mass power corrections close to the conventional heavy flavor matching point (HFMP) μb = m, can be easily overcome. For this it is sufficient to take advantage of the

  20. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  1. Red, White and Black: Colors of Beauty, Tints of Health and Cosmetic Materials in Early Modern English Art Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammern, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Alongside Richard Haydocke's translation of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo's treatise on painting (1598), the article examines concepts of color concerning cosmetics, painting and complexion as they relate to aesthetics, artistic and medical practice in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Beginning with white and red as ideal colors of beauty in Agnolo Firenzuola's Discourse on the beauty of women (1541), the essay places color in relation to major issues in art, medicine and empiricism by discussing beauty as a quality of humoral theory and its colors as visual results of physiological processes. Challenging the relation of art and nature, gender and production, Lomazzo's account of complexion and Haydocke's additions on cosmetic practices and face-painting provide key passages that shed light on the relation of cosmetics colors, art writing and artistic practices at the convergence of the body, art and medicine in the context of the emerging English virtuosi around 1600.

  2. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  3. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  4. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wellman Center for Photomedicine and Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Linnes, Jacqueline [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Gerrard, Victoria [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Opportunity Lab, Singapore University for Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-03-15

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  5. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Color additives give the red tint to your fruit punch ... in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices Color Additives: FDA's Regulatory Process and Historical Perspectives ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition ...

  6. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  7. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  8. Color superconductivity in dense quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Schmitt, Andreas; Rajagopal, Krishna; Schaefer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Matter at high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, which is a degenerate Fermi gas of quarks with a condensate of Cooper pairs near the Fermi surface that induces color Meissner effects. At the highest densities, where the QCD coupling is weak, rigorous calculations are possible, and the ground state is a particularly symmetric state, the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase. The CFL phase is a superfluid, an electromagnetic insulator, and breaks chiral symmetry. The effective theory of the low-energy excitations in the CFL phase is known and can be used, even at more moderate densities, to describe its physical properties. At lower densities the CFL phase may be disfavored by stresses that seek to separate the Fermi surfaces of the different flavors, and comparison with the competing alternative phases, which may break translation and/or rotation invariance, is done using phenomenological models. We review the calculations that underlie these results and then discuss transport properties of several color-superconducting phases and their consequences for signatures of color superconductivity in neutron stars.

  9. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

  10. Flavor Alignment via Shining in RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csáki, Csaba; Surujon, Ze'ev; Weiler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimensional models whose flavor violating interactions are much suppressed compared to the usual anarchic case due to flavor alignment. Such suppression can be achieved in models where part of the global flavor symmetry is gauged in the bulk and broken in a controlled manner. We show that the bulk masses can be aligned with the down type Yukawa couplings by an appropriate choice of bulk flavon field representations and TeV brane dynamics. This alignment could reduce the flavor violating effects to levels which allow for a Kaluza-Klein scale as low as 2-3 TeV, making the model observable at the LHC. However, the up-type Yukawa couplings on the IR brane, which are bounded from below by recent bounds on CP violation in the D system, induce flavor misalignment radiatively. Off-diagonal down-type Yukawa couplings and kinetic mixings for the down quarks are both consequences of this effect. These radiative Yukawa corrections can be reduced by raising the flavon VEV on the IR brane...

  11. Sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of sweetpotato cultivars with varying flesh colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensory characteristics of sweet potatoes (n = 12 cultivars) with varying flesh color (orange, purple, yellow) and the impact of flesh colors on consumer acceptance were evaluated. A lexicon was developed for sweet potato flavor followed by consumer acceptance testing conducted with and without ...

  12. Collider signatures of flavorful Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; Lotito, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by our limited knowledge of the Higgs couplings to the first two generation fermions, we analyze the collider phenomenology of a class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with a nonstandard Yukawa sector. One Higgs doublet is mainly responsible for the masses of the weak gauge bosons and the third-generation fermions, while the second Higgs doublet provides mass for the lighter fermion generations. The characteristic collider signatures of this setup differ significantly from well-studied 2HDMs with natural flavor conservation, flavor alignment, or minimal flavor violation. New production mechanisms for the heavy scalar, pseudoscalar, and charged Higgs involving second-generation quarks can become dominant. The most interesting decay modes include H/A → cc,tc,μμ,τμ and H"± → cb,cs,μν. As a result, searches for low-mass dimuon resonances are currently among the best probes of the heavy Higgs bosons in this setup.

  13. Heavy flavor production in nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto-Pérez, Nestor; Capella, A; Pajares, C; Salgado, C A

    2001-01-01

    Heavy flavor production off nuclei is studied in the small x/sub F/ region of the produced heavy system. Corrections to the usually employed perturbative QCD factorization formula are considered in the framework of the Glauber-Gribov model. Transition from low to high energies is taken into account by using finite energy cutting rules. The low energy limit of the obtained results coincides with the probabilistic formula usually employed for quarkonium absorption. At finite energies both rescattering of the heavy flavor and corrections to nucleon parton densities inside nuclei appear, the latter also affecting lepton pair production. It turns out that at asymptotic energies both open heavy flavor and quarkonium are equally absorbed. The numerical differences between the results obtained with the probabilistic formula and the exact one are <20% up to LHC energies, and ~1/2% at SPS energies. (18 refs).

  14. Lepton flavor violation induced by dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Ferreira, C. P.; Goertz, Florian; Guzzo, M. M.; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Santos, A. C. O.

    2018-04-01

    Guided by gauge principles we discuss a predictive and falsifiable UV complete model where the Dirac fermion that accounts for the cold dark matter abundance in our Universe induces the lepton flavor violation (LFV) decays μ →e γ and μ →e e e as well as μ -e conversion. We explore the interplay between direct dark matter detection, relic density, collider probes and lepton flavor violation to conclusively show that one may have a viable dark matter candidate yielding flavor violation signatures that can be probed in the upcoming experiments. In fact, keeping the dark matter mass at the TeV scale, a sizable LFV signal is possible, while reproducing the correct dark matter relic density and meeting limits from direct-detection experiments.

  15. Lepton flavor violation and seesaw symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristizabal Sierra, D., E-mail: daristizabal@ulg.ac.be [Universite de Liege, IFPA, Department AGO (Belgium)

    2013-03-15

    When the standard model is extended with right-handed neutrinos the symmetries of the resulting Lagrangian are enlarged with a new global U(1){sub R} Abelian factor. In the context of minimal seesaw models we analyze the implications of a slightly broken U(1){sub R} symmetry on charged lepton flavor violating decays. We find, depending on the R-charge assignments, models where charged lepton flavor violating rates can be within measurable ranges. In particular, we show that in the resulting models due to the structure of the light neutrino mass matrix muon flavor violating decays are entirely determined by neutrino data (up to a normalization factor) and can be sizable in a wide right-handed neutrino mass range.

  16. Flavor universal resonances and warped gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Du, Peizhi; Hong, Sungwoo; Sundrum, Raman [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics,University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-01-04

    Warped higher-dimensional compactifications with “bulk” standard model, or their AdS/CFT dual as the purely 4D scenario of Higgs compositeness and partial compositeness, offer an elegant approach to resolving the electroweak hierarchy problem as well as the origins of flavor structure. However, low-energy electroweak/flavor/CP constraints and the absence of non-standard physics at LHC Run 1 suggest that a “little hierarchy problem” remains, and that the new physics underlying naturalness may lie out of LHC reach. Assuming this to be the case, we show that there is a simple and natural extension of the minimal warped model in the Randall-Sundrum framework, in which matter, gauge and gravitational fields propagate modestly different degrees into the IR of the warped dimension, resulting in rich and striking consequences for the LHC (and beyond). The LHC-accessible part of the new physics is AdS/CFT dual to the mechanism of “vectorlike confinement”, with TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge and gravitational fields dual to spin-0,1,2 composites. Unlike the minimal warped model, these low-lying excitations have predominantly flavor-blind and flavor/CP-safe interactions with the standard model. Remarkably, this scenario also predicts small deviations from flavor-blindness originating from virtual effects of Higgs/top compositeness at ∼O(10) TeV, with subdominant resonance decays into Higgs/top-rich final states, giving the LHC an early “preview” of the nature of the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Discoveries of this type at LHC Run 2 would thereby anticipate (and set a target for) even more explicit explorations of Higgs compositeness at a 100 TeV collider, or for next-generation flavor tests.

  17. On the Flavor Structure of Natural Composite Higgs Models & Top Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Azatov, Aleksandr; Perez, Gilad; Soreq, Yotam

    2014-01-01

    We explore the up flavor structure of composite pseudo Nambu-Goldstone-boson Higgs models, where we focus on the flavor anarchic minimal $SO(5)$ case. We identify the different sources of flavor violation in this framework and emphasise the differences from the anarchic Randall-Sundrum scenario. In particular, the fact that the flavor symmetry does not commute with the symmetries that stabilize the Higgs potential may constrain the flavor structure of the theory. In addition, we consider the interplay between the fine tuning of the model and flavor violation. We find that generically the tuning of this class of models is worsen in the anarchic case due to the contributions from the additional fermion resonances. We show that, even in the presence of custodial symmetry, large top flavor violating rate are naturally expected. In particular, $t\\to cZ$ branching ratio of order of $10^{-5}$ is generic for this class of models. Thus, this framework can be tested in the next run of the LHC as well as in other future...

  18. Systematic model building with flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentinger, Florian

    2009-12-19

    The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and

  19. Neutrino masses and spontaneously broken flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric flavor models. We show how the predictions of models based on spontaneously broken non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries are altered when we include so-called Kaehler corrections. Furthermore, we discuss anomaly-free discrete R symmetries which are compatible with SU(5) unification. We find a set of symmetries compatible with suppressed Dirac neutrino masses and a unique symmetry consistent with the Weinberg operator. We also study a pseudo-anomalous U(1) R symmetry which explains the fermion mass hierarchies and, when amended with additional singlet fields, ameliorates the fine-tuning problem.

  20. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  1. Systematic model building with flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plentinger, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays μ → eγ, τ → μγ, and τ → eγ which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and to search for phenomenological

  2. Flavored E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Reduction and Cessation-A Large National Study among Young Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Julia Cen

    2018-04-06

    E-cigarette use prevalence has increased drastically among young adult cigarette smokers in recent years. This study seeks to understand which e-cigarette flavors-sweet and fruity or tobacco and menthol/mint-are more likely to be associated with smoking reduction and cessation among young adults. Longitudinal data (waves 1 and 2) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study from young adult (aged 18-34) cigarette smokers (n = 4,645) at wave 1 and current e-cigarette users (n = 844) at wave 2 were used. Univariate and multivariate regressions were conducted to examine the associations between past-year smoking reduction and cessation and current e-cigarette flavor use at wave 2. At wave 2, 25.9% of respondents either reduced or quit smoking, and 6.7%, 5.2%, and 6.3% of them reported currently using e-cigarettes with tobacco/menthol (TM) flavors, one non-tobacco/non-menthol (NTM) flavor, and multiple NTM flavors, respectively. E-cigarette users with one (AOR = 2.5, p e-cigarette users. NTM flavor use was positively associated with e-cigarette use of a higher frequency and larger amount. The positive association between past-year smoking reduction and cessation and current NTM flavored e-cigarette use may be explained by young adults' escalated e-cigarette use with NTM flavors. Public health professionals should prevent and reduce multiple tobacco use through enhanced education about the harm of vaping NTM flavors and by advising young adult smokers to quit tobacco altogether using evidence-based methods.

  3. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  4. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of Cheddar cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M A; Miracle, R E; McMahon, D J

    2010-11-01

    A current industry goal is to produce a 75 to 80% fat-reduced Cheddar cheese that is tasty and appealing to consumers. Despite previous studies on reduced-fat cheese, information is critically lacking in understanding the flavor and flavor chemistry of reduced-fat and nonfat Cheddar cheeses and how it differs from its full-fat counterpart. The objective of this study was to document and compare flavor development in cheeses with different fat contents so as to quantitatively characterize how flavor and flavor development in Cheddar cheese are altered with fat reduction. Cheddar cheeses with 50% reduced-fat cheese (RFC) and low-fat cheese containing 6% fat (LFC) along with 2 full-fat cheeses (FFC) were manufactured in duplicate. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and samples were taken following 2 wk and 3, 6, and 9 mo for sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel (n=10 panelists) documented flavor attributes of cheeses. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation followed by separation and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Selected compounds were quantified using external standard curves. Sensory properties of cheeses were distinct initially but more differences were documented as cheeses aged. By 9 mo, LFC and RFC displayed distinct burnt/rosy flavors that were not present in FFC. Sulfur flavor was also lower in LFC compared with other cheeses. Forty aroma-active compounds were characterized in the cheeses by headspace or solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were largely not distinct between the cheeses at each time point, but concentration differences were evident. Higher concentrations of furanones (furaneol, homofuraneol, sotolon), phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-one, and free fatty acids, and lower concentrations of lactones were present in LFC compared with FFC after 9 mo of ripening. These

  5. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... January 29, 2018 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Respiratory Health Division Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  6. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  7. The Impact of Flavor Descriptors on Nonsmoking Teens' and Adult Smokers' Interest in Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Sembower, Mark A; Pillitteri, Janine L; Gerlach, Karen K; Gitchell, Joseph G

    2015-10-01

    Smokers switching completely from combustible cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are likely to reduce health risk, suggesting that e-cigarettes should be made appealing to adult smokers. However, uptake of e-cigarettes by nonsmoking teens would add risk without benefit and should be avoided. Although e-cigarette flavors may appeal to adult smokers, the concern is that flavors might attract nonsmoking teens. Nonsmoking teens (n = 216, ages 13-17, no tobacco in past 6 months) and adult smokers (n = 432, ages 19-80, smoking 3+ years; could have used e-cigarettes) were recruited from an Internet research panel. In assessments completed online (May 22, 2014 to June 13, 2014), participants indicated their interest (0-10 scale) in e-cigarettes paired with various flavor descriptors. These were mixed (order balanced) with similar flavor offerings for ice cream and bottled water to mask the focus on e-cigarettes and validate the assessment. Mixed models contrasted interest between teens and adults and among adults by e-cigarette history. Nonsmoking teens' interest in e-cigarettes was very low (mean = 0.41 ± 0.14 [SE] on 0-10 scale). Adult smokers' interest (1.73 ± 0.10), while modest, was significantly higher overall (p e-cigarette users had the greatest interest in e-cigarettes, and their interest was most affected by flavor. Adults who never tried e-cigarettes had the lowest interest, yet still higher than nonsmoking teens' interest (p e-cigarette flavors tested appealed more to adult smokers than to nonsmoking teens, but interest in flavors was low for both groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  9. Unified flavor symmetry from warped dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Mariana, E-mail: mariana.frank@concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Hamzaoui, Cherif, E-mail: hamzaoui.cherif@uqam.ca [Groupe de Physique Théorique des Particules, Département des Sciences de la Terre et de L' Atmosphère, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case Postale 8888, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Pourtolami, Nima, E-mail: n_pour@live.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Toharia, Manuel, E-mail: mtoharia@physics.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-06

    In a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk, we propose a scenario which explains all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM), including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of this symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons), thus washing out visible effects of the symmetry. If the Dirac neutrinos are sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, and the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated and reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas localization of the quark sector would reflect the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. We explore these features in an example based on which a family permutation symmetry is imposed in both quark and lepton sectors.

  10. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  11. Flavor mixing via dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the physics of the quark gluon plasma. The author interested in the complexity of the flavor structure of hadron wavefunctions. This issue bears upon the validity of the quenched approximation in lattice gauge theory and the structure of the QCD vacuum, both of which have been central issues here

  12. Flavor symmetry breaking and meson masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, Mandar S.; Roberts, Craig D.; Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Tandy, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is used to derive mass formulas for neutral pseudoscalar mesons. Flavor symmetry breaking entails nonideal flavor content for these states. Adding that the η ' is not a Goldstone mode, exact chiral-limit relations are developed from the identity. They connect the dressed-quark propagator to the topological susceptibility. It is confirmed that in the chiral limit the η ' mass is proportional to the matrix element which connects this state to the vacuum via the topological susceptibility. The implications of the mass formulas are illustrated using an elementary dynamical model, which includes an Ansatz for that part of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel related to the non-Abelian anomaly. In addition to the current-quark masses, the model involves two parameters, one of which is a mass-scale. It is employed in an analysis of pseudoscalar- and vector-meson bound-states. While the effects of SU(N f =2) and SU(N f =3) flavor symmetry breaking are emphasized, the five-flavor spectra are described. Despite its simplicity, the model is elucidative and phenomenologically efficacious; e.g., it predicts η-η ' mixing angles of ∼-15 deg. and π 0 -η angles of ∼1 deg

  13. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. December 2004 physics pp. 1407–1416. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos. YOSEF NIR1 and YAEL SHADMI2. 1Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. 2Physics Department, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel.

  14. Flavor SU(3) in hadronic B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.

    1998-11-01

    Here we shall outline a few methods that use the flavor SU(3) symmetry in the decays of B mesons to determine the angles of the unitarity triangle and to identify the decay modes which would display a significant CP violation. (author)

  15. Experimental Overview of Open Heavy Flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweda, Kai

    2017-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the experimental overview of the production of open heavy flavor at the international conference Strangeness in Quark Matter 2016 . Instead of a comprehensive overview, I focus on a few topics which the reader might find particularly interesting. (paper)

  16. Recent CMS Results on Flavor Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    We present the latest results of the CMS experiment in the field of flavor physics. The observation of a new beauty baryon in decays to Xi(b) and a prompt pion is discussed along with recent measurements Lambda_b baryon and quarkonium production cross sections. Finally, we describe the search for rare decays of charmed mesons to dimuons.

  17. Extraordinary phenomenology from warped flavor triviality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, Cedric; Gedalia, Oram; Lee, Seung J.; Perez, Gilad; Ponton, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Anarchic warped extra dimensional models provide a solution to the hierarchy problem. They can also account for the observed flavor hierarchies, but only at the expense of little hierarchy and CP problems, which naturally require a Kaluza-Klein (KK) scale beyond the LHC reach. We have recently shown that when flavor issues are decoupled, and assumed to be solved by UV physics, the framework's parameter space greatly opens. Given the possibility of a lower KK scale and composite light quarks, this class of flavor triviality models enjoys a rather exceptional phenomenology, which is the focus of this Letter. We also revisit the anarchic RS EDM problem, which requires m KK ≥12 TeV, and show that it is solved within flavor triviality models. Interestingly, our framework can induce a sizable differential tt-bar forward-backward asymmetry, and leads to an excess of massive boosted di-jet events, which may be linked to the recent findings of the CDF Collaboration. This feature may be observed by looking at the corresponding planar flow distribution, which is presented here. Finally we point out that the celebrated standard model preference towards a light Higgs is significantly reduced within our framework.

  18. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084335

    2016-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  19. Precursors of chicken flavor. II. Identification of key flavor precursors using sensory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliani, Michel; Farmer, Linda J

    2005-08-10

    Sensory evaluation was used to identify flavor precursors that are critical for flavor development in cooked chicken. Among the potential flavor precursors studied (thiamin, inosine 5'-monophosphate, ribose, ribose-5-phosphate, glucose, and glucose-6-phosphate), ribose appears most important for chicken aroma. An elevated concentration (added or natural) of only 2-4-fold the natural concentration gives an increase in the selected aroma and flavor attributes of cooked chicken meat. Assessment of the volatile odor compounds by gas chromatography-odor assessment and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that ribose increased odors described as "roasted" and "chicken" and that the changes in odor due to additional ribose are probably caused by elevated concentrations of compounds such as 2-furanmethanethiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and 3-methylthiopropanal.

  20. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  1. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Flavored Milk in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Berlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The offering of flavored milk in schools is a controversial topic. U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations now require that flavored milk in schools is fat-free. The perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of 21 school nutrition directors (SNDs) about the offering and student acceptance of lower-calorie, flavored milk were explored using a focus…

  2. The effect of homogenization pressure on the flavor and flavor stability of whole milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Drake, MaryAnne

    2017-07-01

    Flavor is one of the key factors that can limit the application and shelf life of dried dairy ingredients. Many off-flavors are caused during ingredient manufacture that carry through into ingredient applications and decrease consumer acceptance. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of homogenization pressure on the flavor and flavor stability of whole milk powder (WMP). Whole milk powder was produced from standardized pasteurized whole milk that was evaporated to 50% solids (wt/wt), homogenized in 2 stages with varying pressures (0/0, 5.5/1.4, 11.0/2.8, or 16.5/4.3 MPa), and spray dried. Whole milk powder was evaluated at 0, 3, and 6 mo of storage at 21°C. Sensory properties were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Volatile compounds were analyzed by sorptive stir bar extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fat globule size in condensed whole milk and particle size of powders were measured by laser diffraction. Surface free fat, inner free fat, and encapsulated fat of WMP were measured by solvent extractions. Phospholipid content was measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering. Furosine in WMP was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Increased homogenization pressure decreased cardboard and painty flavors, volatile lipid oxidation compound concentrations, fat globule size in condensed milk, surface free fat, and inner free fat in WMP. Encapsulated fat increased and phospholipid-to-encapsulated fat ratio decreased with higher homogenization pressure. Surface free fat in powders increased cardboard flavor and lipid oxidation. These results indicate that off-flavors were decreased with increased homogenization pressures in WMP due to the decrease in free fat. To decrease off-flavor intensities in WMP, manufacturers should carefully evaluate these parameters during ingredient manufacture. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  3. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    OpenAIRE

    Mamede,Maria Eugênia de Oliveira; Kalschne,Daneysa Lahis; Santos,Adriana Pereira Coelho; Benassi,Marta de Toledo

    2015-01-01

    Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A) was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B), pineapple (C), jabuticaba (D), mango (E) and cashew (F). The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Ove...

  4. Flavored Tobacco Product Use in Youth and Adults: Findings From the First Wave of the PATH Study (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Ambrose, Bridget K; Cummings, K Michael; Stanton, Cassandra A; Rose, Shyanika W; Feirman, Shari P; Tworek, Cindy; Glasser, Allison M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Cohn, Amy M; Conway, Kevin P; Niaura, Raymond S; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act banned characterizing flavors other than menthol in cigarettes but did not restrict their use in other forms of tobacco (e.g., smokeless, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes). A cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1 data from 45,971 U.S. adults and youth, aged ≥12 years in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study collected in 2013-2014, was conducted in 2016. This study examined (1) the prevalence and reasons for use of flavored tobacco products; (2) the proportion of ever tobacco users reporting that their first product was flavored; and (3) correlates of current flavored tobacco product use. Current flavored (including menthol) tobacco product use was highest in youth (80%, aged 12-17 years); and young adult tobacco users (73%, aged 18-24 years); and lowest in older adult tobacco users aged ≥65 years (29%). Flavor was a primary reason for using a given tobacco product, particularly among youth. Eighty-one percent of youth and 86% of young adult ever tobacco users reported that their first product was flavored versus 54% of adults aged ≥25 years. In multivariable models, reporting that one's first tobacco product was flavored was associated with a 13% higher prevalence of current tobacco use among youth ever tobacco users and a 32% higher prevalence of current tobacco use among adult ever users. These results add to the evidence base that flavored tobacco products may attract young users and serve as starter products to regular tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  6. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an ... the cause: a rare inflammatory condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your ...

  9. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Leer en Español: Pruebas para Detectar Daltonismo en ... study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  10. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  11. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  12. Flavor and CP violations from sleptons at the Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.-C.

    1997-12-01

    Supersymmetric theories generally have new flavor and CP violation sources in the squark and slepton mass matrices. They will contribute to the lepton flavor violation processes, such as μ→eγ, which can be probed far below the current bound with an intense muon source at the front end of the muon collider. In addition, if sleptons can be produced at the muon collider, the flavor violation can occur at their production and decay, allowing us to probe the flavor mixing structure directly. Asymmetry between numbers of μ + e - and e + μ - events will be a sign for CP violation in supersymmetric flavor mixing

  13. Color-Kinematics Duality for QCD Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and (n-2k) gluons, are taken in the (n-2)!/k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluo...

  14. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-01-01

    The significance of taste for human health:Throughout most of human evolution, the daily decisions of what to put into ones mouth and swallow and what to reject presented challenges fraught with danger. Energy-rich foods were often difficult to find; protein was in short supply; sodium was scarce. Moreover, many plants that did contain nutrients were also equipped with defensive compounds that were poisonous. Now many humans over consume exactly the foods that they evolved to find particu...

  15. Exploring transgender legal name change as a potential structural intervention for mitigating social determinants of health among transgender women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Crosby, Richard; Bouris, Alida; Brown, Rayna; Bak, Trevor; Rosentel, Kris; VandeVusse, Alicia; Silverman, Michael; Salazar, Laura

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of legal name change on socioeconomic factors, general and transgender-related healthcare access and utilization, and transgender-related victimization in a sample of young transgender women (transwomen) of color. A cross-sectional group comparison approach was used to assess the potential effects of legal name change. A convenience sample of young transwomen enrolled in a no-cost legal name change clinic were recruited to complete a 30-minute interviewer-guided telephone survey including sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, health and well-being, health care utilization, transgender transition-related health care, and transgender-related victimization. Sixty-five transgender women of color (37 = pre-name change group; 28 = post-name change group) completed the survey. Results indicated that the transwomen in the post-name change group were significantly older than the pre-name change group. In age-adjusted analyses, the post-name change group was significantly more likely to have a higher monthly income and stable housing than the pre-name change group. No significant differences were observed for general healthcare utilization; however, a significantly greater percentage of transwomen in the pre-name change group reported postponing medical care due to their gender identity. In addition, a significantly larger proportion of transwomen in the pre-name change group reported using non-prescribed hormones injected by friends and experiencing verbal harassment by family and friends compared to transwomen in the post-name change group. Findings suggest that legal name change may be an important structural intervention for low-income transwomen of color, providing increased socioeconomic stability and improved access to primary and transition-related health care.

  16. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  17. Flavor physics and right-handed models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafaq, Saba

    2010-08-20

    The Standard Model of particle physics only provides a parametrization of flavor which involves the values of the quark and lepton masses and unitary flavor mixing matrix i.e. CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Masakawa) matrix for quarks. The precise determination of elements of the CKM matrix is important for the study of the flavor sector of quarks. Here we concentrate on the matrix element vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke. In particular we consider the effects on the value of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from possible right-handed admixtures along with the usually left-handed weak currents. Left Right Symmetric Model provide a natural basis for right-handed current contributions and has been studied extensively in the literature but has never been discussed including flavor. In the first part of the present work an additional flavor symmetry is included in LRSM which allows a systematic study of flavor effects. The second part deals with the practical extraction of a possible right-handed contribution. Starting from the quark level transition b{yields}c we use heavy quark symmetries to relate the helicities of the quarks to experimentally accessible quantities. To this end we study the decays anti B{yields}D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} which have been extensively explored close to non recoil point. By taking into account SCET (Soft Collinear Effective Theory) formalism it has been extended to a maximum recoil point i.e. {upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '} >>1. We derive a factorization formula, where the set of form factors is reduced to a single universal form factor {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}) up to hard-scattering corrections. Symmetry relations on form factors for exclusive anti B {yields} D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} transition has been derived in terms of {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}). These symmetries are then broken by perturbative effects. The perturbative corrections to symmetry-breaking corrections to first order in the strong

  18. Phenomenology of flavor-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. Elazzar; Kribs, Graham D.

    2000-01-01

    The phenomenology of a new economical supersymmetric model that utilizes dynamical supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation for the generation of the sparticle spectrum and the hierarchy of fermion masses is discussed. Similarities between the communication of supersymmetry breaking through a messenger sector and the generation of flavor using the Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) mechanism are exploited, leading to the identification of vector-like messenger fields with FN fields and the messenger U(1) as a flavor symmetry. An immediate consequence is that the first and second generation scalars acquire flavor-dependent masses, but do not violate flavor changing neutral current bounds since their mass scale, consistent with ''effective supersymmetry,'' is of order 10 TeV. We define and advocate a ''minimal flavor-mediated model'' (MFMM), recently introduced in the literature, which successfully accommodates the small flavor-breaking parameters of the standard model using order 1 couplings and ratios of flavon field VEVs. The mediation of supersymmetry breaking occurs via two-loop logarithm-enhanced gauge-mediated contributions, as well as several one-loop and two-loop Yukawa-mediated contributions for which we provide analytical expressions. The MFMM is parametrized by a small set of masses and couplings, with values restricted by several model constraints and experimental data. Full two-loop renormalization group evolution is performed, correctly taking into account the negative two-loop gauge contributions from heavy first and second generations. Electroweak symmetry is radiatively broken with the value of μ determined by matching to the Z mass. The weak scale spectrum is generally rather heavy, except for the lightest Higgs boson, the lightest stau, the lightest chargino, the lightest two neutralinos, and of course a very light gravitino. The next-to-lightest sparticle always has a decay length that is larger than the scale of a detector, and is either the lightest stau

  19. A fMRI study on the impact of advertising for flavored e-cigarettes on susceptible young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-05-01

    E-cigarettes are sold in flavors such as "skittles," "strawberrylicious," and "juicy fruit," and no restrictions are in place on marketing e-cigarettes to youth. Sweets/fruits depicted in e-cigarette advertisements may increase their appeal to youth and interfere with health warnings. This study tested a brain biomarker of product preference for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, and whether advertising for flavors interfered with warning labels. Participants (N = 26) were college-age young adults who had tried an e-cigarette and were susceptible to future e-cigarette use. They viewed advertisements in fMRI for sweet/fruit and tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, menthol and regular cigarettes, and control images of sweets/fruits/mints with no tobacco product. Cue-reactivity was measured in the nucleus accumbens, a brain biomarker of product preference. Advertisements randomly contained warning labels, and recognition of health warnings was tested post-scan. Visual attention was measured using eye-tracking. There was a significant effect of e-cigarette condition (sweet/tobacco/control) on nucleus accumbens activity, that was not found for cigarette condition (menthol/regular/control). Nucleus accumbens activity was greater for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarette advertisements and did not differ compared with control images of sweets and fruits. Greater nucleus accumbens activity was correlated with poorer memory for health warnings. These and exploratory eye-tracking findings suggest that advertising for sweet/fruit flavors may increase positive associations with e-cigarettes and/or override negative associations with tobacco, and interfere with health warnings, suggesting that one way to reduce the appeal of e-cigarettes to youth and educate youth about e-cigarette health risks is to regulate advertising for flavors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  1. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  2. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  3. Δ(54) flavor phenomenology and strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo-Pérez, Brenda [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico); HEBA Ideas S.A. de C.V.,Calculistas 37, Cd. Mx. 09400 (Mexico); Peinado, Eduardo; Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 20-364, Ciudad de México 01000 (Mexico)

    2016-12-23

    Δ(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic ℤ{sub 3}×ℤ{sub 3} heterotic string orbifolds, Δ(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find a model with Δ(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds that leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.

  4. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z′ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h→μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ→μZ′ opens up and for MZ′<2mμ gives better constraints than τ→3μ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  5. Possibility of new dibaryons containing heavy flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leandri, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent paper we have shown that the possibility of including heavy flavor in the dibaryon sector can lead to some new favored configurations (relative to the baryon-baryon threshold). In this study we extend our previous work by a systematic study of all the physical Qq 5 systems in a simple chromomagnetic model. In the first part we assume that the q quarks belong to the fundamental irrep of SU(3) F and that the Q quark has infinite mass. These assumptions are subsequently relaxed by introducing two mass parameters δ and η. Once these symmetries are broken we gain access in our model to a large number of new dibaryons containing heavy flavor. Some of them could be stable against decay via strong interactions, and we indicate the most favorable cases

  6. Studies of heavy flavored jets with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the mass and flavor of the initiating parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching with identified partons place powerful constraints on the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. We present recent results of heavy flavor jet spectra and nuclear modification factors of jets associated to charm and bottom quarks in both pPb and PbPb collisions. New measurements to be presented include the dijet asymmetry of pairs of b-jets in PbPb collisions and a finalized c-jet measurement in pPb collisions based on new data collected during the 2015 heavy-ion run period at the LHC.

  7. Light-flavor squark reconstruction at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)548062; Weuste, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a simulation study of the prospects for the mass measurement of TeV-scale light- flavored right-handed squark at a 3 TeV e+e collider based on CLIC technology. The analysis is based on full GEANT4 simulations of the CLIC_ILD detector concept, including Standard Model physics backgrounds and beam-induced hadronic backgrounds from two- photon processes. The analysis serves as a generic benchmark for the reconstruction of highly energetic jets in events with substantial missing energy. Several jet finding algorithms were evaluated, with the longitudinally invariant kt algorithm showing a high degree of robustness towards beam-induced background while preserving the features typically found in algorithms developed for e+e- collisions. The presented study of the reconstruction of light-flavored squarks shows that for TeV-scale squark masses, sub-percent accuracy on the mass measurement can be achieved at CLIC.

  8. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  9. Effect of gum tragacanth on rheological and physical properties of a flavored milk drink made with date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Maryam; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Asadi, Gholam Hassan; Nejad, Reza Azizi; Balaghi, Sima

    2013-08-01

    Date syrup as a nutritional additive and safe alternative to added sugar is one of the best choices for milk flavoring. In this study, a flavored milk beverage was formulated using date syrup for flavoring the product and gum tragacanth to obtain an acceptable mouth feel. Steady shear and dynamic oscillatory rheological properties of the samples contained 3 concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%, wt/wt) of 2 types of gum tragacanth (Astragalus gossypinus and Astragalus rahensis) which at 3°C, were studied. Particle size distribution and colorimetric assays were determined by laser diffractometry and using reflection spectrometer, respectively. Sensory analysis was performed with 25 semitrained panelists, using a 5-point hedonic scale. The results showed that viscoelastic properties, flow behavior parameters, particle size, and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*, where L* represents lightness, a* represents the redness/greenness quality of the color, and b* represents the yellowness and blueness quality of the colors) were significantly affected by the concentration of the gum tragacanth and the severity of this effect was influenced by the type of gum. The use of appropriate type and concentration of gum tragacanth in date milk formulation can improve the texture and mouth feel by affecting on particle size and the flow behavior of this product. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Flavor changing strings and domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.; Senjanovic, G.

    1993-04-01

    We consider the cosmological consequences of a spontaneous breaking of non-abelian discrete symmetries, which may appear as a natural remnant of a continuous symmetry, such as a family symmetry. The result may be a stable domain wall across which an electron would turn into a muon (orν e into ν μ ) or a flavor analogue of an Alice string-domain wall structure with the same property. (author). 16 refs

  11. New signatures of flavor violating Higgs couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-06-24

    We explore several novel LHC signatures arising from quark or lepton flavor violating couplings in the Higgs sector, and we constrain such couplings using LHC data. Since the largest signals are possible in channels involving top quarks or tau leptons, we consider in particular the following flavor violating processes: (1) pp→thh (top plus di-Higgs final state) arising from a dimension six coupling of up-type quarks to three insertions of the Higgs field. We develop a search strategy for this final state and demonstrate that detection is possible at the high luminosity LHC if flavor violating top-up-Higgs couplings are not too far below the current limit. (2) pp→tH{sup 0}, where H{sup 0} is the heavy neutral CP-even Higgs boson in a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM). We consider the decay channels H{sup 0}→tu,WW,ZZ,hh and use existing LHC data to constrain the first three of them. For the fourth, we adapt our search for the thh final state, and we demonstrate that in large regions of the parameter space, it is superior to other searches, including searches for flavor violating top quark decays (t→hq). (3) H{sup 0}→τμ, again in the context of a 2HDM. This channel is particularly well motivated by the recent CMS excess in h→τμ, and we use the data from this search to constrain the properties of H{sup 0}.

  12. The New Flavor of Higgsed Gauge Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Nathaniel; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Recent LHC bounds on squark masses combined with naturalness and flavor considerations motivate non-trivial sfermion mass spectra in the supersymmetric Standard Model. These can arise if supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector via new extended gauge symmetries. Such extended symmetries must be spontaneously broken, or confined, complicating the calculation of soft masses. We develop a new formalism for calculating perturbative gauge-mediated two-loop soft masses for gauge...

  13. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Mario; /Frascati; Asner, David Mark; /Carleton U.; Bauer, Daniel Adams; /Imperial Coll., London; Becher, Thomas G.; /Fermilab; Beneke, M.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Bevan, Adrian John; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Blanke, Monika; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Bloise, C.; /Frascati; Bona, Marcella; /CERN; Bondar, Alexander E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bozzi, Concezio; /INFN, Ferrara; Brod, Joachim; /Karlsruhe U.; Buras, Andrzej J.; /Munich, Tech. U.; Cabibbo, N.; /INFN, Rome /Rome U.; Carbone, A.; /INFN, Bologna; Cavoto, Gianluca; /INFN, Rome; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; /Los Alamos; Ciuchini, Marco; /INFN, Rome; Coleman, Jonathon P.; /SLAC; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; /Minnesota U.; Dalseno, J.P.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Glasgow U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Freiburg U. /Charles U. /Pisa U. /Vienna, OAW /Imperial Coll., London /Bergen U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Munich, Tech. U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Southampton U. /INFN, Rome /Nara Women' s U. /Florida U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Edinburgh U. /Warwick U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /KEK, Tsukuba /Bern U. /CERN /Munich, Tech. U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /CERN /Frascati /Brookhaven /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Munich, Tech. U. /Siegen U. /Imperial Coll., London /Victoria U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Washington U., St. Louis /Frascati /Warwick U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Madras /Melbourne U. /Princeton U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Fermilab /SLAC /York U., Canada /Brookhaven /UC, Irvine /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Valencia U., IFIC /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona U. /Warwick U. /Tata Inst. /Frascati /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Vienna U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LPT /Frascati /Munich, Tech. U. /Brookhaven /Bern U. /CERN /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Valencia U., IFIC /CERN /Kentucky U. /Oxford U. /Iowa State U. /Bristol U. /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Glasgow U. /INFN, Padua /Queen Mary, U. of London /Texas U. /LPHE, Lausanne /Fermilab /UC, Santa Cruz /Vienna, OAW /Cincinnati U. /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Ohio State U. /Purdue U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Frascati /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Rome /Bern U. /Karlsruhe U. /Brookhaven /CERN /Paris U., VI-VII /Zurich, ETH /Pisa U. /Frascati /Oxford U. /Orsay, LAL /INFN, Rome2 /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Princeton U. /Fermilab /Queen' s U., Kingston /KEK, Tsukuba /Melbourne U. /Brookhaven /Indiana U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Pisa U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe U. /Oxford U. /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Edinburgh U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved, apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments, thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of the physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that is about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.

  14. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at aroun...

  15. Neutrino Flavor Evolution in Turbulent Supernova Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Tina; Kneller, James P.

    In order to decode the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic core-collapse supernova and reveal the complicated inner workings of the explosion, we need a thorough understanding of the neutrino flavor evolution from the proto-neutron-star outwards. The flavor content of the signal evolves due to both neutrino collective effects and matter effects which can lead to a highly interesting interplay and distinctive spectral features. In this paper we investigate the supernova neutrino flavor evolution by including collective flavor effects, the evolution of the Mikheyev, Smirnov & Wolfenstein (MSW) matter conversions due to the shock wave passing through the star, and the impact of turbulence. The density profiles utilized in our calculations represent a 10.8 MG progenitor and comes from a 1D numerical simulation by Fischer et al.[1]. We find that small amplitude turbulence, up to 10% of the average potential, leads to a minimal modification of the signal, and the emerging neutrino spectra retain both collective and MSW features. However, when larger amounts of turbulence are added, 30% and 50%, the features of collective and shock wave effects in the high density resonance channel are almost completely obscured at late times. At the same time we find the other mixing channels - the low density resonance channel and the non-resonant channels - begin to develop turbulence signatures. Large amplitude turbulent motions in the outer layers of massive, iron core-collapse supernovae may obscure the most obvious fingerprints of collective and shock wave effects in the neutrino signal but cannot remove them completely, and additionally bring about new features in the signal. We illustrate how the progression of the shock wave is reflected in the changing survival probabilities over time, and we show preliminary results on how some of these collective and shock wave induced signatures appear in a detector signal.

  16. Neutrino flavor evolution in neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, James Y.; Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.

    2017-08-01

    We examine the flavor evolution of neutrinos emitted from the disklike remnant (hereafter called "neutrino disk") of a binary neutron star (BNS) merger. We specifically follow the neutrinos emitted from the center of the disk, along the polar axis perpendicular to the equatorial plane. We carried out two-flavor simulations using a variety of different possible initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra and, for comparison, three-flavor simulations in specific cases. In all simulations, the normal neutrino mass hierarchy was used. The flavor evolution was found to be highly dependent on the initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra; in particular, we found two broad classes of results depending on the sign of the initial net electron neutrino lepton number (i.e., the number of neutrinos minus the number of antineutrinos). In the antineutrino-dominated case, we found that the matter-neutrino resonance effect dominates, consistent with previous results, whereas in the neutrino-dominated case, a bipolar spectral swap develops. The neutrino-dominated conditions required for this latter result have been realized, e.g., in a BNS merger simulation that employs the "DD2" equation of state for neutron star matter [Phys. Rev. D 93, 044019 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.044019]. For this case, in addition to the swap at low energies, a collective Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism generates a high-energy electron neutrino tail. The enhanced population of high-energy electron neutrinos in this scenario could have implications for the prospects of r -process nucleosynthesis in the material ejected outside the plane of the neutrino disk.

  17. QCD thermodynamics with two flavors of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Ogilvie, M.C.; DeGrand, T.A.; DeTar, C.; Gottlieb, S.; Krasnitz, A.; Sugar, R.L.; Toussaint, D.

    1992-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of quantum chromo-dynamics at finite temperature on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel processor. We performed calculations with two flavors of Kogut-Susskind quarks and of Wilson quarks on 6 x 12 3 lattices in order to study the crossover from the low temperature hadronic regime to the high temperature regime. We investigate the properties of the objects whose exchange gives static screening lengths by reconstructing their correlated quark-antiquark structure. (orig.)

  18. Helium synthesis, neutrino flavors, and cosmological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the production of helium in the big bang is reexamined in the light of several recent astrophysical observations. These data, and theoretical particle-physics considerations, lead to some important inconsistencies in the standard big-bang model and suggest that a more complicated picture is needed. Thus, recent constraints on the number of neutrino flavors, as well as constraints on the mean density (openness) of the universe, need not be valid

  19. Rare Z decays and neutrino flavor universality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durieux, Gauthier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Grossman, Yuval; Kuflik, Erik [Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Koenig, Matthias [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Mainz Univ. (Germany). Mainz Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Ray, Shamayita [Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Calcutta Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    2015-12-15

    We study rare four-body decays of the Z-boson involving at least one neutrino and one charged lepton. Large destructive interferences make these decays very sensitive to the Z couplings to neutrinos. As the identified charged leptons can determine the neutrino flavors, these decays probe the universality of the Z couplings to neutrinos. The rare four-body processes could be accurately measured at future lepton colliders, leading to percent level precision.

  20. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  1. Flavor release measurement from gum model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero-López, Isabel; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-12-29

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods.

  2. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, Mario; Bauer, Daniel Adams; Becher, Thomas G.; Beneke, M.; Bevan, Adrian John; Blanke, Monika; Bloise, C.; Bona, Marcella; Bondar, Alexander E.; Bozzi, Concezio; Brod, Joachim; Buras, Andrzej J.; Cabibbo, N.; Carbone, A.; Cavoto, Gianluca; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ciuchini, Marco; Coleman, Jonathon P.; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dalseno, J.P.; Davies, C.H.; Di Lodovico, Francesca; Dingfelder, Jochen C.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donati, Simone; Dungel, W.; Egede, Ulrik; Eigen, Gerald; Faccini, Riccardo; Feldmann, Thorsten; Ferroni, Fernando; Flynn, Jonathan M.; Franco, Enrico; Fujikawa, M.; Furic, Ivan K.; Gambino, Paolo; Gardi, E.; Gershon, Timothy John; Giagu, Stefano; Golowich, Eugene; Goto, Toru; Greub, C.; Grojean, Christophe; Guadagnoli, Diego; Haisch, U.A.; Harr, Robert Francis; Hoang, Andre H.; Hurth, Tobias; Isidori, Gino; Jaffe, D.E.; Juttner, Andreas; Jager, Sebastian; Khodjamirian, Alexander; Koppenburg, Patrick Stefan; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Krokovny, P.; Kronfeld, Andreas Samuel; Laiho, J.; Lanfranchi, G.; Latham, Thomas Edward; Libby, James F.; Limosani, A.; Lopes Pegna, David; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lubicz, Vittorio; Lunghi, Enrico; Luth, Vera G.; Maltman, K.; Marciano, William Joseph; Martin, Emilie Claire Mutsumi; Martinelli, Guido; Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; Masiero, A.; Mateu, V.; Mescia, Federico; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Moulson, Matthew; Neubert, Matthias; Neufeld, Helmut; Nishida, Shohei; Offen, Nils; Palutan, M.; Paradisi, Paride; Parsa, Z.; Passemar, Emilie; Patel, M.; Pecjak, B.D.; Petrov, Alexey A.; Pich, Antonio; Pierini, Maurizio; Plaster, Brad; Powell, Brian Alfred; Prell, Soeren Andre; Rademaker, J.; Rescigno, Marco; Ricciardi, Stefania; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, E.; Rotondo, Marcello; Sacco, Roberto; Schilling, Christopher James; Schneider, Olivier; Scholz, Enno E.; Schumm, Bruce Andrew; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, Alan Jay; Sciascia, Barbara; Serrano, Justine; Shigemitsu, J.; Shipsey, Ian P.J.; Sibidanov, A.L.; Silvestrini, Luca; Simonetto, Franco; Simula, Silvano; Smith, Christopher; Soni, A.; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sordini, Viola; Sozzi, Marco S.; Spadaro, Tommaso; Spradlin, Patrick Michael; Stocchi, Achille; Tantalo, Nazario; Tarantino, Cecilia; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Tonelli, Diego; Towner, I.S.; Trabelsi, K.; Urquijo, Phillip; Van de Water, R.S.; Van Kooten, Richard J.; Virto, Javier; Volpi, Guido; Wanke, R.; Westhoff, Susanne; Wilkinson, G.; Wingate, Matthew Bowen; Xie, Y.; Zupan, Jure

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor and measurements and theoretical interpretations of their results have advanced tremendously: apart from masses and quantum numbers of flavor particles, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. Till early 1990s observations of CP violation were confined to neutral $K$ mesons, but since then a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral $B$ mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of $K, D$, and $B$ mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near...

  3. Masses, flavor mix and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussard, L.

    2004-06-01

    The author describes the relationships between masses, mixing of flavors and CP violation. This document is divided into 4 chapters: 1) fermions' masses, 2) mixing of flavors and CP violation, 3) beauty physics and 4) neutrino physics. In chapter 1 an attempt is made to explain what is behind the concepts of lepton mass and quark mass. As for neutrinos, the only neutral fermion, Dirac's and Majorana's views are exposed as well as their consequences. Fermion flavors are mixed in the process of mass generation and this mix is responsible for the breaking of CP and T symmetries. In chapter 2 the author shows how the analysis of particle oscillations from neutral mesons (K 0 , D 0 , B d 0 and B s 0 ) and from neutrinos can shed light on CP violation. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the contribution of beauty physics to the determination of the unitary triangle, through the oscillations of beauty mesons. In chapter 4 the author reviews the experimental results obtained recently concerning neutrino mass and neutrino oscillations and draws some perspectives on future neutrino experiments. (A.C.)

  4. First O(αs3) heavy flavor contributions to deeply inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the asymptotic limit Q 2 >>m 2 , the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients for deep-inelastic scattering factorize into the massless Wilson coefficients and the universal heavy flavor operator matrix elements resulting from light-cone expansion. In this way, one can calculate all but the power corrections in (m 2 /Q 2 ) k , k>0. The heavy flavor operator matrix elements are known to NLO. We present the last 2-loop result missing in the unpolarized case for the renormalization at 3-loops and first 3-loop results for terms proportional to the color factor T F 2 in Mellin-space. In this calculation, the corresponding parts of the NNLO anomalous dimensions [S.A. Larin, T. van Ritbergen and J.A.M. Vermaseren, Nucl. Phys. B427 (1994) 41; S. Moch, J.A.M. Vermaseren and A. Vogt, Nucl. Phys. B688 (2004) 101; S.A. Larin, P. Nogueira, T. van Ritbergen and J.A.M. Vermaseren, Nucl. Phys. B492 (1997) 338; A. Vogt, S. Moch and J.A.M. Vermaseren, Nucl. Phys. B691 (2004) 129] are obtained as well

  5. The Characteristics of Meat Duck, Problems and Prevention of Off Flavor Due to Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Source of poultry meat in Indonesia is currently dominated by chicken while local resources such as ducks have the potential to grow and be used as an alternative meat producer. Duck contribution towards the provision of a relatively small meat of 2.29%, compared with free-range chicken to reachs 20.33%. Sources of duck meat in Indonesia comes from local duck, and culled female ducks. Acceptance of most local duck meat is still relatively low, although in some areas local duck dishes are excellent. Meat ducks are generally less desirable, because taste and smell is different from chicken. Because consumers are not accustomed to the taste of typical meat, especially those that give the sensation of irregularities off meat – flavor or smell fishy/ rancid. Similarly, the color of duck meat is darker than that of chicken meat, high fat content of about 2.7 to 6.8%, which also influences consumer preferences. The high fat content, especially acid-unsaturated fatty acids in meat duck gives a tendency to produce off – flavors. Efforts to increase the consumption of duck meat should be based on the cause of the lack of acceptance by consumers. The smell of rancid meat duck is the most dominant cause of which is not liked by consumers. Efforts to reduce the off flavor of duck meat could be by adding antioxidant in feed stuffs.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  7. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher; Touati, Selim

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP-violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino masses. Numerically, they are found typically much larger, and not necessarily correlated with, Jarlskog-like invariants. Finally, the formalism is adapted to deal with a third class of flavor structures, sensitive to the flavored U (1) phases, and used to study the impact of the strong CP-violating interaction and the interplay between the neutrino Majorana phases and possible baryon and/or lepton number violating interactions.

  8. Electric dipole moments with and beyond flavor invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Smith

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flavor structure of quark and lepton electric dipole moments in the SM and beyond is investigated using tools inspired from Minimal Flavor Violation. While Jarlskog-like flavor invariants are adequate for estimating CP-violation from closed fermion loops, non-invariant structures arise from rainbow-like processes. Our goal is to systematically construct these latter flavor structures in the quark and lepton sectors, assuming different mechanisms for generating neutrino masses. Numerically, they are found typically much larger, and not necessarily correlated with, Jarlskog-like invariants. Finally, the formalism is adapted to deal with a third class of flavor structures, sensitive to the flavored U(1 phases, and used to study the impact of the strong CP-violating interaction and the interplay between the neutrino Majorana phases and possible baryon and/or lepton number violating interactions.

  9. Resource factor in production of quality and safe flavored food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Епінетівна Фролова

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research of methods for establishing authenticity of essential oil of cumin and dill based on optical isomerism of components is presented in the article.In modern food technology more often used frozen raw, concentrates fruit and vegetables, growing issue of healthy products and this all require the use of flavors. Synthetic flavors can be dangerous to the human body. Usage of counterfeit natural flavors is dangerous.

  10. New color-magnetic defects in dense quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Alexander; Schmitt, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Color-flavor locked (CFL) quark matter expels color-magnetic fields due to the Meissner effect. One of these fields carries an admixture of the ordinary abelian magnetic field and therefore flux tubes may form if CFL matter is exposed to a magnetic field, possibly in the interior of neutron stars or in quark stars. We employ a Ginzburg–Landau approach for three massless quark flavors, which takes into account the multi-component nature of color superconductivity. Based on the weak-coupling expressions for the Ginzburg–Landau parameters, we identify the regime where CFL is a type-II color superconductor and compute the radial profiles of different color-magnetic flux tubes. Among the configurations without baryon circulation we find a new solution that is energetically preferred over the flux tubes previously discussed in the literature in the parameter regime relevant for compact stars. Within the same setup, we also find a new defect in the 2SC phase, namely magnetic domain walls, which emerge naturally from the previously studied flux tubes if a more general ansatz for the order parameter is used. Color-magnetic defects in the interior of compact stars allow for sustained deformations of the star, potentially strong enough to produce detectable gravitational waves.

  11. Odd-flavor Simulations by the Hybrid Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Takaishi, Tetsuya; Takaishi, Tetsuya; De Forcrand, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The standard hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm is known to simulate even flavors QCD only. Simulations of odd flavors QCD, however, can be also performed in the framework of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm where the inverse of the fermion matrix is approximated by a polynomial. In this exploratory study we perform three flavors QCD simulations. We make a comparison of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm and the R-algorithm which also simulates odd flavors systems but has step-size errors. We find that results from our hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm are in agreement with those from the R-algorithm obtained at very small step-size.

  12. Beef flavor: a review from chemistry to consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerth, Chris R; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews research that describes the sensation, generation and consumer acceptance of beef flavor. Humans sense the five basic tastes in their taste buds, and receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities sense aromas. Additionally, trigeminal senses such as metallic and astringent are sensed in the oral and nasal cavities and can have an effect on the flavor of beef. Flavors are generated from a complex interaction of tastes, tactile senses and aromas taken collectively throughout the tongue, nasal, sinus and oral cavities. Cooking beef generates compounds that contribute to these senses and result in beef flavor, and the factors that are involved in the cookery process determine the amount and type of these compounds and therefore the flavor generated. A low-heat, slow cooking method generates primarily lipid degradation products, while high-heat, fast cookery generates more Maillard reaction products. The science of consumer acceptance, cluster analyses and drawing relationships among all flavor determinants is a relatively new discipline in beef flavor. Consumers rate beef that has lipid degradation products generated from a low degree of doneness and Maillard flavor products from fast, hot cookery the highest in overall liking, and current research has shown that strong relationships exist between beef flavor and consumer acceptability, even more so than juiciness or tenderness. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Flavor Tagging with Deep Neural Networks at Belle II

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment is mainly designed to investigate the decay of B meson pairs from $\\Upsilon(4S)$ decays, produced by the asymmetric electron-positron collider SuperKEKB. The determination of the B meson flavor, so-called flavor tagging, plays an important role in analyses and can be inferred in many cases directly from the final state particles. In this talk a successful approach of B meson flavor tagging utilizing a Deep Neural Network is presented. Monte Carlo studies show a significant improvement with respect to the established category-based flavor tagging algorithm.

  14. Flavor Tagging at Tevatron incl. calibration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulik, T.; /Kansas U.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and D0 experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor at production, whether its constituent is a quark or an anti-quark. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B{sup 0} and B{sub S} system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks, and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from b decays from other tracks. This report discusses these techniques and the measurement of B{sup 0} mixing, as a means to calibrate the taggers.

  15. Collective three-flavor oscillations of supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol

    2008-06-01

    Neutrinos and antineutrinos emitted from a core collapse supernova interact among themselves, giving rise to collective flavor conversion effects that are significant near the neutrinosphere. We develop a formalism to analyze these collective effects in the complete three-flavor framework. It naturally generalizes the spin-precession analogy to three flavors and is capable of analytically describing phenomena like vacuum/Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) oscillations, synchronized oscillations, bipolar oscillations, and spectral split. Using the formalism, we demonstrate that the flavor conversions may be “factorized” into two-flavor oscillations with hierarchical frequencies. We explicitly show how the three-flavor solution may be constructed by combining two-flavor solutions. For a typical supernova density profile, we identify an approximate separation of regions where distinctly different flavor conversion mechanisms operate, and demonstrate the interplay between collective and MSW effects. We pictorialize our results in terms of the “e3-e8 triangle” diagram, which is a tool that can be used to visualize three-neutrino flavor conversions in general, and offers insights into the analysis of the collective effects in particular.

  16. Flavor at the TeV scale with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hall, Lawrence; Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2000-01-01

    Theories where the standard model fields reside on a 3-brane, with a low fundamental cutoff and extra dimensions, provide alternative solutions to the gauge hierarchy problem. However, generating flavor at the TeV scale while avoiding flavor-changing difficulties appears prohibitively difficult at first sight. We argue to the contrary that this picture allows us to lower flavor physics close to the TeV scale. Small Yukawa couplings are generated by ''shining'' badly broken flavor symmetries from distant branes, and flavor and CP-violating processes are adequately suppressed by these symmetries. We further show how the extra dimensions avoid four dimensional disasters associated with light fields charged under flavor. We construct elegant and realistic theories of flavor based on the maximal U(3) 5 flavor symmetry which naturally generate the simultaneous hierarchy of masses and mixing angles. Finally, we introduce a new framework for predictive theories of flavor, where our 3-brane is embedded within highly symmetrical configurations of higher-dimensional branes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. Flavor alignment via shining in Randall-Sundrum models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Perez, Gilad; Surujon, Ze'ev; Weiler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimensional models whose flavor violating interactions are much suppressed compared to the usual anarchic case due to flavor alignment. Such suppression can be achieved in models where part of the global flavor symmetry is gauged in the bulk and broken in a controlled manner. We show that the bulk masses can be aligned with the down-type Yukawa couplings by an appropriate choice of bulk flavon field representations and TeV brane dynamics. This alignment could reduce the flavor violating effects to levels that allow for a Kaluza-Klein scale as low as 2-3 TeV, making the model observable at the LHC. However, the up-type Yukawa couplings on the IR brane, which are bounded from below by recent bounds on CP violation in the D system, induce flavor misalignment radiatively. Off-diagonal down-type Yukawa couplings and kinetic mixings for the down quarks are both consequences of this effect. These radiative Yukawa corrections can be reduced by raising the flavon vacuum expectation value on the IR brane (at the price of some moderate tuning), or by extending the Higgs sector. The flavor changing effects from the radiatively induced Yukawa mixing terms are at around the current upper experimental bounds. We also show the generic bounds on UV-brane induced flavor violating effects, and comment on possible additional flavor violations from bulk flavor gauge bosons and the bulk Yukawa scalars.

  18. Study on creation of an indocalamus leaf flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyong ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFlavors represent a small but significant segment of food industry. Sensory characteristics play an important role in the process of consumer acceptance and preference. Indocalamus leaf takes on a pleasant odor and indocalamus leaf flavor can be used in many products. However, indocalamus leaf flavor formula has not been reported. Therefore, developing an indocalamus leaf flavor is of significant interests. Note is a distinct flavor or odor characteristic. This paper concentrates on preparation and creation of indocalamus leaf flavor according to the notes of indocalamus leaf. The notes were obtained by smelling indocalamus leaf, and the results showed that the notes of indocalamus leaf flavor can be classified as: green-leafy note, sweet note, beany note, aldehydic note, waxy note, woody note, roast note, creamy note, and nutty note. According to the notes of indocalamus leaf odor, a typical indocalamus leaf flavor formula was obtained. The indocalamus leaf flavor blended is pleasant, harmonious, and has characteristics of indocalamus leaf odor.

  19. Smokeless and flavored tobacco products in the U.S.: 2009 Styles survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Annette K; Dube, Shanta R; Arrazola, René

    2012-01-01

    A number of noncigarette tobacco products, including some novel products, recently have been marketed by the tobacco industry, which raises concerns from tobacco control authorities. This study aimed to assess current popularity of several noncigarette tobacco products in the U.S. In 2009, a total of 10,587 adults completed a consumer mail-in survey (ConsumerStyles). Based on survey results, the weighted percentages of adults who heard and tried snus, dissolvable tobacco products, flavored little cigars, and flavored cigarettes were computed in 2010. A subset of this sample (n=4556) completed the HealthStyles survey, which included items about health perceptions of these products and use in the past 30 days. The percentage of U.S. adults in the sample who were aware of these products ranged from 10.4% (dissolvable tobacco) to 44.6% (flavored little cigars). One third of adults who had heard of flavored little cigars tried them and 10.1% had used them in the past 30 days; among those who had heard of them, 27.4% tried flavored cigarettes and 12.6% tried snus. In general, young adults, men, and smokers were most likely to have heard of each product. At least one third of adults were uncertain if these products were as harmful as cigarettes (range=37.3% [snus] to 50.3% [dissolvable tobacco]). The awareness of these tobacco products in this sample varied. Groups with a higher prevalence of smoking and tobacco use (e.g., men, people with low levels of education) may be a target audience for marketing and promotions. As availability of products change, continued surveillance is warranted in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Precision Light Flavor Physics from Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    In this thesis we present three distinct contributions to the study of light flavor physics using the techniques of lattice QCD. These results are arranged into four self-contained papers. The first two papers concern global fits of the quark mass, lattice spacing, and finite volume dependence of the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants, computed in a series of lattice QCD simulations, to partially quenched SU(2) and SU(3) chiral perturbation theory (chiPT). These fits determine a subset of the low energy constants of chiral perturbation theory -- in some cases with increased precision, and in other cases for the first time -- which, once determined, can be used to compute other observables and amplitudes in chiPT. We also use our formalism to self-consistently probe the behavior of the (asymptotic) chiral expansion as a function of the quark masses by repeating the fits with different subsets of the data. The third paper concerns the first lattice QCD calculation of the semileptonic K0 → pi-l +nul ( Kl3) form factor at vanishing momentum transfer, f+Kpi(0), with physical mass domain wall quarks. The value of this form factor can be combined with a Standard Model analysis of the experimentally measured K0 → pi -l+nu l decay rate to extract a precise value of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element Vus, and to test unitarity of the CKM matrix. We also discuss lattice calculations of the pion and kaon decay constants, which can be used to extract Vud through an analogous Standard Model analysis of experimental constraints on leptonic pion and kaon decays. The final paper explores the recently proposed exact one flavor algorithm (EOFA). This algorithm has been shown to drastically reduce the memory footprint required to simulate single quark flavors on the lattice relative to the widely used rational hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, while also offering modest O(20%) speed-ups. We independently derive the exact one flavor action, explore its

  1. Flavor mixing with quarks and leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.I.

    1987-10-01

    The last year has brought such a wealth of new information on heavy flavors that meaningful bounds can now be placed on all fermion mass related parameters in the Standard Model. The status of the KM matrix is reviewed with particular emphasis on the theoretical uncertainties. B 0 -anti B 0 mixing is reevaluated and CP violation is discussed as it is observed in K/sub L/ decays and as it hopefully can be studied in B decays. The report is concluded with short remarks on neutrino oscillations

  2. Lifetimes of some b-flavored hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.

    2014-06-01

    Recent measurements of lifetimes of some b-flavored hadrons are presented and interpreted in the context of theoretical models, especially the Heavy Quark Expansion. Decay widths and decay width differences in the B s 0 - B-bar s 0 system are discussed from the studies of decays into the final states J/ψK + K - , J/ψπ + π - , D s + D s - , K + K - and D s ± π ± . Lifetime measurements of the baryons Λ b 0 , Ξ b - , Ξ b 0 , and Ω b - are also shown. (author)

  3. Search for Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Physics motivation and phenomenology of muon to electron conversion (μ - +N(A,Z)→e - +N(A,Z)) in a muonic atom, which is one the most important muon processes to search for lepton flavor violation of charged leptons, are presented. Prospects for future experiments at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex) in Japan, such as the COMET experiment for a sensitivity of less than 10 -16 as the first stage, and then the PRISM/PRIME experiment for a sensitivity of less than 10 -18 as the ultimate stage, are discussed.

  4. Naturalness, SUSY heavy higgses and flavor constraints

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will demonstrate that supersymmetric (SUSY) higgses provide an important diagnostic for electroweak naturalness in the SUSY paradigm. I first review the naturalness problem of the Standard Model (SM) and SUSY as one of its most promising solutions. I study the masses of heavy Higgses in SUSY theories under broad assumptions, and show how they are constrained by their role in Electroweak symmetry breaking. I then show how Flavor Physics severely constrains large parts of SUSY parameter space, otherwise favored by naturalness. If SUSY Higgses are not discovered at relatively low mass during the next LHC run, this tension will further increase, disfavoring naturalness from SUSY.

  5. Analysis of Bs flavor oscillations at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio Viegas [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The search for and study of flavor oscillations in the neutral BsBs meson system is an experimentally challenging task. It constitutes a flagship analysis of the Tevatron physics program. In this dissertation, they develop an analysis of the time-dependent Bs flavor oscillations using data collected with the CDF detector. The data samples are formed of both fully and partially reconstructed B meson decays: Bs → Dsπ(ππ) and Bs → Dslv. A likelihood fitting framework is implemented and appropriate models and techniques developed for describing the mass, proper decay time, and flavor tagging characteristics of the data samples. The analysis is extended to samples of B+ and B0 mesons, which are further used for algorithm calibration and method validation. The B mesons lifetimes are extracted. The measurement of the B0 oscillation frequency yields Δmd = 0.522 ± 0.017 ps-1. The search for Bs oscillations is performed using an amplitude method based on a frequency scanning procedure. Applying a combination of lepton and jet charge flavor tagging algorithms, with a total tagging power ϵ'D2 of 1.6%, to a data sample of 355 pb-1, a sensitivity of 13.0 ps-1 is achieved. They develop a preliminary same side kaon tagging algorithm, which is found to provide a superior tagging power of about 4.0% for the Bs meson species. A study of the dilution systematic uncertainties is not reported. From its application as is to the Bs samples the sensitivity is significantly increased to about 18 ps-1 and a hint of a signal is seen at about 175. ps-1. They demonstrate that the extension of the analysis to the increasing data samples with the inclusion of the same side tagging algorithm is capable of providing an observation of Bs mixing beyond the

  6. QCD thermodynamics with two flavors of quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C.; Ogilvie, M.C. (Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics); DeGrand, T.A. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Physics Dept.); DeTar, C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Physics Dept.); Gottlieb, S.; Krasnitz, A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics); Sugar, R.L. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics); Toussaint, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics); MIMD Lattice Computations (MILC) Collaboration

    1992-05-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of quantum chromo-dynamics at finite temperature on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel processor. We performed calculations with two flavors of Kogut-Susskind quarks and of Wilson quarks on 6 x 12[sup 3] lattices in order to study the crossover from the low temperature hadronic regime to the high temperature regime. We investigate the properties of the objects whose exchange gives static screening lengths by reconstructing their correlated quark-antiquark structure. (orig.).

  7. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-05-23

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  8. Probing the Randall-Sundrum geometric origin of flavor with lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Blechman, Andrew E.; Petriello, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The anarchic Randall-Sundrum model of flavor is a low energy solution to both the electroweak hierarchy and flavor problems. Such models have a warped, compact extra dimension with the standard model fermions and gauge bosons living in the bulk, and the Higgs living on or near the TeV brane. In this paper we consider bounds on these models set by lepton flavor-violation constraints. We find that loop-induced decays of the form l→l ' γ are ultraviolet sensitive and incalculable when the Higgs field is localized on a four-dimensional brane; this drawback does not occur when the Higgs field propagates in the full five-dimensional space-time. We find constraints at the few TeV level throughout the natural range of parameters, arising from μ-e conversion in the presence of nuclei, rare μ decays, and rare τ decays. A tension exists between loop-induced dipole decays such as μ→eγ and tree-level processes such as μ-e conversion; they have opposite dependences on the five-dimensional Yukawa couplings, making it difficult to decouple flavor-violating effects. We emphasize the importance of the future experiments MEG and PRIME. These experiments will definitively test the Randall-Sundrum geometric origin of hierarchies in the lepton sector at the TeV scale

  9. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  10. The Influence of Color on the Consumer’s Experience of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reinoso Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual appearance (e.g., color cues set expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor properties of food and drink. These expectations may, in turn, anchor the subsequent tasting experience. In the present study, we examined the influence of the color of a beer on the consumer’s experience. Dark and pale beers were evaluated both before and after tasting. Importantly, these beers were indistinguishable in terms of their taste/flavor when tasted without any visual cues. The results indicate that the differing visual appearance of the beers led to clear differences in expected taste/flavor. However, after tasting, no differences in flavor ratings were observed, indicating that the expectations based on visual cues did not influence the actual tasting experience. The participants also expected the dark beer to be more expensive than the pale one. These outcomes suggest that changes in the visual appearance of a beer lead to significant changes in the way in which consumers expect the beer to taste. At the same time, however, our findings also suggest the need for more evidence to be collected in order to determine the boundary conditions on when such crossmodal expectations may vs. may not affect the tasting experience.Highlights: The expected flavor of a beer is affected by its visual appearance. No differences in flavor ratings were observed on tasting. Consumers expect dark beers to be more expensive than pale/amber beers.

  11. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  12. Effect of high-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide atmospheres on strawberry flavor and other quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A G; Sanz, C

    2001-05-01

    The effect of high-oxygen atmospheres on strawberry flavor was studied. Strawberry fruits (Fragariax ananassa Duch. cv. Camarosa) were stored at 8 degrees C in four different atmospheres: air, 5% O(2)/20% CO(2), 80% O(2)/20% CO(2), and 90% O(2)/10% CO(2). Changes in several quality parameters were evaluated. Atmospheres combining high O(2) and high CO(2) were the most effective in preventing fungal growth and enhancing strawberry firmness. Other quality parameters such as color, titrable acidity, sugars and organic acids distribution, off-flavor development, and aroma were only mildly affected by superatmospheric O(2) levels. After one week of storage, unexpected high contents of off-flavor related compounds were found in the 80% O(2)/20% CO(2) and 90% O(2)/10% CO(2) atmospheres. Evidence of an altered ester biosynthesis was also found in fruits stored under these high-O(2) atmospheres. Data obtained suggest that stress induced by high CO(2) and stress induced by high O(2) have an additive effect on strawberry flavor alteration.

  13. Mechanisms of toxicity and biomarkers of flavoring and flavor enhancing chemicals in emerging tobacco and non-tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjot; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Rahman, Irfan

    2018-05-15

    Tobacco products containing flavorings, such as electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) or e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, waterpipes, and heat-not-burn devices (iQOS) are continuously evolving. In addition to increasing the exposure of teenagers and adults to nicotine containing flavoring products and flavoring enhancers, chances of nicotine addiction through chronic use and abuse also increase. These flavorings are believed to be safe for ingestion, but little information is available about their effects on the lungs. In this review, we have discussed the in vitro and in vivo data on toxicity of flavoring chemicals in lung cells. We have further discussed the common flavoring agents, such as diacetyl and menthol, currently available detection methods, and the toxicological mechanisms associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, mucociliary clearance, and DNA damage in cells, mice, and humans. Finally, we present potential biomarkers that could be utilized for future risk assessment. This review provides crucial parameters important for evaluation of risk associated with flavoring agents and flavoring enhancers used in tobacco products and ENDS. Future studies can be designed to address the potential toxicity of inhaled flavorings and their biomarkers in users as well as in chronic exposure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  15. Flavor universal dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdman, G.; Evans, N.

    1999-01-01

    The top condensate seesaw mechanism of Dobrescu and Hill allows electroweak symmetry to be broken while deferring the problem of flavor to an electroweak singlet, massive sector. We provide an extended version of the singlet sector that naturally accommodates realistic masses for all the standard model fermions, which play an equal role in breaking electroweak symmetry. The models result in a relatively light composite Higgs sector with masses typically in the range of (400 - 700) GeV. In more complete models the dynamics will presumably be driven by a broken gauged family or flavor symmetry group. As an example of the higher scale dynamics a fully dynamical model of the quark sector with a GIM mechanism is presented, based on an earlier top condensation model of King using broken family gauge symmetry interactions (that model was itself based on a technicolor model of Georgi). The crucial extra ingredient is a reinterpretation of the condensates that form when several gauge groups become strong close to the same scale. A related technicolor model of Randall which naturally includes the leptons too may also be adapted to this scenario. We discuss the low energy constraints on the massive gauge bosons and scalars of these models as well as their phenomenology at the TeV scale. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. Critical number of flavors in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Calcaneo-Roldan, C.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavors N f . This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling α beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in α to illustrate this. We study the flavor and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of α and N f . Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through (α,α c )↔(1/N f ,1/N f c ). Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension γ m shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the β function. The criticality plane is drawn in the (α,N f ) phase space which clearly depicts how larger N f is required to restore chiral symmetry for an increasing interaction strength.

  17. Flavor-changing processes in extended technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Piai, Maurizio; Christensen, Neil; Shrock, Robert

    2004-01-01

    We analyze constraints on a class of extended technicolor (ETC) models from neutral flavor-changing processes induced by (dimension-six) four-fermion operators. The ETC gauge group is taken to commute with the standard model gauge group. The models in the class are distinguished by how the left- and right-handed (L,R) components of the quarks and charged leptons transform under the ETC group. We consider K 0 -K 0 and other pseudoscalar meson mixings, and conclude that they are adequately suppressed if the L and R components of the relevant quarks are assigned to the same (fundamental or conjugate-fundamental) representation of the ETC group. Models in which the L and R components of the down-type quarks are assigned to relatively conjugate representations, while they can lead to realistic CKM mixing and intrafamily mass splittings, do not adequately suppress these mixing processes. We identify an approximate global symmetry that elucidates these behavioral differences and can be used to analyze other possible representation assignments. Flavor-changing decays, involving quarks and/or leptons, are adequately suppressed for any ETC representation assignment of the L and R components of the quarks, as well as the leptons. We draw lessons for future ETC model building

  18. Light flavor asymmetry of nucleon sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Huiying; Zhang, Xinyu; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The light flavor antiquark distributions of the nucleon sea are calculated in the effective chiral quark model and compared with experimental results. The contributions of the flavor-symmetric sea-quark distributions and the nuclear EMC effect are taken into account to obtain the ratio of Drell-Yan cross sections σ pD /2σ pp , which can match well with the results measured in the FermiLab E866/NuSea experiment. The calculated results also match the anti d(x)- anti u(x) measured in different experiments, but unmatch the behavior of anti d(x)/ anti u(x) derived indirectly from the measurable quantity σ pD /2σ pp by the FermiLab E866/NuSea Collaboration at large x. We suggest to measure again anti d(x)/ anti u(x) at large x from precision experiments with careful treatment of the experimental data. We also propose an alternative procedure for experimental data treatment. (orig.)

  19. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  20. Flavor structure of warped extra dimension models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit

    2005-01-01

    We recently showed that warped extra-dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV Kaluza-Klein (KK) masses lead to striking signals at B factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B physics. We also briefly study other new physics signatures that arise in rare K decays (K→πνν), in rare top decays [t→cγ(Z,gluon)], and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D 0 decays to CP eigenstates such as K S π 0 and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, ∼3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a 'CP problem' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal

  1. Flavor Structure of Warped Extra Dimension Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Perez, Gilad; Soni, Amarjit

    2004-01-01

    We recently showed, in HEP-PH--0406101, that warped extra dimensional models with bulk custodial symmetry and few TeV KK masses lead to striking signals at B-factories. In this paper, using a spurion analysis, we systematically study the flavor structure of models that belong to the above class. In particular we find that the profiles of the zero modes, which are similar in all these models, essentially control the underlying flavor structure. This implies that our results are robust and model independent in this class of models. We discuss in detail the origin of the signals in B-physics. We also briefly study other NP signatures that arise in rare K decays (K → πνν), in rare top decays [t → cγ(Z, gluon)] and the possibility of CP asymmetries in D 0 decays to CP eigenstates such as K s π 0 and others. Finally we demonstrate that with light KK masses, ∼ 3 TeV, the above class of models with anarchic 5D Yukawas has a ''CP problem'' since contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment are roughly 20 times larger than the current experimental bound. Using AdS/CFT correspondence, these extra-dimensional models are dual to a purely 4D strongly coupled conformal Higgs sector thus enhancing their appeal

  2. Flavor gauge models below the Fermi scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. S.; Friedland, A.; Machado, P. A. N.; Mocioiu, I.

    2017-12-01

    The mass and weak interaction eigenstates for the quarks of the third generation are very well aligned, an empirical fact for which the Standard Model offers no explanation. We explore the possibility that this alignment is due to an additional gauge symmetry in the third generation. Specifically, we construct and analyze an explicit, renormalizable model with a gauge boson, X, corresponding to the B - L symmetry of the third family. Having a relatively light (in the MeV to multi-GeV range), flavor-nonuniversal gauge boson results in a variety of constraints from different sources. By systematically analyzing 20 different constraints, we identify the most sensitive probes: kaon, B +, D + and Upsilon decays, D-{\\overline{D}}^0 mixing, atomic parity violation, and neutrino scattering and oscillations. For the new gauge coupling g X in the range (10-2-10-4) the model is shown to be consistent with the data. Possible ways of testing the model in b physics, top and Z decays, direct collider production and neutrino oscillation experiments, where one can observe nonstandard matter effects, are outlined. The choice of leptons to carry the new force is ambiguous, resulting in additional phenomenological implications, such as non-universality in semileptonic bottom decays. The proposed framework provides interesting connections between neutrino oscillations, flavor and collider physics.

  3. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  4. Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and National Institutes of Health R01 Research Awards: Is There Evidence of a Double Bind for Women of Color?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit; Schaffer, Walter T

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, and the probability of being awarded an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The authors used data from the NIH Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination grants management database for the years 2000-2006 to examine gender differences and race/ethnicity-specific gender differences in the probability of receiving an R01 Type 1 award. The authors used descriptive statistics and probit models to determine the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, degree, investigator experience, and R01 award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. White women PhDs and MDs were as likely as white men to receive an R01 award. Compared with white women, Asian and black women PhDs and black women MDs were significantly less likely to receive funding. Women submitted fewer grant applications, and blacks and women who were new investigators were more likely to submit only one application between 2000 and 2006. Differences by race/ethnicity explain the NIH funding gap for women of color, as white women have a slight advantage over men in receiving Type 1 awards. Findings of a lower submission rate for women and an increased likelihood that they will submit only one proposal are consistent with research showing that women avoid competition. Policies designed to address the racial and ethnic diversity of the biomedical workforce have the potential to improve funding outcomes for women of color.

  5. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  6. Texture of semi-solids : sensory flavor-texture interactions for custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Rasing, F.; Wilkinson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Possible interactions between flavor and oral texture sensations were investigated for four flavorants, diacetyl, benzaldehyde, vanillin, and caffeine, added in two concentrations to model vanilla custard desserts. The flavorants affected viscosities and resulted in corresponding changes in

  7. Hearing Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Davis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In astronomy, the relationship between color and temperature is an important concept. This concept can be demonstrated in a laboratory or seen at telescope when observing stars. A blind/visually-impaired (B/VI) person would not be able to engage in the same observational demonstrations that are typically done to explain this concept. We’ve developed a tool for B/VI students to participate in these types of observational activities. Using an arduino compatible micro controller with and RGB light sensor, we are able to convert filtered light into sound. The device will produce different timbres for different wavelengths of light, which can then be used to distinguish the temperature of an object. The device is handheld, easy to program and inexpensive to reproduce (< $50). It is also fitted to mount on a telescope for observing. The design schematic and code will be open source and available for download.

  8. Lepton flavor violation at LEP II and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, J.L.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA

    1996-07-01

    At present, two fundamental mysteries in particle physics are the origins of electroweak symmetry breaking and the fermion mass matrices. The experimental discovery of superpartners would represent enormous progress in the understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking, but would it also allow progress on the flavor problem? To date, nearly all experimental studies of supersymmetry have ignored the possibility of flavor mixings in the sfermion sector. However, since all superpartners must be given masses, all supersymmetric theories necessarily allow for the possibility of new flavor mixings beyond the standard model. In addition, there are now many supersymmetric theories of flavor, which predict a wide variety of superpartner flavor mixings. In this study, the author examines the possibility of measuring these mixings at LEP II and the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Rare flavor changing processes, such as μ → eγ, τ → μγ, τ → eγ, b → sγ, and neutral meson mixing, already provide important constraints on the sfermion flavor mixings through the virtual effects of superpartners. However, as will be seen below, once superpartners are discovered, it will be possible to probe these mixings much more powerfully by directly observing the change in flavor occurring at the superpartner production and decay vertices

  9. Flavor changing neutral currents and the third family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reina, L.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a Two Higgs Doublet Model with Flavor Changing Scalar Neutral Currents arising at the tree level. All the most important constraints are taken into account and the compatibility with the present Electroweak measurements is examined. The Flavor Changing couplings involving the third family are not constrained to be very small and this allows us to predict some interesting signals of new physics

  10. Neutrino magnetic moment in a theory with lepton flavor symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanov, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A model for generating the neutrino magnetic moment of the order of 10 -10 μ B is proposed, which is based on the SU(3) lepton flavor symmetry. In such a way one can avoid the flavor changing processes. The experimental constraints on the constants of the model are considered

  11. A matter of taste: Improving flavor of fresh potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding for improved potato flavor has not been a high priority in US breeding programs. It is a difficult trait to breed for because it cannot be done in a high throughput manner and it requires an understanding of the complex biochemistry of flavor compounds and effects of cooking on those compou...

  12. Symplectic symmetry of the neutrino mass for many neutrino flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, N.; Ankara Univ.

    2001-01-01

    The algebraic structure of the neutrino mass Hamiltonian is presented for two neutrino flavors considering both Dirac and Majorana mass terms. It is shown that the algebra is Sp(8) and also discussed how the algebraic structure generalizes for the case of more than two neutrino flavors. (orig.)

  13. Flavor Dependent Retention of Remote Food Preference Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Vikram Pal; Das, Asish; Balaji, J

    2017-01-01

    Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors. However, in mice, only a small (~1 g) amount of food is consumed making the weight estimates error prone and thereby limiting the sensitivity of the paradigm. Using multiplexed video tracking, we show that the pattern of consumption can be used as a reliable reporter of memory retention in this task. In our current study, we use this as a measure and show that the preference for the demonstrated flavor significantly increases following demonstration and the retention of this change in preference during remote testing is flavor specific. Further, we report a modified experimental design for performing STFP that allows testing of change in preference among two flavors simultaneously. Using this paradigm, we show that during remote testing for thyme and basil demonstrated flavors, only basil demonstrated mice retain the change in preference while thyme demonstrated mice do not.

  14. The running coupling of QCD with four flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, Fatih; Wolff, Ulli; Sommer, Rainer

    2010-06-01

    We have calculated the step scaling function and the running coupling of QCD in the Schroedinger functional scheme with four flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. Comparisons of our non-perturbative results with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with non-perturbative data for only two flavors are made. (orig.)

  15. Safety evaluation of substituted thiophenes used as flavoring ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Samuel M.; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Guengerich, F.P.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Smith, Robert L.; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L.; McGowen, Margaret M.; Valerio, Luis G.; Taylor, Sean V.

    2017-01-01

    This publication is the second in a series by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association summarizing the conclusions of its third systematic re-evaluation of the safety of flavorings previously considered to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of

  16. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  18. Effective hadronic supersymmetry based on octonionic color algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, S.

    1993-01-01

    Algebraic realizations of dynamical supersymmetry through SU(m/n) type superalgebras are developed. Their application to a bilocal quark/antiquark and quark-diquark systems will be shown. Color algebra based on octonions allows the introduction of a new supermultiplet that puts hadrons, quarks, antiquarks and exotics together, and naturally suppresses quark configurations that are symmetrical in color space and antisymmetrical in remaining flavor, spin and position variables. The authors shall also present preliminary work on the first order relativistic formulation through the spin realization of Wess-Zumino super-Poincare algebra

  19. The breaking of flavor democracy in the quark sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Harald; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Di

    2017-09-01

    The democracy of quark flavors is a well-motivated flavor symmetry, but it must be properly broken in order to explain the observed quark mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. We reconstruct the texture of flavor democracy breaking and evaluate its strength in a novel way, by assuming a parallelism between the Q=+2/3 and Q=-1/3 quark sectors and using a nontrivial parametrization of the flavor mixing matrix. Some phenomenological implications of such democratic quark mass matrices, including their variations in the hierarchy basis and their evolution from the electroweak scale to a super-high energy scale, are also discussed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375207) and National Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834300)

  20. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Kinney, William H. [University at Buffalo, Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY (United States); Park, Wan-Il [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Burjassot (Spain); Chonbuk National University, Division of Science Education and Institute of Fusion Science, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries (L{sub α}) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones (L{sub i}) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on the mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than the conventional expectation, but they are not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. The cosmological constraint on L{sub i} for a specific case is presented as an illustration. (orig.)

  1. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  2. Randall-Sundrum models vs. supersymmetry. The different flavor signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Stefania

    2010-07-01

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model based on flavor symmetries and models with a warped extra dimension as first proposed by Randall and Sundrum represent two of the best founded theories beyond the Standard Model. They provide two appealing solutions both to the gauge hierarchy problem and to the Standard Model flavor hierarchy problems. In this thesis we focus on a particular Randall-Sundrum model based on the custodial symmetry SU(2) L x SU(2) R x P LR in the bulk and on two Supersymmetric flavor models: the one based on a U(1) abelian flavor symmetry, the other on a SU(3) non abelian flavor symmetry. We first analyze and compare the flavor structure of the two frameworks, showing two possible ways to address the New Physics flavor problem: warped geometry and custodial protection vs. flavor symmetry. Subsequently, we study the impact of the new particles (Kaluza-Klein states in the Randall-Sundrum model and superpartners in Supersymmetry) in the K and B meson mixings and rare decays. We perform a global numerical analysis of the new physics effects in the models in question and we show that it is possible to naturally be in agreement with all the available data on ΔF=2 observables, even fixing the energy scale of the models to the TeV range, in order to have new particles in the reach of the LHC. We then study distinctive patterns of flavor violation which can enable future experiments to distinguish the two frameworks. In particular, the specific correlations between the CP violating asymmetry in the B s 0 - anti B s 0 system, the rare decays B s,d →μ + μ - and K→πνanti ν allow in principle for an experimental test of the Randall-Sundrum model and of the two Supersymmetric flavor models and a clear distinction between the two frameworks, once new data will be available. (orig.)

  3. The flavor of the composite pseudo-goldstone Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Weiler, Andreas; Falkowski, Adam

    2008-01-01

    We study the flavor structure of 5D warped models that provide a dual description of a composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We first carefully re-examine the flavor constraints on the mass scale of new physics in the standard Randall-Sundrum-type scenarios, and find that the KK gluon mass should generically be heavier than about 21 TeV. We then compare the flavor structure of the composite Higgs models to those in the RS model. We find new contributions to flavor violation, which while still are suppressed by the RS-GIM mechanism, will enhance the amplitudes of flavor violations. In particular, there is a kinetic mixing term among the SM fields which (although parametrically not enhanced) will make the flavor bounds even more stringent than in RS. This together with the fact that in the pseudo-Goldstone scenario Yukawa couplings are set by a gauge coupling implies the KK gluon mass to be at least about 33 TeV. For both the RS and the composite Higgs models the flavor bounds could be stronger or weaker depending on the assumption on the value of the gluon boundary kinetic term. These strong bounds seem to imply that the fully anarchic approach to flavor in warped extra dimensions is implausible, and there have to be at least some partial flavor symmetries appearing that eliminate part of the sources for flavor violation. We also present complete expressions for the radiatively generated Higgs potential of various 5D implementations of the composite Higgs model, and comment on the 1-5 percent level tuning needed in the top sector to achieve a phenomenologically acceptable vacuum state.

  4. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B, pineapple (C, jabuticaba (D, mango (E and cashew (F. The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Overall beverages B, A and F were the most accepted, with scores of 7.7, 6.4 and 6.2, respectively. Internal Preference Mapping showed that most of the consumers were located near beverages A, B and F, confirming the acceptance results. The consumers indicated appearance and flavor as the most appreciated characteristics in beverages A, B and F. Beverages A, B and F presented higher total soluble solids contents and viscosities than the other beverages. Consumer segmentation did not depend on the different levels of familiarity with the cajá flavor. Thus the preparation of mixed flavor beverages of cajá-strawberry and cajá-cashew is an excellent proposal because it presents flavors with good potential for marketing in different regions of Brazil.

  5. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  6. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  7. U(3)-flavor nonet scalar as an origin of the flavor mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    According to an idea that the quark and lepton mass spectra originate in a VEV structure of a U(3)-flavor nonet scalar Φ, the mass spectra of the down-quarks and charged leptons are investigated. The U(3) flavor symmetry is spontaneously and completely broken by non-zero and non-degenerated VEVs of Φ, without passing any subgroup of U(3). The ratios (m e +m μ +m τ )/(√(m e )+√(m μ )+√(m τ )) 2 and √(m e m μ m τ )/(√(m e )+√(m μ )+√(m τ )) 3 are investigated based on a toy model

  8. Fast neutrino flavor conversions near the supernova core with realistic flavor-dependent angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Sen, Manibrata [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai, 400005 (India); Mirizzi, Alessandro, E-mail: bdasgupta@theory.tifr.res.in, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: manibrata.sen@gmail.com [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' , Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    It has been recently pointed out that neutrino fluxes from a supernova can show substantial flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Using linear stability analyses and numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear equations of motion, we perform a detailed study of these fast conversions , focussing on the region just above the supernova core. We carefully specify the instabilities for evolution in space or time, and find that neutrinos travelling towards the core make fast conversions more generic, i.e., possible for a wider range of flux ratios and angular asymmetries that produce a crossing between the zenith-angle spectra of ν {sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} . Using fluxes and angular distributions predicted by supernova simulations, we find that fast conversions can occur within tens of nanoseconds, only a few meters away from the putative neutrinospheres. If these fast flavor conversions indeed take place, they would have important implications for the supernova explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis.

  9. Color Functionality Used in Visual Display for Occupational and Environmental Safety and Managing Color Vision Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuhisa; Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The effects of color perception are utilized in visual displays for the purpose of safety in the workplace and in daily life. These effects, generally known as color functionality, are divided into four classifications: visibility, legibility, conspicuity and discriminability. This article focuses on the relationship between the color functionality of color schemes used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety and color vision deficiency (particularly congenital red-green color deficiency), a critical issue in ophthalmology, and examines the effects of color functionality on the perception of the color red in individuals with protan defects. Due to abrupt system reforms, current Japanese clinical ophthalmology finds itself in a situation where it is insufficiently prepared to handle congenital red-green color deficiencies. Indeed, occupational problems caused by color vision deficiencies have been almost completely neglected, and are an occupational safety and health concern that will need to be solved in the future. This report will present the guidelines for the color vision testing established by the British Health and Safety Executive (HSE), a pioneering example of a model meant to solve these problems. Issues relating to the creation of guidelines adapted to Japanese clinical ophthalmology will also be examined, and we will discuss ways to utilize color functionality used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety to help manage color vision deficiency.

  10. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bugarski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  11. Stimulus collative properties and consumers’ flavor preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Duerlund, Mette; Bøegh-Petersen, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    properties. The relationship between overall arousal potential and hedonic response takes the shape of an inverted “U”, reaching an optimum at a certain level of arousal potential. In three independent studies, using different sets of novel beers as stimuli, consumers’ reported their hedonic response......The present work investigated consumers’ hedonic response to flavor stimuli in light of Berlyne’s (1967) collative-motivational model of aesthetic preferences. According to this paradigm, sensory preferences are a function of a stimulus’ arousal potential, which is determined by its collative......, whereas mixed results were obtained for familiarity and complexity. Additionally, in two of the studies the moderating role of relevant consumer characteristics – product knowledge, food neophobia and variety seeking tendency – was investigated. A consumer’s degree of product knowledge was found...

  12. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  13. Recent heavy flavor results from the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigo, Mirco

    2012-01-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron p(bar p) collider have pioneered and established the role of flavor physics in hadron collisions. A broad program is now at its full maturity. We report on three new results sensitive to physics beyond the standard model, obtained using the whole CDF dataset: a measurement of the difference of CP asymmetries in K + K - and π + π - decays of D 0 mesons, new bounds on the B s 0 mixing phase and on the decay width difference of B s 0 mass-eigenstates, and an update of the summer 2011 search for B (s) 0 mesons decaying into pairs of muons. Finally, the D0 confirmation of the observation of a new hadron, the χ b (3P) state, is briefly mentioned.

  14. Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  15. Flavor-changing Z0 decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, A.

    1982-10-01

    Chapter I reviews the phenomenological situation. Simple estimates of various rates are also provided in order to convey the physical intuition necessary to guide one through the equations and numbers that follow. Chapter II presents technical aspects of the general flavor changing Z 0 decay calculation, with emphasis on the integration scheme used. Chapter III describes a number of nontrivial checks on the calculation that were performed. Chapter IV contains the entire general algebraic result for the decay rate. Chapter V describes numerical aspects of the computer evaluation, and discusses the parameter values used and the results for the three generation case. A similar presentation for the four generation case is given in Chapter VI. Chapter VII describes what experimentalists should look for in a semiquantitative way. Some possibilities for rate enhancement, and some related processes are mentioned in Chapter VIII

  16. PHENIX results on open heavy flavor production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    PHENIX measures the open heavy flavor productions in p + p, Cu+Au, and Au+Au collisions at = 200 and 510 GeV using the silicon tracking detectors for mid- and forward rapidities. In Au+Au collisions, the nuclear modification of single electrons from bottom and charm hadron decays are measured for minimum bias and most central collisions. It is found that bottoms are less suppressed than charms in pT=3-5 GeV/c and charms in most central collisions are more suppressed than that in minimum bias collisions. In p + p and Cu+Au collisions, J/ψ from B meson decays are measured at forward and backward rapidities. The nuclear modification of B mesons in Cu+Au collisions is consistent with unity.

  17. The Quark Puzzle: A Novel Approach to Visualizing the Color Symmetries of Quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettrust, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple hands-on and visual-method designed to introduce physics students of many age groups to the topic of quarks and their role in forming composite particles (baryons and mesons). A set of puzzle pieces representing individual quarks that fit together in ways consistent with known restrictions of flavor, color, and charge…

  18. Variable flavor scheme for final state jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrulewicz, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I describe a setup to treat mass effects from secondary radiation of heavy quark pairs in inclusive hard scattering processes with various dynamical scales. The resulting variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) generalizes a well-known scheme for massive initial state quarks which has been developed for deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the classical region 1 - x ⁓ O(1) and which will be also discussed here. The setup incorporated in the formalism of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) consistently takes into account the effects of massive quark loops and allows to deal with all hierarchies between the mass scale and the involved kinematic scales corresponding to collinear and soft radiation. It resums all large logarithms due to flavor number dependent evolution, achieves both decoupling for very large masses and the correct massless behavior for very small masses, and provides a continuous description in between. In the bulk of this work I will concentrate on DIS in the endpoint region x → 1 serving mainly as a showcase for the concepts and on the thrust distribution for e + e - -collisions in the dijet limit as a phenomenologically relevant example for an event shape. The computations of the corrections to the structures in the factorization theorems are described explicitly for the singular terms at O(α s 2 C F T F ) arising from secondary radiation of massive quarks through gluon splitting. Apart from the soft function for thrust, which requires a dedicated calculation, these results are directly obtained from the corresponding results for the radiation of a massive gauge boson with vector coupling at O(α s ) with the help of dispersion relations, and most of the relevant conceptual and technical issues can be dealt with already at this level. Finally, to estimate the impact of the corrections I carry out a numerical analysis for secondary massive bottom and top quarks on thrust distributions at different center-of-mass energies

  19. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  20. Effective Lagrangian description of Higgs mediated flavor violating electromagnetic transitions: Implications on lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, J. I.; Tututi, E. S.; Flores-Tlalpa, A.; Ramirez-Zavaleta, F.; Tlachino, F. J.; Toscano, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Higgs mediated flavor violating electromagnetic interactions, induced at the one-loop level by a nondiagonal Hf i f j vertex, with f i and f j charged leptons or quarks, are studied within the context of a completely general effective Yukawa sector that comprises SU L (2)xU Y (1)-invariant operators of up to dimension-six. Exact formulae for the one-loop γf i f j and γγf i f j couplings are presented and their related processes used to study the phenomena of Higgs mediated lepton flavor violation. The experimental limit on the μ→eγ decay is used to derive a bound on the branching ratio of the μ→eγγ transition, which is 6 orders of magnitude stronger than the current experimental limit. Previous results on the τ→μγ and τ→μγγ decays are reproduced. The possibility of detecting signals of lepton flavor violation at γγ colliders is explored through the γγ→l i l j reaction, putting special emphasis on the τμ final state. Using the bound imposed on the Hτμ vertex by the current experimental data on the muon anomalous magnetic moment, it is found that about half a hundred events may be produced in the International Linear Collider.

  1. Naturally large radiative lepton flavor violating Higgs decay mediated by lepton-flavored dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seungwon; Kang, Zhaofeng

    2016-01-01

    In the standard model (SM), lepton flavor violating (LFV) Higgs decay is absent at renormalizable level and thus it is a good probe to new physics. In this article we study a type of new physics that could lead to large LFV Higgs decay, i.e., a lepton-flavored dark matter (DM) model which is specified by a Majorana DM and scalar lepton mediators. Different from other similar models with similar setup, we introduce both left-handed and right-handed scalar leptons. They allow large LFV Higgs decay and thus may explain the tentative Br(h→τμ)∼1% experimental results from the LHC. In particular, we find that the stringent bound from τ→μγ can be naturally evaded. One reason, among others, is a large chirality violation in the mediator sector. Aspects of relic density and especially radiative direct detection of the leptonic DM are also investigated, stressing the difference from previous lepton-flavored DM models.

  2. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  3. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  4. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  6. Mellin moments of the O(αs3) heavy flavor contributions to unpolarized deep-inelastic scattering at Q2 >> m2 and anomalous dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.

    2009-04-01

    We calculate the O(α s 3 ) heavy flavor contributions to theWilson coefficients of the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) and the massive operator matrix elements (OMEs) for the twist-2 operators of unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering in the region Q 2 >>m 2 . The massive Wilson coefficients are obtained as convolutions of massive OMEs and the known light flavor Wilson coefficients. We also compute the massive OMEs which are needed to evaluate heavy flavor parton distributions in the variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) to 3-loop order. All contributions to the Wilson coefficients and operator matrix elements but the genuine constant terms at O(α s 3 ) of the OMEs are derived in terms of quantities, which are known for general values in the Mellin variable N. For the operator matrix elements A (3) Qg , A (3) gq,Q and A (3) gg,Q the moments N=2 to 10, for A (3),PS Qq to N=12, and for A (3),NS qq,Q , A (3),PS qq,Q , A (3),PS gq,Q to N=14 are computed. These terms contribute to the light flavor +-combinations. For the flavor non-singlet terms, we calculate as well the odd moments N=1 to 13, corresponding to the light flavor --combinations. We also obtain the moments of the 3-loop anomalous dimensions, their color projections for the present processes respectively, in an independent calculation, which agree with the results given in the literature. (orig.)

  7. Cultures of engagement: The organizational foundations of advancing health in immigrant and low-income communities of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemraad, Irene; Terriquez, Veronica

    2016-09-01

    A rich civic infrastructure of community-based organizations (CBOs) can help generate, diffuse and maintain a culture of engagement and health that benefits marginalized populations most at risk for illness, disability, and poor health. Attention to CBOs advances "meso-level" frameworks for understanding health cultures and outcomes by going beyond attention to social networks and social identities. We focus on three mechanisms: CBOs can (1) empower individuals by developing civic capacity and personal efficacy; (2) foster solidarity by building networks, social identities and a shared commitment to collective well-being; and (3) mobilize people to have a voice in health-related policies and programming, thereby affecting community well-being. We draw on theory and research in sociology, political science and psychology, and we illustrate the utility of a CBO approach by examining survey and semi-structured interview data from participants in youth civic groups in 13 low-income, predominantly immigrant communities in California. Interview data illustrate the ways in which CBOs enhance members' civic capacities, provide a sense of empowerment and efficacy to engage in healthy behaviors, develop solidarity among diverse participants, and elaborate networks among those committed to community well-being. We also discuss CBO-led campaigns in which youth mobilized for change in policies and practices of local institutions to illustrate possible community-wide health consequences of CBO engagement. CBOs can thus generate individual-level well-being effects, and reduce structural barriers to good health through changes in the broader environment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  9. The Flavor of the Composite Pseudo-Goldstone Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba; Weiler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We study the flavor structure of 5D warped models that provide a dual description of a composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We first carefully re-examine the flavor constraints on the mass scale of new physics in the standard Randall-Sundrum-type scenarios, and find that the KK gluon mass should generically be heavier than about 21 TeV. We then compare the flavor structure of the composite Higgs models to those in the RS model. We find new contributions to flavor violation, which while still are suppressed by the RS-GIM mechanism, will enhance the amplitudes of flavor violations. In particular, there is a kinetic mixing term among the SM fields which (although parametrically not enhanced) will make the flavor bounds even more stringent than in RS, and imply the KK gluon mass to be at least about 33 TeV. For both the RS and the composite Higgs models the flavor bounds could be stronger or weaker depending on the assumption on the value of the gluon boundary kinetic term. These strong bounds seem to imply that the...

  10. CP violation as a probe of flavor origin in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, D.A.; Masiero, A.; Vives, O.

    1999-11-01

    We address the question of the relation between supersymmetry breaking and the origin of flavor in the context of CP violating phenomena. We prove that, in the absence of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase, a general Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with all possible phases in the soft-breaking terms, but no new flavor structure beyond the usual Yukawa matrices, can never give a sizeable contribution to ε K , ε'/ε or hadronic B 0 CP asymmetries. Observation of supersymmetric contributions to CP asymmetries in B decays would hint at a non-flavor blind mechanism of supersymmetry breaking. (author)

  11. Stringy origin of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ploeger, Felix; Raby, Stuart; Ratz, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We study the origin of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries in superstring theory. We classify all possible non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries which can appear in heterotic orbifold models. These symmetries include D 4 and Δ(54). We find that the symmetries of the couplings are always larger than the symmetries of the compact space. This is because they are a consequence of the geometry of the orbifold combined with the space group selection rules of the string. We also study possible breaking patterns. Our analysis yields a simple geometric understanding of the realization of non-Abelian flavor symmetries

  12. Collider aspects of flavor physics at high Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, T.; Pape, L.; Moortgat, F.; Porod, W.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aguila, F. del; Illana, J.; Allanach, B.C.; Raklev, A.R.; Burdman, G.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Castro, N.; Carvalho, J.; Onofre, A.; Veloso, F.; Klasen, M.; Fuks, B.; Herrmann, B.; Krasnikov, N.; Andreev, Y.; Bityukov, S.; Gninenko, S.; Matveev, V.; Toropin, A.; Krauss, F.; Weiglein, G.; Polesello, G.; Tricomi, A.; Uenel, G.; Alwall, J.; Frederix, R.; Gerard, J.M.; Giammanco, A.; Herquet, M.; Kalinin, S.; Kou, E.; Lemaitre, V.; Maltoni, F.; Sierra, D.A.; Hirsch, M.K.; Valle, J.W.F.; Villanova del Moral, A.; Bartl, A.; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K.; Kernreiter, T.; Beccaria, M.; Ventura, A.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Palla, F.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Clerbaux, B.; Campos, F. de; Gouvea, A. de; Gopalakrishna, S.; Dennis, C.; Uenel, M.K.; Tseng, J.; Djouadi, A.; Ellwanger, U.; Moreau, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Roupas, Z.; Ferreira, P.M.; Santos, R.; Goto, T.; Grzadkowski, B.; Guasch, J.; Hahn, T.; Hollik, W.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Muentel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Hidaka, K.; Hou, G.W.S.; Hurth, T.; Ibarra, A.; Karafasoulis, C.; Kyriakis, A.; Vermisoglou, G.; Kirsanov, M.M.; Kraml, S.; Macorini, G.; Panizzi, L.; Verzegnassi, C.; Magro, M.B.; Majerotto, W.; Mehdiyev, R.; Misiak, M.; Muehlleitner, M.; Oezcan, E.; Penaranda, S.; Pittau, R.; Pukhov, A.; Renard, F.M.; Restrepo, D.; Schumann, S.; Siegert, F.; Servant, G.; Skands, P.; Slavich, P.; Sola, J.; Spira, M.; Sultansoy, S.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter of the ''Flavor in the era of LHC'' workshop report discusses flavor-related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at the LHC at high momentum transfer Q, both from the experimental and the theoretical perspective. We review top quark physics, and discuss the flavor aspects of several extensions of the standard model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs models or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects, as well as the measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present publicly available computational tools related to this topic. (orig.)

  13. Review of recent heavy flavor measurements in STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomnitz Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-ion collisions at RHIC provide a unique environment to study the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. In particular, heavy quarks, which are produced during the early stages of a collision, provide an exceptional probe in understanding the hot and dense medium created in such collisions. The Heavy Flavor Tracker and Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment at RHIC have been successfully installed since early 2014 and have significantly improved the experimental capabilities in measuring both open and hidden heavy flavor hadrons in heavy-ion collisions. We present an overview of recent heavy flavor results obtained at STAR using these two dedicated detectors.

  14. Review of recent heavy flavor measurements in STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Michael R.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at RHIC provide a unique environment to study the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. In particular, heavy quarks, which are produced during the early stages of a collision, provide an exceptional probe in understanding the hot and dense medium created in such collisions. The Heavy Flavor Tracker and Muon Telescope Detector at the STAR experiment at RHIC have been successfully installed since early 2014 and have significantly improved the experimental capabilities in measuring both open and hidden heavy flavor hadrons in heavy-ion collisions. We present an overview of recent heavy flavor results obtained at STAR using these two dedicated detectors.

  15. Applications of flavor symmetry to the phenomenology of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeding, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    Some applications of flavor symmetry are examined. Approximate flavor symmetries and their consequences in the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) are considered, and found to give natural values for the possible B- and L-violating couplings that are empirically acceptable, except for the case of proton decay. The coupling constants of SU(3) are calculated and used to parameterize the decays of the D mesons in broken flavor SU(3). The resulting couplings are used to estimate the long-distance contributions to D-meson mixing

  16. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  17. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  18. Microbial Succession and Flavor Production in the Fermented Dairy Beverage Kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; O'Sullivan, Orla; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides . Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to understand

  19. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zongju; Chen Zongdao; Xu Denyi

    1992-01-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R f =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck

  20. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongju, Li; Zongdao, Chen; Denyi, Xu [Southwest Agricultural Univ., Chongqing, SC (China)

    1992-11-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R[sub f] =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck.

  1. Working group report: Flavor physics and model building

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. ... This is the report of flavor physics and model building working group at ... those in model building have been primarily devoted to neutrino physics. ..... [12] Andrei Gritsan, ICHEP 2004, Beijing, China.

  2. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  3. μe conversion experiments. Testing charged lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, Andries van der

    2004-01-01

    The recent evidence for neutrino mixing shows that lepton flavor is not a conserved quantity. Due to the smallness of the neutrino masses effective flavor changing neutral currents among charged leptons remain negligible in the Standard Model. Whereas b → sγ has a probability of O(10 -4 )μ → eγ is expected with a branching ratio around 10 -50 . Observable rates would be an unambiguous signal for physics beyond the Standard Model and indeed, many extensions of the model are constrained best by the present experimental limits on charged lepton flavor violation. In this talk I will discuss experimental searches for charged lepton flavor violation with emphasis on μe conversion in muonic atoms. (author)

  4. Can oral rehydration solution be safely flavored at home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijssen-Jordan, C

    1997-12-01

    To determine the concentration of sodium, potassium, glucose, and osmolality of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) which have been flavored with varying amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, apple juice, or orange juice. Descriptive. Alberta Children's Hospital Chemistry Laboratory. None. Addition of varying amounts of flavoring easily available in all households to commercially available unsweetened ORS. Concentrations of electrolytes, glucose, and osmolality. Addition of fruit juices or flavor powders to commercially produced ORS does alter the electrolyte content and osmolality. When limited amounts of flavoring or juice is added, the osmolality of the solution approaches iso-osmolality. Small amounts of unsweetened Kool-Aid powder, Jell-O powder, and apple or orange juice can be added to oral rehydration solutions without significantly altering electrolyte composition and osmolality.

  5. 2016 International Conference on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, Edmond Craig

    2017-12-04

    Partial support for participation for students and postdocs who wished to attend to give poster presentations at the 2016 International Conference on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV 2016) in Charlottesville, VA.

  6. Democratic (s)fermions and lepton flavor violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2003-09-01

    The democratic approach to account for fermion masses and mixing is known to be successful not only in the quark sector but also in the lepton sector. Here we extend this ansatz to supersymmetric standard models, in which the Kähler potential obeys the underlying S3 flavor symmetries. The requirement of neutrino bi-large mixing angles constrains the form of the Kähler potential for left-handed lepton multiplets. We find that right-handed sleptons can have nondegenerate masses and flavor mixing, while left-handed sleptons are argued to have universal and hence flavor-blind masses. This mass pattern is testable in future collider experiments when superparticle masses will be measured precisely. Lepton flavor violation arises in this scenario. In particular, μ→eγ is expected to be observed in a planned future experiment if supersymmetry breaking scale is close to the weak scale.

  7. Democratic (s)fermions and lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    The democratic approach to account for fermion masses and mixing is known to be successful not only in the quark sector but also in the lepton sector. Here we extend this ansatz to supersymmetric standard models, in which the Kaehler potential obeys the underlying S 3 flavor symmetries. The requirement of neutrino bi-large mixing angles constrains the form of the Kaehler potential for left-handed lepton multiplets. We find that right-handed sleptons can have nondegenerate masses and flavor mixing, while left-handed sleptons are argued to have universal and hence flavor-blind masses. This mass pattern is testable in future collider experiments when superparticle masses will be measured precisely. Lepton flavor violation arises in this scenario. In particular, μ→eγ is expected to be observed in a planned future experiment if supersymmetry breaking scale is close to the weak scale

  8. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  9. Flavors in the soup: An overview of heavy-flavored jet energy loss at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kurt E.

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb at √sNN = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV, along with the first ever measurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at √s NN =5.02 TeV and in pp collisions at √s = 2.76 TeV. Measurements of b-jet and c-jet spectra are compared to pp data at √s = 2.76 TeV and to PYTHIA predictions at both 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. We observe a centrality-dependent suppression for b-jets in PbPb and a result that is consistent with PYTHIA for both charm and bottom jets in pPb collisions.

  10. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  11. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  12. Heavy-light flavor correlations and the QCD phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Chihiro [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, PL-50204 Wroclaw (Poland); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Redlich, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, PL-50204 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss correlations between the light and heavy-light flavored mesons at finite temperature within a chiral effective theory implementing heavy quark symmetry. We show that the thermodynamics of the charmed mesons is strongly dragged by the chiral crossover dominated by the non-strange flavors. Consequently, the fluctuations carried by the states with strangeness can be used to characterize the onset of the chiral symmetry restoration.

  13. Origins of tiny neutrino mass and large flavor mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Active neutrino masses are extremely smaller than those of other quarks and leptons, and there are large flavor mixings in the lepton sector, contrary to the quark sector. They are great mysteries in the standard model, but also excellent hints of new physics beyond the standard model. Thus, questions 'What is an origin of tiny neutrino mass?' and 'What is an origin of large lepton flavor mixings?' are very important. In this paper, we overview various attempts to solve these big questions. (author)

  14. Influence of flavor oscillations on neutrino beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo SP (Brazil); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre RS (Brazil); Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    We consider the collective neutrino plasma interactions and study the electron plasma instabilities produced by a nearly mono-energetic neutrino beam in a plasma. We describe the mutual interaction between neutrino flavor oscillations and electron plasma waves. We show that the neutrino flavor oscillations are not only perturbed by electron plasmas waves but also contribute to the dispersion relation and the growth rates of neutrino beam instabilities.

  15. Report of the Quark Flavor Physics Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J N; Ritchie, J L; Cirigliano, V; Kettell, S; Briere, R; Petrov, A A; Schwartz, A; Skwarnicki, T; Zupan, J; Christ, N; Sharpe, S R; Van de Water, R S; Altmannshofer, W; Arkani-Hamed, N; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Bernard, C; Bevan, A J; Blanke, M; Bonvicini, G; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Campana, P; Cenci, R; Cline, D; Comfort, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; El-Khadra, A X; Fast, J E; Forty, R; Flood, K T; Gershon, T; Grossman, Y; Hamilton, B; Hill, C T; Hill, R J; Hitlin, D G; Jaffe, D E; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Kagan, A L; Kaplan, D M; Kohl, M; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Lee, K; Littenberg, L S; MacFarlane, D B; Mackenzie, P B; Meadows, B T; Olsen, J; Papucci, M; Parsa, Z; Paz, G; Perez, G; Piilonen, L E; Pitts, K; Purohit, M V; Quinn, B; Ratcliff, B N; Roberts, D A; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Seeman, J; Seth, K K; Schmidt, B; Schopper, A; Sokoloff, M D; Soni, A; Stenson, K; Stone, S; Sundrum, R; Tschirhart, R; Vainshtein, A; Wah, Y W; Wilkinson, G; Wise, M B; Worcester, E; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Quark Flavor Physics Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of quark flavor physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of strange, charm, and bottom quarks. The ability of these studies to reveal the effects of new physics at high mass scales make them an essential ingredient in a well-balanced experimental particle physics program.

  16. 14th Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 edition of the Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation will be held at on the campus of the California Institute of Technology on 6-9 June. The FPCP conference series was founded in 2002 through the merger of the Heavy Flavor (HF) and B Physics and CP Violation (BPCP) conference series. A list of previous FPCP venues can be found here.

  17. Multi baryons with flavors in the Skyrme model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schat, Carlos L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Scoccola, Norberto N. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    We investigate the possible existence of multi baryons with heavy flavor quantum numbers using the bound state approach to the topological soliton model and the recently proposed approximation for multi skyrmion fields based on rational maps. We use an effective interaction Lagrangian which consistently incorporates both chiral symmetry and the heavy quark symmetry including the corrections up to order {omicron}(1/m{sub Q}). The model predicts some narrow heavy flavored multi baryon states with baryon number four and seven. (author)

  18. GUT and flavor models for neutrino masses and mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Davide

    2017-10-01

    In the recent years experiments have established the existence of neutrino oscillations and most of the oscillation parameters have been measured with a good accuracy. However, in spite of many interesting ideas, no real illumination was sparked on the problem of flavor in the lepton sector. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of models for neutrino masses and mixings formulated in the context of flavor symmetries, with particular emphasis on the role played by grand unified gauge groups.

  19. Multi baryons with flavors in the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schat, Carlos L.; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    1999-07-01

    We investigate the possible existence of multi baryons with heavy flavor quantum numbers using the bound state approach to the topological soliton model and the recently proposed approximation for multi skyrmion fields based on rational maps. We use an effective interaction Lagrangian which consistently incorporates both chiral symmetry and the heavy quark symmetry including the corrections up to order ο(1/m Q ). The model predicts some narrow heavy flavored multi baryon states with baryon number four and seven. (author)

  20. Lepton flavor violation in tau decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, G.; Dib, C.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    We study lepton flavor violation (LFV) in tau decays induced by heavy Majorana neutrinos within two models: (I) the standard model with additional right-handed heavy Majorana neutrinos, i.e., a typical seesaw-type model; (II) the standard model with left-handed and right-handed neutral singlets, which are inspired by certain scenarios of SO(10) models and heterotic superstring models with E 6 symmetry. We calculate various LFV branching ratios and a T-odd asymmetry. The seesaw model I predicts very small branching ratios for LFV processes in most of the parameter space, although in a very restricted parameter region it can reach maximal branching ratios Br(τ→μγ)∼10 -9 and Br(τ→3μ)∼10 -10 . In contrast, model II may show branching ratios Br(τ→eγ)∼10 -8 and Br(τ→3e) -9 over a sizable region of the parameter space, large enough to be tested by experiments in the near future

  1. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  2. New Physics at a Super Flavor Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Browder, Thomas E; Pirjol, Dan; Soni, Amarjit; Zupan, Jure

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a Super Flavor Factory (SFF) for searches of New Physics is reviewed. While very high luminosity B physics is assumed to be at the core of the program, its scope for extensive charm and tau studies are also emphasized. The possibility to run at the Upsilon(5S) as well as at the Upsilon(4S) is also very briefly discussed; in principle, this could provide very clean measurements of B_s decays. The strength and reach of a SFF is most notably due to the possibility of examining an impressive array of very clean observables. The angles and the sides of the unitarity triangle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy. These serve as a reference for New Physics (NP) sensitive decays such as B^+ ->tau^+ nu and penguin dominated hadronic decay modes, providing tests of generic NP scenarios with an accuracy of a few percent. Besides, very precise studies of direct and time dependent CP asymmetries in radiative B decays and forward-backward asymmetry studies in B -> X_s l^+ l^- and numerous null tes...

  3. Holographic quark gluon plasma with flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    In this work I explore theoretical and phenomenological implications of chemical potentials and charge densities inside a strongly coupled thermal plasma, using the gauge/gravity correspondence. Strong coupling effects discovered in this model theory are interpreted geometrically and may be taken as qualitative predictions for heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. In particular I examine the thermodynamics, spectral functions, transport coefficients and the phase diagram of the strongly coupled plasma. For example stable mesons, which are the analogs of the QCD Rho-mesons, are found to survive beyond the deconfinement transition. A phase transition resembling 2-flavor QCD is discovered. The momentum diffusion rate of charmonium at strong coupling is significantly reduced compared to the weak coupling result, in reminiscence of the universal viscosity bound. This paper is based on partly unpublished work performed in the context of my PhD thesis. New results and ideas extending significantly beyond those published until now are stressed. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Dark Z implication for flavor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fanrong [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, R.O. (China); Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-06-25

    Dark Z/dark photon (Z{sup ′}) is one candidate of dark force carrier, which helps to interpret the properties of dark matter (DM). Other than conventional studies of DM including direct detection, indirect detection and collider simulation, in this work we take flavor physics as a complementary approach to investigate the features of dark matter. We give an exact calculation of the new type of penguin diagram induced by Z{sup ′} which further modifies the well-known X,Y,Z functions in penguin-box expansion. The measurement of rare decays B→K{sup (∗)}μ{sup +}μ{sup −} and B{sub s}→μ{sup +}μ{sup −} at LHC, together with direct CP violation ε{sup ′}/ε in K→ππ as well as K{sub L}→μ{sup +}μ{sup −}, are used to determine the parameter space. The size of coupling constant, however, is found to be O(1) which is much weaker than the known constraints.

  5. arXiv Lepton flavor universality violation without new sources of quark flavor violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenik, Jernej F.; Zupan, Jure

    2018-02-03

    We show that new physics models without new flavor violating interactions can explain the recent anomalies in the b→sℓ+ℓ- transitions. The b→sℓ+ℓ- arises from a Z′ penguin which automatically predicts the V-A structure for the quark currents in the effective operators. This framework can either be realized in a renormalizable U(1)′ setup or be due to new strongly interacting dynamics. The dimuon resonance searches at the LHC are becoming sensitive to this scenario since the Z′ is relatively light, and could well be discovered in future searches by ATLAS and CMS.

  6. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  7. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  8. Jet suppression and the flavor dependence of partonic energy loss with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosek, Tomas

    2016-12-15

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. One manifestation of the energy loss of jets propagating through the medium is a lower yield of jets and hadrons emerging from this medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Therefore modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. In this publication, the latest ATLAS results on single hadron suppression along with the complementary measurements of single jet suppression are presented. Rapidity dependence, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets, is discussed. Finally, a new measurement of jet fragmentation functions is presented.

  9. Flavor-changing Z decay in the one generation technicolor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Lu, G.; Xiao, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The flavor-changing decay Z→b bar s(bar bs) induced through pseudo Goldstone bosons (PGB's) is calculated in two kinds of one generation technicolor models (OGTM's). (a) For model I, we find that an interesting branching ratio B(Z→b bar s+bar bs)∼10 -6 can be obtained for particular choices of the parameters; such a magnitude of the order of the branching ratio is at the border of being detectable. (b) For model II, the PGB contributions can strongly enhance the branching ratio B(Z→b bar s+bar bs). With the current experimental limit on the branching ratios of rare Z decay, the model-dependent bounds on the mass of the color octet pseudo Goldstone bosons can be derived. As will be seen, the decay Z→b bar s(bar bs) may provide a unique window to study the TC theory

  10. Thermodynamic Lattice Study for Preconformal Dynamics in Strongly Flavored Gauge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kohtaroh

    2013-01-01

    By using the lattice Monte-Carlo simulation, we investigate the finite temperature chiral phase transition in color SU(3) gauge theories with various species of fundamental fermions, and discuss the signals of the (pre-)conformality at large N f (number of flavors) via their comparisons. With increasing N f , we confirm stronger fermion screening which results from a larger fermion multiplicity. We investigate a finite T step-scaling which is attributed to the uniqueness of the critical temperature (T c ) at each N f , then the vanishing step-scaling signals the emergence of the conformality around N* f ∼ 10−12. Further, motivated by the recent functional renormalization group analyses, we examine the N f dependence of T c , whose vanishing behavior indicates that the conformal phase sets in around N* f ∼ 9 − 10.

  11. Simple picture for neutrino flavor transformation in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huaiyu; Fuller, George M.; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2007-10-01

    We can understand many recently discovered features of flavor evolution in dense, self-coupled supernova neutrino and antineutrino systems with a simple, physical scheme consisting of two quasistatic solutions. One solution closely resembles the conventional, adiabatic single-neutrino Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism, in that neutrinos and antineutrinos remain in mass eigenstates as they evolve in flavor space. The other solution is analogous to the regular precession of a gyroscopic pendulum in flavor space, and has been discussed extensively in recent works. Results of recent numerical studies are best explained with combinations of these solutions in the following general scenario: (1) Near the neutrino sphere, the MSW-like many-body solution obtains. (2) Depending on neutrino vacuum mixing parameters, luminosities, energy spectra, and the matter density profile, collective flavor transformation in the nutation mode develops and drives neutrinos away from the MSW-like evolution and toward regular precession. (3) Neutrino and antineutrino flavors roughly evolve according to the regular precession solution until neutrino densities are low. In the late stage of the precession solution, a stepwise swapping develops in the energy spectra of νe and νμ/ντ. We also discuss some subtle points regarding adiabaticity in flavor transformation in dense-neutrino systems.

  12. Two-color quark matter: U(1)A restoration, superfluidity, and quarkyonic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, Tomas; Fukushima, Kenji; Hidaka, Yoshimasa

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with two colors and two flavors of light quarks. This is motivated by the increasing interest in the QCD phase diagram as follows: (1) The QCD critical point search has been under intensive dispute and its location and existence suffer from uncertainty of effective U(1) A symmetry restoration. (2) A new phase called quarkyonic matter is drawing theoretical and experimental attention but it is not clear whether it can coexist with diquark condensation. We point out that two-color QCD is nontrivial enough to contain essential ingredients for (1) and (2) both, and most importantly, is a system without the sign problem in numerical simulations on the lattice. We adopt the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model extended with the two-color Polyakov loop and make quantitative predictions that can be tested by lattice simulations.

  13. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan. The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea, respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas ( P 0.05. Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  14. Mediating effects of group cohesion on physical activity and diet in women of color: health is power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; O'Connor, Daniel P; Smith-Ray, Renae; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Brosnan, Marcella; Cubbin, Catherine; McMillan, Tracy; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects and mediating factors of a physical activity (PA) or vegetable and fruit (VF) group cohesion intervention. Longitudinal design. Harris County and Travis County, Texas. Community-dwelling African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Three hundred ten women were randomized to a PA (n  =  204) or VF (n  =  106) intervention group. Women met in groups six times over the course of 6 months and were exposed to a group cohesion intervention to promote walking or to increase VF consumption. Women completed the International PA Questionnaire, National Cancer Institute VF and fat screeners, PA Group Environment Questionnaire, and 7-day accelerometer protocol at baseline and post-intervention. The direct and mediated effects of the intervention on outcomes were evaluated using a mediational chain model, controlling for baseline values and covariates using path analysis. Women were middle aged (mean  =  44.4 years) and overweight or obese (mean body mass index  =  34.0 kg/m(2)). PA increased and fat consumption decreased for both groups, whereas VF consumption increased for women in VF group only (all p psychological and physical health benefits for African-American and Hispanic or Latina women, but refinement of measures and intervention delivery is needed to determine whether hypothesized mediational pathways are valid.

  15. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1 to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion, meat inclusion (0 or 20%, and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2 to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15, and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15, whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

  16. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  17. Use of glutathione during white wine production – impact on S-off-flavors and sensory production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegmann-Herr Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently two OIV resolutions (OENO 445-2015 and OENO 446-2015 were adopted, defining the use of glutathione (GSH up to a maximum level of 20 mg/L in must and wine. Various studies have shown the benefits of GSH addition, especially in Sauvignon blanc wines. On the other hand, the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and other S-off-flavors favored by GSH addition are reported. To investigate the effect of glutathione on the color development, the sensory expression and the formation of sulfide off-flavors, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay grapes were processed under different conditions and musts were obtained with different phenolic contents. By the addition of GSH as a pure substance or the use of GSH-rich inactivated yeast preparations, the GSH concentration in the musts was varied. Bottled wines showed generally lower GSH levels than the corresponding musts. However, higher GSH concentrations after yeast aging could be determined, which may explain increased protection against oxidation during further storage. The sensory analysis after bottling showed that the fruity character of Riesling and Sauvignon blancs was enhanced at moderate GSH addition. Overuse of GSH in musts with low phenolic content, however, can lead to sensory perceptible S-off-flavors in the later wines.

  18. Color and oxidative stability of nitrite-free cured meat after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidi, F.; Pegg, R.B.; Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of 5 and 10 kGy irradiation on the color and oxidative stability of meats treated with nitrite or a nitrite-free curing system were investigated. The nitrite-free curing system consisted of the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment, sodium ascorbate and sodium tripolyphosphate with or without sodium acid pyrophosphate. Irradiation had no detrimental effects on the color or flavor of either cured samples. Polyphosphates had a beneficial effect on oxidative stability but had a slight detrimental effect on color stability of irradiated samples

  19. Flavors in the Soup: An Overview of Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Kurt E. Jung PhD, Purdue University, May 2016. Flavors in the Soup: An Overviewof Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS. Major Professor: Wei Xie.The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavorof the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function offlavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport propertiesof the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factorsof the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb andpPb collisions can quantify such energy loss e↵ects. Specifically, pPb measurementsprovide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter e↵ect, whichis required to fully understand the hot and dense medium e↵ects on jets in PbPbcollisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb atppsN N = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sN N = 5.02 TeV, along with the first everpmeasurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at sN N = 5.0...

  20. Heavy-flavor parton distributions without heavy-flavor matching prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Valerio; Glazov, Alexandre; Mitov, Alexander; Papanastasiou, Andrew S.; Ubiali, Maria

    2018-04-01

    We show that the well-known obstacle for working with the zero-mass variable flavor number scheme, namely, the omission of O(1) mass power corrections close to the conventional heavy flavor matching point (HFMP) μ b = m, can be easily overcome. For this it is sufficient to take advantage of the freedom in choosing the position of the HFMP. We demonstrate that by choosing a sufficiently large HFMP, which could be as large as 10 times the mass of the heavy quark, one can achieve the following improvements: 1) above the HFMP the size of missing power corrections O(m) is restricted by the value of μ b and, therefore, the error associated with their omission can be made negligible; 2) additional prescriptions for the definition of cross-sections are not required; 3) the resummation accuracy is maintained and 4) contrary to the common lore we find that the discontinuity of α s and pdfs across thresholds leads to improved continuity in predictions for observables. We have considered a large set of proton-proton and electron-proton collider processes, many through NNLO QCD, that demonstrate the broad applicability of our proposal.

  1. Fermion masses and flavor mixings in a model with S4 flavor symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guijun

    2010-01-01

    We present a supersymmetric model of quark and lepton based on S 4 xZ 3 xZ 4 flavor symmetry. The S 4 symmetry is broken down to Klein four and Z 3 subgroups in the neutrino and the charged lepton sectors, respectively. Tri-Bimaximal mixing and the charged lepton mass hierarchies are reproduced simultaneously at leading order. Moreover, a realistic pattern of quark masses and mixing angles is generated with the exception of the mixing angle between the first two generations, which requires a small accidental enhancement. It is remarkable that the mass hierarchies are controlled by the spontaneous breaking of flavor symmetry in our model. The next to leading order contributions are studied, all the fermion masses and mixing angles receive corrections of relative order λ c 2 with respect to the leading order results. The phenomenological consequences of the model are analyzed, the neutrino mass spectrum can be normal hierarchy or inverted hierarchy, and the combined measurement of the 0ν2β decay effective mass m ββ and the lightest neutrino mass can distinguish the normal hierarchy from the inverted hierarchy.

  2. Randall-Sundrum models vs. supersymmetry. The different flavor signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gori, Stefania

    2010-07-15

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model based on flavor symmetries and models with a warped extra dimension as first proposed by Randall and Sundrum represent two of the best founded theories beyond the Standard Model. They provide two appealing solutions both to the gauge hierarchy problem and to the Standard Model flavor hierarchy problems. In this thesis we focus on a particular Randall-Sundrum model based on the custodial symmetry SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x P{sub LR} in the bulk and on two Supersymmetric flavor models: the one based on a U(1) abelian flavor symmetry, the other on a SU(3) non abelian flavor symmetry. We first analyze and compare the flavor structure of the two frameworks, showing two possible ways to address the New Physics flavor problem: warped geometry and custodial protection vs. flavor symmetry. Subsequently, we study the impact of the new particles (Kaluza-Klein states in the Randall-Sundrum model and superpartners in Supersymmetry) in the K and B meson mixings and rare decays. We perform a global numerical analysis of the new physics effects in the models in question and we show that it is possible to naturally be in agreement with all the available data on {delta}F=2 observables, even fixing the energy scale of the models to the TeV range, in order to have new particles in the reach of the LHC. We then study distinctive patterns of flavor violation which can enable future experiments to distinguish the two frameworks. In particular, the specific correlations between the CP violating asymmetry in the B{sub s}{sup 0}- anti B{sub s}{sup 0} system, the rare decays B{sub s,d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and K{yields}{pi}{nu}anti {nu} allow in principle for an experimental test of the Randall-Sundrum model and of the two Supersymmetric flavor models and a clear distinction between the two frameworks, once new data will be available. (orig.)

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Spices and Their Impact on Human Health: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Xia, Xiaoyan; Nemzer, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidants are substances that prevent oxidation of other compounds or neutralize free radicals. Spices and herbs are rich sources of antioxidants. They have been used in food and beverages to enhance flavor, aroma and color. Due to their excellent antioxidant activity, spices and herbs have also been used to treat some diseases. In this review article, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of spices and culinary herbs are presented. The content of flavonoids and total polyphenols in different spices and herbs are summarized. The applications of spices and their impacts on human health are briefly described. The extraction and analytical methods for determination of antioxidant capacity are concisely reviewed. PMID:28914764

  4. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-01-01

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APS sensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay

  5. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  6. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  7. 21 CFR 101.22 - Foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products..., meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant... does not include common salt, sugars, vinegars, spices, or oils extracted from spices, substances added...

  8. Aspects of the Color Flavor Locking phase of QCD in the Nambu-Jona Lasinio approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Nardulli, Giuseppe; Ruggieri, Marco

    2003-01-01

    We study two aspects of the CFL phase of QCD in the NJL approximation. The first one is the issue of the dependence on \\mu of the ultraviolet cutoff in the gap equation, which is solved allowing a running coupling constant. The second one is the dependence of the gap on the strange quark mass; using the high density effective theory we perform an expansion in the parameter (m_s/\\mu)^2 after checking that its numerical validity is very good already at first order.

  9. A model-building approach to the origin of flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Erik

    2017-01-24

    In this thesis we link the recent anomalies reported in B meson and h→μτ decays to the smallness of neutrino masses and aspects of the flavor puzzle, including the hierarchy of the Yukawa couplings and the disparate fermion mixings. By formulating various new models we attempt to shed light on the potential common origin of the distinct measurements in the flavor sector. To this end, discrete symmetries are utilized in this work as the governing principle behind all fermion interactions. The first two models based on the S{sub 3} and the A{sub 4} symmetry, respectively, aim to unify the diverse fermion masses and mixings. Special features separate the frameworks from the flavor models in the literature that often lack testable predictions. While the first model provides interesting flavor-violating signatures in top quark decays, the second one ties the flavor to the grand unification scale in a novel way. In the three following models we focus on the anomalies that hint at lepton flavor and universality violation. We propose that the large flavor violation observed in h→μτ decays is dictated by the scalar mixing of an enlarged S{sub 4}-symmetric Higgs sector. By constructing two leptoquark models we show for the first time that leptoquark couplings shaped by a Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism can accommodate the B meson anomalies and simultaneously generate naturally-small neutrino masses. Emphasizing the importance of testability, we demonstrate how these models can be probed by future diphoton resonances, using the recent 750 GeV excess as an example scenario.

  10. Scalar mass relations and flavor violations in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1996-01-01

    Supersymmetry provides the most promising solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. For supersymmetry to stablize the hierarchy, it must be broken at the weak scale. The combination of weak scale supersymmetry and grand unification leads to a successful prediction of the weak mixing angle to within 1% accuracy. If supersymmetry is a symmetry of nature, the mass spectrum and the flavor mixing pattern of the scalar superpartners of all the quarks and leptons will provide important information about a more fundamental theory at higher energies. We studied the scalar mass relations which follow from the assumption that at high energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle; these will serve as important tests of grand unified theories. Two intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. A third relation is also found which relates the Higgs masses and the masses of all three generation scalars. In a realistic supersymmetric grand unified theory, nontrivial flavor mixings are expected to exist at all gaugino vertices. This could lead to important contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment, the decay mode p → K 0 μ + , weak scale radiative corrections to the up-type quark masses, and lepton flavor violating signals such as μ → eγ. These also provide important probes of physics at high energy scales. Supersymmetric theories involving a spontaneously broken flavor symmetry can provide a solution to the supersymmetric flavor-changing problem and an understanding of the fermion masses and mixings. We studied the possibilities and the general conditions under which some fermion masses and mixings can be obtained radiatively. We also constructed theories of flavor in which the first generation fermion masses arise from radiative corrections while flavor-changing constraints are satisfied. 69 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ...

  13. Mass spectra in N = 1 SQCD with additional colorless but flavored fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyak, Victor L. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Considered is the N = 1 supersymmetric QCD-like Φ-theory with SU(N{sub c}) colors and 0 < N{sub F} < 2N{sub c} flavors of light quarks Q{sup i}{sub a}, Q{sup a}{sub j} with equal small masses. In addition to quarks and gluons of the standard N = 1 SQCD, it includes N{sup 2}{sub F} colorless but flavored fields Φ{sub i}{sup j}, with the large mass parameter μ{sub Φ} >> Λ{sub Q} (Λ{sub Q} is the scale factor of the gauge coupling), interacting with quarks through the Yukawa coupling in the superpotential. The mass spectra of this (direct) Φ-theory are first directly calculated in all vacua with the unbroken or spontaneously broken flavor symmetry U(N{sub F}) → U(n{sub 1}) x U(n{sub 2}) at 0 < N{sub F} < N{sub c}, in which case this theory is logarithmically weakly coupled. Further, the mass spectra of both, this direct Φ-theory and its Seiberg's dual variant with SU(N{sub F}-N{sub c}) dual colors, the dΦ-theory, are calculated at 3N{sub c}/2 < N{sub F} < 2N{sub c} and at various values of μ{sub Φ} (in strong coupling regimes with coupling constants O(1)), now using the dynamical scenario introduced by the author in his previous article (Chernyak in JETP 114:61, arXiv:0811.4283 [hep-th], 2012). This scenario assumes that quarks in this case can be in two different standard phases only: either this is the HQ (heavy quark) phase with left angle Q{sup i}{sub a} right angle = 0 where they are confined, or they are higgsed with some components left angle Q{sup i}{sub a} right angle ≠ 0, at appropriate values of lagrangian parameters. It is shown that mass spectra of the direct Φ- and dual dΦ-theories are parametrically different, so that they are not equivalent. Besides it is shown in the direct Φ-theory that a qualitatively new phenomenon takes place: under appropriate conditions, the seemingly heavy and dynamically irrelevant fields Φ 'turn back' and there appear two additional generations of light Φ-particles with small masses

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  20. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color? Normal Human Retina What color is a strawberry? Most of us would say red, but do ... light and shorter wavelength corresponds to blue light. Strawberries and other objects reflect some wavelengths of light ...