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Sample records for flathead lake northwest

  1. Surface seiches in Flathead Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kirillin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standing surface waves or seiches are inherent hydrodynamic features of enclosed water bodies. Their two-dimensional structure is important for estimating flood risk, coastal erosion and bottom sediment transport and for understanding shoreline habitats and lake ecology in general. In this work, we present analysis of two-dimensional seiche characteristics in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, a large intermountain lake known to have high seiche amplitudes. To examine spatial characteristics of different seiche modes we used the original procedure of determining the seiche frequencies from the primitive equation model output with subsequent derivation of the spatial seiche structure at fixed frequencies akin the tidal harmonic analysis. The proposed procedure revealed specific seiche oscillation features in Flathead Lake including maximum surface level amplitudes of the first fundamental mode in straights around the largest island; several higher modes appearing locally in the vicinity of the river inflow; the "Helmholtz" open harbor mode, with the period approximately twice that of the longest seiche mode, generated by a large shallow bay connected to the main lake basin; and several rotating seiche modes potentially affecting the lake-wide circulation. We discuss the lake management problems related to of the spatial seiche distribution, such as shoreline erosion, floods and transport of sediments and invasive species in Flathead Lake.

  2. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2005-06-01

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and

  3. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-06-01

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and

  4. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2008-12-22

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research

  5. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2009-08-06

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research

  6. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-06-09

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the interconnected Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring

  7. Surface seiches in Flathead Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillin, Georgiy; Lorang, Mark; Gotschalk, Chris; Lippmann, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Flathead Lake— the largest freshwater lake in the western USA—undergoes significant short-term water level oscillations due to standing barotropic waves (seiches). Large surface area and several embayments cause high amplitudes and complicated spatial pattern of the seiches. We used water level records from 12 sites distributed around the lake and the results of numerical circulation modeling to establish the modal composition of seiches, the two-dimensional wave shape, and current patterns. For this, we directly applied harmonic analysis to the output of a full circulation model. Compared to the traditional reduced eigenvalue problem, the proposed approach allows modal separation of real datasets that is potentially advantageous for analysis of the resonant response to periodic wind forcing. Surprisingly, both model results and observations demonstrated predominance of the 'two-node' horizontal mode, whereas the usually most acute 'one-node' mode was attenuated by the large shallow bay connected through a narrow straight to the main lake basin. Energy of several higher modes was concentrated around the mouth of the main inflow suggesting their strong effect on the redistribution of the inflow waters and suspended matter within the lake. The rotary spectral analysis revealed rotational character of two particular modes and localized potential upwelling/downwelling areas, where water-sediment matter transport could be intensified by 'seiche pumping'. The results have a wide range of applications including transport of dissolved and suspended matter, assement of shoreline erosion, and exchange processes at the water-sediment boundary. In addition, knowledge of the spatial seiche pattern facilitates estimation of the hypothetical lake response to earthquakes in this seismically active region.

  8. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation; Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring in Flathead Lake, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenberg, Wade; Carty, Daniel (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Kalispell, MT); Cavigli, Jon (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1996-06-01

    The operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork-of the Flathead River reduced the reproductive success of kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawning in the Flathead River. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) authored a mitigation plan to offset those losses. The mitigation goal, stated in the Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributed to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, is to: {open_quotes}Replace lost annual production of 100,000 kokanee adults, initially through hatchery production and pen rearing in Flathead Lake, partially replacing lost forage for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Flathead Lake.{close_quotes}

  9. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, David; Waite, Ian

    1988-06-01

    The Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study assessed the effects of Kerr Dam operation on the fisheries of the lower Flathead ecosystem. South Bay, the southern most lobe of Flathead Lake, is the most extensive area of shallow water, and therefore, most effected by changes in lake levels. This study began in January of 1984 and was completed in early 1987. Vegetative and structural cover are relatively limited in South Bay, a condition which could contribute to lower recruitment for some fish species. Our data show that the study area contained 0.04% structural and 5.4% vegetative cover in June at full pool. Both figures are less than 1.0% at minimum pool. Structural complexity mediates the ecological interactions between littoral zone fish and their prey, and can affect local productivity and growth in fish. Structural complexity may also be important to overwinter survival of young perch in Flathead Lake. Winter conditions, including ice cover and fall drawdown, seasonally eliminate the vegetative portion of most rooted macrophytes in South Bay. This results in substantial loss of what little structural cover exists, depriving the perch population of habitat which has been occupied all summer. The loss of cover from draw-down concentrates and probably exposes perch to greater predation, including cannibalism, than would occur if structural complexity were greater. 33 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation; Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring in Flathead Lake, 1996 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carty, Daniel [Fish and Wildlife Service, Kalispell, MT (United States); Knoetek, W. Ladd [Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT (United States)] Hansen, Barry [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were introduced into Flathead Lake in 1916. The kokanee population declined in the 1960s and 1970s, and kokanee disappeared from Flathead Lake in the late 1980s. Their disappearance has been attributed to the long-term effects of the construction and operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr dams, excessive harvest by anglers, and changes in the lake food web induced by the introduction of opossum shrimp Mysis relicta. Attempts to reestablish kokanee in the Flathead Lake ecosystem between 1988 and 1991 were unsuccessful. In 1991, Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) wrote a mitigation plan to restore kokanee to Flathead Lake. In 1993, MFWP, CSKT, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wrote a mitigation implementation plan that initiated a 5-year test program to use hatchery-reared fish to reintroduce kokanee to the lake. Stocking hatchery-reared kokanee into Flathead Lake began in 1993; the 5-year {open_quotes}kokanee test{close_quotes} started in 1994 and is scheduled to continue through 1998. The annual stocking objective is 1 million yearling kokanee (6-8 in long). Criteria used to evaluate the success of the 5-year test are (1) 30% survival of kokanee 1 year after stocking, (2) yearling-to-adult survival of 10%, and (3) annual harvest of 50,000 kokanee ({ge} 11 in) and fishing effort {ge} 100,000 angler hours.

  11. Impacts of Water Level Fluctuations on Kokanee Reproduction in Flathead Lake; Effects of Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on Reproductive Success, 1983 Annual Report.

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    Decker-Hess, Janet; McMullin, Steve L.

    1983-11-01

    Domrose (1968) found live eggs and fry only in shoreline spawning areas wetted by groundwater seeps. Impacts of the operation of Kerr Dam on lakeshore spawning have not been quantified. Recent studies have revealed that operation of Hungry Horse Dam severely impacted successful kokanee spawning and incubation in the Flathead River above Flathead Lake (Graham et al. 1980, McMullin and Graham 1981, Fraley and Graham 1982 and Fraley and McMullin 1983). Flows from Hungry Horse Dam to enhance kokanee reproduction in the river system have been voluntarily met by the Bureau of Reclamation since 1981. In lakeshore spawning areas in other Pacific Northwest systems, spawning habitat for kokanee and sockeye salmon was characterized by seepage or groundwater flow where suitable substrate composition existed (Foerster 1968). Spawning primarily occurred in shallower depths (<6 m) where gravels were cleaned by wave action (Hassemer and Rieman 1979 and 1980, Stober et al. 1979a). Seasonal drawdown of reservoirs can adversely affect survival of incubating kokanee eggs and fry spawned in shallow shoreline areas. Jeppon (1955 and 1960) and Whitt (1957) estimated 10-75 percent kokanee egg loss in shoreline areas of Pend Oreille Lake, Idaho after regulation of the upper three meters occurred in 1952. After 20 years of operation, Bowler (1979) found Pend Oreille shoreline spawning to occur in fewer areas with generally lower numbers of adults. In studies on Priest Lake, Idaho, Bjornn (1957) attributed frozen eggs and stranded fry to winter fluctuations of the upper three meters of the lake. Eggs and fry frozen during winter drawdown accounted for a 90 percent loss to shoreline spawning kokanee in Donner Lake, California (Kimsey 1951). Stober et al. (1979a) determined irrigation drawdown of Banks Lake, Washington reduced shoreline survival during five of the seven years the system was studied. The goal of this phase of the study was to evaluate and document effects of the operation of Kerr Dam

  12. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  13. Evaluation of the flathead catfish population and fishery on Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, with emphasis on the effects of noodling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Dana L.; Michaletz, Paul H.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2011-01-01

    I conducted a 3-year study at Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma to estimate effects of various fishing gears on the flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris population. Managers were particularly interested in the effect of handfishing or noodling on this population. I used a phone survey to assess angler effort and electrofishing and gill nets to calculate standard population metrics to assess composition of the current population. Survey data indicated that fishing effort and harvest were highest for trotlines and juglines and lowest for noodling. Size distribution of fish harvested by noodlers was not different from sizes that were available in the fishery and was similar to those fish harvested with other gears. Flathead catfish Sampled in Lake Carl Blackwell ranged in size from 38 to 1,220 mm total length, and 77% of the population was less than 508 mm (minimum legal size). Estimated total annual mortality was about 11%. Proportional size distribution (PSD) of flathead catfish for Lake Carl Blackwell indicates that about 70% of legal-sized flathead catfish were over the preferred size of 710 mm. Overall, the Lake Carl Blackwell flathead catfish population appeared healthy. There were a wide range of sizes and ages in the population, and PSD indicated a well-balanced population with many preferred and memorable-sized fish. Due to its rarity, noodling is probably not adversely influencing the population. Additionally, noodling at Lake Carl Blackwell does not appear to be as size-selective as previously thought. 

  14. Impacts of Water Level Fluctuations on Kokanee Reproduction in Flathead Lake, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Fraley, John J.; Decker-Hess, Janet (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

    1986-06-01

    This study has investigated the effects of the operation of Kerr Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee that spawn along the shores of Flathead Lake. We have estimated the spawning escapement to the lakeshore, characterized spawning habitat, monitored egg and alevin survival in redds, and related survival to length of redd exposure due to lake drawdown. Groundwater discharge apparently attracts kokanee to spawning sites along the lakeshore and is responsible for prolonging egg survival in redds above minimum pool. We have quantified and described the effect of lake drawdown on groundwater flux in spawning areas. This report defines optimal lakeshore spawning habitat and discusses eqg and alevin survival both in and below the varial zone.

  15. Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring, Flathead Lake, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleray, Mark (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT); Fredenberg, Wade (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Bozeman, MT); Hansen, Barry (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    1995-07-01

    One mitigation goal of the Hungry Horse Dam fisheries mitigation program, funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, is to replace lost production of 100,000 adult kokanee in Flathead Lake. The mitigation program calls for a five-year test to determine if kokanee can be reestablished in Flathead Lake. The test consists. of annual stocking of one million hatchery-raised yearling kokanee. There are three benchmarks for judging the success of the kokanee reintroduction effort: (1) Post-stocking survival of 30 percent of planted kokanee one year after stocking; (2) Yearling to adult survival of 10 percent (100,000 adult salmon); (3) Annual kokanee harvest of 50,000 or more fish per year by 1998, with an average length of 11 inches or longer for harvested fish, and fishing pressure of 100,000 angler hours or more. Kokanee were the primary sport fish species in the Flathead Lake fishery in the early 1900s, and up until the late 1980s when the population rapidly declined in numbers and then disappeared. Factors identified which influenced the decline of kokanee are the introduction of opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta), hydroelectric operations, overharvest through angling, and competition and/or predation by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonur clupeaformis). The purpose of this report was to summarize the stocking program and present monitoring results from the 1993 and 1994 field seasons. In June 1993, roughly 210,000 yearling kokanee were stocked into two bays on the east shore of Flathead Lake. Following stocking, we observed a high incidence of stocked kokanee in stomach samples from lake trout captured in areas adjacent to the stocking sites and a high percentage of captured lake trout containing kokanee. Subsequent monitoring concluded that excessive lake trout predation precluded significant survival of kokanee stocked in 1993. In June 1994, over 802,000 kokanee were stocked into Big Arm Bay. The combination of near optimum water

  16. Flathead Lake Angler Survey; Monitoring Activities for the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Plan, 1992-1993 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evarts, Les; Hansen, Barry; DosSantos, Joe (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    1994-02-01

    A roving creel survey was conducted on Flathead Lake in northwestern Montana from May 17, 1992 to May 19, 1993. The primary objective of the survey was to quantify the baseline fishery and exploitation rates existing prior to Hungry Horse Dam mitigation efforts. Anglers were counted on 308 occasions, comprising 5,618 fishing boats, 515 shore anglers, and 2,191 ice anglers. The party interviews represented 4,410 anglers, made up of 2,613 boat anglers, 787 shore anglers, and 1,010 ice anglers. A total of 47,883 angler days (190,108 angler hours) of pressure and a harvest of 42,979 fish (including lake trout, lake whitefish, yellow perch, bull trout, and westslope cutthroat trout) were estimated. Pressure was distributed between shore, boat, and ice anglers as 4%, 87%, and 9%, respectively. Seventynine percent of the total effort was directed at lake trout during the study period. Limited comparisons were made to previous creel surveys on Flathead Lake due to differences in methods and radical changes in the fishery. Potential sources of bias are explained in detail. Future creel surveys must employ methods consistent with this survey to obtain estimates that are statistically distinguishable.

  17. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, Executive Summary, Volume I, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, David; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    1988-06-01

    This Executive Summary, Volume I, of the lower Flathead System Fisheries Study Final Report, was prepared to provide a study overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists. The contents provide an introduction to the study and its objectives, a short description of the study area, a discussion of the major findings and conclusions of the study, and the description of fisheries management alternatives available to managers of the lower Flathead system. Technical reports were prepared for those portions of the study dealing with the lower Flathead River and its tributaries, Volume II, and the South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III. The annual hydrographic regime of the Flathead system, consisting of upper rivers, lake and lower river, has been modified by the construction and operation of two major hydroelectric facilities, Hungry Horse Dam on the south fork Flathead River and Kerr Dam at the outlet of Flathead Lake. The modified hydrographic regime has resulted in significant impacts to kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and several species of trout. Kerr Dam, closed in 1938, controls Flathead Lake levels between 878.7 m (2883 ft) and 881.8 m (2893 ft) and discharges into the lower Flathead River. Kerr Dam is a 63.4 m (208 ft) high concrete arch structure located 7.2 km (4.5 miles) downstream from the outlet of Flathead Lake. The facility is used by Montana Power Company primarily for system frequency load control with some use for low level base load. 77 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Determination of Fishery Losses in the Flathead System Resulting from the Construction of Hungry Horse Dam, 1986 Final Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubik, Raymond J.; Fraley, John

    1987-01-01

    This study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's residential fish and wildlife plan, which is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River basin. The major goal of this study was to provide estimates of fishery losses to the Flathead system as a result of the completion of Hungry Horse Dam and to propose mitigation alternatives for enhancing the fishery. Construction of Hungry Horse Dam had the greatest adverse impacts on cutthroat and full trout from Flathead Lake and mitigative measures should be taken to offset these losses, if biologically and economically feasible. Also, other losses to fish and wildlife have been documented in the Flathead basin due to hydroelectric facilities and their operation. Some of these research projects will not be completed until 1989, when mitigation will be recommended using a basin-wide approach. Since HHR is at the headwaters of the Columbia system, mitigative measures may also affect downstream projects. Therefore, we presented an array of possible mitigation alternatives for consideration by decision-makers, with suggestions on the ones we feel are the most cost effective. Possible mitigation measures are included.

  19. Environmental changes reflected by the lake sediments of the South Hongshan Lake, Northwest Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Liping; (朱立平); CHEN; Ling; (陈; 玲); LI; Bingyuan; (李炳元); LI; Yuanfang; (李元芳); XIA; Weilan; (夏威岚); LI; Jianguo; (李建国)

    2002-01-01

    The 1.07-m long lake core with 1 cm interval cutting, which was obtained by drilling in the South Hongshan Lake of Northwest Tibet, was dated by the 210Pb and 137Cs methods, and a 150-year consecutive lake sedimentary sequence (1840─1997) with 1.4 year resolution was obtained. Some environmental proxies, such as the total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), ratio of TOC to TN (TOC/TN), trace chemistry elements (TCE), CaCO3, grain size, richness of ostracoda etc. showed that they are of well coincidence. These results implied that the environmental background varied from the cold-wet period in the late 19th century, to the warm-wet period from the end of the 19th century to the 1920s and to the warm-dry period since the 1920s. There were sub-variations since the 1920s: the cold-dry/warm-wet fluctuation from 1922 to 1960, the intensively warm-dry period since 1960 with a short cold-wet period in the mid-1970s to the end of the 1980s. The humid period from the mid-1970s to the end of the 1970s and the dry period beginning from the early 1980s were well documented by climatic data of the nearby weather station records while the grain size was well correlated to the annual precipitation. Compared with the records from Guliya ice core in the same area, the TOC proxy in the lake core indicating warm/cold conditions well corresponded to the ( 18O records representing temperature variations in the ice core. However, the proxies with dry/wet significance in the lake core were different from the variations of snow accumulation reflected by the ice core. It can be concluded that the chosen environmental proxies have clear environmental significance and the lake sediments can reflect climatic and environmental changes at high-resolution.

  20. 78 FR 23741 - Flathead Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Flathead National Forest, Attn: Wade Muehlhof/RAC, 650 Wolfpack Way, Kalispell, MT, 59901. Comments may... INFORMATION CONTACT: Wade Muehlhof, Flathead National Forest, 406-758-5252. Individuals who use... to Flathead National Forest, Attn: Wade Muehlhof/RAC, 650 Wolfpack Way, Kalispell, MT 59901, or by...

  1. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2004-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  2. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NPPC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  3. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-06-26

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  4. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  5. Effects of introduced fishes on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow pacific northwest lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.D.; Divens, M.; Meyer, W.

    2005-01-01

    Declines in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been blamed on hydropower, overfishing, ocean conditions, and land use practices; however, less is known about the impacts of introduced fish. Most of the hundreds of lakes and ponds in the Pacific Northwest contain introduced fishes, and many of these water bodies are also important for salmon production, especially of coho salmon O. kisutch. Over 2 years, we examined the predation impacts of 10 common introduced fishes (brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, black crappie Pomoxis nigro-maculatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, green sunfish L. cyanellus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, rainbow trout O. mykiss, warmouth L. gulosus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens) and two native fishes (cutthroat trout O. clarkii and prickly sculpin Cottus asper) on wild juvenile coho salmon in three shallow Pacific Northwest lakes, all located in different watersheds. Of these species, largemouth bass were responsible for an average of 98% of the predation on coho salmon in all lakes, but the total impact to each run varied among lakes and years. Very few coho salmon were eaten by black crappies, brown bullheads, cutthroat trout, prickly sculpin, or yellow perch, whereas other species were not observed to eat coho salmon. Juvenile coho salmon growth in all lakes was higher than in nearby streams. Therefore, food competition between coho salmon and introduced fishes in lakes was probably not limiting coho salmon populations. Largemouth bass are widespread and are present in 85% of lowland warmwater public-access lakes in Washington (n = 421), 84% of those in Oregon (n = 179), and 74% of those in the eight northwesternmost counties in California (n = 19). Future research would help to identify the impact of largemouth bass predation across the region and prioritize lakes where impacts are most severe. Nevertheless, attempts to transplant or increase largemouth bass

  6. 78 FR 45496 - Flathead Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., contact: Wade Muehlhof, Public Affairs Specialist, Flathead National Forest, 406-758-5252, ewmuehlhof@fs... facilitate entry into the building in order to view comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Wade Muehlhof... to Wade Muehlhof, Public Affairs Specialist, Flathead National Forest, 650 Wolfpack Way, Kalispell...

  7. Aeolian particle transport inferred using a ~150-year sediment record from Sayram Lake, arid northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied sediment cores from Sayram Lake in the Tianshan Mountains of northwest China to evaluate variations in aeolian transport processes over the past ~150 years. Using an end-member modeling algorithm of particle size data, we interpreted end members with a strong bimodal distribution as having been transported by aeolian processes, whereas other end members were interpreted to have been transported by fluvial processes. The aeolian fraction accounted for an average of 27% of the terrigenous components in the core. We used the ratio of aeolian to fluvial content in the Sayram Lake sediments as an index of past intensity of aeolian transport in the Tianshan Mountains. During the interval 1910-1930, the index was high, reflecting the fact that dry climate provided optimal conditions for aeolian dust transport. From 1930-1980, the intensity of aeolian transport was weak. From the 1980s to the 2000s, aeolian transport to Sayram Lake increased. Although climate in northwest China became more humid in the mid-1980s, human activity had by that time altered the impact of climate on the landscape, leading to enhanced surface erosion, which provided more transportable material for dust storms. Comparison of the Lake Sayram sediment record with sediment records from other lakes in the region indicates synchronous intervals of enhanced aeolian transport from 1910 to 1930 and 1980 to 2000.

  8. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, James E.; Pajak, Paul; Wunderlich, Mary P.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of Kerr Dam operations on the fisheries of the Lower Flathead System. Supported by Bonneville Power Administration funding, and conducted by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, the study began in December of 1982 and is scheduled for completion in December of 1987. This report covers the 1983-84 field season and includes the status of target fish species populations in the Flathead River and tributaries, and initial work in South Bay of Flathead Lake. Additionally it addresses how Kerr operations may effect the reproduction of salmonids and northern pike. Combined trout population estimates for rainbow, brown, brook, and bull trout, averaged 13 fish/km of the lower Flathead River. The number of bull trout and cutthroat trout captured was so low that estimation of their individual populations was not possible. An interim closure to trout harvest on the lower Flathead River was recommended and approved by the Tribal Council until study results can be further analyzed and management options reviewed. Population estimates for northern pike ranged from six/kilometer in poorer habitat, to one hundred three/km in the best habitat in the main Flathead River. Seven pike were radio tagged and their movements monitored. Movements of over 89 km were recorded. One fish left the Flathead River and moved down the Clark Fork to the Plains area. Fish weirs were constructed on the Jocko River and Mission Creek to assess spawning runs of trout from the main river. Thirty-two adult rainbow passed the Jocko weir and twenty-eight passed the Mission weir during the spring spawning season. Twenty adult brown trout were captured at the Jocko weir and five at Mission weir in the fall. The Jocko weir suffered minor damage due to bed load movement during high flows of spring runoff. The structure of trout populations in the lower Flathead River points to spawning and recruitment problems caused by hydroelectric operations and

  9. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Pacific Northwest Region 17 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  10. Coastal Lake Record of Holocene Paleo-Storms from Northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Coor, J. L.; Wang, Y.; Das, O.; Kish, S.; Elsner, J.; Hu, X. B.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Ye, M.

    2009-12-01

    The northwest Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico has an unusually active storm history. Climate records for a study area in the mid-region of the Florida panhandle coast show that 29 hurricanes have made landfall within a 100-km radius during historic time. These events included 9 major storms (category 3 or higher). A longer-term geologic record of major storm impacts is essential for better understanding storm climatology and refining morphodynamic models. The Florida panhandle region contains a series of unique coastal lakes which are long-lived and whose bottom sediments hold a long-term record of coastal storm occurrence. The lakes are normally isolated from the open Gulf, protected behind a near-continuous dune barrier. Lake water is normally fresh to brackish. Lake bottom sediments consist of organic-rich muds. During major storms the dunes are breached and the lakes are temporarily open to marine water and the possibility of sandy overwash. Both a sedimentologic and geochemical signature is imparted to the lake sediments by storm events. Bottom sediment cores have been collected from the lakes. The cores have been subsampled and subjected to sedimentologic, stable isotopic and geochronologic analyses. The result is a sediment history of the lakes, and a record of storm occurrence during the past few millennia. The outcome is a better understanding of the long-term risk of major storms. The findings are being incorporated into a larger model designed to make reliable predictions of the effects of near-future climate change on natural coastal systems and on coastal infrastructure, and to enable cost-effective mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  11. Periodic Glacial Lake Outburst Floods threatening the oldest Buddhist monastery in north-west Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kropáček

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2004 Halji Village, home of the oldest Buddhist Monastery in north-west Nepal has suffered from recurrent Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs. Studies of recent satellite images identified a supra-glacial lake, located at a distance of 6.5 km from the village, as a possible source of the flood. During a field survey in 2013, the finding was confirmed and several entrances to en-glacial conduits which are draining the lake were found. The topography of the lake basin was then mapped by combining Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS measurements with a Structure From Motion (SFM approach from terrestrial photographs. From this model the maximum filling capacity of the lake has been estimated as 1.06 × 106 m3 with a maximum discharge of 77.8 m3 s−1 calculated using an empirical relation. The flooded area in the valley has been estimated by employing a raster-based hydraulic model considering six scenarios of discharge volume and surface roughness. To understand the changes in glacier geometry in the last decade the thinning and retreat of Halji Glacier have been analysed by geodetic mass balance measurements and a time series of satellite images respectively. The GLOF occurrences have further been correlated with cumulative temperature and cumulative liquid precipitation calculated from the High Asia Reanalysis (HAR dataset. Finally, effective mitigation measures and adaption strategies for Halji village have been discussed.

  12. Geochemical Responses to Anthropogenic and Natural Influences in Ebinur Lake Sediments of Arid Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Wu, Jinglu; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Liu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Geochemical concentrations were extracted for a short sediment core from Ebinur Lake, located in arid northwest China, and mathematical methods were used to demonstrate the complex pattern of the geochemical anomalies resulting from the temporal changes in natural and anthropogenic forces on the lake sediments. The first element assemblage (C1) (aluminum, potassium, iron, magnesium, beryllium, etc.) was predominantly terrigenous; among the assemblage, total phosphorus and titanium were generally consistent with aluminum except with regards to their surface sequences, which inferred the differences of source regions for terrigenous detrital material led to this change around ca. 2000AD. The second assemblage (C2) (calcium and strontium) was found to have a negative relationship with aluminum through a cluster analysis. The third assemblage (C3) included sodium and magnesium, which were influenced by the underwater lake environment and deposited in the Ebinur depression. The concentration ratio of C1/(C1+C2) was used as an indicator for denudation amount of detrital materials, which was supported by the values of magnetic susceptibility. The enrichment factors for heavy metals suggested that the influence of human activities on heavy-metal enrichment in Ebinur Lake region was not severe over the past century. Prior to the 1960s, geochemical indicators suggested a stable lacustrine environment with higher water levels. Beginning in the 1960s, high agricultural water demand resulted in rapid declines in lake water level, with subsequent increases of lake water salinity, as evidenced by enhanced sodium concentration in lake core sediments. During this period, anthropogenic activity also enhanced the intensity of weathering and the denudation of the Ebinur watershed.

  13. Drought variability in the Pacific Northwest from a 6,000-yr lake sediment record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel B; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron; Polissar, Pratigya J; Stansell, Nathan D; Ortiz, Joseph D; Rosenmeier, Michael F; Finney, Bruce P; Riedel, Jon

    2011-03-01

    We present a 6,000-yr record of changing water balance in the Pacific Northwest inferred from measurements of carbonate δ(18)O and grayscale on a sediment core collected from Castor Lake, Washington. This subdecadally resolved drought record tracks the 1,500-yr tree-ring-based Palmer Drought Severity Index reconstructions of Cook et al. [Cook ER, Woodhouse CA, Eakin CM, Meko DM, Stahle DW (2004) Science 306:1015-1018] in the Pacific Northwest and extends our knowledge back to 6,000 yr B.P. The results demonstrate that low-frequency drought/pluvial cycles, with occasional long-duration, multidecadal events, are a persistent feature of regional climate. Furthermore, the average duration of multidecadal wet/dry cycles has increased since the middle Holocene, which has acted to increase the amplitude and impact of these events. This is especially apparent during the last 1,000 yr. We suggest these transitions were driven by changes in the tropical and extratropical Pacific and are related to apparent intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation over this interval and its related effects on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The Castor Lake record also corroborates the notion that the 20th century, prior to recent aridity, was a relatively wet period compared to the last 6,000 yr. Our findings suggest that the hydroclimate response in the Pacific Northwest to future warming will be intimately tied to the impact of warming on the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  14. Distinguishing between anthropogenic and climatic impacts on lake size: a modeling approach using data from Ebinur Lake in arid northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of anthropogenic and climatic impacts on lake size variation is important for maintaining ecosystem integrity and sustaining societal development. We assumed that climate and human activity are the only drivers of lake-size variation and are independent of each other. We then evaluated anthropogenic and climatic effects on hydrological processes, using a multivariate linear model. Macro-economic data were used to describe the anthropogenic impact on lake surface area in our approach. Ebinur Lake is a shallow, closed, saline lake in arid northwest China; it has shrunk at a rapid rate over the past half century. Using our new method, we explored temporal trends of anthropogenic and climatic impacts on the lake over the past 50 years. Assessment indices indicate that the model represents observed data quite well. Compared with the reference period of 1955-1960, impacts of climate change across the catchment were generally positive with respect to lake area, except for the period from 1961 to 1970. Human activity was responsible for a reduction in lake surface area of 286.8 km2 over the last 50 years. Our approach, which uses economic variables to describe the anthropogenic impact on lake surface area, enables us to explain the lake responses to climate change and human activities quantitatively.

  15. Generating quantitative palaeoflood data from homogeneous lake sediments: a case-study from Brotherswater, northwest England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillereff, Daniel; Chiverrell, Richard; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet

    2016-04-01

    The scarcity of long-term hydrological data is a barrier to reliably determining the likelihood of floods becoming more frequent and/or intense in a warmer world. Lakes and their sediments are increasingly being used to reconstruct long-term, highly-resolved datasets of past floods but the ultimate goal, generating quantitative palaeohydrological data to augment flood frequency analyses, is a persistent challenge. To this end, ascertaining the autogenic and allogenic processes influencing the character and preservation potential of palaeoflood laminations and determining the minimum discharge at which a sedimentary imprint will be deposited in a particular system are two key precursors. Some success has been achieved at lakes containing annually-laminated sequences or where event layers exhibit well-defined lithological contacts. Many non-alpine and non-polar lakes, especially those in temperate regions, are instead characterised by visually-homogeneous, organic-rich sediments from which discrete flood laminations are difficult to discriminate. Working at Brotherswater, a small upland lake in northwest England, we have successfully demonstrated an approach to obtain flood frequency and magnitude data from this type of lake system by integrating a 16 month sediment trap deployment (CE 2013-2014) with the recent (CE 1962 - 2014) depositional record. The geochemical composition and end-member modelling of the trap data shed light on the seasonal variation in background sedimentation dynamics, specifically enhanced sediment supply during winter, spring diatom blooms and heightened summer productivity, which alter the signature of coarse-grained deposition in response to higher flows. Having pinpointed the characteristic flood end-member, comparison of the short-core palaeoflood reconstruction to local river discharge data was able to reveal the hydrological thresholds of this system: flood magnitudes calculated to have a four year recurrence interval are preserved in

  16. Geochemical characterization of acid mine lakes in northwest Turkey and their effect on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

    2013-04-01

    Mining activity generates a large quantity of mine waste. The potential hazard of mine waste depends on the host mineral. The tendency of mine waste to produce acid mine drainage (AMD) containing potentially toxic metals depends on the amounts of sulfide, carbonate minerals, and trace-element concentrations found in ore deposits. The acid mine process is one of the most significant environmental challenges and a major source of water pollution worldwide. AMD and its effects were studied in northwest Turkey where there are several sedimentary and hydrothermal mineral deposits that have been economically extracted. The study area is located in Can county of Canakkale province. Canakkale contains marine, lagoon, and lake sediments precipitated with volcanoclastics that occurred as a result of volcanism, which was active during various periods from the Upper Eocene to Plio-Quaternary. Can county is rich in coal with a total lignite reserve >100 million tons and contains numerous mines that were operated by private companies and later abandoned without any remediation. As a result, human intervention in the natural structure and topography has resulted in large open pits and deterioration in these areas. Abandoned open pit mines typically fill with water from runoff and groundwater discharge, producing artificial lakes. Acid drainage waters from these mines have resulted in the degradation of surface-water quality around Can County. The average pH and electrical conductivity of acid mine lakes (AMLs) in this study were found to be 3.03 and 3831.33 μS cm(-1), respectively. Total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) levels were also found to be high (329.77 and 360.67 mg L(-1), respectively). The results show that the concentration of most elements, such as Fe and Al in particular, exceed national and international water-quality standards.

  17. Recent fault movement in Lake McDonald, Montana: Evidence from acoustic sub-bottom profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, J. A.; Cronin, V. S.; Allen, P. M.; White, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Lake McDonald is the largest of the 12 large lakes in Glacier National Park, Montana, formed in previously glaciated valleys and dammed by outwash and moraine deposits at their outlets. Lake McDonald is 15 km long, 1.6 km wide and trends northeast. The location of the lake was on the eastern edge of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet during the late Wisconsin Glaciation. Published maps indicate the lake basin is crossed by the northwest-striking Flathead and Nyack normal faults and two unnamed faults (Whipple, 1992, USGS Map I-1508-F). Recent seismicity in northwest Montana consists mostly of magnitude 3 to 4 earthquakes, one of which occurred between the Flathead and Nyack faults, northwest of the lake. Using 1 kHz Uniboom profiling of Lake McDonald, Mullins and others (1991, Arctic Alpine Res 23(3), 311-319) found 150 m of simply-stratified, undisturbed sediment fill within a V-shaped bedrock basin with steeply sloping sides. No evidence was found to suggest that the faults within the lake have been recently active. In this study, we collected 55 km of 24 kHz sub-bottom profiling data to more closely examine the upper 10 m of the sediment fill for evidence of recent fault motion. The upper 10 m of the fill consists of sub-meter thick, alternating layers of highly reflective and nearly acoustically transparent deposits, along with numerous chaotic mass-wasting deposits emanating from the adjacent sides of the basin. One of these mass-wasting deposits is 1.3 km wide, 5 m thick, and lies unburied on the modern lake floor. The trace of Flathead Fault, where it crosses the northeastern end of the lake, is marked by a precipitous, 125 m high, down-to-the-southwest escarpment. The base of the escarpment consists of a series of basinward-stepping terraces, the southwestern-most of which is onlapped by recent sediment. The onlapping sediments show no clear evidence of faulting next to the escarpment, but motion between the various terraces cannot be ruled out. The trace of Nyack

  18. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochemistry of an underfilled lake basin in the Puna (north-west Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Kowler, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Depositional models of ancient lakes in thin-skinned retroarc foreland basins rarely benefit from appropriate Quaternary analogues. To address this, we present new stratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical analyses of four radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Pozuelos Basin (PB; northwest Argentina) that capture the evolution of this low-accommodation Puna basin over the past ca. 43 cal kyr. Strata from the PB are interpreted as accumulations of a highly variable, underfilled lake system represented by lake-plain/littoral, profundal, palustrine, saline lake and playa facies associations. The vertical stacking of facies is asymmetric, with transgressive and thin organic-rich highstand deposits underlying thicker, organic-poor regressive deposits. The major controls on depositional architecture and basin palaeogeography are tectonics and climate. Accommodation space was derived from piggyback basin-forming flexural subsidence and Miocene-Quaternary normal faulting associated with incorporation of the basin into the Andean hinterland. Sediment and water supply was modulated by variability in the South American summer monsoon, and perennial lake deposits correlate in time with several well-known late Pleistocene wet periods on the Altiplano/Puna plateau. Our results shed new light on lake expansion–contraction dynamics in the PB in particular and provide a deeper understanding of Puna basin lakes in general.

  19. Secure & Restore Critical Fisheries Habitat, Flathead Subbasin, FY2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes; Tohtz, Joel [Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

    2008-11-12

    moderating water temperatures, stabilizing banks and protecting the integrity of channel dimension, improving woody debris recruitment for in-channel habitat features, producing terrestrial insects and leaf litter for recruitment to the stream, and helping to accommodate and attenuate flood flows. The purpose of this project is to work with willing landowners to protect the best remaining habitats in the Flathead subbasin as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan. The target areas for land protection activities follow the priorities established in the Flathead subbasin plan and include: (1) Class 1 waters as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan; (2) Class 2 watersheds as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan; and (3) 'Offsite mitigation' defined as those Class 1 and Class 2 watersheds that lack connectivity to the mainstem Flathead River or Flathead Lake. This program focuses on conserving the highest quality or most important riparian or fisheries habitat areas consistent with program criteria. The success of our efforts is subject to a property's actual availability and individual landowner negotiations. The program is guided using biological and project-based criteria that reflect not only the priority needs established in the Flathead subbasin plan, but also such factors as cost, credits, threats, and partners. The implementation of this project requires both an expense and a capital budget to allow work to be completed. This report addresses accomplishments under both budgets during FY08 as the two budgets are interrelated. The expense budget provided pre-acquisition funding to conduct activities such as surveys, appraisals, staff support, etc. The capital budget was used to purchase the interest in each parcel including closing costs. Both the pre-acquisition contract funds and the capital funds used to purchase fee title or conservation easements were spent in accordance with the terms negotiated within the FY08 through FY09

  20. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1986-04-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic water level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Changes in chronology of seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding and erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Our 1985 pair count data indicated that 95 to 143 nests may have been present. Hatching success for 1985 nests (55%) was low compared to long-term averages for the region. Predation was the predominant cause of ground nest failure (25 nests); we documented 2 nest failures due to flooding. The maximum gosling count in the study area for 1985 was 197. Six key brood-rearing areas were identified. Most (80%) sites were located in the herbaceous or pasture cover type and the riparian bench landform. Analysis of aerial photographs taken prior to construction of Kerr Dam documented the loss of 1859 acres of habitat along the north shore of Flathead Lake. Losses were attributed to inundation and to continuing erosion due to operation of Kerr Dam. Lake and river water level regimes were compared with the chronology of important periods in the nesting cycle. Low lake levels in May and early June coincide with the breed-rearing period. Mudflats are heavily used by broods, but their effect on survival must still be documented. Preliminary recommendations to protect and enhance Canada goose habitat and production are being developed.

  1. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  2. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. Lake Evaporation in a Hyper-Arid Environment, Northwest of China—Measurement and Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Liu; Jingjie Yu; Ping Wang; Yichi Zhang; Chaoyang Du

    2016-01-01

    Lake evaporation is a critical component of the hydrological cycle. Quantifying lake evaporation in hyper-arid regions by measurement and estimation can both provide reliable potential evaporation (ET0) reference and promote a deeper understanding of the regional hydrological process and its response towards changing climate. We placed a floating E601 evaporation pan on East Juyan Lake, which is representative of arid regions’ terminal lakes, to measure daily evaporation and conducted simulta...

  4. Life history differences between fat and lean morphs of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) in Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history characteristics (size, age, plumpness, buoyancy, survival, growth, and maturity) were compared between fat and lean morphs of lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in Great Slave Lake, Canada, to determine if differences may reflect effects of resource polymorphism. Lake charr were sampled using graded-mesh gill nets set in three depth strata. Of 236 lake charr captured, 122 were a fat morph and 114 were a lean morph. Males and females did not differ from each other in any attributes for either fat or lean morphs. The fat morph averaged 15 mm longer, 481 g heavier, and 4.7 years older than the lean morph. The fat morph averaged 26% heavier and 48% more buoyant at length than the lean morph. Survival of the fat morph was 1.7% higher than that of the lean morph. The fat morph grew at a slower annual rate to a shorter asymptotic length than the lean morph. Fat and lean morphs matured at similar lengths and ages. We concluded that the connection between resource polymorphism and life histories in lean versus fat lake charr suggests that morph-specific restoration objectives may be needed in lakes where lake charr diversity is considered to be a restoration goal.

  5. Trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an atlantic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Jessica R.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris is a large piscivore that is native to the Mississippi and Rio Grande river drainages but that has been widely introduced across the United States. River ecologists and fisheries managers are concerned about introduced flathead catfish populations because of the negative impacts on native fish communities or imperiled species associated with direct predation and indirect competition from this apex predator. We studied the trophic relations of introduced flathead catfish in an Atlantic river to further understand the effects on native fish communities. Crayfish (Astacidea) occurred most frequently in the flathead catfish diet, while sunfish Lepomis spp. comprised the greatest percentage by weight. Neither of two sympatric imperiled fish species (the federally endangered Cape Fear shiner Notropis mekistocholas and the Carolina redhorse Moxostoma sp., a federal species of concern) was found in any diet sample. An ontogenetic shift in diet was evident when flathead catfish reached about 300 mm, and length significantly explained the variation in the percent composition by weight of sunfish and darters Etheostoma and Percina spp. Flathead catfish showed positive prey selectivity for taxa that occupied similar benthic microhabitat, highlighting the importance of opportunistic feeding and prey encounter rates. Flathead catfish displayed a highly variable diel feeding chronology during July, when they had a mean stomach fullness of 0.32%, but then showed a single midday feeding peak during August (mean fullness = 0.52%). The gastric evacuation rate increased between July (0.40/h) and August (0.59/h), as did daily ration, which more than doubled between the 2 months (3.06% versus 7.37%). Our findings increase the understanding of introduced flathead catfish trophic relations and the degree of vulnerability among prey taxa, which resource managers may consider in fisheries management and conservation of native fish populations and

  6. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System; Technical Addendum to the Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Tohtz, Joel

    1990-03-01

    This addendum to the Final Report presents results of research on the zooplankton and fish communities of Flathead Lade. The intent of the Study has been to identify the impacts of hydroelectric operations at Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee an to propose mitigation for these impacts. Recent changes in the trophic ecology of the lake, have reduced the survival of kokanee. In the last three year the Study has been redirected to identify, if possible, the biological mechanisms which now limit kokanee survival, and to test methods of enhancing the kokanee fishery by artificial supplementation. These studies were necessary to the formulation of mitigation plans. The possibility of successfully rehabilitating the kokanee population, is the doubt because of change in the trophic ecology of the system. This report first presents the results of studies of the population dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, upon which planktivorous fish depend. A modest effort was directed to measuring the spawning escapement of kokanee in 1988. Because of its relevance to the study, we also report assessments of 1989 kokanee spawning escapement. Hydroacoustic assessment of the abundance of all fish species in Flathead Lake was conducted in November, 1988. Summary of the continued efforts to document the growth rates and food habits of kokanee and lake whitefish are included in this report. Revised kokanee spawning and harvest estimates, and management implications of the altered ecology of Flathead Lake comprise the final sections of this addendum. 83 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Potential transport pathways of dust emanating from the playa of Ebinur Lake, Xinjiang, in arid northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yongxiao; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Ma, Long; Wu, Na; Liu, Dongwei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the HYSPLIT model, driven with reanalysis meteorological data from 1978 to 2013, was used to understand the potential transport characteristics of dust and salt dust emanating from the playa of Ebinur Lake in arid northwest China. Daily air parcel trajectories were computed forward for 8 days from an origin centered over Ebinur Lake at 100 m above ground level. Air parcel trajectory density plots were mapped for seven levels: 0-100 m agl., 100-500 m agl., 500-1000 m agl., 1000-1500 m agl., 1500-2000 m agl., 2000-3000 m agl., and 3000-5000 m agl. These show that potential dust transport pathways have clear seasonal differentiation. The potential transport distance of dust and salt dust is greatest in spring and summer. In autumn and winter, the potential transport of the high-density air trajectory is below 1000 m traveling a shorter distance. Potential dust transport pathways showed notifying directivity in different seasons and heights. Southeast in spring and summer, and north to northeast in autumn and winter are the two main potential transport channels of dust and salt dust. Accordingly, dust and salt dust from the playa of Ebinur Lake may influence the atmospheric processes and biogeochemical cycles of a vast region. The main area of influence of dust and salt dust is close to the source area, and will significantly accelerate the melting of snow and ice in the Tianshan Mountains. This highlights the urgent need to combine remote sensing, isotope and other methods to further research the transport characteristics of dust and salt dust from the playa of the Ebinur Lake.

  8. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1985-02-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding or erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Counts of indicated pairs suggest there were 73-125 occupied nests in the study area; 44 were located in 1984. Twenty were island ground nests, 19 were tree nests, and 5 were on man-made structures. Hatching success was 76 percent. Sixty-one percent of all nests were in deciduous forest habitat; 87 percent were on riparian bench or island landforms. Seventy-four percent of all nests were within 5 m of the seasonal high water mark (HWM) and 85 percent of ground nests were 1 m or less above the HWM. Production, habitat use, and distribution of broods were documented through aerial, boat, ground, and observation tower surveys. 28 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. USING MACROZOOBENTHOS TO ASSESS THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE STARZYC LAKE (NORTH-WEST POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Konieczny

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2008–2009 species composition and quantity of macrozoobenthos in deposits samples collected with Ekman gripping device at 4 points of Starzyc Lake was studied. Lake Starzyc also called Chociwel is located in West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is adjacent to the town of Chociwel from South and South East of the city. In the collected material of the analysed lake macrozoobenthos organisms from the following classes were found: Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Crustacea, Insecta and Bivalvia. The Insecta class was the most numerous one in respect of species found, including larvae of the following orders: Ephemeroptera (Leptophlebia sp., Ephemera sp., Caenis macrura (Stephens, Trichoptera (Limnephilidae, Leptoceridae, Cyrnus sp. Diptera and Megaloptera (Sialis lutaria L.. The density and biomass distribution in the analysed Starzyc Lake demonstrates the occurrence of unfavourable changes which may lead to eutrophication in the shallowest layers of the body reservoir and in the zone at the depth of 4.9 m. The littoral zone of the studied lake features high density and significant benthic fauna biomass with low values of PIE biodiversity index.

  10. Characteristics of biomarkers in the Recent sediment from Qinghai Lake, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fan; Yaorong, Qian; Baisheng, Zhang

    The occurrence of biomarker hydrocarbons in the Recent sediment of Qinghai Lake was investigated. It was found that the distribution of these biomarkers in Qinghai Lake, a semi-saline water lake, is unusual. The distribution of n-alkanes is predominated by high carbon-numbered alkanes with a high OEP (CPI) value. Two series of bicyclic sesquiterpanes derived from micro-organisms, e.g. algae or bacteria, were detected. The occurrence of tricyclic and tetracyclic terpenoids is characterized by the input of the organic matter from aquatic organisms. The conversion from hopenes existing in bacteria and blue-green algae into hopanes is put forward in this paper. C 27C 29 regular steranes, 4-methylsteroids, diasteranes, pregnanes, norsteroids and secosteranes were found in abundance in the sedimentary samples. Another important contribution of this paper is towards the geochemistry of amino acids in the Recent sediment of Qinghai Lake. The composition, distribution and evolution of the amino acids in the lacustrine sediments will be discussed in detail. It was found that several ratios of different amino acids have a clear diagenesis trend in the two cores studied. The racemization reaction of amino acids and their application in the geochemistry will also be discussed. The racemization of alanine and leucine were employed in this study to calculate the age of the sediment samples, with satisfactory result.

  11. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1984 field season as part of an ongoing project. Geese used Pablo, Kicking Horse, Ninepipe Reservoirs heavily during late summer and fall. Use of the river by geese was high during the winter, when the reservoirs were frozen, and during the breeding period. Most breeding geese left the river after broods fledged. Thirteen percent of the artificial tree nest structures on the river were used by nesting geese. Goose nest initiation on the river peaked the last week in March through the first week in April, and hatching peaked the first week in May. Predation was the most significant cause of nest loss on the river, and nest loss by flooding was not observed. Avian predation was the single largest factor contributing to nest loss on the lake. Habitat use was studied in 4 brood areas on the river and 8 brood areas on the lake, and available habitat was assessed for 2 portions of both the lake and the river. Brood habitat use was significantly different from the available habitat in all areas studied. On the lower river, broods used wheat fields, gravel bars, and shrub habitats. On the upper river, coniferous forest and shrub habitats were preferred. On the West Bay of the lake, brood areas consisted primarily of lawns and tall herbaceous habitat, while on the South Bay, marshes dominated the brood areas studied. Water levels on the river and lake affect both accessibility of these areas to brooding geese, and the ecology of the habitats preferred by geese. 43 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Eemian and Holocene interglacial climate in northwest Greenland inferred from insect assemblages, lipid δ2H, and chitin δ18O preserved in lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, J. M.; Axford, Y.; Osburn, M. R.; Lasher, G. E.; Kelly, M. A.; Osterberg, E. C.; Francis, D. R.; Farnsworth, L. B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a millennial-scale reconstruction of Holocene and Last Interglacial (Eemian) climate in northwest Greenland, inferred from insect assemblages (chironomid-inferred temperatures, CITs) and compound-specific organic isotopes (sedimentary lipid δ2H and chitin δ18O). Sediment cores collected from `Wax Lips Lake' (informal name), a non-glacial lake situated NEEM (+8±4°C; Dahl-Jensen et al. 2013), also in northern Greenland. Peak LIG temperatures at both sites exceeded those of the Holocene. We pair an independent temperature proxy with proxies recording the stable isotopic composition of precipitation and lake water at this high-latitude site to provide insight on how hydroclimate changed over Arctic Greenland during two different warm periods - the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the LIG. We find general agreement amongst recorders of lake water isotopic composition, including δ18O of chitin from chironomid head capsules and δ2H of aquatic lipids. We infer the isotopic composition of precipitation from δ2H of long-chain n-alkanes from terrestrial plants. The δ2H of long-chain n-alkanes are internally consistent and deviate from lake water during prolonged periods of warmth, indicating changes in precipitation source, effective moisture, and/or seasonality associated with warming. We also briefly discuss our ongoing work to further characterize the source, distribution and isotopic composition of modern plant lipids in Greenlandic lakes, and thus clarify potential controls on past shifts recorded in sedimentary records.

  13. South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisak, Grant; Marotz, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In 1999, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) began a program aimed at conserving the genetically pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the South Fork Flathead River drainage. The objective of this program is to eliminate all of the exotic and hybrid trout that threaten the genetically pure westslope cutthroat populations in the South Fork Flathead. The exotic and hybrid trout populations occur in several headwater lakes and their outflow streams. In 2001 MFWP released a draft environmental assessment, pursuant to the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA), that addressed the use of motorized equipment to deliver personnel and materials to some of these lakes in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses (Grisak 2001). After a 30-day public comment period, MFWP determined that the complexity of issues was too great and warranted a more detailed analysis. These issues included transportation options for personnel, equipment and materials, the use of motorized equipment in wilderness, fish removal methods, fish stocking, and the status and distribution of amphibian populations in the project area. Because the program also involves the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the environmental analysis needs to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In October 2001, pursuant to NEPA, MFWP, along with the USFS and BPA initiated an environmental assessment to address these issues. In June 2002, the three agencies determined that the scope of these issues warranted an Environmental Impact Statement. This specialist report describes the logistical, technical and biological issues associated with this project and provides an analysis of options for fish removal, transportation and fish stocking. It further analyzes issues and concerns associated with amphibian populations and creating new domesticated stocks of westslope cutthroat trout. Finally, this document provides a description of each lake, the best

  14. Organic petrology and geochemistry of mudrocks from the lacustrine Lucaogou Formation, Santanghu Basin, northwest China: Application to lake basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Fishman, Neil; Wu, Tao; Baugher, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Exploration for tight oil in the frontier Santanghu Basin of northwest China has resulted in recent commercial discoveries sourced from the lacustrine Upper Permian Lucaogou Formation, already considered a “world class source rock” in the Junggar Basin to the west. Here we apply an integrated analytical program to carbonate-dominated mudrocks from the Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin to document the nature of organic matter (OM) in the context of an evolving lake system. The organic-rich samples (TOC 2.8–11.4 wt%; n = 10) were widely spaced from an ~ 200 m cored section, interpreted from textural and mineralogical evidence to document transition from a lower under-filled to an overlying balanced-filled lake. Organic matter is dominated by moderate to strongly fluorescent amorphous material with Type I geochemical signature (HI values 510–755; n = 10) occurring in a continuum from lamellar stringers, 10–20 μm thick, some ≥ 1 mm in length (possible microbial mat; preserved only in lower under-filled section) to finely-disseminated amorphous groundmass intimately intermixed with mineral matrix. Biomarkers for methanotrophs and photosynthetic cyanobacteria indicate a complex microbial consortium. A unicellular prasinophyte green alga(?), similar to Tasmanites in marine rocks, is present as discrete flattened discs 50–100 μm in diameter. Type III OM including vitrinite (some fluorescent) and inertinite also is abundant. Solid bitumen, indicating local kerogen conversion, fills voids and occurs throughout the cored section. Vitrinite reflectance values are 0.47–0.58%, consistent with strong OM fluorescence but may be “suppressed”. Other proxies, e.g., biomarker parameters, indicate the Lucaogou Formation is in the early oil window at this location. On average, slightly more amorphous OM and telalginite are present in the lower section, consistent with a shallow, stratified, saline environment with low sediment dilution. More

  15. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajak, Paul; Bradshaw, William H.; DeSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Existing aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries was assessed for its relationship to the present size, distribution, and maintenance of all salmonid species, northern pike, and largemouth bass populations. The objectives were to assess how and to what extent hydroelectric development and operation affects the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries and life stages of existing trout, pike, and largemouth bass populations, evaluate the potential for increasing quality habitat, and thus game fish production, through mitigation, and develop an array of fisheries management options to mitigate the impacts of present hydroelectric operations, demonstrating under each management option how fish populations would benefit and hydroelectric generation capabilities would be modified.

  16. Structural development of an Archean Orogen, Western Point Lake, Northwest Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusky, Timothy M.

    1991-08-01

    The Point Lake orogen in the central Archean Slave Province of northwestern Canada preserves more than 10 km of structural relief through an eroded antiformal thrust stack and deeper anastomosing midcrustal mylonites. Fault restoration along a 25 km long transect requires a minimum of 69 km slip and 53 km horizontal shortening. In the western part of the orogen the basal decollement places mafic plutonic/volcanic rocks over an ancient tonalitic gneiss complex. Ten kilometers to the east in the Keskarrah Bay area, slices of gneiss unroofed on brittle thrusts shed molasse into several submerged basins. Conglomerates and associated thinly bedded sedimentary rocks are interpreted as channel, levee, and overbank facies of this thrust-related sedimentary fan system. The synorogenic erosion surface at the base of the conglomerate truncates premetamorphic or early metamorphic thrust faults formed during foreland propagation, while other thrusts related to hinterland-progressing imbrication displace this unconformity. Tightening of synorogenic depositional troughs resulted in the conglomerates' present localization in synclines to the west of associated thrust faults and steepening of structural dips. Eastern parts of the orogen consist of isoclinally folded graywackes composed largely of Mutti and Ricci-Lucchi turbidite facies B, C, and D, interpreted as submarine fan deposits eroded from a distant volcanic arc. Thrust faults in the metasedimentary terrane include highly disrupted slate horizons with meter-scale duplex structures, and recrystallized calcmylonites exhibiting sheath folds and boudin trains with very large interboudin distances. The sequence of fabric development and the overall geometry of this metasedimentary terrane strongly resembles younger forearc accretionary prisms. Conditions of deformation along the thrusts parallel the regional metamorphic zonation: amphibolite facies in the basal decollement through greenschist facies shear zones to cataclastic

  17. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Zubik, Raymond; Clancey, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    Studies of kokanee reproductive success in the Flathead system from 1981 to 1987 have assessed the losses in fish production attributable to hydroelectric operations. We estimated that the Flathead Lake shoreline spawning stock has lost at least 50,000 fish annually, since Kerr Dam was completed in 1938. The Flathead River spawning stock has lost 95,000 spawners annually because of the operations of Hungry Horse Dam. Lakeshore spawning has been adversely affected because Flathead Lake has been drafted to minimum pool during the winter when kokanee eggs are incubating in shallow shoreline redds. Egg mortality from exposure and desiccation of kokanee redds has increased since the mid 1970's. When the lake was drafted more quickly and held longer at minimum pool. Escapement surveys in the early 1950's, and a creel survey in the early 1960's have provided a baseline to which the present escapement levels can be compared, and loss estimated. Main stem Flathead River spawning has also declined since the mid 1970's when fluctuating discharge from Hungry Horse Dam during the spawning and incubation season exposed redds at the river margin and increased mortality. This decline followed an increase in main stem spawning in the late 1950's through the mid 1960's attributable to higher winter water temperature and relatively stable discharge from Hungry Horse Dam. Spawning escapement in the main stem exceeded 300,000 kokanee in the early 1970's as a result. Spawning in spring-influenced sites has comprised 35 percent of the main stem escapement from 1979 to 1986. We took that proportion of the early 1970's escapement (105,000) as the baseline against which to measure historic loss. Agricultural and suburban development has contributed less significantly to degradation of kokanee spawning habitat in the river system and on the Flathead Lake shoreline. Their influence on groundwater quality and substrate composition has limited

  18. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1986 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, William H.; DosSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James M.

    1986-08-01

    We believe our results have clearly shown Kerr hydroelectric operations and operational constraints have negatively affected Flathead River trout and northern pike populations and the aquatic habitat which support them. Even so, it is possible to mitigate many of these impacts and develop a very important fishery. Trout abundance in the lower Flathead averaged only 19 fish per kilometer, the lowest abundance of trout for a river of this size in Montana. Little main channel spawning by trout was observed and most spawning probably occurs in tributaries. Lower river tributaries support resident populations of brook, rainbow, brown, and cutthroat trout; and a small resident population of bull trout is present in the South Fork of the Jocko River. Using weirs, spawning runs of rainbow and brown trout from the main river were monitored entering the Jocko River and the Post/Mission Creek system. Utilization of Crow Creek by main river trout stocks of trout was limited to the 6 km segment below Crow Dam. Evaluations of tributary spawning gravels showed high levels of silt which would suggest poor survival of trout eggs. Excessive harvest in the tributaries was indicated by analysis of age class structure and abundance of trout greater than 200 mm.

  19. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  20. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  1. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  2. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  3. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  4. Preserving a spirit of place: U.S. Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marshik, Joel; Renz, Lyle; Sipes, Jim; Becker, Dale; Paulson, Dale

    2001-01-01

    US Highway 93 traverses the Flathead Indian Reservation, which is located on the west side of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana. Picturesque mountains and mountain valleys, with the broad Flathead Valley to the North and the majestic Mission Mountains to the East, characterize this part of Montana. The area is home to a wide variety of wildlife, including grizzly bear, white-tailed deer, mule deer, pronghorn, elk, painted turtles, bighorn sheep, and a number of fish and bird species. It ...

  5. A 100-year record of climate change and human activities inferred from the geochemical composition of sediments in Chaiwopu Lake, arid northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An 81-cm sediment core from Chaiwopu Lake in arid northwest China was analyzed for 137Cs activity and concentrations of major and trace elements. We used these data to discriminate between the influence of climate change and human activities on the geochemical change of the lake sediments over the past century. Elements Al, K, Ba, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Mn, Li, and Be were mainly from detrital. Ca, Sr, and Mg concentrations were controlled by chemical weathering processes. Na came mainly from salt precipitation caused by a decline in water level. Enrichment factors for Pb and P in recent deposits are large, indicating they were influenced by human activies. Geochemical conditions during the past century can be divided into three stages: i From ca. 1900 to the1950s element concentrations varied widely and frequently. In general, concentrations of typical mobile elements Ca, Sr, and Mg stay relatively high whereas values for other elements remained relatively low. This was interpreted to reflect variable climate under conditions of weak surface erosion intensity. ii From the 1950s to the early 2000s, element concentrations display less variability. The Al, K, Ba, Ti, P, Cr, V, Fe, Ni, Mn, Co, Cu, Li, Zn, Be, Pb, and Na contents were generally higher, whereas contents of Ca, Sr, and Mg were on average lower. This indicates that the regional environment was conducive to surface erosion. Enrichment of trace metals and major elements in the sediment reflects enhanced human activities. iii In the last decade, Pb and P exhibited a great increase, possibly associated with the input from fossil fuel combustion, sewage discharge and non-point-source pollution in the watershed. The lake volume decreased substantially because of groundwater extraction for municipal water, which resulted in a marked increase in salinity and enhanced Na precipitation.

  6. A 1000-year chironomid-based salinity reconstruction from varved sediments of Sugan Lake, Qaidam Basin, arid Northwest China, and its palaeoclimatic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JianHui; CHEN FaHu; ZHANG EnLou; BROOKS Stephen J; ZHOU AiFeng; ZHANG JiaWu

    2009-01-01

    A 1000-year high-resolution (~10 years) chironomid record from varved sediments of Sugan Lake, Qaidam Basin on the northern Tibetan Plateau, is presented. The chironomid assemblages are mainly composed of the relatively high-saline-water taxa Psectrocladius barbimanus-type and Orthocladius/Cricotopus, and the relatively low-saline-water taxa Procladius and Psectrocladius sordidellus-type. Variations in the chironomid fauna and inferred salinities suggest that over the last millennium, the Sugan Lake catchment has alternated between contrasting climatic conditions, having a dry climate during the period 990-1550 AD, a relatively humid climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1550-1840 AD), and a dry climate again from 1840 AD onwards. At the decadal to centennial scale, a wet event around 1200-1230 AD, interrupting the generally arid period (990-1550 AD), and a dry event around 1590-1700 AD, punctuating the generally humid period (1550-1840 AD), are clearly documented. Trends in the chironomid-based salinity time series indicate a highly unstable climate during the LIA when salinity fluctuations were of greater magnitude and higher frequency. The effective moisture evolution in the Sugan Lake catchment during the last millennium reconstructed by chironomid analysis is in broad agreement with previous palaeo-moisture data derived from other sites in arid Northwest China (ANC). The LIA, characterized by generally humid conditions over the west-erly-dominated ANC was distinctly different from that in monsoonal China, implying an "out-of-phase" relationship between moisture evolution in these two regions during the past 1000 years.

  7. Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  8. Lower Flathead River Fisheries Study, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DosSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James E.; Cross, Paul D.

    1986-07-01

    In January of 1983 a two-phase study of the lower Flathead River was initiated by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes with funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration. The study fulfills program measure 804 (a) (3) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. During 1983 Phase I of the study was completed resulting in a detailed study plan for the next four years and the methods to be employed during the study. Preliminary observations suggest the present operation of Kerr hydroelectric facility and land use practices within the drainage have combined to significantly reduce spawning success of salmonids and northern pike, and thus recruitment to the fisheries of the main river and tributaries. Main river spawning marshes were observed to be drained frequently during the northern pike spawning season which would result in desiccation of eggs and loss of attached fry. Water level fluctuations also caused trapping of juvenile fish and may be an important source of juvenile mortality.

  9. Effects of human-induced environmental changes on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezie, Ayenew; Anteneh, Wassie; Dejen, Eshete; Mereta, Seid Tiku

    2017-04-01

    Wetlands of Lake Tana Watershed provide various ecological and socioeconomic functions. However, they are losing their vigor at alarming rate due to unwise management. Hence, there is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources so as to identify the major drivers of its degradation and to provide information for management decisions. In this context, we aimed to assess the effects of human activities on macroinvertebrate assemblages of wetlands in Lake Tana Watershed. Biotic and abiotic data were collected from 46 sampling sites located in eight wetlands. A total of 2568 macroinvertebrates belonging to 46 families were recorded. Macroinvertebrate metrics such as Biological Monitoring Working Party score, Shannon diversity index, Ephemeroptera and odonata family richness, and total family richness portrayed a clear pattern of decreasing with increasing in human disturbances, whereas Family biotic index score, which is an indicator of organic pollution, increased with increasing in human disturbances. The regression analysis also revealed that livestock grazing, leather tanning, and eucalyptus plantation were important predictors of macroinvertebrate metrics (p wetlands such as farming, leather tanning, solid waste dumping, and effluent discharges were contributed to the degradation of water quality and decreasing in the macroinvertebrate richness and diversity. These alterations could also reduce the availability of wetland products (sedges, craft materials, etc.) and the related ecosystem services. This in turn has an adverse effect on food security and poverty alleviation with considerable impact on communities who heavily depend on wetland products for their livelihood. Therefore, it is essential to formulate wetland policy for achieving wise use goals and necessary legal and institutional backup for sustainable wetland management in Ethiopia.

  10. Length-Weight Relationships, Condition Index and Sex Ratio of Mussel Lamellidens corrianus (Lea, 1834 in a Freshwater Lake, Northwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondol Mostafizur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allometry, condition index and sex ratio in freshwater mussel Lamellidens corrianus (Lea, 1834 were studied from the freshwater lake at Rajshahi, Northwest Bangladesh during the summer 2013. The collected mussel specimens ranged from 3.69 cm to 9.98 cm in length, and 4.82 g to 80.67 g in weight. The study was focused on the relationships between length-height and length-weights (length-total weight, length-tissue wet weight, length-shell wet weight, length-tissue dry weight and length-shell dry weight, which were found not to be significantly different between male and female (P<0.05. The calculated regression equation of length-height relationship for the entire study period was H= 0.5215L-0.1482 for combined sex. The equations of length-total weight, length-tissue wet weight, length-shell weight, length-tissue dry weight and length-shell dry weight relationships of mussel were W= 0.1756L2.6775, W= 0.0261L2.8919, W= 0.0261L2.5524, W= 0.0065L2.8946 and W= 0.095L2.5109, respectively for combined sex. The relationships between length and height were linear, while that between length-weights follow the non-linear pattern. The overall male to female sex ratio was 1: 0.92 and did not differ significantly from the expected 1: 1 ratio (x2-test, P<0.05. The condition index for male, female and combined sex was 13.54, 13.97 and 13.74, respectively. The results of this study will provide baseline information for fisheries researchers and for the further assessment and management of mussels in the freshwater ecosystems of Bangladesh.

  11. 78 FR 65962 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Flathead National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Management Plan which describes the strategic direction for management of forest resources for the next ten... plans. Forest plans describe the strategic direction for management of forest resources for ten to... Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Flathead National Forest AGENCY:...

  12. Ancient DNA analysis of the extinct North American flat-headed peccary (Platygonus compressus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tahlia; van Loenen, Ayla L; Heiniger, Holly; Lee, Carol; Gongora, Jaime; Cooper, Alan; Mitchell, Kieren J

    2017-03-28

    The geographical range of extant peccaries extends from the southwestern United States through Central America and into northern Argentina. However, from the Miocene until the Pleistocene now-extinct peccary species inhabited the entirety of North America. Relationships among the living and extinct species have long been contentious. Similarly, how and when peccaries moved from North to South America is unclear. The North American flat-headed peccary (Platygonus compressus) became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene and is one of the most abundant subfossil taxa found in North America, yet despite this extensive fossil record its phylogenetic position has not been resolved. This study is the first to present DNA data from the flat-headed peccary and full mitochondrial genome sequences of all the extant peccary species. We performed a molecular phylogenetic analysis to determine the relationships among ancient and extant peccary species. Our results suggested that the flat-headed peccary is sister-taxon to a clade comprising the extant peccary species. Divergence date estimates from our molecular dating analyses suggest that if extant peccary diversification occurred in South America then their common ancestor must have dispersed from North America to South America well before the establishment of the Isthmus of Panama. We also investigated the genetic diversity of the flat-headed peccary by performing a preliminary population study on specimens from Sheriden Cave, Ohio. Flat-headed peccaries from Sheriden Cave appear to be genetically diverse and show no signature of population decline prior to extinction. Including additional extinct Pleistocene peccary species in future phylogenetic analyses will further clarify peccary evolution.

  13. 1990 Flathead Valley duck nesting study progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This informal progress report describes predator removal practices in the Lake County area, and observed waterfowl nest success. Species-specific data are...

  14. P-T composition and evolution of paleofluids in the Paleoproterozoic Mag Hill IOCG system, Contact Lake belt, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarin, A. Karimzadeh; Mumin, A. Hamid

    2014-02-01

    The Echo Bay stratovolcano complex and Contact Lake Belt of the Great Bear Magmatic Zone, Northwest Territories, host a series of coalescing Paleoproterozoic hydrothermal systems that affected an area of several hundred square kilometers. They were caused by intrusion of synvolcanic diorite-monzodioritic plutons into andesitic host rocks, producing several characteristic hydrothermal assemblages. They include early and proximal albite, magnetite-actinolite-apatite, and potassic (K-feldspar) alteration, followed by more distal hematite, phyllic (quartz-sericite-pyrite), and propylitic (chlorite-epidote-carbonate±sericite±albite±quartz) alteration, and finally by late-stage polymetallic epithermal veins. These alteration types are characteristic of iron oxide copper-gold deposits, however, with distal and lower-temperature assemblages similar to porphyry Cu systems. Magnetite-actinolite-apatite alteration formed from high temperature (up to 560 °C) fluids with average salinity of 12.8 wt% NaCl equivalent. The prograde propylitic and phyllic alteration stages are associated with fluids with temperatures varying from 80 to 430 °C and a wide salinity range (0.5-45.6 wt% NaCl equivalent). Similarly, wide fluid temperature (104-450 °C) and salinity (4.2-46.1 wt% NaCl equivalent) ranges are recorded for the phyllic alteration. This was followed by Cu-Ag-U-Zn-Co-Pb sulfarsenide mineralization in late-stage epithermal veins formed at shallow depths and temperatures from 270 °C to as low as 105 °C. The polymetallic veins precipitated from high salinity (mean 30 wt% NaCl equivalent) dense fluids (1.14 g/cm3) with a vapor pressure of 3.8 bars, typical of epithermal conditions. Fluid inclusion evidence indicates that mixed fluids with evolving physicochemical properties were responsible for the formation of the alteration assemblages and mineralization at Mag Hill. An early high temperature, moderate salinity, and magmatic fluid was subsequently modified variably by

  15. How well suited are maar lakes of Madagascar for palaeoenvironmental multi-proxy reconstructions? - First results from shallow seismic, sedimentological and hydrological investigations in Central and Northwest Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daut, Gerhard; Jasmin Krahn, Kim; Rabhobisoa, Jean-Jacques; Ornella Moanazafy, Sergénie; Haberzettl, Torsten; Kasper, Thomas; Mäusbacher, Roland; Schwalb, Antje

    2017-04-01

    Madagascar is well known for its unique flora and fauna which are frequently in the focus of scientific investigations. However, studies on environmental changes in Madagascar linked to Quaternary climatic and/or anthropogenic impact are scarce. The aim of this initial study is to evaluate the potential of maar lakes, situated in different climatic zones of Madagascar, for paleoenvironmental studies and to identify promising coring sites with continuous sediment sequences reaching far back in time. Therefore, in November 2016, a shallow seismic profiling campaign, combined with surface sediment, short gravity core (max. 1.8 m), water and plankton sampling was performed on three target sites. These were two deep maar lakes, i.e., Andraikiba (Central Madagascar, 50m waterdepth) as well as Amparahibe (46,5m waterdepth) and Andampy Ambatoloaka, a shallow (5m waterdepth during low tide) former maar lake now connected to the Ocean (both NW-Madagascar. Vertical water parameter measurements in Lake Amparahibe confirm anoxic bottom conditions, while dissolved oxygen values at the water surface are about 7.9 mg/L (103%). Temperature decreases with depth from 29.3 °C to 27.2 °C, and the lake is slightly alkaline with an electrical conductivity of around 245 µS/cm. Since Andampy Ambatoloaka is connected to the ocean, it shows slightly alkaline conditions as well, electrical conductivity is high ( 57.8 mS/cm) and dissolved oxygen and temperature values are relatively stable at about 8.2 mg/L (104%) and 28.1 °C, respectively. The shallow seismic survey shows an infill with layered sediments of >50 m thickness in Lake Andraikiba. In Lake Amparahibe natural gas in the sediment prevented deeper penetration, however the record shows 10 m of undisturbed, layered sediments in the uppermost part. Sediment cores obtained from both lakes consist of dark brownish to blackish, clayey to silty and partly laminated sediments. High values of magnetic susceptibilities (>1800*10-6 SI) and

  16. Geology of Glacier National Park and the Flathead Region, Northwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Clyde P.

    1959-01-01

    This report summarizes available data on two adjacent and partly overlapping regions in northwestern Montana. The first of these is Glacier National Park plus small areas east and west of the park. The second is here called, for convenience, the Flathead region; it embraces the mountains from the southern tip of Glacier Park to latitude 48 deg north and between the Great Plains on the east and Flathead Valley on the west. The fieldwork under the direction of the writer was done in 1948, 1949, 1950, and 1951, with some work in 1952 and 1953. The two regions together include parts of the Swan, Flathead, Livingstone, and Lewis Ranges. They are drained largely by branches of the Flathead River. On the east and north, however, they are penetrated by tributaries of the Missouri River and in addition by streams that flow into Canada. Roads and highways reach the borders of the regions; but there are few roads in the regions and only two highways cross them. The principal economic value of the assemblage of mountains described in the present report is as a collecting ground for snow to furnish the water used in the surrounding lowlands and as a scenic and wildlife recreation area. A few metallic deposits and lignitic coal beds are known, but these have not proved to be important and cannot, as far as can now be judged, be expected to become so. No oil except minor seeps has yet been found, and most parts of the two regions covered do not appear geologically favorable to the presence of oil in commercial quantities. The high, Hungry Horse Dam on which construction was in progress during the fieldwork now floods part of the Flathead region and will greatly influence the future of that region. The rocks range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The thickest units belong to the Belt series of Precambrian age, and special attention was paid to them. As a result, it is clear that at least the upper part of the series shows marked lateral changes within short distances. This fact

  17. Effects of Environmental Factors on Nutrients Release at Sediment-Water Interface and Assessment of Trophic Status for a Typical Shallow Lake, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekun Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface sediment and water samples were collected from Daihai Lake to study the biogeochemical characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus, to estimate the loads of these nutrients, and to assess their effects on water quality. The contents and spatial distributions of total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN, and different nitrogen forms in sediments were analyzed. The results showed that concentrations of TN and TP in surface sediments ranged from 0.27 to 1.78 g/kg and from 558.31 to 891.29 mg/kg, respectively. Ratios of C : N ranged between 8.2 and 12.1, which indicated that nitrogen accumulated came mainly from terrestrial source. Ratios of N : P in all sampling sites were below 10, which indicated that N was the limiting nutrient for algal growth in this lake. Effects of environment factors on the release of nitrogen and phosphorus in lake sediments were also determined; high pH values could encourage the release of nitrogen and phosphorus. Modified Carlson’s trophic state index (TSIM and comprehensive trophic state index (TSIC were applied to ascertain the trophic classification of the studied lake, and the values of TSIM and TSIC ranged from 53.72 to 70.61 and from 47.73 to 53.67, respectively, which indicated that the Daihai Lake was in the stage of hypereutropher.

  18. Agricultural crop mapping and classification by Landsat images to evaluate water use in the Lake Urmia basin, North-west Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Norouzi, Hamid; Madani, Kaveh; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Lake Urmia, once one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world has lost more than 90% of its surface body mainly due to the intensive expansion of agriculture, using more than 90% of all water in the region. Access to accurate and up-to-date information on the extent and distribution of individual crop types, associated with land use changes and practices, has significant value in intensively agricultural regions. Explicit information of croplands can be useful for sustainable water resources, land and agriculture planning and management. Remote sensing, has been proven to be a more cost-effective alternative to the traditional statistically-based ground surveys for crop coverage areas that are costly and provide insufficient information. Satellite images along with ground surveys can provide the necessary information of spatial coverage and spectral responses of croplands for sustainable agricultural management. This study strives to differentiate different crop types and agricultural practices to achieve a higher detailed crop map of the Lake Urmia basin. The mapping approach consists of a two-stage supervised classification of multi-temporal multi-spectral high resolution images obtained from Landsat imagery archive. Irrigated and non-irrigated croplands and orchards were separated from other major land covers (urban, ranges, bare-lands, and water) in the region by means of maximum Likelihood supervised classification method. The field data collected during 2015 and land use maps generated in 2007 and Google Earth comparisons were used to form a training data set to perform the supervised classification. In the second stage, non-agricultural lands were masked and the supervised classification was applied on the Landsat images stack to identify seven major croplands in the region (wheat and barley, beetroot, corn, sunflower, alfalfa, vineyards, and apple orchards). The obtained results can be of significant value to the Urmia Lake restoration efforts which

  19. Characterizing baseline concentrations, proportions, and processes controlling deposition of river-transported bitumen-associated polycyclic aromatic compounds at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Matthew C; Wiklund, Johan A; Van Opstal, Stacey R; Wolfe, Brent B; Hall, Roland I

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate knowledge of baseline conditions challenges ability for monitoring programs to detect pollution in rivers, especially where there are natural sources of contaminants. Here, we use paleolimnological data from a flood-prone lake ("SD2", informal name) in the Slave River Delta (SRD, Canada), ∼ 500 km downstream of the Alberta oil sands development and the bitumen-rich McMurray Formation to identify baseline concentrations and proportions of "river-transported bitumen-associated indicator polycyclic aromatic compounds" (indicator PACs; Hall et al. 2012) and processes responsible for their deposition. Results show that indicator PACs are deposited in SD2 by Slave River floodwaters in concentrations that are 45 % lower than those in sediments of "PAD31compounds", a lake upstream in the Athabasca Delta that receives Athabasca River floodwaters. Lower concentrations at SD2 are likely a consequence of sediment retention upstream as well as dilution by sediment influx from the Peace River. In addition, relations with organic matter content reveal that flood events dilute concentrations of indicator PACs in SD2 because the lake receives high-energy floods and the lake sediments are predominantly inorganic. This contrasts with PAD31 where floodwaters increase indicator PAC concentrations in the lake sediments, and concentrations are diluted during low flood influence intervals due to increased deposition of lacustrine organic matter. Results also show no significant differences in concentrations and proportions of indicator PACs between pre- (1967) and post- (1980s and 1990 s) oil sands development high flood influence intervals (t = 1.188, P = 0.279, d.f. = 6.136), signifying that they are delivered to the SRD by natural processes. Although we cannot assess potential changes in indicator PACs during the past decade, baseline concentrations and proportions can be used to enhance ongoing monitoring efforts.

  20. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation : Fish Passage and Habitat Improvement in the Upper Flathead River Basin, 1991-1996 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, W.Ladd; Deleray, Mark; Marotz, Brian L.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects.

  1. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Andes Altiplano, Northwest Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the Andes Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. The altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is an inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America and includes hundreds of volcanic edifices (peaks, cinder cones, lava flows, debris fields, lakes and dry lake beds (salars).

  3. Mid-Wisconsin to Holocene permafrost and landscape dynamics based on a drained lake basin core from the northern Seward Peninsula, northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Josefine; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Anthony, Katey M. Walter; Bobrov, Anatoly; Wulf, Sabine; Wetterich, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost-related processes drive regional landscape dynamics in the Arctic terrestrial system. A better understanding of past periods indicative of permafrost degradation and aggradation is important for predicting the future response of Arctic landscapes to climate change. Here, we used a multi-proxy approach to analyse a ~ 4 m long sediment core from a drained thermokarst lake basin on the northern Seward Peninsula in western Arctic Alaska (USA). Sedimentological, biogeochemical, geochronological, micropalaeontological (ostracoda, testate amoebae) and tephra analyses were used to determine the long-term environmental Early-Wisconsin to Holocene history preserved in our core for central Beringia. Yedoma accumulation dominated throughout the Early to Late-Wisconsin but was interrupted by wetland formation from 44.5 to 41.5 ka BP. The latter was terminated by the deposition of 1 m of volcanic tephra, most likely originating from the South Killeak Maar eruption at about 42 ka BP. Yedoma deposition continued until 22.5 ka BP and was followed by a depositional hiatus in the sediment core between 22.5 and 0.23 ka BP. We interpret this hiatus as due to intense thermokarst activity in the areas surrounding the site, which served as a sediment source during the Late-Wisconsin to Holocene climate transition. The lake forming the modern basin on the upland initiated around 0.23 ka BP and drained catastrophically in spring 2005. The present study emphasises that Arctic lake systems and periglacial landscapes are highly dynamic and that permafrost formation as well as degradation in central Beringia was controlled by regional to global climate patterns as well as by local disturbances.

  4. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  5. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  6. Leakage of active crater lake brine through the north flank at Rincon de la Vieja volcano, northwest Costa Rica, and implications for crater collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempter, K.A.; Rowe, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Active Crater at Rincon de la Vieja volcano, Costa Rica, reaches an elevation of 1750 m and contains a warm, hyper-acidic crater lake that probably formed soon after the eruption of the Rio Blanco tephra deposit approximately 3500 years before present. The Active Crater is buttressed by volcanic ridges and older craters on all sides except the north, which dips steeply toward the Caribbean coastal plains. Acidic, above-ambient-temperature streams are found along the Active Crater's north flank at elevations between 800 and 1000 m. A geochemical survey of thermal and non-thermal waters at Rincon de la Vieja was done in 1989 to determine whether hyper-acidic fluids are leaking from the Active Crater through the north flank, affecting the composition of north-flank streams. Results of the water-chemistry survey reveal that three distinct thermal waters are found on the flanks of Rincon de la Vieja volcano: acid chloride-sulfate (ACS), acid sulfate (AS), and neutral chloride (NC) waters. The most extreme ACS water was collected from the crater lake that fills the Active Crater. Chemical analyses of the lake water reveal a hyper-acidic (pH ~ 0) chloride-sulfate brine with elevated concentrations of calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, fluorine, and boron. The composition of the brine reflects the combined effects of magmatic degassing from a shallow magma body beneath the Active Crater, dissolution of andesitic volcanic rock, and evaporative concentration of dissolved constituents at above-ambient temperatures. Similar cation and anion enrichments are found in the above-ambient-temperature streams draining the north flank of the Active Crater. The pH of north-flank thermal waters range from 3.6 to 4.1 and chloride:sulfate ratios (1.2-1.4) that are a factor of two greater than that of the lake brine (0.60). The waters have an ACS composition that is quite different from the AS and NC thermal waters that occur along the southern flank of Rincon

  7. Leakage of Active Crater lake brine through the north flank at Rincón de la Vieja volcano, northwest Costa Rica, and implications for crater collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempter, K. A.; Rowe, G. L.

    2000-04-01

    The Active Crater at Rincón de la Vieja volcano, Costa Rica, reaches an elevation of 1750 m and contains a warm, hyper-acidic crater lake that probably formed soon after the eruption of the Rio Blanco tephra deposit approximately 3500 years before present. The Active Crater is buttressed by volcanic ridges and older craters on all sides except the north, which dips steeply toward the Caribbean coastal plains. Acidic, above-ambient-temperature streams are found along the Active Crater's north flank at elevations between 800 and 1000 m. A geochemical survey of thermal and non-thermal waters at Rincón de la Vieja was done in 1989 to determine whether hyper-acidic fluids are leaking from the Active Crater through the north flank, affecting the composition of north-flank streams. Results of the water-chemistry survey reveal that three distinct thermal waters are found on the flanks of Rincón de la Vieja volcano: acid chloride-sulfate (ACS), acid sulfate (AS), and neutral chloride (NC) waters. The most extreme ACS water was collected from the crater lake that fills the Active Crater. Chemical analyses of the lake water reveal a hyper-acidic (pH∼0) chloride-sulfate brine with elevated concentrations of calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, fluorine, and boron. The composition of the brine reflects the combined effects of magmatic degassing from a shallow magma body beneath the Active Crater, dissolution of andesitic volcanic rock, and evaporative concentration of dissolved constituents at above-ambient temperatures. Similar cation and anion enrichments are found in the above-ambient-temperature streams draining the north flank of the Active Crater. The pH of north-flank thermal waters range from 3.6 to 4.1 and chloride:sulfate ratios (1.2-1.4) that are a factor of two greater than that of the lake brine (0.60). The waters have an ACS composition that is quite different from the AS and NC thermal waters that occur along the southern flank of

  8. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  9. Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Andrew J.; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M.; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C.; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J. W.; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Background The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for

  10. Paleolimnological assessment of riverine and atmospheric pathways and sources of metal deposition at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Lauren A., E-mail: L7macdon@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wiklund, Johan A. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Elmes, Matthew C.; Wolfe, Brent B. [Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Hall, Roland I., E-mail: rihall@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    Growth of natural resource development in northern Canada has raised concerns about the effects on downstream aquatic ecosystems, but insufficient knowledge of pre-industrial baseline conditions continues to undermine ability of monitoring programs to distinguish industrial-derived contaminants from those supplied by natural processes. Here, we apply a novel paleolimnological approach to define pre-industrial baseline concentrations of 13 priority pollutant metals and vanadium and assess temporal changes, pathways and sources of these metals at a flood-prone lake (SD2) in the Slave River Delta (NWT, Canada) located ~ 500 km north of Alberta's oil sands development and ~ 140 km south of a former gold mine at Yellowknife, NWT. Results identify that metal concentrations, normalized to lithium concentration, are not elevated in sediments deposited during intervals of high flood influence or low flood influence since onset of oil sands development (post-1967) relative to the 1920–1967 baseline established at SD2. When compared to a previously defined baseline for the upstream Athabasca River, several metal-Li relations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, V) in post-1967 sediments delivered by floodwaters appear to plot along a different trajectory, suggesting that the Peace and Slave River watersheds are important natural sources of metal deposition at the Slave River Delta. However, analysis revealed unusually high concentrations of As deposited during the 1950s, an interval of very low flood influence at SD2, which corresponded closely with emission history of the Giant Mine gold smelter indicating a legacy of far-field atmospheric pollution. Our study demonstrates the potential for paleolimnological characterization of baseline conditions and detection of pollution from multiple pathways in floodplain ecosystems, but that knowledge of paleohydrological conditions is essential for interpretation of contaminant profiles. - Highlights: • We examine metal depositional history at a

  11. The Variation of Several Biological Characteristics of the Chub, Squalius cephalus (L., 1758, in the Orenler Dam Lake, Northwest Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait BULUT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, several growth parameters of 338 Squalius cephalus (L., 1758 specimens collected from the Orenler dam lake (Turkey between July 2005 and June 2006 were studied. The population comprised 50.74% males, 46.29% females, and 2.97% males+females. In the examined samples, the age of females and males ranged from I to VII and I to VI, respectively. The fork length and weight of females were 14.7-38.0 cm and 40.68-27.0 g, respectively; these values were 16.3-33.7 cm and 57.7-560.0 g, respectively, for males. The age-length and age-weight relationships at time t were calculated by the von Bertalanffy equation for females, and the following results were obtained: Lt = 37.12[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96], Wt = 775.6[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96]3.27, Lt = 43.59[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719], and Wt = 1123.2[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719]3.08. The calculated length-weight relationship was W = 0.36L3.27 for females and W = 0.03356L3.08 for males. The average condition factor was 1.412 for females and 1.284 for males. Consequently, in the Orenler dam lake, S. cephalus grows very well according to the study’s results.

  12. An early onset of ENSO influence in the extra-tropics of the southwest Pacific inferred from a 14, 600 year high resolution multi-proxy record from Paddy's Lake, northwest Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kristen K.; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn; Gadd, Patricia S.; Heijnis, Henk; Jacobsen, Geraldine E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important influence on natural systems and cultural change across the Pacific Ocean basin. El Niño events result in negative moisture anomalies in the southwest Pacific and are implicated in droughts and catastrophic wildfires across eastern Australia. An amplification of tropical El Niño activity is reported in the east Pacific after ca. 6.7 ka; however, proxy data for ENSO-driven environmental change in Australia suggest an initial influence only after ca. 5 ka. Here, we reconstruct changes in vegetation, fire activity and catchment dynamics (e.g. erosion) over the last 14.6 ka from part of the southwest Pacific in which ENSO is the main control of interannual hydroclimatic variability: Paddy's Lake, in northwest Tasmania (1065 masl), Australia. Our multi-proxy approach includes analyses of charcoal, pollen, geochemistry and radioactive isotopes. Our results reveal a high sensitivity of the local and regional vegetation to climatic change, with an increase of non-arboreal pollen between ca. 14.6-13.3 ka synchronous with the Antarctic Cold Reversal, and a sensitivity of the local vegetation and fire activity to ENSO variability recorded in the tropical east Pacific through the Holocene. We detect local-scale shifts in vegetation, fire and sediment geochemistry at ca. 6.3, 4.8 and 3.4 ka, simultaneous with increases in El Niño activity in the tropical Pacific. Finally, we observe a fire-driven shift in vegetation from a pyrophobic association dominated by rainforest elements to a pyrogenic association dominated by sclerophyllous taxa following a prolonged (>1 ka) phase of tropical ENSO-amplification and a major local fire event at ca. 3.4 ka. Our results reveal the following key insights: (1) that ENSO has been a persistent modulator of southwest Pacific climate and fire activity through the Holocene; (2) that the climate of northwest Tasmania is sensitive to long-term shifts in tropical ENSO variability; and

  13. Draft genome sequence of Halomonas lutea strain YIM 91125(T) (DSM 23508(T)) isolated from the alkaline Lake Ebinur in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Yu; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Haynes, Matthew; Lobos, Elizabeth; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Tindall, Brian J; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Species of the genus Halomonas are halophilic and their flexible adaption to changes of salinity and temperature brings considerable potential biotechnology applications, such as degradation of organic pollutants and enzyme production. The type strain Halomonas lutea YIM 91125(T) was isolated from a hypersaline lake in China. The genome of strain YIM 91125(T) becomes the twelfth species sequenced in Halomonas, and the thirteenth species sequenced in Halomonadaceae. We described the features of H. lutea YIM 91125(T), together with the high quality draft genome sequence and annotation of its type strain. The 4,533,090 bp long genome of strain YIM 91125(T) with its 4,284 protein-coding and 84 RNA genes is a part of Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG-I) project. From the viewpoint of comparative genomics, H. lutea has a larger genome size and more specific genes, which indicated acquisition of function bringing better adaption to its environment. DDH analysis demonstrated that H. lutea is a distinctive species, and halophilic features and nitrogen metabolism related genes were discovered in its genome.

  14. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI, Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season. Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  15. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1984-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This report covers the 1983-84 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance and reproductive success in the upper Flathead River system. This report also addresses the projected recovery of the main stem kokanee run under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and implemented by the Bureau of Reclamation and Bonneville Power Administration in 1982. An estimated 58,775 kokanee reached spawning grounds in the Flathead River System in 1983. The 1983 spawning run was composed of 92% age III + fish, as compared to an average of 80% from 1972-1983. A total of 6883 kokanee redds were enumerated in the main stem Flathead River in 1983. A total of 2366 man-days of angling pressure was estimated during the 1983 kokanee lure fishery in the Flathead River system. Estimated numbers of fry emigrating from McDonald Creek, the Whitefish River and Brenneman's Slough were 13,100,000, 66,254 and 37,198, yielding egg to fry survival rates of 76%, 10.4% and 19.2%.

  16. A river to ruin : why are Americans fighting so hard to protect British Columbia's Flathead River from a strip mine?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.

    2008-06-15

    The Cline Mining Corporation has proposed an open-pit mine to extract 2 million tonnes of coal annually in the Flathead Valley of British Columbia (BC). The Flathead Valley is known internationally for the richness of its flora and fauna. After the Flathead River crosses the border into Montana, it is managed under the most restrictive environmental protection laws available in the United States. The project is expected to be the first in a series of energy projects that will ravage the valley in the near future. Major energy companies are planning to open mines at sites within the Flathead River flood plain. The low quality coal obtained from the valley will be used to supply the unregulated economies of China, India, and Brazil. The valley is situated at the convergence of several biogeoclimatic zones and is home to a rich mix of plants and animals, including the highest concentration of grizzly bears in North America. The BC government's regulatory mechanism is not able to prevent exploitation of the region. Scientists from around the world have unanimously agreed that the mine should not be opened. Tailings from other mines currently draining into the Flathead River are now beginning to alter the river's chemistry. The federal government has been unsuccessful in its bid to create a national park in the region. It was concluded that unless land use regulations for the area are changed, the valley will inevitably be developed. 13 figs.

  17. Simulating future residential property losses from wildfire in Flathead County, Montana: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Paveglio, Travis B; Barnett, Yan; Silverstein, Robin; Hardy, Michael; Keane, Robert; Loehman, Rachel; Clark, Anthony; Fagre, Daniel B.; Venn, Tyron; Stockmann, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire damages to private residences in the United States and elsewhere have increased as a result of expansion of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and other factors. Understanding this unwelcome trend requires analytical frameworks that simulate how various interacting social, economic, and biophysical factors influence those damages. A methodological framework is developed for simulating expected residential property losses from wildfire [E(RLW)], which is a probabilistic monetary measure of wildfire risk to residential properties in the WUI. E(RLW) is simulated for Flathead County, Montana for five, 10-year subperiods covering the period 2010-2059, under various assumptions about future climate change, economic growth, land use policy, and forest management. Results show statistically significant increases in the spatial extent of WUI properties, the number of residential structures at risk from wildfire, and E(RLW) over the 50-year evaluation period for both the county and smaller subareas (i.e., neighborhoods and parcels). The E(RLW) simulation framework presented here advances the field of wildfire risk assessment by providing a finer-scale tool that incorporates a set of dynamic, interacting processes. The framework can be applied using other scenarios for climate change, economic growth, land use policy, and forest management, and in other areas.

  18. Progress in the reconstruction of Quaternary climate dynamics in the Northwest Pacific: A new modern analogue reference dataset and its application to the 430-kyr pollen record from Lake Biwa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Pavel E.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Demske, Dieter; Österle, Hermann; Igarashi, Yaeko; Kitagawa, Junko; Mokhova, Lyudmila; Bazarova, Valentina; Okuda, Masaaki; Gotanda, Katsuya; Miyoshi, Norio; Fujiki, Toshiyuki; Takemura, Keiji; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Fleck, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    This study presents a newly compiled dataset of modern pollen and climate data from 798 sites across Japan and the Russian Far East. This comprehensive reference dataset combined with the modern analogue technique (MAT) provides a powerful tool for pollen-based reconstruction of the Quaternary Northwest Pacific climate. Pollen-derived reconstruction of the modern climate at the reference pollen-sampling sites matches well with the estimated modern climate values ( R2 values vary between 0.79 and 0.95, and RMSEP values vary between 5.8 and 9.7% of the modern climatic range for all nine tested variables). The successful testing of the method encourages its application to the fossil pollen records. We used a coarse-resolution pollen record from Lake Biwa to reconstruct glacial-interglacial climate dynamics in central Japan since ~ 438 kyr and compared it to the earlier reconstruction based on a less representative reference dataset. The current and earlier results consistently demonstrate that the coldest glacial intervals experienced pronounced cooling in winter and moderate cooling in summer, supporting the growth of cool mixed forest (COMX) where warm mixed forest (WAMX) predominates today. During the last glacial, maximum (~ 24 kyr BP) mean temperatures of the coldest (MTCO) and warmest (MTWA) month were about - 13 °C (RMSEP = 2.34 °C) and 21 °C (RMSEP = 1.66 °C) respectively, and annual precipitation (PANN) was about 800 mm (RMSEP = 158.06 mm). During the thermal optimums of the interglacial intervals, the temperatures of the coldest and warmest month were above 0 °C and 25 °C respectively, leading to the reconstruction of WAMX and temperate conifer forest (TECO). Although both these vegetation types grow in the southern part of Japan today, WAMX requires warmer space. The presence of WAMX during marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 and 1, and its absence during MIS 9 and MIS 5 contradict the marine isotope and Antarctic ice records, suggesting that the latter

  19. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  20. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, I. Joseph

    1984-01-01

    The lower Flathead River Canada goose study was initiated to determine goose population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on Canada goose nest and brood habitat, as a result of releases from Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1983 field season (15 February to 30 September, 1983) as part of an ongoing project. (DT)

  1. Effects of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1979-1985 Final Research Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, Patrick

    1986-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. Studies concerning operation of the dam on the Flathead River aquatic biota began in 1979 and continued to 1982 under Bureau of Reclamation funding. These studies resulted in flow recommendations for the aquatic biota in the main stem Flathead River, below the influence of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork. Studies concerned specifically with kokanee salmon have continued under Bonneville Power Administration funding since 1982. This completion report covers the entire study period (September 1979 to June 1985). Major results of this study were: (1) development and refinement of methods to assess hydropower impacts on spawning and incubation success of kokanee; (2) development of a model to predict kokanee year class strength from Flathead River flows; and (3) implementation of flows favorable for successful kokanee reproduction. A monitoring program has been developed which will assess the recovery of the kokanee population as it proceeds, and to recommend management strategies to maintain management goals for the kokanee fishery in the river system.

  2. Long-term atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfate in a large oligotrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bonnie K; Craft, James A; Stanford, Jack A

    2015-01-01

    We documented significantly increasing trends in atmospheric loading of ammonium (NH4) and nitrate/nitrite (NO2/3) and decreasing trends in total phosphorus (P) and sulfate (SO4) to Flathead Lake, Montana, from 1985 to 2004. Atmospheric loading of NO2/3 and NH4 increased by 48 and 198% and total P and SO4 decreased by 135 and 39%. The molar ratio of TN:TP also increased significantly. Severe air inversions occurred periodically year-round and increased the potential for substantial nutrient loading from even small local sources. Correlations between our loading data and various measures of air quality in the basin (e.g., particulate matter dust and smoke are important sources. Ammonium was the primary form of N in atmospheric deposition, whereas NO3 was the primary N form in tributary inputs. Atmospheric loading of NH4 to Flathead Lake averaged 44% of the total load and on some years exceeded tributary loading. Primary productivity in the lake is colimited by both N and P most of the year; and in years of high atmospheric loading of inorganic N, deposition may account for up to 6.9% of carbon converted to biomass.

  3. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  4. Thyroid hormone related gene transcription in southern sand flathead (Platycephalus bassensis) is associated with environmental mercury and arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dingkun; Leef, Melanie; Nowak, Barbara; Bridle, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) are ubiquitous elements known to disrupt thyroid function in vertebrates. To explore the underlying mechanisms of Hg and As on the fish thyroid system, we investigated the associations between muscle concentrations of Hg and As with thyroid-related gene transcription in flathead (Platycephalus bassensis) from a contaminated estuary. We sampled fish at several sites to determine the hepatic expression of genes including deiodinases (D1 and D2), transthyretin (TTR), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) and related them to Hg and As levels in the same individuals. Negative correlations were observed between Hg levels and D2, TTR, TRα and TRβ, whereas positive associations were found between As concentrations and TTR and TRβ. These results suggest that Hg and As exposures from environmental pollution affect the regulation of genes important for normal thyroid function in fish. These thyroid-related genes could be used as biomarkers for monitoring environmental thyroid-hormone disrupting chemicals.

  5. Investigation of the dramatic changes in lake level of the Bosten Lake in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengjing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaode; Chen, Yongmin; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Bosten Lake, located in the arid region of northwest China, is the largest inland freshwater lake in China. Water resources in Bosten Lake are of great importance for the regional drinking water supply, agricultural irrigation, and economic development of Xinjiang province. In this study, the dynamics of the lake level in Bosten Lake were investigated from 1956 to 2010. We found that the lake level experienced three different periods of change due to the combined influences of climate variation and human activities. Generally, the lake level has shown a significant downward trend since the first observation started in 1956 and dropped to its lowest level in 1987. Thereafter, the lake level presented a continuous upward trend and rose to its highest value in 2002. Then, the level decreased dramatically from 2002 to 2010. A water balance model and the climate elasticity method were used to estimate the reasons for the lake level changes of Bosten Lake. The results showed that an increase in lake evaporation led to the continuous decrease in lake level from 1958 to 1987. Then, human-controlled lake outflow and increasing lake inflow together led to the increase in lake level from 1988 to 2002. During 2003 to 2010, the emergency project of transferring water to Tarim River led to the increase in lake outflow, while the lake inflow obviously decreased because of a decrease in precipitation. These factors resulted in a sharp decrease in the lake level from 2003 to 2010. The changes in lake level indicate changes in available water resources from Bosten Lake. This reason for the analysis of the change in lake level in this study is to support the water resources management of Bosten Lake.

  6. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake.

  7. A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae) from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Song, Na; Zou, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Cheng, Guangping; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei

    2013-05-01

    A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo, 2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding. We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying, Qingdao, Zhoushan, and Beihai. Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically. The coloration, meristic traits, and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records. In brief, it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body, lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale, no yellow blotch on the caudal fin. Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%. Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%, which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation. The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity of Platyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

  8. A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae)from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yan; SONG Na; ZOU Jianwei; ZHANG Zhaohui; CHENG Guangping; GAO Tianxiang; ZHANG Xiumei

    2013-01-01

    A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo,2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding.We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying,Qingdao,Zhoushan,and Beihai.Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically.The coloration,meristic traits,and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records.In brief,it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body,lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale,no yellow blotch on the caudal fin.Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis.The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%.Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%,which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation.The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity ofPlatyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

  9. Field trapping of the flathead oak borer Coroebus undatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with different traps and volatile lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenau, Benjamin; Quero, Carmen; Riba, Josep Ma; Rosell, Gloria; Guerrero, Angel

    2015-02-01

    The flathead oak borer Coroebus undatus F. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is one of the primary pests of cork oak Quercus suber L. in the Mediterranean region causing great economic losses to the cork industry. Very little is known about its biology and behavior and, so far, no control measures have been established. We present the results of a pilot study aimed to develop an efficient trapping method for monitoring this harmful pest. In a 3-year field study, purple-colored prism traps baited with a mixture of green leaf volatiles (GLVs) from the host have been shown the most effective combination to catch C. undatus adults (solely females) compared to other trap and lure types tested. Wavelength and reflectance measurements revealed that purple traps exhibit reflectance peak values similar to those found in the abdominal and elytral cuticle of both sexes, suggesting the involvement of visual cues for mate location in this species. The data presented are the first to demonstrate captures of adults of the genus Coroebus by an attractant-based trapping method.

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Plant Communities within Camassia quamash Habitats on the Flathead Indian Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringland, M.; Diller, B.

    2014-12-01

    Wetland destruction and disruption across the country has resulted in loss of habitat and diversity, leading to major ecosystem change. This study considers Camassia quamash (blue camas) as an indicator of wetland health and, in light of recent decrease in camas populations, as the subject species for a reintroduction project due to the plant's cultural significance. The bulb from which camas grows was a major subsistence commodity for tribes living in the Pacific Northwest and was once the second most-traded item in the region after salmon. Conservation management practices recommend detailed analysis of the target species' habitat in order to determine characteristics necessary for reestablishment. It was hypothesized that certain species, specifically exotic or invasive plants, may present deleterious competition for blue camas. Plant community dynamics associated with camas populations were studied using plot and transect sampling to measure camas density and species coverage. Statistical analysis was used to calculate camas density, frequency, site diversity, and correlation of each plant species with camas. One study site at Evaro, MT was found to have the highest level of plant diversity and highest abundance of camas. However, of the 83 species identified, none were found to have significant positive or negative correlation with camas prevalence, and no data supported the hypothesis of exotic or invasive competition.

  11. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  12. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  13. Biodiversity of the Hypersaline Urmia Lake National Park (NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asem

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urmia Lake, with a surface area between 4000 to 6000 km2, is a hypersaline lake located in northwest Iran. It is the saltiest large lake in the world that supports life. Urmia Lake National Park is the home of an almost endemic crustacean species known as the brine shrimp, Artemia urmiana. Other forms of life include several species of algae, bacteria, microfungi, plants, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals. As a consequence of this unique biodiversity, this lake has been selected as one of the 59 biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This paper provides a comprehensive species checklist that needs to be updated by additional research in the future.

  14. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    warehouse. If the batch of lenses is faulty, the manufacturer wants to know ASAP in order to send Visionary Lenses a new batch of lenses. The manufacturer ...increased. • A few years ago, Nike started using pre-consumer Nike Grind – (scrap material from their manufacturing facilities) – in new ...Northwest ( in particular with firms in the manufacturing eco-system of defense supply chains). Special emphasis was placed to increase the

  15. Cordilleran front range structural features in northwest Montana interpreted from vintage seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Mason C.; Rutherford, Bradley S.; Speece, Marvin A.; Mosolf, Jesse G.

    2016-04-01

    Industry seismic reflection data spanning the Rocky Mountain Cordillera front ranges of northwest Montana were reprocessed and interpreted in this study. Five seismic profiles represent 160 km of deep reflection data collected in 1983 that span the eastern Purcell anticlinorium, Rocky Mountain Trench (RMT), Rocky Mountain Basal Décollement (RMBD), and Lewis thrust. The data were reprocessed using modern techniques including refraction statics, pre-stack time migration (PSTM), and pre- and post-stack depth migration. Results indicate the RMBD is 8-13 km below the Earth's surface and dip 3-10° west. Evidence for the autochthonous Mesoproterozoic Belt and basal Cambrian rocks beneath the RMBD is present in all of the profiles and appears to extend east of the RMT. The Lewis thrust was identified in the seismic profiles and appears to sole into the RMBD east of the RMT. The RMT fault system has a dip displacement of 3-4 km and forms a half graben filled with 1 km of unconsolidated Tertiary sedimentary deposits. The RMT and adjacent Flathead fault systems are interpreted to be structurally linked and may represent a synthetic, en echelon fault system.

  16. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur cyc...

  17. Northwest Area Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  18. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  19. Northwest Climate Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P.; Dalton, M. M.; Snover, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the US National Climate Assessment, the Northwest region undertook a process of climate risk assessment. This process included an expert evaluation of previously identified impacts, their likelihoods, and consequences, and engaged experts from both academia and natural resource management practice (federal, tribal, state, local, private, and non-profit) in a workshop setting. An important input was a list of 11 risks compiled by state agencies in Oregon and similar adaptation efforts in Washington. By considering jointly the likelihoods, consequences, and adaptive capacity, participants arrived at an approximately ranked list of risks which was further assessed and prioritized through a series of risk scoring exercises to arrive at the top three climate risks facing the Northwest: 1) changes in amount and timing of streamflow related to snowmelt, causing far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences; 2) coastal erosion and inundation, and changing ocean acidity, combined with low adaptive capacity in the coastal zone to create large risks; and 3) the combined effects of wildfire, insect outbreaks, and diseases will cause large areas of forest mortality and long-term transformation of forest landscapes.

  20. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  3. [Changes in vegetation and soil characteristics under tourism disturbance in lakeside wetland of northwest Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming-Yan; Yang, Yong-Xing

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics of vegetation and soil were investigated in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands in northwest Yunnan Plateau under tourism disturbance. The 22 typical plots in the wetlands were classified into 4 types by TWINSPAN, including primary wetland, light degradation, moderate degradation, and severe degradation. Along the degradation gradient, the plant community density, coverage, species number and Shannon diversity index increased and the plant height decreased in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands, and Whittaker diversity index increased in Bita Lake wetland. Plant species number, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, porosity, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium contents were higher in Shudu Lake wetland than in Bita Lake wetland, but the plant density, height, soil total potassium and pH were opposite. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) by importance values of 42 plants and 11 soil variables showed that soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total potassium were the key factors on plant species distribution in Bita Lake and Shudu Lake wetlands under tourism disturbance. TWINSPAN classification and analysis of vegetation-soil characteristics indicated the effects of tourism disturbance in Bita Lake wetland were larger than in Shudu Lake wetland.

  4. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  5. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  6. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  7. Holocene temperatures and isotopes of precipitation in Northwest Greenland recorded in lacustrine organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, G. Everett; Axford, Yarrow; McFarlin, Jamie M.; Kelly, Meredith A.; Osterberg, Erich C.; Berkelhammer, Max B.

    2017-08-01

    Reconstructions of Holocene lake water isotopic composition based upon subfossil aquatic organic material offer new insights into Arctic climate. We present quantitative estimates of warmth during the Holocene Thermal Maximum in northwest Greenland, inferred from oxygen isotopes of chironomid head capsules and aquatic moss preserved in lake sediments. δ18O values of chironomids from surface sediments of multiple Greenland lakes indicate that these subfossil remains record the δ18O values of the lake water in which they grow. Our lake water δ18O reconstruction is supported by downcore agreement with δ18O values in aquatic moss and chironomid remains. δ18O of both organic materials from Secret Lake decrease after 4 ka (ka = thousands of years ago) by 3‰ into the Neoglacial. We argue that lake water at Secret Lake primarily reflects precipitation δ18O values, which is strongly correlated with air temperature in NW Greenland, and that this signal is biased towards summer and early autumn conditions. Other factors may have influenced Secret Lake δ18O values through the Holocene, including evaporation of lake water and changing seasonality and source of precipitation. The maximum early Holocene summer and early autumn-biased temperature anomaly at Secret Lake is 2.5-4 °C warmer than present from 7.7 (the beginning of our record) to ∼6 ka. The maximum late Holocene cold anomaly (which includes the Little Ice Age) is 1.5-3 °C colder than present. These ranges of possible temperature anomalies reflect uncertainty in the δ18O - temperature relationship for precipitation at the study site through the Holocene.

  8. Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Tang, Mingjie; Zhang, Haiting; Zuohua, Yuanchun; Yin, Zuohua; Li, Tianxian; Guo, Shan; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders.

  9. Electrochemical growth of controlled tip shapes of ZnO nanorod arrays on silicon substrate and enhanced photoluminescence emission from nanopyramid arrays compared with flat-head nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimanesh, Mahmoud; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, Norzaini

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRAs) with different morphologies such as; perfect hexagon flat-head, pyramidal, compact pencil, nail-shaped, and high-compact ZnO nanorod thin films, were successfully grown on silicon substrates. These NRAs were formed on substrates using a simple low-temperature electrochemical method without adding any catalyst or template via the precursors of zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2·6H2O] and hexamethylenetetramine [HMT; C6H12N4] with an equal molar concentration of 0.025 mol/l. The morphologies of the ZnO nanorods (NRs) could be controlled and transformed successfully in to other morphologies by changing the growth conditions, such as; growth temperature and applied current density. Detailed structural investigations reveal that the synthesized various NRs are single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase and preferentially grow along the c-axis direction. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra show that each spectrum consists of an ultraviolet (UV) band and a relative broad visible light emission and infrared emission peak. The enhanced light emission intensity at UV peak (∼375 nm) is observed significantly from ZnO nanopyramid (NP) arrays because of the conical shape of NP. The photoluminescence intensity of the UV peak from the NPs is found to be 1.5-17 times larger than those from the other various NRs.

  10. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  11. Hispanics in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Annabel Kirschner

    Sources of diversity in the Pacific Northwest's Spanish origin population, up 79.7% since 1970, was the subject of research based on 1980 Census data. Census information for Whites and Hispanics from metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties with 400 or more persons of Spanish origin was compared on the basis of age, family/household structure,…

  12. Solar 78 Northwest conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are included. One was abstracted previously. Separate entries were prepared for thirty-seven. Also included are the conference evaluation summary, Pacific Northwest Solar Energy Association organization information, lists of commercial and non-commercial exhibitors, speakers and stearing committee members, and attendees. (MHR)

  13. Northwest Ohio Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin

    2015-03-04

    Improvement Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily

  14. Oxygen isotope records of Holocene climate variability in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Byron A.; Pompeani, David P.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Mihindukulasooriya, Lorita N.; Hillman, Aubrey L.

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements of authigenic carbonate from Cleland Lake (southeastern British Columbia), Paradise Lake (central British Columbia), and Lime Lake (eastern Washington) provide a ∼9000 year Holocene record of precipitation-evaporation balance variations in the Pacific Northwest. Both Cleland Lake and Paradise Lake are small, surficially closed-basin systems with no active inflows or outflows. Lime Lake is surficially open with a seasonally active overflow. Water isotope values from Cleland and Paradise plot along the local evaporation line, indicating that precipitation-evaporation balance is a strong influence on lake hydrology. In contrast, Lime Lake water isotope values plot on the local meteoric water line, signifying minimal influence by evaporation. To infer past hydrologic balance variations at a high temporal resolution, we sampled the Cleland, Paradise, and Lime Lake sediment cores at 1-60 mm intervals (∼3-33 years per sample on average) and measured the isotopic composition of fine-grained (ocean-atmosphere changes in the Pacific basin. Results from mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP) climate model simulations conducted as part of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (PMIP3) indicate that in much of western North America, the cold season (October-March) was wetter and the warm season (April-September) was considerably drier relative to the late Holocene, leading to an overall drier climate in western North America with enhanced hydroclimatic seasonality. This is consistent with inferences from the Cleland and Paradise δ18O records, which lake modeling experiments indicate are strongly influenced by cold season precipitation-evaporation balance. This also explains apparent inconsistencies between the lake δ18O records and other proxies of hydroclimatic change from the greater Pacific Northwest region that are less sensitive to cold season climate and thus indicate relatively drier conditions during the mid-Holocene. The

  15. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  16. Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    If you live in Europe and buy roses, there is a good chance that they were grown in Kenya specifically, in one of the colossal greenhouses that blot out the once wild shores of Lake Naivasha, 90km north-west of Nairobi. Some 25% of Europe's cut flowers come from Kenya. After a tentative start in the 1980s the industry is now the country's third-largest foreign-currency earner, bringing in $120m a year. But the recent violence in Kenya is having a major impact on the flower growers. A local trade union says 3,000 of the 30,000 workers employed in Naivasha's flower farms have abandoned their jobs. Kenya emerged as a flower power when Israel scaled down its own industry. It has since lost business to neighboring Ethiopia, which offers tax breaks and better security, but Naivasha's perfect intensity of sunlight and days of near-constant length should keep it on top. The ASTER image was acquired February 2, 2008, covers an area of 25 x 26.6 km, and is located near 0.8 degrees south latitude, 36.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    If you live in Europe and buy roses, there is a good chance that they were grown in Kenya specifically, in one of the colossal greenhouses that blot out the once wild shores of Lake Naivasha, 90km north-west of Nairobi. Some 25% of Europe's cut flowers come from Kenya. After a tentative start in the 1980s the industry is now the country's third-largest foreign-currency earner, bringing in $120m a year. But the recent violence in Kenya is having a major impact on the flower growers. A local trade union says 3,000 of the 30,000 workers employed in Naivasha's flower farms have abandoned their jobs. Kenya emerged as a flower power when Israel scaled down its own industry. It has since lost business to neighboring Ethiopia, which offers tax breaks and better security, but Naivasha's perfect intensity of sunlight and days of near-constant length should keep it on top. The ASTER image was acquired February 2, 2008, covers an area of 25 x 26.6 km, and is located near 0.8 degrees south latitude, 36.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  20. Conifer density within lake catchments predicts fish mercury concentrations in remote subalpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herring, Garth; Johnson, Branden L.; Graw, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited mercury through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of mercury loading versus landscape influences on mercury bioaccumulation. The increase in mercury deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in mercury emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk. We evaluated mercury concentrations in resident fish from 28 high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Fish total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 4 to 438 ng/g wet weight, with a geometric mean concentration (±standard error) of 43 ± 2 ng/g ww. Fish THg concentrations were negatively correlated with relative condition factor, indicating that faster growing fish that are in better condition have lower THg concentrations. Across the 28 study lakes, mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as 18-fold among lakes. We used a hierarchal statistical approach to evaluate the relative importance of physiological, limnological, and catchment drivers of fish Hg concentrations. Our top statistical model explained 87% of the variability in fish THg concentrations among lakes with four key landscape and limnological variables: catchment conifer density (basal area of conifers within a lake's catchment), lake surface area, aqueous dissolved sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon. Conifer density within a lake's catchment was the most important variable explaining fish THg concentrations across lakes, with THg concentrations differing by more than 400 percent across the forest density spectrum. These results illustrate the importance of landscape characteristics in controlling mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

  1. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  2. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  3. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  4. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  6. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  7. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  8. China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Northwest Architectural Design & Research Institute,founded by the state on June 1, 1952 is the first and largest architectural design institute in northwest China. For over 50 years, Northwest Institute has gradually established itself as a renowned and comprehensive design institute. It is staffed by a team of outstanding engineering design specialists able to undertake various architectural design projects from home and abroad.

  9. Effects of internal loading on phosphorus distribution in the Taihu Lake driven by wind waves and lake currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Fang, Hongwei; He, Guojian; Jiang, Helong; Wang, Changhui

    2016-12-01

    Wind-driven sediment resuspension exerts significant effects on the P behavior in shallow lake ecosystems. In this study, a comprehensive dynamic phosphorus (P) model that integrates hydrodynamic, wind wave and sediment transport is proposed to assess the importance of internal P cycling due to sediment resuspension on water column P levels. The primary contribution of the model is detailed modeling and rigorous coupling of sediment and P dynamics. The proposed model is applied to predict the P behavior in the shallow Taihu Lake, which is the third largest lake in China, and quantitatively estimate the effects of wind waves and lake currents on P release and distribution. Both the prevailing southeast winds in summer and northwest winds in winter are applied for the simulation, and different wind speeds of 5 m/s and 10 m/s are also considered. Results show that sediment resuspension and the resulting P release have a dominant effect on P levels in Taihu Lake, and likely similar shallow lakes. Wind-driven waves at higher wind speeds significantly enhance sediment resuspension and suspended sediment concentration (SSC). Total P concentration in the water column is also increased but not in proportion to the SSC. The different lake circulations resulting from the different prevailing wind directions also affect the distribution of suspended sediment and P around the lake ultimately influencing where eutrophication is likely to occur. The proposed model demonstrates that internal cycling in the lake is a dominant factor in the lake P and must be considered when trying to manage water quality in this and similar lakes. The model is used to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of remediation of an area where historical releases have led to P accumulation on overall lake quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  11. Report on Phase 2 Archaeological Testing at 21 AK 11, Big Sandy Lake, Aitkin County, Minnesota (June 10-11 and August 1-5 and 20-21, 1985)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-05

    as early as the fifteenth century A.D. and appears to have affected also northern Minnesota ( Woolworth 1977:16). Here, Woodland adapted Siouan...Lake, Pelican Lake and Lake Vermilion ( Woolworth 1977:19-20). Between the late 1700^ and the 1870’s, these Ojibwa were the only people living in...Waters and along the northwest shore of Lake Superior ( Woolworth 1977:26-29), as well as in interior northeast-north central Minnesota (Johnson

  12. Sediment sequences and palynology of outer South Bay, Manitoulin Island, Ontario: Connections to Lake Huron paleohydrologic phases and upstream Lake Agassiz events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C. F. M.; Anderson, T. W.

    2017-10-01

    South Bay on the southern coast of Manitoulin Island is a fjord-like embayment connected to Lake Huron by a natural narrow gap in the bay's outer sill 6.5-14 m above the lake. A seismic profile, pollen, plant macrofossil, grain size analyses, and other sediment properties of two piston cores from a shallow outer basin of the bay document a 9 m-thick sediment section comprising rhythmically laminated clay under silty clay containing zones with small molluscan shells and marsh detritus. A sandy pebbly layer under soft silty clay mud overlies these sediments. This stratigraphy represents inundation by deep glacial Lake Algonquin followed by the shallowing Post Algonquin series of lakes, and exposure in the early Holocene by 5 Lake Stanley lowstands in the Lake Huron basin separated by 4 Lake Mattawa highstands. Overflow from South Bay in the first lowstand is thought to have eroded the outer sill gap. Marsh environments are inferred to have formed in the bay during subsequent lowstands. The Lake Mattawa highstands are attributed to outburst floods mainly from glacial Lake Agassiz. Palynological evidence of increased spruce occurrence, an apparent regional climate reversal, during the dry pine period is attributed to cold northwest winds from the Lake Superior basin and a lake effect from the Mattawa highstands in the Lake Huron basin. Lake waters transgressed South Bay following the pine period to form the Nipissing shore on Manitoulin Island. Transfer of Lake Huron basin drainage to southern outlets and continued glacioisostatic uplift of the region led to the present configuration of South Bay and Lake Huron.

  13. Engineering geology of the Great Bear River area, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savigny, K.W. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    This report represents the results of an engineering geology study of the Great Bear River valley in the Northwest Territories. For most of its length, the river has a steep gradient and is deeply incised in a narrow valley. These topographic characteristics combined with the enormous reservoir capacity of Great Bear Lake make the valley attractive for hydroelectric development. Topographic characteristics and geographic location also make it an obstacle to linear facilities following the Mackenzie Transportation Corridor, such as pipelines, railroads and roads. The valley is incised up to 50 m below the levels of Mackenzie and Great Bear plains. Quaternary sediments are exposed intermittently along the valley slopes. Rocks of Tertiary age are exposed more or less continuously along the lower reach of Great Bear River, and Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks are exposed where the river crosses McConnell Range at St. Charles Rapids. A single Laurentide till is present and is assumed to represent the Late Wisconsin ice advance. The till generally rests on bedrock, but locally it overlies older alluvial and deltaic sediments. This advance was followed by a lacustrine phase over Mackenzie Plain. The lacustrine phase appears to have ended abruptly with progradation of a deltaic facies. Permafrost is widespread except beneath large lakes, streams and rivers. Postglacial entrenchment by Great Bear River appears to have begun on Mackenzie Plain about 10,000 years ago and approached its present level by approximately 2670 years ago. 38 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Identification of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra in the Palouse loess of Washington State, northwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Georgina E.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Roberts, Helen M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Westgate, John A.; Gaylord, David R.; Sweeney, Mark R.

    2016-09-01

    The Kulshan caldera formed at ∼1.15 Ma on the present-day site of Mt. Baker, Washington State, northwest USA and erupted a compositionally zoned (dacite-rhyolite) magma and a correlative eruptive, the Lake Tapps tephra. This tephra has previously been described, but only from the Puget Lowland of NW Washington. Here an occurrence of a Kulshan caldera correlative tephra is described from the Quaternary Palouse loess at the Washtucna site (WA-3). Site WA-3 is located in east-central Washington, ∼340 km southeast of the Kulshan caldera and ∼300 km east-southeast of the Lake Tapps occurrence in the Puget Lowland. Major- and trace element chemistry and location of the deposit at Washtucna within reversed polarity sediments indicates that it is not correlative with the Mesa Falls, Rockland, Bishop Ash, Lava Creek B or Huckleberry Ridge tephras. Instead the Washtucna deposit is related to the Lake Tapps tephra by fractional crystallisation, but is chemically distinct, a consequence of its eruption from a compositionally zoned magma chamber. The correlation of the Washtucna occurrence to the Kulshan caldera-forming eruption indicates that it had an eruptive volume exceeding 100 km3, and that its tephra could provide a valuable early-Pleistocene chronostratigraphic marker in the Pacific Northwest.

  15. Perchlorate in Lake Water from an Operating Diamond Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lianna J D; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W; Groza, Laura G; Moncur, Michael C

    2015-07-07

    Mining-related perchlorate [ClO4(-)] in the receiving environment was investigated at the operating open-pit and underground Diavik diamond mine, Northwest Territories, Canada. Samples were collected over four years and ClO4(-) was measured in various mine waters, the 560 km(2) ultraoligotrophic receiving lake, background lake water and snow distal from the mine. Groundwaters from the underground mine had variable ClO4(-) concentrations, up to 157 μg L(-1), and were typically an order of magnitude higher than concentrations in combined mine waters prior to treatment and discharge to the lake. Snow core samples had a mean ClO4(-) concentration of 0.021 μg L(-1) (n=16). Snow and lake water Cl(-)/ClO4(-) ratios suggest evapoconcentration was not an important process affecting lake ClO4(-) concentrations. The multiyear mean ClO4(-) concentrations in the lake were 0.30 μg L(-1) (n = 114) in open water and 0.24 μg L(-1) (n = 107) under ice, much below the Canadian drinking water guideline of 6 μg L(-1). Receiving lake concentrations of ClO4(-) generally decreased year over year and ClO4(-) was not likely [biogeo]chemically attenuated within the receiving lake. The discharge of treated mine water was shown to contribute mining-related ClO4(-) to the lake and the low concentrations after 12 years of mining were attributed to the large volume of the receiving lake.

  16. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  17. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  18. On the surficial sediments of the fresh water Naini Lake, Kumaun Himalaya, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Hashimi, N.H.

    The 1.4 km long and 0.45-0.25 km wide crescent shaped Naini Lake in the Nainital District of Kumaun Himalaya, India is divided by an east-west running transverse Central Ridge into two sub-basins. These northwest and southeast sub...

  19. Investigations on boron isotopic geochemistry of salt lakes in Qaidam basin, Qinghai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Y.K.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Liu, W.G.; Wang, Y.H.; Jin, L.

    of brine and are related to boron origin, the corrosion of salt and to certain chemical constituents. The distribution of boron isotopes in Quidam Basin showed a regional feature: salt lake brines in the west and northwest basin have the highest d11B values...

  20. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... in lake morphometry and catchment conditions when comparing metabolic responses of lakes to human impacts....

  1. Bioenergy possibilities in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, O. (The National Bioenergy Union, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Mutanen, K. (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, Joensuu (Finland))

    2007-07-01

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  2. training health center in Northwest Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinics at a training health centre in Northwest Ethiopia. The records of 364 ... Medicine, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box. 24762, Code ..... Antenatal care clinic choices and Reported. Activities of ANC ... Mesfin M, Farrow J. Determinants of.

  3. Northwest Atlantic Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0155889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, NCEI Regional Climatology Team...

  4. Lake Urmia (Iran): can future socio-ecologically motivated river basin management restore lake water levels in an arid region with extensive agricultural development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Klove, Bjorn; Madani, Kaveh

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest hyper saline lakes located in northwest of Iran, is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Ramsar site, protected as a national park and, supports invaluable and unique biodiversity and related ecosystem services for the region's 6.5 million inhabitants. Due to increased development of the region's water resources for agriculture and industry and to a certain extent climate change, the lake has started to shrink dramatically since 1995 and now is holding less than 30 percent of its volume. Rapid development in agricultural sector and land-use changes has resulted in immense construction of dams and water diversions in almost all lake feeding rivers, intensifying lake shrinking, increasing salinity and degrading its ecosystem. Recently, lake's cultural and environmental importance and social pressure has raised concerns and brought government attention to the lake restoration plans. Along with poor management, low yield agriculture as the most water consuming activity in the region with, rapid, insufficient development is one of the most influential drivers in the lake desiccation. Part of the lake restoration plans in agricultural sector is to restrict the agricultural areas in the main feeding river basins flowing mostly in the southern part of the lake and decreasing the agricultural water use in this area. This study assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed plans and its influence on the lake level rise and its impacts on economy in the region using a system dynamics model developed for the Lake consist of hydrological and agro-economical sub-systems. The effect of decrease in agricultural area in the region on GDP and region economy was evaluated and compared with released water contribution in lake level rise for a five year simulation period.

  5. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  6. Quaternary Tectonism in a Collision Zone, Northwest Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, P. A.; Wolf, S. C.; Intelmann, S. S.; Danforth, W. W.; Weldon, R. J.; Blair, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Kinematic, geodetic, and geologic observations define a region with 6-8 mm/y of north-south contraction between the Columbia River and Vancouver Island. We attribute this contraction to differential forearc-block motion within the Cascadia subduction system where the Oregon Coast Range block is moving northward relative to Vancouver Island. The contraction is accommodated by a combination of distributed uplift in the Olympic Mountains, and faulting along the margins of the Coast Range and Vancouver Island blocks. The tide gauge at Neah Bay, which records one of the highest rates of uplift anywhere along the Cascadia subduction margin, suggests that a significant portion of this north-south contraction occurs between the northern Olympic Peninsula and Vancouver Island. The northwest-trending Calawah fault, extending from Makah Bay eastward to near Lake Crescent, appears to mark the modern boundary between the Olympic Mountains block and the Vancouver Island block in northwestern Washington. Onshore, the 80+ km-long Calawah fault displaces late Quaternary glacial sediments and geodetic uplift rates increase abruptly across the fault zone. Offshore in Makah Bay, new multibeam, sidescan-sonar, and high-resolution seismic reflection data image a complex, multi-strand fault zone that offsets the seafloor and moves Cape Flattery rocks seaward. Two parallel, northwest-trending fault strands bound a down-dropped block that in turn terminates along a northward-trending anticlinal fold and thrust fault. These data suggest that the Calawah fault zone currently accommodates contraction both by uplift and by seaward translation of rocks north of the forearc-block boundary. Our geologic mapping in the Cape Flattery area indicates that differential block motion is accommodated by a combination of crustal uplift, folding, and left-lateral, strike-slip faulting.

  7. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  8. Lake evaporation:A possible factor affecting lake level changes tested by modern observational data in arid and semi-arid China%通过现代观测来检验湖面蒸发对中国干旱、半干旱区湖泊水位变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; WANG Nai'ang; LI Zhuolun; MA Ning; ZHOU Xuehua; ZHANG Chengqi

    2013-01-01

    @@%Qinghai Lake and Zhuye Lake,~400 km apart,are located in the northwest margin of the Asian summer monsoon.Water of these two lakes mostly comes from the middle and eastern parts of the Qilian Mountains.Previous studies show that the Holocene climate changes of the two lakes implied from lake records are different.Whether lake evaporation plays a role in asynchronous Holocene climate changes is important to understand the lake records.In this paper,we used modern observations beside Qinghai Lake and Zhuye Lake to test the impact factors for lake evaporation.Pan evaporation near the two lakes is mainly related to relative humidity,temperature,vapor pressure and sunshine duration.But temperature has different impacts to lake evaporation of the two lakes,which can affect Holocene millennial-scale lake level changes.In addition,differences in relative humidity on the millennial-scale would be more significant,which also can contribute to asynchronous lake records.

  9. Hydrologic investigation of Powell Marsh and its relation to Dead Pike Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohelski, James T.; Rose, William J.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2002-01-01

    An analytic element ground-water-flow model was constructed to help understand the ground- and surface-water hydrology in the vicinity of Dead Pike Lake and Powell Marsh, Vilas County, Wisconsin. The model was used to simulate the effect of removing Powell Marsh control structures (ditches and Vista Pond) on the hydrology of Dead Pike Lake. Measurements and model simulation results show that ground water in the vicinity of Powell Marsh moves to the northwest and west. If Powell Marsh structures are removed from the simulation, it does not affect the general direction of ground-water flow nor the total flow to Dead Pike Lake. Without the simulated structures, slightly more ground-water flow enters Dead Pike Lake and slightly less surface-water flows at the Dead Pike Lake inlet than with the simulated structures.

  10. Flathead Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvin Pete: Ed McCarthy; Krista Gordon; Chris Bergen; Rhett Good

    2006-10-03

    The study shall assess the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on lands selected and owned by the Salish and Kootenai Tribes and shall examine the potential for the development of solar and biomass resources located on Tribal Lands.

  11. HYDROLOGY, FLATHEAD COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. LAKE VICTORIA BASIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected satellite lakes and Mara River in Lake Victoria basin, during wet and dry seasons in. 2002. Samples ... The wet season recorded higher biomass in all satellite lakes than during the dry season (t = 2.476, DF ..... communication. Urbana ...

  13. Bathymetry of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2007-01-01

    the shore and river mouth that could be boulders, tree stumps, logs, or other submerged objects. The echosounder detected what appeared to be mounds in the deepest parts of Walker Lake, miles from the shore and river mouth. However, side-scan sonar and divers did not confirm the presence of mounds. Anomalies occur in two northwest trending groups in northern and southern Walker Lake. It is hypothesized that some anomalies indicate spring discharge along faults based on tufa-like rocks that were observed and the northwest trend parallel to and in proximity of mapped faults. Also, evaporation measured from Walker Lake is about 50 percent more than the previous estimate, indicating more water is flowing into the lake from sources other than the Walker River. Additional studies need to be done to determine what the anomalies are and whether they are related to the hydrology of Walker Lake. Most differences in surface area and storage volume between this study and a study by Rush in 1970 were less than 1 percent. The largest differences occur at lake-surface altitudes less than 3,916 feet. In general, relations between lake-surface altitude, surface area, and storage volume from Rush's study and this study are nearly identical throughout most of the range in lake-surface altitude. The lake-surface altitude in 1882 was estimated to be between 4,080 feet and 4,086 feet with a probable altitude of 4,082 feet. This estimate compares well with two previous estimates of 4,083 feet and 4,086 feet. Researchers believe the historic highstand of Walker Lake occurred in 1868 and estimated the highstand was between 4,089 feet and 4,108 feet. By 1882, Mason Valley was predominantly agricultural. The 7-26 feet decline in lake-surface altitude between 1868 and 1882 could partially be due to irrigation diversions during this time.

  14. The Tintah-Campbell gap and implications for glacial Lake Agassiz drainage during the Younger Dryas cold interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, Andy

    2015-06-01

    Reconstructions of glacial Lake Agassiz paleogeography and drainage have been an important contribution to formulating a hypothesis in which glacial Lake Agassiz drainage to the Atlantic Ocean initiated the Younger Dryas cold interval. This study evaluates the lake level and outlet history of Lake Agassiz as recorded by strandlines visible on lidar digital elevation models from North Dakota and Minnesota. The former lake levels are warped due to glacial isostatic adjustment. Older levels have experienced more uplift and therefore have more curvature. The strandline data establish that the Moorhead lowstand of Lake Agassiz was bracketed by the strongly diverging Campbell and Tintah lake levels, which creates a vertical gap between the former lake levels. This gap exists due to a lake level drop of ˜90 m when the Laurentide Ice Sheet retreat opened a lower outlet, which must have been a northwest outlet to the Arctic Ocean. By applying an exponential decay rebound model, this event dates to 12,180 ± 480 cal yr BP, post-dating the beginning of the Younger Dryas at 12,900 cal yr BP. Eastern drainage outlets to the Atlantic Ocean through the Laurentian Great Lakes that were contemporaneous with the onset of the Younger Dryas cannot be ruled out, but if these outlets existed, their duration of occupation was short-lived and not characterized by significant drawdown events within glacial Lake Agassiz.

  15. Terrestrial sensitivity to abrupt cooling recorded by aeolian activity in northwest Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M.C.; Fisher, T.G.; Goble, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence dated sand dunes and Pleistocene beach ridges in northwest Ohio are used to reconstruct landscape modification more than 5000. yr after deglaciation. Four of the OSL ages (13.3-11.1. ka) cluster around the Younger Dryas cold event, five ages (10.8-8.2. ka) cluster around the Preboreal, one young age (0.9-0.7. ka) records more recent aeolian activity, and one age of 15.1-13.1. ka dates a barrier spit in Lake Warren. In northwest Ohio, both landscape instability recorded by aeolian activity and a vegetation response recorded by pollen are coeval with the Younger Dryas. However, the climate conditions during the Preboreal resulting in aeolian activity are not recorded in the available pollen records. From this, we conclude that aeolian dunes and surfaces susceptible to deflation are sensitive to cooler, drier episodes of climate and can complement pollen data. Younger Dryas and Preboreal aged aeolian activity in northwestern Ohio coincides with aeolian records elsewhere in the Great Lakes region east of the prairie-forest ecotone. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  16. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  17. [Space distribution characteristics and diversity analysis of phosphorus from overlying water and surface sediments in Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, He-zhong; Shen, Ji; Liu, En-feng; Wang, Jian-jun; Meng, Xiang-hua

    2010-04-01

    The physi-chemical indexes in the overlying water and surface sediments of Taihu Lake, an eutrophic shallow lake, were determined. Then, the isopleth maps of spatial distribution of each parameter were illustrated. The results show that the concentrations of SRP, TP and TN in the overlying water and TOC, TN and TP as well as phosphorus fractions in surface sediments exhibit distinct diversity in spatially. The lowest values of TP and TN were 0.05, 0.88 mg x L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of Fe-P ranged from 29.13 to 258.31 mg x kg(-1). Besides, the northwest lake regions, high-load Ca-P was surveyed in the South Taihu Lake and East Taihu Lake with the highest value of 357.68 mg x kg(-1). The highest concentration of OP, 371.91 mg x kg(-1) was detected in the northwest region of the lake. IP takes up a greater proportion of TP than OP, and the highest value is approximately 50% higher than the lowest value. Fe-P has higher percentage in IP compared with Ca-P. Significant correlation between Fe-P, SRP and TP showed that Fe-P was the important phosphorus source of the overlying water (R: 0.49, 0.64). Furthermore, high correlation coefficients between TOC, TOC, C/N, TN, TP and phosphorus fractions suggest that higher concentration of organics was favor to the accumulation and burial of nutrients. The high-load contaminants exist principally in the Zhushan Bay, Wulihu Lake, Meiliang Bay and the northwest region of Taihu Lake. Significant heterogeneity of nutrients distribution in space of Taihu Lake connects with direct action of emission load of sewage. Simultaneously, different biogeochemical behaviors of each parameter play an important role.

  18. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  19. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  20. Sources and sinks of nitrogen and phosphorus to a deep, oligotrophic lake, Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.W.; Cox, S.E.; Embrey, S.S.; Huffman, R.L.; Olsen, T.D.; Fradkin, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Crescent, in Olympic National Park in the northwest corner of Washington State is a deep-water lake renowned for its pristine water quality and oligotrophic nature. To examine the major sources and sinks of nutrients (as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved nitrate), a study was conducted in the Lake Crescent watershed. The study involved measuring five major inflow streams, the Lyre River as the major outflow, recording weather and climatic data, coring lake bed sediment, and analyzing nutrient chemistry in several relevant media over 14 months. Water samples for total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and dissolved nitrate from the five inflow streams, the outlet Lyre River, and two stations in the lake were collected monthly from May 2006 through May 2007. Periodic samples of shallow water from temporary sampling wells were collected at numerous locations around the lake. Concentrations of nutrients detected in Lake Crescent and tributaries were then applied to the water budget estimates to arrive at monthly and annual loads from various environmental components within the watershed. Other sources, such as leaf litter, pollen, or automobile exhaust were estimated from annual values obtained from various literature sources. This information then was used to construct a nutrient budget for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The nitrogen budget generally highlights vehicle traffic-diesel trucks in particular-along U.S. Highway 101 as a potential major anthropogenic source of nitrogen compounds in the lake. In contrast, contribution of nitrogen compounds from onsite septic systems appears to be relatively minor related to the other sources identified.

  1. Sources and sinks of nitrogen and phosphorus to a deep, oligotrophic lake, Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.W.; Cox, S.E.; Embrey, S.S.; Huffman, R.L.; Olsen, T.D.; Fradkin, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Crescent, in Olympic National Park in the northwest corner of Washington State is a deep-water lake renowned for its pristine water quality and oligotrophic nature. To examine the major sources and sinks of nutrients (as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved nitrate), a study was conducted in the Lake Crescent watershed. The study involved measuring five major inflow streams, the Lyre River as the major outflow, recording weather and climatic data, coring lake bed sediment, and analyzing nutrient chemistry in several relevant media over 14 months. Water samples for total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and dissolved nitrate from the five inflow streams, the outlet Lyre River, and two stations in the lake were collected monthly from May 2006 through May 2007. Periodic samples of shallow water from temporary sampling wells were collected at numerous locations around the lake. Concentrations of nutrients detected in Lake Crescent and tributaries were then applied to the water budget estimates to arrive at monthly and annual loads from various environmental components within the watershed. Other sources, such as leaf litter, pollen, or automobile exhaust were estimated from annual values obtained from various literature sources. This information then was used to construct a nutrient budget for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The nitrogen budget generally highlights vehicle traffic-diesel trucks in particular-along U.S. Highway 101 as a potential major anthropogenic source of nitrogen compounds in the lake. In contrast, contribution of nitrogen compounds from onsite septic systems appears to be relatively minor related to the other sources identified.

  2. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change.

  3. Salting our freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Hilary A; Bartlett, Sarah L; Burke, Samantha M; Doubek, Jonathan P; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Summers, Jamie C; Farrell, Kaitlin J; McCullough, Ian M; Morales-Williams, Ana M; Roberts, Derek C; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2017-04-25

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L(-1)), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue.

  4. Necrobiont Coleoptera North-West Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Viktorovich Pushkin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex necrobionts of the alpine girdle of Northwest Caucasus is described ecologically. The specific composition of groups is circumscribed. The legitimacies of creation necrobionts of the complex from a type of a landscape and taxonomic of an accessory of a corpse are detected. Studying of regional features ¬of formation necrobionts complexes has, both scientific, and practical -interest. Throughout 20 years we studied fauna and ecological features necrobiont Coleoptera mountain landscapes of Northwest Caucasus and -adjoining areas of Ciscaucasia.

  5. Natural phosphorus sources for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus is a naturally occurring element found in all rocks; the amount varies by the type of rock. The amount of phosphorus in sediments is expected to be correlated with the amount of phosphorus in the parent rocks. Streambed sediment collected by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program were used to estimate the variation of phosphorus across the Pacific Northwest. This file provides an estimate of the mean concentration of phosphorus in soils for each incremental catchment of the USGS Pacific Northwest SPARROW model.

  6. 2016 Lake Michigan Lake Trout Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Breidert, Brian; Boyarski, David; Bronte, Charles R.; Dickinson, Ben; Donner, Kevin; Ebener, Mark P.; Gordon, Roger; Hanson, Dale; Holey, Mark; Janssen, John; Jonas, Jory; Kornis, Matthew; Olsen, Erik; Robillard, Steve; Treska, Ted; Weldon, Barry; Wright, Greg D.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a review on the progression of lake trout rehabilitation towards meeting the Salmonine Fish Community Objectives (FCOs) for Lake Michigan (Eshenroder et. al. 1995) and the interim goal and evaluation objectives articulated in A Fisheries Management Implementation Strategy for the Rehabilitation of Lake Trout in Lake Michigan (Dexter et al. 2011); we also include data describing lake trout stocking and mortality to portray the present state of progress towards lake trout rehabilitation.

  7. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  8. Origin and age of the Lake Nyos maar, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J.P.; Rubin, M.

    1989-01-01

    Lake Nyos occupies a young maar crater in the Precambrian granitic terrane of northwest Cameroon. The lake is partly surrounded by poorly consolidated, ultramafic nodule-bearing pyroclastic surge deposits that were explosively ejected from the Nyos crater at the time of its formation. Radiocarbon dates show that the maar probably formed about 400 years ago. Field evidence suggests that carbon dioxide could have been the principal volatile involved in the formation of the Nyos maar, and that the role of water may have been minor. The formation of the Nyos maar was preceded by a brief period of effusive basaltic volcanism, but the maar itself may have largely formed by cold, 'dry' explosive processes. Carbon dioxide may still be trapped interstitially in a diatreme inferred to underlie Lake Nyos; its gradual release into the waters of Lake Nyos may have set the stage for the tragic gas-release event of August 21, 1986. Only young maar lakes such as Nyos may pose a danger of future lethal gas releases. ?? 1989.

  9. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  10. Boat Dwellers of Weishan Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    IN the south of Shandong Province, Weishan Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northern China. Under the bright blue sky, it gleams like a large mirror. "As the sun is about to set, Weishan Lake is quiet…" Humming

  11. Pulse crop diseases in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations declared that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses (IYP). This UN declaration of IYP will certainly increase awareness of pulses and likely position pulses as a primary source of protein and other essential nutrients for human diets. The US Pacific Northwest region (Idaho, Or...

  12. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  13. Northwest Educational Cooperative Participant Policy Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Educational Cooperative, Des Plaines, IL.

    This policy manual provides guidelines for participants in the Northwest Educational Cooperative's (NEC's) Hospitality Industry Training Program. It sets forth the program expectations that participants must meet before they are sent on interviews. Topics covered include: attendance and punctuality; attitude, including respect for others,…

  14. Northwest forest plants defeat pests and diseases!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha Vizcarra; Rick Kelsey; Joe. Karchesy

    2017-01-01

    Societies use biologically active chemicals as medicines and pesticides to protect human and agricultural health. But widespread use of synthetic compounds raises concerns about their safety, and resistance development in targeted pests.To find safer alternatives, scientists turned to native plants and trees in Pacific Northwest forests...

  15. Northwest Introduces Its New World Business Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Northwest Airlines today unveiled several major enhancements to its international World Business Class product, providing its premium customers in the Asia Pacific region with a new lie-flat bed seat and state-of-the-art inflight entertainment system.In addition the carrier announced chanaes to its world

  16. 7 CFR 319.8-13 - From Northwest Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From Northwest Mexico. 319.8-13 Section 319.8-13... for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-13 From Northwest Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of Northwest Mexico and of the West Coast of Mexico from infestations of the pink...

  17. A survey of bees (hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Indiana dunes and Northwest Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, R.; Jean, R.P.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Gibbs, J.; Glowacki, G.A.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Indiana Dunes, and nearby natural areas in northwest Indiana, are floristically rich Midwest U.S. locales with many habitat types. We surveyed bees along a habitat gradient ranging from grasslands to forests in these locales, collecting at least 175 bee species along this gradient plus 29 additional species in other nearby habitats. About 25% of all species were from the genus Lasioglossum and 12% of the species were associated with sandy soils. Several bumblebee (Bombus) species of conservation concern that should occur in this region were not collected during our surveys. Similarity of the northwest Indiana bee fauna to other published U.S. faunas decreased about 1.3% per 100 km distance from northwest Indiana. Thirty percent of bees netted from flowers were males. Males and females differed significantly in their frequency of occurrence on different plant species. For bees collected in bowl traps, the percentage captured in fluorescent yellow traps declined and in fluorescent blue traps increased from spring to late summer. Capture rates for different bee genera varied temporally, with about a quarter of the genera being captured most frequently in late spring and a quarter in late summer. Capture rates for most genera were higher in more open than in more closed canopy habitats. The maximum number of plant species on which a single bee species was captured plateaued at 24, on average. Forty-nine percent of bee species known to occur in Indiana were found at these northwest Indiana sites. Having this relatively high proportion of the total Indiana bee fauna is consistent with Indiana Dunes existing at a biogeographic crossroads where grassland and forest biomes meet in a landscape whose climate and soils are affected by proximity to Lake Michigan. The resulting habitat, plant, edaphic, and climatic diversity likely produces the diverse bee community documented.

  18. Abandoned Rayrock uranium mill tailings in the Northwest Territories: environmental conditions and radiological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veska, E; Eaton, R S

    1991-03-01

    Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken of the environment surrounding abandoned U mill tailings at Rayrock, Northwest Territories, Canada, to examine the extent of 226Ra and U contamination. Samples of ground water, surface water, and unconsolidated geological material from the Rayrock area were collected for chemical and radiochemical analyses. Results indicated that the surface waters contained levels of 226Ra as high as 20 Bq L-1, 210Pb as high as 1.1 Bq L-1, and ground water U as high as 2800 micrograms L-1. Lower levels of 226Ra, 210Pb, and U, 3.6 Bq L-1, 0.5 Bq L-1, and 4 micrograms L-1, respectively, were found in a small lake adjacent to the tailings area. Analysis of tailings and soil in the immediate vicinity indicates that the radionuclides and U are mobilized and can move within the tailings. Some of the mobilized radionuclides will be bound by the surrounding peat. The remainder may move to Lake Alpha in ground water. Surface water flow also transports some contaminants both in the water of Alpha Creek and by washing tailings into Lake Alpha. The potential annual external and internal dose equivalents to a hypothetical resident were calculated based on exposure from the abandoned U mill tailings, drinking water, and fish caught in the lakes in the vicinity of the tailings. While Alpha Creek and Lake Alpha water showed evidence of contamination, the rest of the water system and the fish were at natural background levels of radioactivity.

  19. Assessment of Geothermal Resources for Electric Generation in the Pacific Northwest, Draft Issue Paper for the Northwest Power Planning Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, John D.; Kellerman, L.M.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1989-09-26

    This document reviews the geothermal history, technology, costs, and Pacific Northwest potentials. The report discusses geothermal generation, geothermal resources in the Pacific Northwest, cost and operating characteristics of geothermal power plants, environmental effects of geothermal generation, and prospects for development in the Pacific Northwest. This report was prepared expressly for use by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The report contains numerous references at the end of the document. [DJE-2005

  20. Hydronyms Ending in -zha (-жа in the Russian North-West (Structure, Etymology, Microsystemic Ties, Linguo-Ethnic Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery L. Vasilyev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with river and lake-names ending in -zha in the Russian North-West, notably on the historical territories of Novgorod, Pskov and Toropets, analyzing the abovementioned hydronyms in the structural, derivational, microsystemic, semantic, etymological and lingo-ethnic aspects. The study of the names in question soundly reveals the basic ancient strata of the region: Slavic, Baltic and Finno-Ugric.

  1. The Legacy of Arsenic Contamination from Giant Mine, Northern Canada: An Assessment of Impacts Based on Lake Water and Lake Sediment Core Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J. M.; Korosi, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Giant Mine, which operated between 1948 and 2004 and located near the City of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), has left a legacy of arsenic, antimony, and mercury contamination extending to the present day. Over 20,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust was released from roaster stack emissions during its first 10 years of operations, leading to a significant contamination of the surrounding landscape. Here we present a summary of impacts by the recent contamination from Giant Mine on the surrounding region. A survey we conducted of 25 lakes of the region in 2010 revealed that most lake water within a 15 km radius of the roaster stack had arsenic concentrations in water > 10 mg/L, the standard for drinking water, with concentrations declining exponentially with increasing distance from the roaster stack. Sediment cores from lakes were collected near the Giant Mine roaster stack and radiometrically dated by 137Cs and excess 210Pb. Arsenic concentrations in these sediments increased by 1700% during the 1950s and 60s, consistent with the history of arsenic releases from roaster emissions. Correspondingly, pelagic diatoms and cladocerans were extirpated from one lake during this period, based on microfossil analysis of lake sediment deposits. Sediment core analysis further showed that this lake ecosystem has not recovered, even ten years after closure of the mine. Likely causes for the lack of recent recovery are explored with the use of sediment toxicity bioassays, using a novel paleo-ecotoxicological approach of using toxicity assessments of radiometrically dated lake sediment horizons.

  2. Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Recent lake sediments—II. Compounds derived from biogenic precursors during early diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Schaffner, Christian; Giger, Walter

    1980-03-01

    Five groups of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) thought to be derived by early-diagenetic transformations of biogenic precursors are apparently present in Recent sediments of four lakes (Lake Lucerne. Lake Zürich, and Greifensee. Switzerland, and Lake Washington, northwest U.S.A.) These natural PAH include: (1) perylene. (2) an extended series of phenanthrene homologs. (3) retene and pimanthrene derived from diterpenes. (4) a series of tetra- and pentacyclic PAH derived from pentacyclic triterpenes of the amyrin-type. (5) tetra- and pentacyclic PAH formed from pentacyclic triterpenes with five-membered E-rings. Since these PAH are abundant in very young sediment layers, the transformation reactions involved appear to be faster than previously thought and may be microbially mediated. There is no evidence that anthropogenic or petrogenic sources can account for the distributions of these groups of PAH in cores of Recent lake sediments.

  3. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  4. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  5. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  6. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  7. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  8. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand;

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass (Chl), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP); (2) all lakes, especially small with less incident light, and forest lakes with high DOC, have negative net ecosystem production (NEP ... decreases with lake area and water depth as a consequence of lower input of nutrients and organic matter per unit water volume; (4) the influence of benthic processes on free water metabolic measures declines with increasing lake size; and (5) with increasing lake size, lake metabolism decreases...

  9. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-15

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006, following severe flooding during the past few days. The severe weather resulted in major power outages through the region. At peak there were 1.8 million customers without power which included BC Hydro in Canada. Currently, there are over 1.5 million outages in the region as a result of the Pacific Northwest Storms. This represents about 42 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. Because the current wind and snow storms are coming on the heels of extensive flooding in the region, electric utilities are experiencing damage. Wind gusts reached close to 100 mph in some areas of the region. The storm is expected to bring its strong winds and heavy snow into Idaho, Montana and Wyoming Friday and into the weekend. There are currently no reported major impacts to the petroleum and natural gas infrastructure.

  10. Developing and Sustaining the Northwest Digital Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish, Alan Kevin; Bond, Trevor James

    2008-01-01

    The Northwest Digital Archives is a union database of Encoded Archival Description (EAD) finding aids from institutions in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Alaska, and Montana. The purpose of the NWDA is to make information about collections of primary sources widely accessible to researchers over the internet. This article will explore the selection and development of the NWDA database, the creation of tools to associate digital objects with EAD/XML documents, and the methods employed by the techn...

  11. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-18

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 237,030 customers remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 8 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington.

  12. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-19

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 186,627 customers remain without power. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 6 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below.

  13. Sustaining the Northwest Way of Life.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Customer Services.

    1991-08-01

    These Discussion Papers are from a number of organizations with a high stake in the future performance of the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville solicited papers from other organizations to assure a broaded-based discussion of the topics for the 1991 Programs in Perspective. PIP meetings will be held throughout the Northwest in September. PIP runs on a two-year cycle. The first year is aimed at discussion of broad, strategic issues. The second year evaluates specific program levels for all Bonneville programs and test them for affordability against financial constraints. This year's PIP focuses on strategic-issues discussion. It specifically asks for regional discussion to help put some flesh on the skeleton of Bonneville's own vision for its future: Best for the Northwest Through Teamwork B... P... A... The Most Competitive and Socially Responsible Power System in the Nation'' Specific topics are (1) achieving social responsibility and (2) conserving Northwest competitiveness. Bonneville executives chose this vision as a means of directing the organization into and beyond the 1990s. It guides the 3000 plus employees of the agency in their day-to-day operations. By asking for discussion of the terms Most Competitive'' and Socially Responsible'' in the 1991 PIP, Bonneville intends to better understand the diverse needs of its customers and constituents, and to become of even greater service to the Northwest. The papers are designed to help stimulate thought about the dimensions of the future direction of BPA. Bonneville intends that the real substance of PIP will occur in the meetings themselves. We hope that these papers will provoke new thinking, and that the interchange of views in the meetings will produce new approaches to the issues.

  14. 滇西北纳帕海湿地区域土壤速效氮组分的分异及指示意义%Variation of Soil Rapid Available Nitrogen Components and Its Implication in Napahai Lake-Marsh Region, Northwest Yunnan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金明; 袁寒; 李杰; 董云霞; 马彬斌

    2011-01-01

    对纳帕海湿地区的弃耕地-中生草甸土(AFMMS)、中生草甸土(MMS)、湿草甸土(WMS)和沼泽土(MS)的0~10 cm、10~20 cm、20~30 cm层位采样,分析各层土壤速效氮(RAN)、溶解有机氮(DbN)、铵态氮(NH4+-N)、硝态氮(N0,-N)含量.发现:本区4类土壤中,沼泽土各层速效氮素组分含量都显著高于其他3类土壤对应层的含量.4类土壤上层均为RAN和DON的主要分布层,且两者在上层的分异都为AFMMSMMS>WMS>MS,而上中层DON/IN分异为AFMMS>WMS>MMS>MS.这一研究表明,水分和植被生态分异对该湿地区土壤速效氮素组分分异具有重要影响;测得的3类速效氮素组分占RAN的比例极低,土壤中大量的易分(水)解有机氮尚待加强研究;相较于较低比例的无机氮而言,土壤中可被有效利用和易随水分运移发生流失的DON具有更重要的氮素供应和环境指示意义,湿地旱化会增加土壤DON的相对比例从而可能加剧土壤DON的流失,应加强流域中上游湿地土壤的DON动态变化研究.%Contents of Rapid Available N ( RAN), Dissolved Organic N ( DON), Ammonium N and Nitrate N at 3 layers ( 1st 0-10 cra, 2nd l0 -20 cm, 3rd 20 -30 cm) were analyzed for the 4 soil types:Abandoned Farmland Mesophytic Meadow Soil (AFMMS), Mesophytic Meadow Soil (MMS), Wet Meadow Soil (WMS), and Marsh Soil (MS) in Napahai reserve, northwest Yunnan ,China. It showed: RAN and 3 components at each layer of MS were significantly higher than those at corresponding layers of other 3 soils. RAN and DON were mainly distributed at the 1 st layers for 4 soils. Both orders of RAN and DON among 4 soils were mainly shown as AFMMS < MMS <WMS < MS. Except MS, RAN and 3 components at the 2nd and 3rd layers, as well the Ammonium N at the 1st layer, showed less variation among other 3 soils. Total percentage of the 3 components to RAN was only about 4. 22% -7.92%. DON content nearly equaled to IN content at each layer of MS, but the former was

  15. Monitoring and Assessment of Hydrological and Ecological Changes in Lake Manyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2014-05-01

    Manyas Lake in the northwest of Turkey occupies an area of 165 square kilometers. The surface area of the lake is continuously changing due to human activities, hydrologic and climatic conditions. The objective of this study is to examine the changes in water level and the area of lake and the effects of these changes on the lake's ecosystem and human economic activities. In order to determine the changes lake level measurement data, 1/25000 scale topography maps, rainfall and temperature data and bathymetry maps were used and elevation models were made. During the study period the water level fluctuated between 14.0 and 17.8 meters, and surface area changed between 124,8 km2 and 170,6 km2 respectively. Prior to the construction of a flood barrier at the southern end of the lake in 1992 the maximum surface area of the lake was calculated at 209 km2. Lake Manyas is an important wetland on the route of migration of birds from/to Europe and Africa. 64 ha of the lake and its surroundings along with the entire National Park is a Ramsar site. Irrigated and dry farming is practiced around the lake and fishing is important economic activity. The changes in the water level as result of natural and human factors brought about negative effects on the lake's ecosystem in last ten years. Result of these effects, natural fluctuation of the lake changed and the marshes around the lake destroyed and the bird population decreased. Lowering the water level in the lake is also significantly reduced the number of fish and number of migratory birds. The construction of the flood barrier destroyed vegetation and bird life in about a 25% of area of the lake on the south. The natural ecosystem in this area has been adversely affected. Moreover, when the water level is low due to low rain fall and irrigation, vegetation on the lake's shore line dies and some areas turn to swamp. The fauna and flora are negatively affected by water level changes particularly in the protected National Park

  16. Hungry Horse Mitigation Plan; Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, 1990-2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.; Marotz, Brian L. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT); DosSantos, Joseph M. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    In this document we present fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives, and recommendations to protect, mitigate, and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan addresses six separate program measures in the 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. We designed the plan to be closely coordinated in terms of dam operations, funding, and activities with the Kerr Mitigation Plan presently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This document represents a mitigation plan for consideration by the Northwest Power Planning Council process; it is not an implementation plan. Flathead Lake is one of the cleanest lakes of its size in the world. The exceptional water quality and unique native fisheries make the Flathead Lake/River system extremely valuable to the economy and quality of life in the basin. The recreational fishery in Flathead Lake has an estimated value of nearly eight million dollars annually. This mitigation process represents our best opportunity to reduce the impacts of hydropower in this valuable aquatic system and increase angling opportunity. We based loss estimates and mitigation alternatives on an extensive data base, agency reports, nationally and internationally peer-reviewed scientific articles, and an innovative biological model for Hungry Horse Reservoir and the Flathead River. We conducted an extensive, 14-month scoping and consultation process with agency representatives, representatives of citizen groups, and the general public. This consultation process helped identify issues, areas of agreement, areas of conflict, and advantages and disadvantages of mitigation alternatives. The results of the scoping and consultation process helped shape our mitigation plan. Our recommended plan is based firmly on principles of adaptive management and recognition of biological uncertainty. After we receive direction from the NPPC, we will add more detailed hypotheses and

  17. Scale and watershed features determine lake chemistry patterns across physiographic regions in the far north of Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef MacLeod

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the far north of Ontario (>50°N latitude, like climate warming and increased industrial development, will have direct effects on watershed characteristics and lakes. To better understand the nature of remote northern lakes that span the Canadian Shield and Hudson Bay Lowlands, and to address the pressing need for limnological data for this vast, little-studied area of Ontario, lake chemistry surveys were conducted during 2011-2012. Lakes at the transition between these physiographic regions displayed highly variable water chemistry, reflecting the peatland landscape with a mix of bog and fen watersheds, and variations in the extent of permafrost. In the transition area, Shield and Lowlands lakes could not be clearly differentiated based on water chemistry; peat cover decouples, to varying degrees, the lakes from the influences of bedrock and surficial deposits. Regional chemistry differences were apparent across a much broader area of northern Ontario, due to large-scale spatial changes in geology and in the extent of peatlands and permafrost.  Shield lakes in the far northwest of Ontario had Ca, Mg, and TP concentrations markedly higher than those of many Lowlands lakes and previously studied Shield lakes south of 50°N, related to an abundance of lacustrine and glacial end-moraine deposits in the north.

  18. Ecology under lake ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  20. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  1. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  2. Heat flow in northwest Pacific marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lili; LI Guanbao; LI Naisheng

    2004-01-01

    Heat flow studies in Northwest Pacific marginal seas has a more than 40 years history with more than 4000 heat flow values obtained. The regional average value is 80.4 mW/m2, which is lower than the world's 87 mW/m2, but higher than those of the Eurasia continent and the Pacific Ocean. This reflects the regional crust property in the area. The studies on distribution of the heat flow and contour pattern of heat flow in 1°×1°and 2°×2°scales in Northwest Pacific marginal seas revealed that the most high heat flow anomalies in the area were found along back-arc basins and island arc in an obviously northeasterly track. Exceptions are the Komandoskaya Basin (KMB), the Izu-Bonin Trough (IBT) and the Mariana Trough (MT), which extend in northwest. The contours of low heat flow marked the boundaries of the continent and the ocean. The present heat flow values reflect the imprint of the last thermal event and relate closely to tectonic activity. The high heat flow gradient areas have high frequency of earthquake. Therefore, the area of faulting controlled the pattern of the heat flow anomalies. Heat flow gradient in 135°direction indicated a major lithosphere transformation oceanward resulting from movement of the earth's material. In this paper, we described patterns of heat flow distribution in the Northwest Pacific, heat flow value changes in horizontal and vertical directions, combining the studies of Shi (1997) on the landforms of the island arcs in east Asia and plate movement, and the results of Shi and Zhang (1998) on heat simulation of subduction of active ocean mountain and the activity of islands arc. A preliminary model of geodynamics in the Northwest Pacific and its adjacent area was put forward. There is a great lateral heat flow gradient on the surface of the mantle between ocean and continent, which indicates that the materials in asthenosphere move from continent to ocean causing movement of the crust.

  3. A rare Uroglena bloom in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William R.; Hufhines, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A combination of factors triggered a Uroglena volvox bloom and taste and odor event in Beaver Lake, a water-supply reservoir in northwest Arkansas, in late April 2015. Factors contributing to the bloom included increased rainfall and runoff containing increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, followed by a stable pool, low nutrient concentrations, and an expansion of lake surface area and littoral zone. This was the first time U. volvox was identified in Beaver Lake and the first time it was recognized as a source of taste and odor. Routine water quality samples happened to be collected by the US Geological Survey and the Beaver Water District throughout the reservoir during the bloom—. Higher than normal rainfall in March 2015 increased the pool elevation in Beaver Lake by 2.3 m (by early April), increased the surface area by 10%, and increased the littoral zone by 1214 ha; these conditions persisted for 38 days, resulting from flood water being retained behind the dam. Monitoring programs that cover a wide range of reservoir features, including dissolved organic carbon, zooplankton, and phytoplankton, are valuable in explaining unusual events such as this Uroglena bloom.

  4. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  5. Analysis of algal bloom risk with uncertainties in lakes by integrating self-organizing map and fuzzy information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiuwen, E-mail: qchen@rcees.ac.cn [RCEES, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqinglu 18, Beijing 10085 (China); China Three Gorges University, Daxuelu 8, Yichang 443002 (China); CEER, Nanjing Hydraulics Research Institute, Guangzhoulu 223, Nanjing 210029 (China); Rui, Han; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yanhui [RCEES, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqinglu 18, Beijing 10085 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Algal blooms are a serious problem in waters, which damage aquatic ecosystems and threaten drinking water safety. However, the outbreak mechanism of algal blooms is very complex with great uncertainty, especially for large water bodies where environmental conditions have obvious variation in both space and time. This study developed an innovative method which integrated a self-organizing map (SOM) and fuzzy information diffusion theory to comprehensively analyze algal bloom risks with uncertainties. The Lake Taihu was taken as study case and the long-term (2004–2010) on-site monitoring data were used. The results showed that algal blooms in Taihu Lake were classified into four categories and exhibited obvious spatial–temporal patterns. The lake was mainly characterized by moderate bloom but had high uncertainty, whereas severe blooms with low uncertainty were observed in the northwest part of the lake. The study gives insight on the spatial–temporal dynamics of algal blooms, and should help government and decision-makers outline policies and practices on bloom monitoring and prevention. The developed method provides a promising approach to estimate algal bloom risks under uncertainties. - Highlights: • An innovative method is developed to analyze algal bloom risks with uncertainties. • The algal blooms in Taihu Lake showed obvious spatial and temporal patterns. • The lake is mainly characterized as moderate bloom but with high uncertainty. • Severe bloom with low uncertainty appeared occasionally in the northwest part. • The results provide important information to bloom monitoring and management.

  6. Regionalization of precipitation characteristics in Iran's Lake Urmia basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Uvo, Cintia Bertacchi; Madani, Kaveh; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    Lake Urmia in northwest Iran, once one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world, has shrunk by almost 90% in area and 80% in volume during the last four decades. To improve the understanding of regional differences in water availability throughout the region and to refine the existing information on precipitation variability, this study investigated the spatial pattern of precipitation for the Lake Urmia basin. Daily rainfall time series from 122 precipitation stations with different record lengths were used to extract 15 statistical descriptors comprising 25th percentile, 75th percentile, and coefficient of variation for annual and seasonal total precipitation. Principal component analysis in association with cluster analysis identified three main homogeneous precipitation groups in the lake basin. The first sub-region (group 1) includes stations located in the center and southeast; the second sub-region (group 2) covers mostly northern and northeastern part of the basin, and the third sub-region (group 3) covers the western and southern edges of the basin. Results of principal component (PC) and clustering analyses showed that seasonal precipitation variation is the most important feature controlling the spatial pattern of precipitation in the lake basin. The 25th and 75th percentiles of winter and autumn are the most important variables controlling the spatial pattern of the first rotated principal component explaining about 32% of the total variance. Summer and spring precipitation variations are the most important variables in the second and third rotated principal components, respectively. Seasonal variation in precipitation amount and seasonality are explained by topography and influenced by the lake and westerly winds that are related to the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Despite using incomplete time series with different lengths, the identified sub-regions are physically meaningful.

  7. Can lake sensitivity to desiccation be predicted from lake geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Aminnezhad, Mousa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-08-01

    Declining lake levels (Aral Sea syndrome) can be caused by changes in climate, increased water use or changed regulation patterns. This paper introduces a novel lake geometry index (LGI) to quantify lake hydrological characteristics. The index was developed using a large representative dataset of lake hypsographic characteristics from 152 lakes and man-made reservoirs. Using the LGI index, lakes can be classified into five groups: groups 1-4 when LGI is 0.5-2.5, 2.5-4.5, 4.5-6.5 and 6.5-8.5, respectively, and group 5 when LGI is >8.5. Naturally shallow and vast lakes and wetlands fall into the first group and deep man-made reservoirs in narrow valleys are in group 5. The response of three different lake systems (LGI 0.75, 2.75 and 6.5) to different water flow scenarios was then simulated using the water balance equation. From this, the index 'potential lake area' (Apot) was developed to show lake responses to changed hydro-climatological conditions. Apot and LGI can be used to classify lakes into open or closed systems. Simulations showed that lakes with low LGI have a shorter response time to flow and climate changes. As a result, the impact of water balance restoration is faster for lakes with low LGI than for lakes with high LGI. The latter are also more vulnerable to climate variation and change.

  8. Hydro-climatic Investigation of Lake Urmia Shrinkage using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, B.; Khatami, S.; Rashidi, L.; Madani, K.

    2016-12-01

    Lake Urmia (LU) is a shallow endemic lake located in Northwest Iran. Once one of the largest saline lakes in the world, its water level has dramatically dropped by about 7 m since 1997. There has been a contested debate around the major cause(s) of the lake shrinkage and whether this has been due to climatic changes or anthropogenic interventions in the lake's basin. Using MODIS data, we estimate the changes in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) during the 2000-2015 period. NDVI represents the average quality of vegetation and vegetation coverage and used in this study as an indicator of agricultural drought. Comparison of NDVI with observed precipitation (P), temperature (T), and Lake water level (WL) shows that P and NDVI are significantly and positively correlated with similar trends of near-to-horizontal. Since a significant portion of green coverage represented by NDVI are agricultural lands, the negative correlation between NDVI and WL reflects the trade-off between the declining WL and agricultural development in the basin resulting in less water inflows. A very poor and negative correlation between T and WL could reflect the low contribution of evaporation to the lake's water level decline. However, the normal trend of T weakens the current argument by the local decision makers that the lake has been affected by extreme climatic change. Trend analysis suggests that P, T, and NDVI are in harmony with each other, indicating no extreme climatic regime in the basin. In light of the above, an ever-decreasing trend of WL during the past two decades cannot be simply explained by the hydro-climatology of the lake. Our findings highlight the need to putting more emphasis on understanding the anthropogenic effects of regional development, rather than blaming climatic changes, in the process of developing lake management and restoration plans.

  9. Understanding Biogeochemical and Hydrological Processes in a Reservoir, Kentucky Lake (USA), Using Long-term Monitoring and Real-time Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, S. P.; White, D.; Williamson, M.; Hooks, R.

    2010-12-01

    Kentucky Lake (USA), impounded in 1942, is the largest man-made reservoir east of the Mississippi River and one of more than 40 TVA impoundments in the Tennessee River system. The reservoir is 260 km long and 1.6 km wide with a water retention time of 23 days under normal water management conditions. The Hancock Biological Station and Center for Reservoir Research began a long-term monitoring program on Kentucky Lake in 1988. Fourteen to 17 sites are sampled every 16 days (32 in winter) for a variety of physicochemical and biological parameters. Two subwatershed streams, one agricultural and one forested, are sampled every 32 days. Nearly 450 monitoring cruises have been completed to date. The data have been valuable in understanding annual and long-term chemical and biological patterns; however, many short-term events are missed. To address this problem, a real-time (15-min sampling interval) monitoring station was established at a mid-lake navigation pylon in 2005. The combination of long-term and real-time monitoring has already provided a wealth of information on the reservoir resulting in a number of publications. Real-time data are openly available on the Station’s website at www.murraystate.edu/hbs. These and other data are being used in worldwide collaborations through the NSF supported Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON). An NSF R2 collaboration (VOEIS) between Kentucky (Kentucky Lake) and Montana (Flathead Lake) is allowing us to expand the number of real-time sites using deployable buoys and optical sensors. Parameters being measured at 15 min intervals include water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, specific conductance, oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, and CDOM. Accompanying metstations on each buoy measure air temperature, barometric pressure, rainfall, wind speed, and PAR. One new buoy is being placed in the agricultural watershed embayment and a second in the forested watershed embayment

  10. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  11. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  12. Lake Transect : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. Lists of the plant species found at...

  13. Lake Transect : 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. Lists of the plant species found at...

  14. Lake Transect : 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1989. Lists of the plant species found...

  15. History of Lake Andes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the...

  16. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  17. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  18. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  19. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake NWR, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997...

  20. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  1. WHISKER LAKE WILDERNESS, WISCONSIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral-resource potential of the Whisker Lake Wilderness in northeastern Wisconsin was evaluated. Only a strip along the southwest corner of the wilderness is assessed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the massive sulfide type. The geologic terrain precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources. Sand and gravel and peat in swampy lowlands are the only resources of the Whisker lake Wilderness.

  2. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Cottingham

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  3. 76 FR 5796 - Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ..., 2011. Take notice that on January 14, 2011, Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation (GTN), 717 Texas... capacity and GTN's related obligation to provide transportation service related to maximum...

  4. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  5. Tewaukon – Clouds LakeLake Elsie – Storm Lake and Wild Rice Refuges Narrative Reports : 1939-1956 : From Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These narrative reports summarize refuge activities from 1939 to 1956 for Lake Tewaukon Refuge, Clouds Lake Refuge, Lake Elsie Refuge, Storm Lake Refuge, Wild Rice...

  6. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  7. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m(2). As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  9. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-20

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 134,868 customers remain without power. The number of outages is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent less than 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy and Seattle City Light.

  10. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-17

    Significant progress has been made in restoring power to customers in the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 468,200 customers, including Canada, remain without power. This is down from 1.8 million customers who lost power following severe wind and snow storms on December 14-15, 2006. The customers without power represent about 16 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Oregon and Washington. See table below. The Olympic pipeline reports that the pipeline is operational; however, pipeline throughput remains reduced since one substation along the line remains without power. Complete power restoration is expected later today. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel distribution and production.

  11. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  12. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  13. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  14. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  15. SATELLITE LAKES OF LAKE VICTORIA BASIN (TANZANIAN SIDE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake ... species of blue green algae such as Spirulina spp. are sources of ... scientific and conservation interests. This study ...

  16. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  17. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-16

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006 resulting in major power outagesin the region. The storm is now moving off into southern Canada. A new weather disturbance nearing the Northwest coast may generate a few rain and snow showers across the Seattle and Portland areas today, but widespread active weather is not expected. There are roughly 950,000 customers in the region (including Canada) without power as a result of the Pacific Northweststorms, down from a peak of 1.8 million customers. This represents about 26 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. As of 12:30 PM EST, the Renton Control Center for the Olympic Pipeline (petroleum products) had power restored. The pipeline, serviced by Puget Sound Energy, was shut down after it lost power during the storm. According to a pipeline official, the pipeline is expected to restart in approximately 2-3 hours with some reduced throughput later today. SeaTac International Airport receives jet fuel from the pipeline; however, it’s been reported that the airport has approximately eight days of jet fuel inventories on hand. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel production. There are some temporary and minor distribution at retail gas stations due to lack of power. Fuel delivery is also slowed in some areas due to delays on some roads. ESF #12 has not been deployed

  18. Proceedings of the Northwest regional energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A S; Comstock, D R [eds.

    1978-12-01

    The conference was directed toward two main objectives. First, a major portion of the proceedings were to focus on the policies, programs, and priorities of the new US DOE, and their relationships to the Pacific Northwest region. Second, the conference was to explore specific energy issues of regional significance and provide an opportunity for regional feedback on energy policies. The 10 sessions of the conference are Keynote Session: Congress, and the National Energy Plan Sen. Henry Jackson; National Perspectives on Energy Issues (I): An Overview of the NEP, Programs and Priorities of DOE (Alvin Alm and NEP - Conservation and Solar Applications (Don Beattie); and Luncheon address - Alaska Energy Issues (Robert LeResche); National Perspectives on Energy Issues (II): Utility Rate Reform - National Provisions and Relationships to the Pacific Northwest (David Bardin) and Technology for Energy and Long Term Short Alternatives (Robert Thorne); Concurrent Interest Group Sessions: State and Local Roles in Energy Planning and Decision-Making and Industry and University Roles in DOE Research and Programs; Banquet address. The US Energy Future (James Schlesinger); Regional Perspectives on Energy Issues: DOE-X - Organization and Response to Regional Needs (Randall Hardy). What Comes After Number 13 (Sterling Munro), Hanford 1978 (Alex Fremling), and Low Head Hydro and Geothermal (Richard Wood); Lucheon address - The Washington Perspective on Energy (Dixie Lee Ray); Regional Power Planning (Panel); and Conference Wrap Up Session. (MCW)

  19. Nuisance Aquatic Macrophyte Growth in the Northwest,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-12

    caused by 8 taxa: Elodea canadensis Michx. Potamogeton pectinatus L. Chara spp. Ranuculus ssp. Ceratophyllum demersum L Myriophyllum spp. Nitella spp...108 27 25.0 Elodea spp. (unidentified) (all data pooled) Eleocharis palustris 53 3 5.7 Zannichellia palustris so 7 14.0 S;cirus acutus 53 7 13.2 Sagit...GENERA IN DECREASING ORDER OF NUISANCE GROWTH EFFECT. Land Use Water-Body Type Nuisance Genera Population center Slough Elodea Grazing land Lake

  20. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  1. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  2. Mono Lake Excursion Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin

  3. Lake Erie Fish Community Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS), located in Sandusky, Ohio, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). LEBS is the primary federal agency...

  4. Crescent Lake Wilderness Reference Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reference sheet includes information about Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and results of the public hearing for Crescent Lake Wilderness Proposal.

  5. Freshwater lake seabird surveys 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR complex hosts Becharof Lake, the largest lake within a National Wildlife Refuge system. In addition to this distinction, Becharof...

  6. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  7. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  8. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA...

  9. Changing Sea Ice Conditions in the Northwest Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivy, A. C.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Derksen, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Northwest Passage lies in the middle of Canadian Arctic Archipelago providing a potential deepwater route that links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Discovered by Sir Robert M’Clure in the 1850s, ever-present multi-year ice (MYI) has always prevented its practical navigation. 2007 marked extreme low MYI conditions in the Arctic and temporarily cleared the Northwest Passage. However, is one single clearing event within the Northwest Passage over the past 40 years indicative of future clearings? This analysis addressed two inter-related questions: i) why has the Northwest Passage contained historically heavy amounts of MYI? and ii) will decreases in MYI within the Northwest Passage continue into the future? Results indicate that for nearly 4 decades, the southern regions of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have continuously operated as a drain-trap for MYI and this mechanism is responsible for maintaining the heavy MYI conditions within the Northwest Passage. The oldest and thickest MYI in the world resides along the northern flank of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago therefore, as the transition to a sea ice-free Arctic continues, MYI from this region will continue to migrate southward to the channels of the Northwest Passage. Results also find that 2007 was indeed an anomalously light sea ice year in the Northwest Passage but record low ice conditions have since been observed as of mid-August 2010.

  10. Total Phosphorus Loads for Selected Tributaries to Sebago Lake, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2001-01-01

    The streamflow and water-quality datacollection networks of the Portland Water District (PWD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as of February 2000 were analyzed in terms of their applicability for estimating total phosphorus loads for selected tributaries to Sebago Lake in southern Maine. The long-term unit-area mean annual flows for the Songo River and for small, ungaged tributaries are similar to the long-term unit-area mean annual flows for the Crooked River and other gaged tributaries to Sebago Lake, based on a regression equation that estimates mean annual streamflows in Maine. Unit-area peak streamflows of Sebago Lake tributaries can be quite different, based on a regression equation that estimates peak streamflows for Maine. Crooked River had a statistically significant positive relation (Kendall's Tau test, p=0.0004) between streamflow and total phosphorus concentration. Panther Run had a statistically significant negative relation (p=0.0015). Significant positive relations may indicate contributions from nonpoint sources or sediment resuspension, whereas significant negative relations may indicate dilution of point sources. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly larger in the Crooked River than in the Songo River (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, pestimate the annual total phosphorus load for Crooked River, Northwest River, and Rich Mill Pond Outlet for water years 1996-98. The MOVE.1 method was used to estimate daily streamflows for the regression method at Northwest River and Rich Mill Pond Outlet, where streamflows were not continuously monitored. An averaging method also was used to compute annual loads at the three sites. The difference between the regression estimate and the averaging estimate for each of the three tributaries was consistent with what was expected from previous studies.

  11. Ocean-atmosphere forcing of centennial hydroclimatic variability in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Byron A.; Abbott, Mark B.; Mann, Michael E.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Feng, Song; Pompeani, David P.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Anderson, Lesleigh; Finney, Bruce P.; Bird, Broxton W.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing centennial timescale hydroclimate variability during the late Holocene is critically important for understanding large-scale patterns of drought and their relationship with climate dynamics. We present sediment oxygen isotope records spanning the last two millennia from 10 lakes, as well as climate model simulations, indicating that the Little Ice Age was dry relative to the Medieval Climate Anomaly in much of the Pacific Northwest of North America. This pattern is consistent with observed associations between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Northern Annular Mode and drought as well as with proxy-based reconstructions of Pacific ocean-atmosphere variations over the past 1000 years. The large amplitude of centennial variability indicated by the lake data suggests that regional hydroclimate is characterized by longer-term shifts in ENSO-like dynamics, and that an improved understanding of the centennial timescale relationship between external forcing and drought conditions is necessary for projecting future hydroclimatic conditions in western North America.

  12. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences.

  13. Characterization of basidiomycetous yeasts in hypersaline soils of the Urmia Lake National Park, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarnejad, Lachin; Arzanlou, Mahdi; Babai-Ahari, Asadollah; Di Mauro, Simone; Onofri, Andrea; Buzzini, Pietro; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-11-01

    Urmia Lake, located in northwest Iran, is an oligotrophic and extremely hypersaline habitat that supports diverse forms of life. Owing to its unique biodiversity and special environmental conditions, Urmia Lake National Park has been designated as one of the biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This study was aimed to characterize basidiomycetous yeasts in hypersaline soils surrounding the Urmia Lake National Park using a polyphasic combination of molecular and physiological data. Soil samples were collected from eight sites in Lake Basin and six islands insides the lake. Yeast strains were identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. When D1/D2 domain sequencing did not resolve the identity of the species, strain identification was obtained by ITS 1 & 2 sequencing. Twenty-one species belonging to the genera Cystobasidium, Holtermanniella, Naganishia, Rhodotorula, Saitozyma, Solicoccozyma, Tausonia, Vanrija, and Vishniacozyma were identified. Solicoccozyma aeria represented the dominant species. The ability of isolates to grow at 10 and 15 % of NaCl was checked; about two-thirds of the strains grew at 10 %, while about 13 % of the isolates grew in medium with 15 % NaCl. this study is the first study on the culturable yeast diversity in hypersaline soils surrounding an Asian lake.

  14. A Lake Dream in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ When William Wordsworth,representative of Lake Poets wrote his Ode to Night ingale nearby the Lake District of England at the turn of the nine-teenth century,he never imagined a century later,a similar romantic lake dream has been created in China,Asia.

  15. Interesting Ziandao Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    LOCATED in Chun’an County, Zhejiang Province, Qiandao Lake (Lake of a Thousand Isles) is a state-level scenic spot and a bright pearl of the golden tourism line between Hangzhou’s West Lake and Anhui’s Huangshan Mountain. Last autumn, we went to Chun’an. It took only three to four hours by coach to travel from Hangzhou to Chun’an. Flanked by mountains on the west, the small county faces water on the east. A street goes across the county; it takes less than half an hour to walk from one end to the other. Small restaurants and shops line the western side of the road,

  16. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  17. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  18. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  19. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  20. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  1. Latest Pleistocene to Holocene hydroclimates from Lake Elsinore, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Matthew E.; Feakins, Sarah J.; Bonuso, Nicole; Fantozzi, Joanna M.; Hiner, Christine A.

    2013-09-01

    The hydroclimate of the southwestern United States (US) region changed abruptly during the latest Pleistocene as the continental ice sheets over North America retreated from their most southerly extent. To investigate the nature of this change, we present a new record from Lake Elsinore, located 36 km inland from the Pacific Ocean in Southern California and evaluate it in the context of records across the coastal and interior southwest United States, including northwest Mexico. The sediment core recovered from Lake Elsinore provides a continuous sequence with multi-decadal resolution spanning 19-9 ka BP. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses reveal hydrologic variability. In particular, sand and carbonate components indicate abrupt changes at the Oldest Dryas (OD), Bølling-Allerød (BA), and Younger Dryas (YD) transitions, consistent with the timing in Greenland. Hydrogen isotope analyses of the C28n-alkanoic acids from plant leaf waxes (δDwax) reveal a long term trend toward less negative values across 19-9 ka BP. δDwax values during the OD suggest a North Pacific moisture source for precipitation, consistent with the dipping westerlies hypothesis. We find no isotopic evidence for the North American Monsoon reaching as far west as Lake Elsinore; therefore, we infer that wet/dry changes in the coastal southwest were expressed through winter-season precipitation, consistent with modern climatology. Comparing Lake Elsinore to other southwest records (notably Cave of Bells and Fort Stanton) we find coincident timing of the major transitions (OD to BA, BA to YD) and hydrologic responses during the OD and BA. The hydrologic response, however, varied during the YD consistent with a dipole between the coastal and interior southwest. The coherent pattern of hydrologic responses across the interior southwest US and northwest Mexico during the OD (wet), the BA (drier), and YD (wet) follows changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, presumably via its

  2. [Spatial distribution pattern and stock estimation of nutrients during bloom season in Lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying-Wei; Zhu, Guang-Wei; Xu, Hai; Zhu, Meng-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Based on the data of high density spatial sampling in July 2013, we analyzed the spatial distribution pattern of nutrients and estimated their amount during bloom season in Lake Taihu to discuss the correlation of algal bloom in different types of ecological water and nutrients in large shallow lake and the representative of its sampling sites. The research showed that nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) in Lake Taihu tended to reduce from northwest to southeast in general during bloom season. Nitrogen was mainly present in dissolved form, accounting for 76.28 percent of the total nitrogen (TN), and phosphorus was mainly present in particulate form, accounting for 66.38 percent of the total phosphorus (TP). The sampling points in the whole lake could be divided into four sections with significant difference between each other using principal component analysis and cluster analysis: The first section was located in the district of northwestern Lake Taihu, which represented the heavy eutrophic lake areas with serious blooms; the second section mainly included Meiliang Bay and area of river inflow into lake in South of Lake Taihu, which stood for moderate eutrophication of water quality; The third section included the central area and the southwest of lake, which represented the water area with medium water pollution, but blooms were frequent; And the fourth area was the remainder areas including Gonghu Bay, Xukou Bay, and Eastern Taihu, which stood for the region of weaker blooms and better water quality. Different factors also affected the growth of planktonic algae in different sections: From the point of the whole lake, CHL was significantly correlated with TP, TN, total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-) -N); while in the first section, CHL was significantly correlated to TP and TDN; CHL was correlated to TN and TDN in the second section; in the third section, the influencing factors were TP, reactive phosphate (PO4(3-) -P), TDN; PO

  3. Geologic field trip guide to Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Wright, Heather M.

    2017-08-08

    Crater Lake partly fills one of the most spectacular calderas of the world—an 8 by 10 kilometer (km) basin more than 1 km deep formed by collapse of the Mount Mazama volcano during a rapid series of explosive eruptions ~7,700 years ago. Having a maximum depth of 594 meters (m), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States. Crater Lake National Park, dedicated in 1902, encompasses 645 square kilometers (km2) of pristine forested and alpine terrain, including the lake itself, and virtually all of Mount Mazama. The geology of the area was first described in detail by Diller and Patton (1902) and later by Williams (1942), whose vivid account led to international recognition of Crater Lake as the classic collapse caldera. Because of excellent preservation and access, Mount Mazama, Crater Lake caldera, and the deposits formed by the climactic eruption constitute a natural laboratory for study of volcanic and magmatic processes. For example, the climactic ejecta are renowned among volcanologists as evidence for systematic compositional zonation within a subterranean magma chamber. Mount Mazama’s climactic eruption also is important as the source of the widespread Mazama ash, a useful Holocene stratigraphic marker throughout the Pacific Northwest United States, adjacent Canada, and offshore. A detailed bathymetric survey of the floor of Crater Lake in 2000 (Bacon and others, 2002) provides a unique record of postcaldera eruptions, the interplay between volcanism and filling of the lake, and sediment transport within this closed basin. Knowledge of the geology and eruptive history of the Mount Mazama edifice, enhanced by the caldera wall exposures, gives exceptional insight into how large volcanoes of magmatic arcs grow and evolve. In addition, many smaller volcanoes of the High Cascades beyond the limits of Mount Mazama provide information on the flux of mantle-derived magma through the region. General principles of magmatic and eruptive processes revealed by

  4. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  5. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-21

    Despite a small storm that came through the area last night with wind gusts peaking at 45 MPH, progress continues to be made in restoring power to customers who lost power during the December 14-15 storms which hit the Pacific Northwest region. Currently, 95,971 customers remain without power, down from 1.8 million customers. The wind storm which affected the area yesterday was not as bad as previously expected, with the majority of the customer outages in the BC Hydro region, and 3,000 additional customer outages in the Puget Sound Energy service area. The customers without power represent 5 percent of customers in the affected utility service areas of Washington. The majority of customers without power are served by Puget Sound Energy, BC Hydro, and Seattle City Light.

  6. Associations between omega-3 fatty acids, selenium content, and mercury levels in wild-harvested fish from the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Ellen S; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Kornobis, Katherine M; Hanning, Rhona M; Majowicz, Shannon E; Liber, Karsten; Stark, Ken D; Low, George; Swanson, Heidi K; Laird, Brian D

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the risks and benefits of eating wild-harvested fish from the Northwest Territories, Canada, levels of total mercury (HgT) and selenium (Se) and composition of omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) were measured in muscle tissue of fish harvested from lakes in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Average HgT levels ranged from 0.057 mg/kg (cisco) to 0.551 mg/kg (northern pike), while average n-3 FA concentrations ranged from 101 mg/100 g (burbot) to 1,689 mg/100 g (lake trout). In contrast to HgT and n-3 FA, mean Se concentrations were relatively similar among species. Consequently, species such as lake whitefish, cisco, and longnose sucker displayed the highest nutrient levels relative to HgT content. Levels of HgT tended to increase with fish size, while Se and n-3 FA levels were typically not associated with fork length or fish weight. Interestingly, HgT concentration was occasionally inversely related to tissue nutrient content. Significant negative correlations were observed between Hg and n-3 FA for lake trout, northern pike, and walleye. There were also significant negative correlations between Hg and Se noted for lake whitefish, cisco, and northern pike. Samples with the highest nutritional content displayed, on occasion, lower levels of HgT. This study provides valuable information for the design of probabilistic models capable of refining public health messaging related to minimizing Hg risks and maximizing nutrient levels in wild-harvested fish in the Canadian subarctic.

  7. Possible recording of the Mono Lake Excursion in cored sediment from Clear Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Verosub, Kenneth

    2010-05-01

    We report the possible recording of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in cored sediment from Clear Lake, CA. The locality (39.0˚N, 237.3˚E) is about 120 km north of San Francisco, CA, and 320 km northwest of the Mono Basin, CA, where the MLE first was discovered in North America (Denham and Cox, 1971). The field behaviour at Clear Lake that might be the MLE is recorded in clay and peaty clay about 50 cm below the top of the lowermost 80-cm core slug of a 21.6-m core. The coring was done by the wire-line method (Sims and Rymer, 1975) and the samples (rectangular solids 21 mm on a side and 15 mm high) were measured in a cryogenic magnetometer after demagnetization in an alternating field to 35 milliTesla (Verosub, 1977). The continuously-spaced samples record negative inclination of nearly 20˚ and northerly declination when unnormalized relative field intensity was reduced by an order of magnitude from the mean value. Those palaeomagnetic directions are followed immediately by positive inclination to about 50˚ and easterly declination of about 60˚ when the field intensity is at a relative high. That pattern of behaviour is recorded at three localities (Wilson Creek, Mill Creek, and Warm Springs) in the Mono Basin at the MLE (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992). A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at Clear Lake form a clockwise-trending loop that is centered at 65˚N, 20˚E in the hemisphere away from the locality. The VGP that is farthest from the North Geographic Pole is at 29.3˚N, 337.1˚E, which is close to the path formed by the VGPs in the older portion of the MLE (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992). The age of the sediment recording the anomalous palaeomagnetic directions in Clear Lake is about 30,000 years B.P. (Verosub, 1977). That age was determined from six (uncalibrated) radiocarbon dates, three of which are from near the base of the core (Sims and Rymer, 1975) where there are the anomalous palaeomagnetic directions, and linear

  8. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  9. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  10. in lake chamo, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    zooplankton until they move to the littoral regions and start feeding .... Fish collected during the spawning season (i.e.,. March-June .... females, but sampling in the estuary downstream ... same size could be first-time spawners in Lake. Chamo ...

  11. Reclaiming the lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    of individual rights that move well beyond the site of conflict. It is therefore argued that the actions to reclaim Lake Conococha were not only a battle for natural resources and clean water, but more fundamentally an attempt to repossess a citizenship that may be constitutionally secured but all too oft en...

  12. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  13. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence.

  14. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  15. Spatiotemporal distribution of algal and nutrient, and their correlations based on long-term monitoring data in Lake Taihu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, K.; Li, Y.; Stone, M.; Yu, Z.; Young, M.; Shafer, D. S.; Zhu, J.; Warwick, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Eutrophication in Lake Taihu - China’s third largest freshwater lake - has led to deterioration of water quality and caused more frequent cyanobacteria blooms at many lake locations in recent years. Eutrophication is thought to be fueled by increased nutrient loading, a consequence of rapid population and economic growth in the region. To understand the spatiotemporal distribution of algal blooms, a database was developed that includes long-term meteorological, hydrological, water quality, and socioeconomic data from the Lake Taihu watershed. The data were collected through various field observations, and augmented with information from local and provincial agencies, and universities. Based on the data, spatiotemporal distributions of, and correlations between, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and water temperature (WT) were analyzed. Results revealed a high degree of correlation between TP and Chl-a concentrations during warm seasons, with high concentrations of both substances present in the northern and northwest portions of the lake. During winter months, Chl-a concentrations were more strongly correlated with WT. Spatial trends in TP and TN concentrations corresponded to observed nutrient fluxes from adjoining rivers in densely populated areas, demonstrating the influence of watershed pollutant loads on lake water quality. Among important questions to be answered is whether wind-driven resuspension of existing nutrients in sediments in this shallow (cyanobacteria blooms to begin. This study identifies other questions, data gaps, and research needs, and provides a foundation for improving lake management strategies.

  16. Meteorological factors affecting the sudden decline in Lake Urmia's water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkian, Foroozan; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Ziaie, Bahareh

    2016-11-01

    Lake Urmia, in northwest Iran, is the second most saline lake in the world. During the past two decades, the level of water has markedly decreased. In this paper, climate of the lake region is investigated by using data from four meteorological stations near the lake. The data include climatic parameters such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, sunshine hours, number of rain days, and evaporation. Climate around the lake is examined by way of climate classification in the periods before and after the reduction in water level. Rainfall in the lake catchment is also evaluated using both gauge and satellite data. The results show a significant decreasing trend in mean annual precipitation and wind speed and an increasing trend in annual average temperature and sunshine hours at the four stations. Precipitation and wind speed have decreased by 37 mm and 2.7 m/s, respectively, and the mean annual temperature and sunshine hours have increased by 1.4 °C and 41.6 days, respectively, over these six decades. Only the climate of the Tabriz region is seen to have significantly changed, going from semiarid to arid. Gauge records and satellite data show a large-scale decreasing trend in rainfall since 1995. The correlation between rainfall and year-to-year changes in lake level is 0.69 over the period 1965 to 2010. The relationship is particularly strong from the early 1990s to 2005. This suggests that precipitation has played an important role in the documented decline of the lake.

  17. Detecting river sediments to assess hazardous materials at volcanic lake using advanced remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepuloh, Asep; Fitrianingtyas, Chintya

    2016-05-01

    The Toba Caldera formed from large depression of Quaternary volcanism is a remarkable feature at the Earth surface. The last Toba super eruptions were recorded around 73 ka and produced the Youngest Toba Tuff about 2,800 km3. Since then, there is no record of significant volcanic seismicity at Toba Volcanic Complex (TVC). However, the hydrothermal activities are still on going as presented by the existence of hot springs and alteration zones at the northwest caldera. The hydrothermal fluids probably containing some chemical compositions mixed with surficial water pollutant and contaminated the Toba Lake. Therefore, an environmental issues related to the existence of chemical composition and degradation of water clearness in the lake had been raised in the local community. The pollutant sources are debatable between natural and anthropogenic influences because some human activities grow rapidly at and around the lake such as hotels, tourisms, husbandry, aquaculture, as well as urbanization. Therefore, obtaining correct information about the source materials floating at the surface of the Toba Lake is crucial for environmental and hazard mitigation purposes. Overcoming the problem, we presented this paper to assess the source possibility of floating materials at Toba Lake, especially from natural sources such as hydrothermal activities of TVC and river stream sediments. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) techniques using atmospherically corrected of Landsat-8 and colour composite of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) were used to map the distribution of floating materials. The seven ground truth points were used to confirm the correctness of proposed method. Based on the SAM and PolSAR techniques, we could detect the interface of hydrothermal fluid at the lake surfaces. Various distributions of stream sediment were also detected from the river mouth to the lake. The influence possibilities of the upwelling process from the bottom floor of Toba Lake were also

  18. ENSO and NAO Influences on the Urmia Lake Basin Meteorology and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishamchi, A.; Hazrati, S.; Tajrishy, M.; Marino, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Urmia Lake Basin located in northwest Iran has an area of 51,876 Km2. The western limits of the Basin overlap the elevations on the border between Iran and Turkey. Mean annual precipitation in the Basin varies from 200 to 690 mm averaging 345 mm. The Urmia Lake located at the center of the closed Urmia Basin and west of the Caspian Sea is one of the most important and valuable ecosystems in the country. It is the largest inland lake in Iran and because of its unique natural and ecological features it has been given national park status and has been designated as a Ramsar site (wetland of international importance) in 1975 and a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. This paper attempts to explore the influences of the large-scale climate signals of the El Nino, La Nina, and NAO phenomena on temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in Urmia Lake Basin as well as the connection of the Urmia Lake level fluctuations with these signals. Results of this study indicate that variations in Urmia Lake Basin temperature and precipitation reflect the far-field influence of the NAO and ENSO. During high positive (negative) phases of NAOslp the region becomes drier (wetter) and cooler (warmer). Two of the main rivers in the Basin studied in this paper are Ajichai and Siminehrood. The extreme negative phase of NAOslp increases monthly Ajichai streamflow. ENSO has different seasonal influences; the most influence is on autumn streamflow that El Nino (La Nina) increases (decreases). Siminehrood streamflows are significantly correlated with the NAOslp and SOI and the occurrence of El Nino has various effects during the year on Siminehrood streamflow; the most significant effects are on autumn streamflow. Results also indicate that variations in Urmia Lake level reflect the far-field influence of the NAO and El Nino Southern Oscillation such that correlations between the normalized average monthly lake level and NAO and SOI indices of prior months are significant.

  19. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water

  20. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  1. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due

  2. Groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake, Minnesota, through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Bode, Jenifer A.; O'Grady, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    indicated the net effect of the non-precipitation terms on the water balance has changed relative to precipitation. The average amount of precipitation required each year to maintain the lake level has increased from 33 inches per year during 1978-2002 to 37 inches per year during 2003-11. The combination of lower precipitation and an increase in groundwater withdrawals can explain the change in the lake-level response to precipitation. Annual and summer groundwater withdrawals from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer have more than doubled from 1980 through 2010. Results from a regression model constructed with annual lake-level change, annual precipitation minus evaporation, and annual volume of groundwater withdrawn from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer indicated groundwater withdrawals had a greater effect than precipitation minus evaporation on water levels in the White Bear Lake area for all years since 2003. The recent (2003-11) decline in White Bear Lake reflects the declining water levels in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer; increases in groundwater withdrawals from this aquifer are a likely cause for declines in groundwater levels and lake levels. Synoptic, static groundwater-level and lake-level measurements in March/April and August 2011 indicated groundwater was potentially flowing into White Bear Lake from glacial aquifers to the northeast and south, and lake water was potentially discharging from White Bear Lake to the underlying glacial and Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifers and glacial aquifers to the northwest. Groundwater levels in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer below White Bear Lake are approximately 0 to 19 feet lower than surface-water levels in the lake, indicating groundwater from the aquifer likely does not flow into White Bear Lake, but lake water may discharge into the aquifer. Groundwater levels from March/April to August 2011 declined more than 10 feet in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer south of White Bear Lake and to the north in

  3. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic activity (e.g.: tephra layers, deformation structures, slumping) in the Lake Van sedimentary profile around 530 ka, it seems unlikely that a pyroclastic flow blocked the outflow of the lake. Alternatively, a portion of inflow has been diverged which might have caused a change in the hydrological balance and lake level falling below its outlet. However, as no geomorphological data confirming this scenario yet exist, it is only a

  4. Small Boreal Lake Ecosystem Evolution under the Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors: Results of Multidisciplinary Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Shirokova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Small aquatic ecosystems of the boreal zone are known to be most sensitive indicators of on-going environmental change as well as local anthropogenic pressure, while being highly vulnerable to external impacts. Compared to rather detailed knowledge of the evolution of large and small lakes in Scandinavia and Canada, and large lakes in Eurasia, highly abundant small boreal lakes of northwest Russia have received very little attention, although they may become important centers of attraction of growing rural population in the near future. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary, multi-annual study of a small boreal humic lake of NW Russia. A shallow (3 m and a deep (16 m site of this lake were regularly sampled for a range of chemical and biological parameters. Average multi-daily, summer-time values of the epilimnion (upper oxygenated layer of the lake provided indications of possible trends in temperature, nutrients, and bacterio-plankton concentration that revealed the local pollution impact in the shallow zone and overall environmental trend in the deep sampling point of the lake. Organic phosphorus, nitrate, and lead were found to be most efficient tracers of local anthropogenic pollution, especially visible in the surface layer of the shallow site of the lake. Cycling of trace elements between the epilimnion and hypolimnion is tightly linked to dissolved organic matter speciation and size fractionation due to the dominance of organic and organo-ferric colloids. The capacity of lake self-purification depends on the ratio of primary productivity to mineralization of organic matter. This ratio remained >1 both during winter and summer periods, which suggests a high potential of lake recovery from the input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and local anthropogenic pollution.

  5. The Lake Gordan mylonite zone: A link between the Nutbush Creek and Hylas zones of Eastern Piedmont fault system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, J.W. Jr.; Sacks, P.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Berquist, C.R. Jr.; Marr, J.D. Jr. (Virginia Div. of Mineral Resources, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Druhan, R.M. (Robert M. Carolina Friends School, Durham, NC (United States)); Butler, J.R. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Preliminary results of geologic mapping indicate that the Nutbush Creek and Hylas mylonite zone of the lake Paleozoic Eastern Piedmont fault system are not coextensive, as has been proposed. In south-central Virginia and northern North Carolina, a separate NNE-trending, orogen-parallel mylonite zone, the Lake Gordon mylonite zone, lies between the Nutbush Creek and Hylas zone and may link them. The Lake Gordon mylonite zone, named for exposures near Lake Gordon Mecklenburg Co., Va., lies mainly along the eastern flank of the Buggs Island granite pluton and has been mapped for a distance of about 80 km. Reconnaissance between Blackstone and Kenbridge, Va., suggests that the Lake Gordon mylonite zone is linked to the Hylas zone by either a releasing bend or an en echelon right step. The Lake Gordon and Nutbush Creek mylonite zone converge southward and are separated by only 3 km of granitic gneiss at the southern limit of mapping near Henderson, N.C. Mylonitic foliation in the Lake Gordon mylonite zone strikes 10--25[degree] E., dips subvertically to steeply northwest, and is parallel to the mapped boundaries of the zone. Intensity of mylonitization varies across the 1.5--3.6-km width of the zone. Subhorizontal mineral-elongation lineation is common in the plane of mylonitic foliation. Asymmetric porphyroclasts and shear bands indicate dextral simple shear. Coincidence of the Lake Gordon and Nutbush Creek mylonite zones, respectively, with the eastern and western margins of the highly elongate Buggs Island granite pluton suggests that the mylonite zones influenced emplacement of the pluton. These map relations, combined with very localized mylonitic fabric in the granite, suggest that mylonite in the Lake Gordon zone, like that in the Nutbush Creek zones is partly coeval with the Pennsylvanian-age Buggs Island granite. Postmylonitic brittle faulting is found locally in both the Lake Gordon and the Nutbush Creek zones.

  6. Northwest Montana [Waterfowl Production Area] Narrative report: Fical year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by...

  7. Northwest China covered by 750-kV power grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Being abundant in hydropower, coal, wind energy and solar energy etc., Northwest China is an important energy base with great potential. In recent years, along with the vigorous development of the energy base, the

  8. Black Beauty's Rainbow: Hyperspectral Imaging of Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, K. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Agee, C. B.; Wilson, J. H.; Greenberger, R. N.

    2014-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is used to characterize the first basaltic breccia from Mars, Northwest Africa 7034. Initial results show the spectral character of NWA 7034 is unlike other SNC meteorites and may be more representative of average martian crust.

  9. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program 1975 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. Such scenarios may themselves result from Federal development policies and programs, from regionally specific actions by the states and energy industries, or from actions taken by international factors currently importing energy resources into the region. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels.

  10. 2007 Oregon Department of Forestry (ODF) Northwest Oregon Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar dataset encompasses two areas in northwest Oregon. The northern area is located in Clatsop County, encompassing Clatsop State Forest ownership; the...

  11. Arctic wildlife sketches: Bison of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the bison of the northwest territories. Historical range, physical description, reproduction, mortality, distribution, and the future of bison in...

  12. Arctic wildlife sketches: Wolves of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers wolves of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  13. 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) Lidar: Holmes County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007/2008 Northwest Florida Water...

  14. Planning and accomplishment narrative: Northwest Montana Waterfowl Production Area [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planning and accomplishments narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year....

  15. Arctic wildlife sketches: Muskox of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers muskox of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  16. Arctic wildlife sketches: Moose of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers moose of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  17. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  18. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  19. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  20. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  1. Arctic wildlife sketches: Whales of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers whales of the Northwest Territories. Topics covered include distribution, behavior, food, reproduction, and economic status and management.

  2. Arctic wildlife sketches: Polar bear of the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the biology of the polar bear, specific to the Northwest Territories, Canada. Physical description, habitat and distribution, behavior, food,...

  3. 2007 Northwest Water Manangement District Lidar: Gadsden County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing points classified as bare-earth and canopy (first return) were produced for the 2007 Northwest Florida Water Management...

  4. Investigation of a playa lake bed using geophysical electrical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmenn, M.; Gurrola, H.; William, R.; Montalvo, R.; Horton, S.; Homberg, J.; Allen, T.; Bribiesca, E.; Lindsey, C.; Anderson, H.; Seshadri, S.; Manns, S.; Hassan, A.; Loren, C.

    2005-12-01

    The 2005 undergraduate applied geophysical class of Texas Tech University conducted a geophysical survey of a playa lake approximately 10 miles northwest of Lubbock Texas. The playa lake is primarily used as grazing land for two llamas and a hand full of sheep, and has been recently used as a dump for broken down sheds and barrels. Our goal was to model the subsurface of the transition from the playa to plains geology and investigate the possible contamination, of the soil and the data, by the metal dumped at the surface. We conducted our survey with and EM31 and homemade D.C. resistivity and SP equipment that allowed students to grasp the theories more clearly. SP readings were collected using clay pots constructed from terracotta pots and copper tubing purchased at the local hardware store and voltage measurements collected with handle held multi-meters. D.C. resistivity data were collected in a dipole-dipole array using 20 nine volt batteries connected in series with a large enough variable resistor and amp meter to regulate steady current flow. A multi meter was used to collect voltage readings. Wenner array data were collected using a home-made multi-filament cable connected switch box to allow a central user to regulate current and take voltage reading. A map of conductivity produced from a 10 m of EM31 reading show that conductivity anomalies mirror topography. The SP profiles show high values in the playa lake that drop off as we move from the clay rich lake bed to normal grassland. Analysis of both the Dipole-Dipole and Wenner array data support a model with 3 flat layers increasing in resistivity with depth. It appears that these remain flat passing beneath the playa and the playa is eroded into these layers.

  5. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  6. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) (www.usarray.org). USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  7. Feldspar Variability in Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Lewis, J. A.; Agee, C. B.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Shearer, C. K.

    2017-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa 7034 (and pairings) is a breccia that provides important information about the rocks and processes of the martian crust (e.g., 1-3). Additional information can be gleaned from the components of the breccia. These components, specifically those designated as clasts, record the history of their parent rock (i.e., the rock that has been physically broken down to produce the clasts). In order to study these parent rocks, we must first determine which clasts within the breccia are de-rived from the same parent. Previous studies have be-gun this process (e.g., 4), but the search for genetic linkages between clasts has not integrated clasts with different grain sizes. We begin to take this approach here, incorporating igneous-textured clasts with both fine and coarse mineral grains. In NWA 7034, almost all materials (clasts and breccia matrix) are composed of the same mineral assemblages (feldspar, pyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, apatite) with largely the same mineral compositions [1, 4-6]. Bulk breccia Sm-Nd systematics define a single isochron [7]. These observations are consistent with a majority of the components within NWA 7034 originating from the same geochemical source and crystallizing at roughly the same time.

  8. Radiochronology of lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erten, H.N. [Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Sediment cores from Lakes Zurich, Constance, from the Sea of Marmara and from southern Turkey, northern Cyprus and eastern Spain were dated using natural {sup 210}Pb, fallout {sup 137}Cs and cosmic-ray produced {sup 7}Be radionuclides. Constant activity regions in the uppermost sections of sediments from Lake Zurich and the Sea of Marmara were attributed to post-depositional mobility of {sup 210}Pb in the former case and to bioturbation in the latter. A serious discrepancy exists between the {sup 210}Pb dating of Sea of Marmara sediments and those obtained by organic carbon based methods. The elements Zn, Cu, P and Pb were enriched in the upper sections of the sediment cores corresponding to the last 200 years. The increased metallurgical activities as a result of reforms in the Ottoman Army during the 18th century could be the most likely cause. (Author).

  9. Quaternary Lake Deposits of Nam Co, Tibet, with a Discussion of the Connection of Nam Co with Ring Co-Jiuru Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱大岗; 赵希涛; 孟宪刚; 吴中海; 吴珍汉; 冯向阳; 邵兆刚; 刘琦胜; 杨美玲

    2002-01-01

    Shorelines are widespread and lake deposits and lake geomorphology are well developed on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Through field observations of lacustrine deposits of Nam Co-the highest and largest Quaternary lake in Tibet, the authors found four-step shore terraces composed of sands and clays with well-developed horizontal bedding and 3-12 m, 15-22 m, 25-30 m and 35-45 m higher than the lake surface respectively, lacustrine deposits resting on the bedrocks and 60-150 m higher than the lake surface, and up to ~50 levees composed of oblate lakeshore gravels. Moreover they found lacustrine and lakeshore deposits making up the terraces and levees on the bottoms of wide dividing valleys connecting Nam Co with the Rencoyuema, Rencogongma and Jiuru Co northwest of Nam Co (the valley bottoms are 20 m, 90 m and 60 m higher than the above-mentioned three lakes) and on slopes north of it, i.e. terraces II and III of Nam Co. Thus they confirm that Nam Co and Ring Co-Jiuru Co had connected with each other several times, i.e. formed a unified large lake several times, rather than had been different lakes connected only by river channels. From indications such as the distribution of the highest shoreline and lake deposits and geomorphology, the authors conclude that the total area of the old large lakes on the northern Tibetan Plateau is a few times larger than that of the modern lakes and that the last-stage old large lakes formed in the interglacial interval of the last glaciation.

  10. Not so Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  11. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (~51,000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ~69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages.

  12. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  13. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake...

  14. Bear Lake-Minidoka - Phragmites Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake: Phragmites patches were sprayed on the refuge & north of the lake proper. Minidoka: patches along the Snake River & Lake Walcott were treated with...

  15. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  16. Moses Lake Fishery Restoration Project : FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Dave

    2003-02-01

    The Moses Lake Project (project No. 199502800) was first funded during FY 99 and field studies commenced October 2000. Later review of the proposal by the ISRP revealed perceived shortcomings. Immediately following the ISRP review Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) personnel were in contact with the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) regarding further options. The NWPPC allowed WDFW to re-submit the first proposal revision that was followed in June 2001 by a second negative review by the ISRP. In August 2001, the NWPPC authorized a third and final submission of the proposal and limited funding extension. Therefore, proposal revisions and resubmissions limited progress in data collection and analysis. This report covers work conducted within the submitted scope of work (FY 2000, September 27, 2000--September 26, 2001) and incorporation of the suggested modifications to the proposal. The bulk of the work covered by this report concentrated on data collection.

  17. 12 kaBP lake environment on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳元; 王苏民; 朱立平; 李元芳

    2001-01-01

    The systemic analyses have been carried out in this paper to the paleolake shorelines, paleolake sediments and paleoclimatic proxies of 20 lakes, in which there were 12 kaBP dating data on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the paleolake level had apparently risen during 14-11 kaBP, the glaciers melting period, in the Tibetan area and Northwest China. Especially, much more increasing amplitude supplied by thawy glaciers water occurred than in the best period of Holocene. The temperate-humid climate around 12 kaBP appeared in the Tibetan area and even in the whole China. This event may be compared with the Bolling/Allerod warm period which was reflected by Europe and Greenland ice core records. It showed that the B/A event was not a regional one in the North Atlantic area.

  18. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  19. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  20. Limited Regulation of Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Ontario,, Cedar Point in Ohio, Presque Isle in Pennsylvania and Hamlin in New York. Recreational boating is a significant activity on Lake Erie . Along...RD-Al47 936 LIMITED REGULATION OF LAKE ERIE (U) INTERNATIONAL LAKE i/i ERIE REGULATION STUDY BOARD NOV 83 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 13/2 N lhhhhh..hEmhhI...o lake Erie ’Governmen of 4,- % * L CTE " 84100400 .- Canad Unite Stte INTRNAIONL OIN COMISIO 4WD’ This document hais been ow for public rleoe and so

  1. THE LAKES IN ROMANIA - AN ACTUAL SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a synthesis of the lakes of Romania. We addressed the following questions: genetic types of lakes, geographical distribution and their use in various fields of activities. Thus, in the territory of Romania is a large genetic diversity of lakes distributed on all major forms of relief and recovery in many economic areas. Romania is particularly present fluvial lakes, glacial lakes and anthropogenic lakes (especially reservoirs.

  2. Glacial lakes Buni and Jezerce: Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Milivojević Milovan; Kovačević-Majkić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents glacial lakes and glacial relief forms at the foothill of the peak Maja Jezerce in Mt. Prokletije in Albania, near the border with Montenegro. The group of lakes Buni and Jezerce, which consists of six lakes and which genetically belongs to glacial-erosional lakes, is analyzed. Lakes are situated at the cirque bottom, between the moraines and limestone ridges. Except presented morphometric characteristics of lake basins, data about cirque are given, as well as the reconstru...

  3. THE LAKES IN ROMANIA - AN ACTUAL SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2010-01-01

    The article offers a synthesis of the lakes of Romania. We addressed the following questions: genetic types of lakes, geographical distribution and their use in various fields of activities. Thus, in the territory of Romania is a large genetic diversity of lakes distributed on all major forms of relief and recovery in many economic areas. Romania is particularly present fluvial lakes, glacial lakes and anthropogenic lakes (especially reservoirs).

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation extremes in the Poyang Lake basin, China: Changing properties and causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M.

    2016-12-01

    Under the background of climate change, extensive attentions have been paid on the increased extreme precipitation from the public and government. To analyze the influences of large-scale climate indices on the precipitation extremes, the spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation extremes in the Poyang Lake basin have been investigated using the Bayesian hierarchical method. The seasonal maximum one-day precipitation amount (Rx1day) was used to represent the seasonal precipitation extremes. Results indicated that spring Rx1day was affected by El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a positive ENSO event in the same year tends to decrease the spring Rx1day in the northern part of Poyang Lake Basin while increase the spring Rx1day in southeastern Poyang Lake Basin, a positive NAO events in the same year tends to increase the spring Rx1day in the southwest and northwest part of Poyang Lake basin while decrease the spring Rx1day in the eastern part of Poyang Lake basin; summer Rx1day was affected by Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), positive IOD events in the same year tend to increase the summer Rx1day of northern Poyang Lake basin while decrease summer Rx1day of southern Poyang Lake basin; autumn Rx1day was affected by ENSO, positive ENSO events in the same year tend to mainly increase the autumn Rx1day in the west part of Poyang Lake basin; winter Rx1day was mainly affected by the NAO, positive NAO events in the same year tend to mainly increase the winter Rx1day of southern Poyang Lake basin, while positive NAO events in the previous year tend to mainly increase the winter Rx1day in the central and northeast part of Poyang Lake basin. It is considered that the region with the negative vertical velocity is dominated by more precipitation and vice versa. Furthermore, field patterns of 500 hPa vertical velocity anomalies related to each climate index have further corroborated the influences of climate indices on the seasonal Rx1day, and

  5. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  6. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  7. Structure and function of fish communities in the southern Lake Michigan basin with emphasis on restoration of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P.; Stewart, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    The southern Lake Michigan basin in northwest Indiana possesses a variety of aquatic habitats including riverine, palustrine, and lacustrine systems. The watershed draining this area is a remnant of glacial Lake Chicago and supports fish communities that are typically low in species richness. Composition of the presettlement Lake Michigan fish community near the Indiana Dunes has been difficult to reconstruct. Existing data indicate that the number of native species in the Lake Michigan watershed, including nearshore Lake Michigan, has declined by 22% since the onset of European settlement. Few remnants of natural fish communities exist, and those occur principally in the ponds of Miller Woods, the Grand Calumet Lagoons, and the Little Calumet River. These communities have maintained a relatively diverse assemblage of fishes despite large-scale anthropogenic disturbances in the area, including channelization, massive river redirection, fragmentation, habitat alteration, exotic species invasions, and the introduction of toxic chemicals. Data that we collected from 1985 to 1996 suggested that the Grand Calumet River has the highest proportion of exotic fish species of any inland wetland in northwest Indiana. Along the Lake Michigan shoreline, another group of exotics (e.g., round goby, alewife, and sea lamprey) have affected the structure of native fish communities, thereby altering lake ecosystem function. Stocking programs contribute to the impairment of native communities. Nonindigenous species have restructured the function of Lake Michigan tributaries, causing disruptions in trophic dynamics, guild structure, and species diversity. Several fish communities have been reduced or eliminated by the alteration and destruction of spawning and nursery areas. Degradation of habitats has caused an increase in numbers and populations of species able to tolerate and flourish when confronted with hydrologic alteration. Fish communities found on public lands in northwest

  8. LAKE AFDERA: A THREATENED SALINE LAKE IN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lake's geological history of having marine inputs from the Red Sea (Gionfiantini et al., 1973). Unlike the other ... area) at the shore where one of the hot springs joins the lake. It is not known ... that goes to the Red Sea port of Assab. One of the ...

  9. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  10. Minimal groundwater leakage restricts salinity in a hydrologically terminal basin of northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Rouillard, Alexandra; Grierson, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    The Fortescue Marsh (FM) is one of the largest wetlands of arid northwest Australia (~1200 km2) and is thought to act as a terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue River catchment. Unlike the playa lake systems that predominate in most arid regions, where salinity is driven by inflow and evaporation of groundwater, the hydrological regime of the FM is driven by inundation from irregular cyclonic events [1]. Surface water of the FM is fresh to brackish and the salinity of the deepest groundwater (80 m b.g.l.) does not exceed 160 g/L; salt efflorescences are rarely present on the surface [2]. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that persistent but low rates of groundwater outflow have restricted the accumulation of salt in the FM over time. Using hydrological, hydrochemical data and dimensionless time evaporation modelling along with the water and salt budget, we calculated the time and the annual groundwater discharge volume that would be required to achieve and maintain the range of salinity levels observed in the Marsh. Groundwater outflow from alluvial and colluvial aquifers to the Lower Fortescue catchment is limited by an extremely low hydraulic gradient of 0.001 and is restricted to a relatively small 'alluvial window' of 0.35 km2 because of the elevation of the basement bedrock at the Marsh outflow. We show that if the Marsh was 100% "leakage free" i.e., a true terminal basin for the Upper Fortescue Catchment, the basin water would have achieved salt saturation after ~45 ka. This is not the case and only a very small outflow of saline groundwater of Marsh and the steady-state conditions for salt concentration is between 58 and 164 ka. This is a minimum age of the Marsh but it can be much older as nearly steady-state conditions could be maintained infinitely. Our approach using a combined water and salt mass balance allows a more robust assessment of the hydrological budget of such a large-scale basin. The dimensionless time versus inflow over outflow ratio

  11. Field-trip guide to a volcanic transect of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Dennis; Wolff, John; Harpp, Karen

    2017-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the United States provides world-class and historically important examples of a wide variety of volcanic features. This guide is designed to give a broad overview of the region’s diverse volcanism rather than focusing on the results of detailed studies; the reader should consult the reference list for more detailed information on each of the sites, and we have done our best to recognize previous field trip leaders who have written the pioneering guides. This trip derives from one offered as a component of the joint University of Idaho- Washington State University volcanology class taught from 1995 through 2014, and it borrows in theme from the classic field guide of Johnston and Donnelly-Nolan (1981). For readers interested in using this field guide as an educational tool, we have included an appendix with supplemental references to resources that provide useful background information on relevant topics, as well as a few suggestions for field-based exercises that could be useful when bringing students to these locations in the future. The 4-day trip begins with an examination of lava flow structures of the Columbia River Basalt, enormous lava fields that were emplaced during one of the largest eruptive episodes in Earth’s recent history. On the second day, the trip turns to the High Lava Plains, a bimodal volcanic province that transgressed from southeast to northwest from the Miocene through the Holocene, at the northern margin of the Basin and Range Province. This volcanic field provides excellent examples of welded ignimbrite, silicic lavas and domes, monogenetic basaltic lava fields, and hydrovolcanic features. The third day is devoted to a circumnavigation of Crater Lake, the result of one of the world’s best-documented caldera-forming eruptions. The caldera walls also expose the anatomy of Mount Mazama, a stratovolcano of the Cascade Range. The last day is spent at Newberry Volcano, a back-arc shield volcano topped by a

  12. Overview for geologic field-trip guides to Mount Mazama, Crater Lake Caldera, and Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.; Wright, Heather M.

    2017-08-16

    These field-trip guides were written for the occasion of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial scientific assembly in Portland, Oregon, in August 2017. The guide to Mount Mazama and Crater Lake caldera is an updated and expanded version of the guide (Bacon, 1989) for part of an earlier IAVCEI trip to the southern Cascade Range. The guide to Newberry Volcano describes the stops included in the 2017 field trip. Crater Lake and Newberry are the two best-preserved and most recent calderas in the Cascades Volcanic Arc. Although located in different settings in the arc, with Crater Lake on the arc axis and Newberry in the rear-arc, both volcanoes are located at the intersection of the arc and the northwest corner region of the extensional Basin and Range Province.

  13. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  14. Using urban man-made ponds to reconstruct a 150-year history of air pollution in northwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Ann L; Worsley, Ann T

    2009-04-01

    A regional pollution history has been reconstructed for the borough of Halton (northwest England) from four urban ponds in north Cheshire and south Merseyside, using environmental analyses of lake sediment stratigraphies. Mineral magnetism, geochemistry and radiometric dating have produced profiles of pollution characteristics dating from the mid-nineteenth century to present day. These pollution profiles reflect the atmospheric deposition of a range of pollutants over 150 years of intensified industry. Distinct phases of pollution deposition and characteristics are identified reflecting: (1) intensification of industry in the nineteenth century; (2) expansion of industry during the twentieth century; (3) post 1956 Clean Air Acts. This work promotes the potential use of these pollution archives for use in epidemiology to better understand links between human health and environmental pollution, especially for diseases with long latency times, where retrospective pollution exposure assessments are important.

  15. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  16. Groundwater seepage controls salinity in a hydrologically terminal basin of semi-arid northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; Rouillard, Alexandra; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2016-11-01

    Very small groundwater outflows have the potential to significantly impact the hydrochemistry and salt accumulation processes of notionally terminal basins in arid environments. However, this limited groundwater outflow can be very difficult to quantify using classical water budget calculations due to large uncertainties in estimates of evaporation and evapotranspiration rates from the surface of dry lake beds. In this study, we used a dimensionless time evaporation model to estimate the range of groundwater outflow required to maintain salinity levels observed at the Fortescue Marsh (FM), one of the largest wetlands of semi-arid northwest Australia (∼1100 km2). The groundwater outflow from aquifers underlying the FM to the Lower Fortescue catchment is constrained by an extremely low hydraulic gradient of flood water is fresh to brackish, and salt efflorescences are very sparse and evident only when the FM is dry. We show that if the FM was 100% "leakage free" i.e., a true terminal basin, groundwater would have achieved halite saturation (>300 g/L) after ∼45 ka. We calculated that only a very small seepage of ∼2G L/yr (∼0.03% of the FM water volume) is sufficient to maintain current salinity conditions. The minimum time required to develop the current hydrochemical groundwater composition under the FM ranges from ∼60 to ∼165 ka. We conclude that a dimensionless time evaporation model versus inflow over outflow ratio model is likely more suitable than classical water budget calculations for determining outflow from large saline lakes and to estimate groundwater seepage from hydrologically terminal basins.

  17. Conclusion: Ecology of Meromictic Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, Ramesh D.; Zadereev, Egor S.; Gulati, Ramesh D.; Zadereev, Egor S.; Degermendzhi, Andrei G.

    2017-01-01

    The term meromixis was introduced more than 80 years ago to denote lakes that do not annually mix completely. Since then our understanding of meromictic lakes has considerably advanced. Physical processes support the difference in water density between deep (monimolimnion ) and surface (mixolimnion

  18. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  19. Planktonic diatoms of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwand, Jerry F.

    1969-01-01

    The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake Ontario in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.

  20. Europa's Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  1. Lake-floor sediment texture and composition of a hydrothermally-active, volcanic lake, Lake Rotomahana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittari, A.; Muir, S. L.; Hendy, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Young volcanic lakes undergo a transition from rapid, post-eruptive accumulation of volcaniclastic sediment to slower pelagic settling under stable lake conditions, and may also be influenced by sublacustrine hydrothermal systems. Lake Rotomahana is a young (129 year-old), hydrothermally-active, volcanic lake formed after the 1886 Tarawera eruption, and provides a unique insight into the early evolution of volcanic lake systems. Lake-bottom sediment cores, 20-46 cm in length, were taken along a transect across the lake and characterised with respect to stratigraphy, facies characteristics (i.e., grain size, componentry) and pore water silica concentrations. The sediments generally comprise two widespread facies: (i) a lower facies of light grey to grey, very fine lacustrine silt derived from the unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits that mantled the catchment area immediately after the eruption, which were rapidly reworked and redeposited into the lake basin; and (ii) an upper facies of dark, fine-sandy diatomaceous silt, that settled from the pelagic zone of the physically stable lake. Adjacent to sublacustrine hydrothermal vents, the upper dark facies is absent, and the upper part of the light grey to grey silt is replaced by a third localised facies comprised of hydrothermally altered pale yellow to yellowish brown, laminated silt with surface iron-rich encrustations. Microspheres, which are thought to be composed of amorphous silica, although some may be halloysite, have precipitated from pore water onto sediment grains, and are associated with a decrease in pore water silicon concentration. Lake Rotomahana is an example of a recently-stabilised volcanic lake, with respect to sedimentation, that shows signs of early sediment silicification in the presence of hydrothermal activity.

  2. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  3. Phosphorous Loading in Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H.; Halliday, B.; Lane, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phosphate movement from different sources into Lake Champlain is a problem. Excess phosphate generates algae growth causing eutrophication. This excessive growth known as algae blooms leads to poor water quality (State of Lake Report, 2015). Phosphate moves primarily by attachment to soil particles (Busman, Lamb, 09). Historically its movement has been limited to spring, summer and fall. Spring runoff is thought to contribute the most phosphate to Lake Champlain (Jensen, Tiessen, 11). With changes in global and local temperatures effecting weather patterns and the winter season, does phosphate continue to move into Lake Champlain during the winter months? Water samples from two tributaries to Lake Champlain were collected biweekly year around for the past three years. These samples were then tested for total suspended solids and phosphate levels. The results indicate that phosphate loading occurs throughout the year even during the winter months.

  4. Choking Lake Winnipeg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Little, L. J.; Dodgson, K. A.; MacDonald, R. J.; Graham, J.

    2009-12-01

    The problems of waterway eutrophication and coastal zone hypoxia are reaching epidemic proportions. Fresh water and coastal marine environments around the world are suffering unprecedented pollution loadings. We are developing an education program to address the dramatic need for public, community and K-12 education about the harsh impacts of elevated nutrient loads on fresh and marine water environments. The Lake Winnipeg watershed is adopted as the poster child of fresh water eutrophication in western North America. The watershed, one of the largest on the continent, is in rapid decline due to pollution, population pressures and water diversion. A concerted education program is needed to change personal and society actions that negatively impact the Winnipeg watershed; and the confluence of the watershed - Lake Winnipeg. But the education program goes beyond Lake Winnipeg. Negative impacts of nutrient loads are adversely affecting environments right to the oceans. Major dead zones that are expanding on our continental shelves due to nutrient overloading threaten to coalesce into extensive regions of marine life die-off. This presentation outlines the documentary education production process under development. We are building a series of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) for national television networks. The PSAs will direct educators, stakeholders and citizens to an associated website with educational video clips detailing the issues of eutrophication and hypoxia. The video clips or webisodes, present interviews with leading scientists. The discussions address the causes of the problems, and presents workable solutions to nutrient overloads from a variety of sources. The webisodes are accompanied by notes and advice to teachers on ways and means to use the webisodes in classrooms. The project is fully funed by a group of Canadian Community Foundations, with the understanding the work wil be available free to educators anywhere in the world. Our education

  5. 78 FR 53675 - Safety Zone; Lake Erie Heritage Foundation, Battle of Lake Erie Reenactment; Lake Erie, Put-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Lake Erie Reenactment; Lake Erie, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... vicinity of Put-In-Bay, OH. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during Battle of Lake Erie Reenactment near Put-In-Bay. This temporary safety zone is necessary...

  6. Influence of Northwest Cloudbands on Southwest Australian Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Telcik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest cloudbands are tropical-extratropical feature that crosses the Australian continent originating from Australia’s northwest coast and develops in a NW-SE orientation. In paper, atmospheric and oceanic reanalysis data (NCEP and Reynolds reconstructed sea surface temperature data were used to examine northwest cloudband activity across the Australian mainland. An index that reflected the monthly, seasonal, and interannual activity of northwest cloudbands between 1950 and 1999 was then created. Outgoing longwave radiation, total cloud cover, and latent heat flux data were used to determine the number of days when a mature northwest cloudband covered part of the Australian continent between April and October. Regional indices were created for site-specific investigations, especially of cloudband-related rainfall. High and low cloudband activity can affect the distribution of cloudbands and their related rainfall. In low cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands were mostly limited to the south and west Australian coasts. In high cloudband activity seasons, cloudbands penetrated farther inland, which increased the inland rainfall. A case study of the southwest Australian region demonstrated that, in a below average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall was limited to the coast. In an above average rainfall year, cloudband-related rainfall occurred further inland.

  7. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S. A.; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.; Bevis, M.; Korsgaard, N.; Bjørk, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Timm, L. H.; Dam, T. v.

    2012-04-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest sector, while the GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice mass loss close to the sites. GPS data from a long term site at Thule Airbase show accelerated uplift starting in 2005 and a minor deceleration in 2009-2010. The deceleration is more dominant at GPS stations deployed in 2007 in northwest Greenland as part of the Greenland GPS Network (GNET). Independently, all three methods suggest increased ice loss in northwest Greenland starting in 2005 and a slowdown in 2009-2010.

  8. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  9. Northwest Africa 5790: Revisiting nakhlite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, A.; Sautter, V.; Barrat, J.-A.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Boudouma, O.; Badia, D.; Devouard, B.

    2016-10-01

    Northwest Africa 5790, the latest nakhlite find, is composed of 58 vol.% augite, 6% olivine and 36% vitrophyric intercumulus material. Its petrology is comparable to previously discovered nakhlites but with key differences: (1) Augite cores display an unusual zoning between Mg# 54 and 60; (2) Olivine macrocrysts have a primary Fe-rich core composition (Mg# = 35); (3) The modal proportion of mesostasis is the highest ever described in a nakhlite; (4) It is the most magnetite-rich nakhlite, together with MIL 03346, and exhibits the least anisotropic fabric. Complex primary zoning in cumulus augite indicates resorption due to complex processes such as remobilization of former cumulates in a new magma batch. Textural relationships indicate unambiguously that olivine was growing around resorbed augite, and that olivine growth was continuous while pyroxene growth resumed at a final stage. Olivine core compositions (Mg# = 35) are out of equilibrium with the augite core compositions (Mg# 60-63) and with the previously inferred nakhlite parental magma (Mg# = 29). The presence of oscillatory zoning in olivine and augite precludes subsolidus diffusion that could have modified olivine compositions. NWA 5790 evidences at least two magma batches before eruption, with the implication that melt in equilibrium with augite cores was never in contact with olivine. Iddingsite is absent. Accordingly, the previous scenarios for nakhlite petrogenesis must be revised. The first primary parent magmas of nakhlites generated varied augite cumulates at depth (Mg# 66-60) as they differentiated to different extents. A subsequent more evolved magma batch entrained accumulated augite crystals to the surface where they were partly resorbed while olivine crystallized. Trace element variations indicate unambiguously that they represent consanguineous but different magma batches. The compositional differences among the various nakhlites suggest a number of successive lava flows. To account for all

  10. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda; Polagye, Brian

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  11. Spatial distribution of penetration depth in Taihu Lake (China) during spring and autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiaohua; WEI Yingzhu; OUYANG Xiaoran

    2013-01-01

    In the context of remote sensing,sunlight penetration depth is the depth above which 90%of the diffusely reflected irradiance from a water body surface originates.Model algorithms to simulate water quality variables such as chlorophyll a,dissolved organic matter,suspended matter,and Secchi depth are sensitive to the variations of this variable.The penetration depth for Taihu Lake in China,a shallow and turbid lake,was calculated by using a multiple scattering model,and in situ optical measurements were carried out during May and October 2010.The results show that:1) the penetration depth generally increased from west to east during spring and from southeast to northwest during autumn,reflecting the prevailing wind direction and; 2) there was strong dependence of the penetration depth on the concentration of suspended matter.

  12. Spatial distribution of penetration depth in Taihu Lake (China) during spring and autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiaohua; Wei, Yingzhu; Ouyang, Xiaoran

    2013-07-01

    In the context of remote sensing, sunlight penetration depth is the depth above which 90% of the diffusely reflected irradiance from a water body surface originates. Model algorithms to simulate water quality variables such as chlorophyll a, dissolved organic matter, suspended matter, and Secchi depth are sensitive to the variations of this variable. The penetration depth for Taihu Lake in China, a shallow and turbid lake, was calculated by using a multiple scattering model, and in situ optical measurements were carried out during May and October 2010. The results show that: 1) the penetration depth generally increased from west to east during spring and from southeast to northwest during autumn, reflecting the prevailing wind direction and; 2) there was strong dependence of the penetration depth on the concentration of suspended matter.

  13. 14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements, Lake Campbell and... Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each person operating an aircraft to or from Lake Campbell or Sixmile Lake Airport shall conform to the flow...

  14. Less Mixing Can Affect Lake s Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Sohn

    2005-01-01

    Lakescanbelikebowlsofsoupinthemicrowave:Theyneedalittlestirringeverynowandthen.Otherwise,alltheheatendsupontop.That’sexactlywhat’shappenedinrecentyearstoAfrica'sLakeTanganyika,scientistsarereporting.Risingwatertemperatureshaveinterferedwiththelake’snormal

  15. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  16. Convergence across the northwest Himalaya from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P.; Bürgmann, R.

    2002-07-01

    Horizontal velocities of 26 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the northwest Himalayan region provide new constraints on the partitioning of India-Eurasia convergence and elastic strain accumulation about the locked Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). The northwest-striking Karakorum fault slips at 11 +/- 4 mm/yr and contributes to east-west extension of southern Tibet and westward motion of the northwest Himalaya towards Nanga Parbat, rather than playing a role in eastward extrusion of Tibet. Crustal shortening across the Himalaya occurs within a zone centered about 100 km north of the Siwalik Foothills and the MFT. Model inversions of the GPS data indicate that the MFT is locked over a width of ~100 km. Comparison with geologic MFT-slip-rate estimates suggests that this zone is building up a slip deficit at a rate of 14 +/- 1 mm/yr and will eventually fail in future great earthquakes.

  17. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation...... Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare...... with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest sector, while the GPS data are used to monitor crustal uplift caused by ice...

  18. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Wahr, John M;

    (Geophysical Research Abstracts (ISSN: 1607-7962), vol: 14, pages: EGU2012-1852, 2012) Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest...... Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data (Zwally, 2010) supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) during 2002-2011 (Krabill, 2011). We use the measurements of elevation change to estimate...... catchment-wide ice volume loss (convert is to mass loss) and compare with independent measurements from GPS and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity mission, launched in March, 2002. The GRACE results provide a direct measure of mass loss averaged over the entire northwest...

  19. Non-invasive geophysical investigation and thermodynamic analysis of a palsa in Lapland, northwest Finland

    CERN Document Server

    Kohout, Tomáš; Rasmus, Kai; Leppäranta, Matti; Matero, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive geophysical prospecting and a thermodynamic model were used to examine the structure, depth and lateral extent of the frozen core of a palsa near Lake Peeraj\\"arvi, in northwest Finland. A simple thermodynamic model verified that the current climatic conditions in the study area allow sustainable palsa development. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of the palsa under both winter and summer conditions revealed its internal structure and the size of its frozen core. GPR imaging in summer detected the upper peat/core boundary, and imaging in winter detected a deep reflector that probably represents the lower core boundary. This indicates that only a combined summer and winter GPR survey completely reveals the lateral and vertical extent of the frozen core of the palsa. The core underlies the active layer at a depth of ~0.6 m and extends to about 4 m depth. Its lateral extent is ~15 m x ~30 m. The presence of the frozen core could also be traced as minima in surface temperature and ground condu...

  20. Petrography, geochemistry and geodynamic environment of potassic alkaline rocks in Eslamy peninsula, northwest of Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Hajalilou; M Moayyed; Gh Hosseinzadeh

    2009-12-01

    Eslamy peninsula, 360 km2 in area, is located in the eastern coast of Urmieh lake in the northwest of Iran. This peninsula is a complex stratovolcano with a collapsed center, which is elevated due to later intrusions of sub-volcanic masses with trachytic to microsyenitic composition. The composite cone consists of a sequence of leucite tephrite, tephrite, leucite basanite, basanite and related pyroclastic rocks. Magmatic activities in the Eslamy peninsula begin with potassic alkaline to ultrapotassic and basic, silica-undersaturated shoshonitic rocks and they are followed by intrusions of lamprophyric dykes and end with acidic magmatism including trachytic, microsyenitic, syenitic and phonolitic domes. The original magma of the Eslamy peninsula rocks has a potassic alkaline nature (Roman type) rich in LREE and LILE and depleted of HREE. These characteristics suggest that the origin of magma can be from deep mantle with a garnet lherzolite composition, a low partial melting rate which has been contaminated by crustal materials in its way up. Fractional crystallization of olivine, diopsidic clinopyroxene and leucite played an important role in the evolution of magmas. Scrutinizing the geodynamic environment of Eslamy peninsula rocks in discrimination diagrams indicates that these rocks must have been formed in a post-collision magmatic arc setting.

  1. Modelling the impacts of projected future climate change on water resources in north-west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the frequency of water resource drought in the UK, coupled with the more recent pan-European drought of 2003, has increased concern over changes in climate. Using the UKCIP02 Medium-High (SRES A2 scenario for 2070–2100, this study investigates the impact of climate change on the operation of the Integrated Resource Zone (IRZ, a complex conjunctive-use water supply system in north-western England. The results indicate that the contribution of individual sources to yield may change substantially but that overall yield is reduced by only 18%. Notwithstanding this significant effect on water supply, the flexibility of the system enables it to meet modelled demand for much of the time under the future climate scenario, even without a change in system management, but at significant expense for pumping additional abstraction from lake and borehole sources. This research provides a basis for the future planning and management of the complex water resource system in the north-west of England.

  2. The post-Mazama northwest rift zone eruption at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Daniele; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Madin, Ian P.; Champion, Duane E.; O'Connor, Jim; Dorsey, Rebecca; Madin, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    The northwest rift zone (NWRZ) eruption took place at Newberry Volcano ~7000 years ago after the volcano was mantled by tephra from the catastrophic eruption that destroyed Mount Mazama and produced the Crater Lake caldera. The NWRZ eruption produced multiple lava flows from a variety of vents including cinder cones, spatter vents, and fissures, possibly in more than one episode. Eruptive behaviors ranged from energetic Strombolian, which produced significant tephra plumes, to low-energy Hawaiian-style. This paper summarizes and in part reinterprets what is known about the eruption and presents information from new and ongoing studies. Total distance spanned by the eruption is 32 km north-south. The northernmost flow of the NWRZ blocked the Deschutes River upstream from the city of Bend, Oregon, and changed the course of the river. Renewed mafic activity in the region, particularly eruptions such as the NWRZ with tephra plumes and multiple lava flows from many vents, would have significant impacts for the residents of Bend and other central Oregon communities.

  3. Analysis of Drought in Poyang Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The drought situation and causes in Poyang Lake were analyzed.[Method] In response to the drought in Poyang Lake in ten years ago and in recent 10 years,the causes of drought in Poyang Lake were discussed.[Result] Drought occurred frequently in Poyang Lake and the consecutive serious drought occurred now and then.The water level in Poyang Lake since 21st century was lower.The drought in Poyang Lake was due to reduction of precipitation,low water level in Yangtze River and "five lakes",hydraulic ...

  4. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  5. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  6. Critical levels and loads and the regulation of industrial emissions in northwest British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williston, P.; Aherne, J.; Watmough, S.; Marmorek, D.; Hall, A.; de la Cueva Bueno, P.; Murray, C.; Henolson, A.; Laurence, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Northwest British Columbia, Canada, a sparsely populated and largely pristine region, is targeted for rapid industrial growth owing to the modernization of an aluminum smelter and multiple proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Consequently, air quality in this region is expected to undergo considerable changes within the next decade. In concert, the increase in LNG capacity driven by gas production from shale resources across North America has prompted environmental concerns and highlighted the need for science-based management decisions regarding the permitting of air emissions. In this study, an effects-based approach widely-used to support transboundary emissions policy negotiations was used to assess industrial air emissions in the Kitimat and Prince Rupert airsheds under permitted and future potential industrial emissions. Critical levels for vegetation of SO2 and NO2 and critical loads of acidity and nutrient nitrogen for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were estimated for both regions and compared with modelled concentration and deposition estimates to identify the potential extent and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. The critical level for SO2 was predicted to be exceeded in an area ranging from 81 to 251 km2 in the Kitimat airshed owing to emissions from an existing smelter, compared with acidity for soil ranged from 1 to 28 km2 in Kitimat and 4-10 km2 in Prince Rupert, while the areal exceedance of empirical critical load for nutrient N was predicted to be greater in the Prince Rupert airshed (20-94 km2) than in the Kitimat airshed (1-31 km2). The number of lakes that exceeded the critical load of acidity did not vary greatly across emissions scenarios in the Kitimat (21-23 out of 80 sampled lakes) and Prince Rupert (0 out of 35 sampled lakes) airsheds. While critical loads have been widely used to underpin international emissions reductions of transboundary pollutants, it is clear that they can also play an important role in managing regional

  7. Rehabilitation of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Helsel, D.R.; MacKinnon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive rehabilitation plan was developed and implemented to shift Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, from a hypereutrophic to a mesotrophic condition. The plan was threefold: (1) reduce external phosphorus (P) loading by applying Best Management Practices in the watershed, enhance an existing wetland, and short-circuit the inflows through the lake, (2) reduce internal P loading by treating the sediments with alum and removing carp, and (3) rehabilitate the fishery by removing carp and bigmouth buffalo and adding piscivores (biomanipulation). The first and second parts of the plan met with only limited success. With only minor reductions in internal and external P loading, P concentrations in the lake returned to near pre-treatment concentrations. The intensive biomanipulation and resulting trophic cascade (increased piscivores, decreased planktivores, increased large zooplankton populations, and reduced phytoplankton populations) eliminated most of the original problems in the lake (blue-green algal blooms and limited water clarity). However, now there is extensive macrophyte growth and abundant filamentous algae. Without significantly reducing the sources of the problems (high P loading) in Delavan Lake, the increased water clarity may not last. With an improved understanding of the individual components of this rehabilitation program, better future management plans can be developed for Delavan Lake and other lakes and reservoirs with similar eutrophication problems.

  8. Possible temperate lakes on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Sotin, Christophe; MacKenzie, Shannon; Wilson, Paul

    2015-09-01

    We analyze southern mid-latitude albedo-dark features on Titan observed by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). In exploring the nature of these features we consider their morphology, albedo, and specular reflectivity. We suggest that they represent candidates for potential temperate lakes. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes would indicate that surface liquid can accumulate and remain stable away from Titan's poles. Candidate lakes were identified by looking for possible shorelines with lacustrine morphology. Then, we applied an atmospheric correction that empirically solved for their surface albedo. Finally, we looked for a specular reflection of the sky in the identified candidates. Using this prescription, we find two candidates that remain as potential temperature lakes. If candidate features do represent temperate lakes on Titan, they have implications for formation mechanisms such as clouds and rainfall or, in low elevation areas, percolation and subsurface flow. Clouds were observed near candidate lake locations on the T66 flyby and this latitude band showed many clouds during southern summer. Our techniques can be applied to areas of Titan that lack RADAR coverage to search for mid- and low-latitude lakes in the future.

  9. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  10. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Limnological and Fisheries Monitoring Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly; Lee, Chuck; Scofield, Ben; Pavlik, Deanne

    1999-08-01

    The Grand Coulee Dam was constructed in 1939 without a fish ladder, which eliminated steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. twshwastica), coho salmon (O. kisutch) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka) from returning to approximately 1,835 km (1,140 miles) of natal streams and tributaries found in the upper Columbia River Drainage in the United States and Canada. The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 gave the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the authority and responsibility to use its legal and financial resources, 'to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries. This is to be done in a manner consistent with the program adopted by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC), and the purposes of the Act' (NWPPC, 1987). With the phrase 'protect, mitigate and enhance', Congress signaled its intent that the NWPPC's fish and wildlife program should do more than avoid future hydroelectric damage to the basin's fish and wildlife. The program must also counter past damage, work toward rebuilding those fish and wildlife populations that have been harmed by the hydropower system, protect the Columbia Basin's fish and wildlife resources, and mitigate for harm caused by decades of hydroelectric development and operations. By law, this program is limited to measures that deal with impacts created by the development, operation and management of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. However, off-site enhancement projects are used to address the effects of the hydropower system on fish and wildlife (NWPPC 1987). Resident game fish populations have been established in Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, the reservoir behind Grand Coulee Dam, since the extirpation of anadromous fish species. The resident game fish populations are now responsible

  11. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  12. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  13. Advance and application of lake optics research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The mainstreams of lake optics research in recent decades include optical properties of lakewater,observation, transmission and calculation of underwater radiation, determination of absorption coefficient S of yellow substance, influence of UV-B radiation of lake primary productivity by bio-optical model. Major lake optics applications, such as calculation of lake primary productivity and chl-a, analysis of factors restricting eutrophication, and protection against lake eutrophication are summarized.

  14. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peone, Tim L.; Scholz, Allan T.; Griffith, James R.

    1990-10-01

    In the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1987), the Council directed the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to construct two kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) hatcheries as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead incurred by construction of Grand Coulee Dam [Section 903 (g)(l)(C)]. The hatcheries will produce kokanee salmon for outplanting into Lake Roosevelt as well as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Lake Roosevelt net-pen program. In section 903 (g)(l)(E), the Council also directed BPA to fund a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the kokanee hatcheries. The monitoring program included the following components: (1) a year-round, reservoir-wide, creel survey to determine angler use, catch rates and composition, and growth and condition of fish; (2) assessment of kokanee, rainbow, and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) feeding habits and densities of their preferred prey, and; (3) a mark and recapture study designed to assess the effectiveness of different locations where hatchery-raised kokanee and net pen reared rainbow trout are released. The above measures were adopted by the Council based on a management plan, developed by the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center, Spokane Indian Tribe, Colville Confederated Tribes, Washington Department of Wildlife, and National Park Service, that examined the feasibility of restoring and enhancing Lake Roosevelt fisheries (Scholz et al. 1986). In July 1988, BPA entered into a contract with the Spokane Indian Tribe to initiate the monitoring program. The projected duration of the monitoring program is through 1995. This report contains the results of the monitoring program from August 1988 to December 1989.

  15. Climate variability and predictability in Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddour, O.; Djellouli, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Northwest Africa defined here as the area including Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, occupies a large territory in North Africa with an area exceeding 3.5 million km2. The geographical contrast is very important: while most of the southern part is desert, the northern and northwestern parts exhibit a contrasting geography including large flat areas in the western part of Morocco, northern Algeria and eastern part of Tunisia and the formidable Atlas mountains barrier extends from south west of Morocco toward north west of Tunisia crossing central Morocco and north Algeria. Agriculture is one of major socio-economic activities in the region with an extensive cash-crop for exporting to Europe especially from Morocco and Tunisia. The influence of the recurring droughts during the 80s and 90s was very crucial for the economic and societal aspects of the region. In Morocco, severe droughts have caused GDP fluctuation within past 20 years from 10% increase down to negative values in some particular years. Recent studies have investigated seasonal rainfall variability and prediction over MOROCCO in the framework of regional and international collaboration. Results from this work has shown that the main general circulation feature associated with the rainfall variability within Morocco is the North Atlantic Oscillation. The relationship is in fact due to the major role played by the AZORES high pressure with its role in modulating the main position of the active synoptic systems in the north Atlantic area and therefore in modulating the frequency and the intensity of the weather systems that impact the western part of the region. Mediterranean sea plays also major role in the mid of the region. In this paper we applied EOF technique on 500 hPa. The data used are monthly reanalysis NCEP/NCAR analyses for November from 1960 to 1990 climatological time series. Correlation analysis is then performed between EOF time series and global 4x4 degre SST anomalies. The results we

  16. Biogeochemistry of Kenyan Rift Valley Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Sina; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The numerous lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley show strong hydrochemical differences due to their varying geologic settings. There are freshwater lakes with a low alkalinity like Lake Naivasha on the one hand and very salt-rich lakes with high pH values like Lake Logipi on the other. It is known that the underlying lake sediments are influenced by the lake chemistry and by the microorganisms in the sediment. The aim of this work is to provide a biogeochemical characterization of the lake sediments and to use these data to identify the mechanisms that control lake chemistry and to reconstruct the biogeochemical evolution of each lake. The examined rift lakes were Lakes Logipi and Eight in the Suguta Valley, Lakes Baringo and Bogoria south of the valley, as well as Lakes Naivasha, Oloiden, and Sonachi on the Kenyan Dome. The porewater was analysed for different ions and hydrogen sulphide. Additionally, alkalinity and salinity of the lake water were determined as well as the cell numbers in the sediment, using fluorescent microscopy. The results of the porewater analysis show that the overall chemistry differs considerably between the lakes. In some lakes, concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulphate, and/or hydrogen sulphide show strong concentration gradients with depth, whereas in other lakes the concentrations show only minor variations. Fluoride is present in all lakes; the lowest concentration is found in Lake Oloiden (60 - 90 mg/l), the highest one in Lake Bogoria (1,025 - 1,930 mg/l). The lakes show also large differences in sulphate concentrations. The values vary between 2 mg/l in Lake Baringo and 15,250 mg/l in Lake Eight. In all cores, sulphate concentration does not change significantly with depth; however, there is a distinct peak in each core, raising the question of synchronicity. As expected, chloride concentrations correlate with total salinity. There is no hydrogen sulphide present in the porewater of Lakes Naivasha, Baringo, and Oloiden, whereas in

  17. Lake isotope records of the 8200-year cooling event in western Ireland: Comparison with model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan A.; Tindall, Julia; Roberts, Neil; Marshall, William; Marshall, Jim D.; Bingham, Ann; Feeser, Ingo; O'Connell, Michael; Atkinson, Tim; Jourdan, Anne-Lise; March, Anna; Fisher, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    The early Holocene cooling, which occurred around 8200 calendar years before present, was a prominent abrupt event around the north Atlantic region. Here, we investigate the timing, duration, magnitude and regional coherence of the event as expressed in carbonate oxygen-isotope records from three lakes on northwest Europe's Atlantic margin in western Ireland, namely Loch Avolla, Loch Gealáin and Lough Corrib. An abrupt negative oxygen-isotope excursion lasted about 200 years. Comparison of records from three sites suggests that the excursion was primarily the result of a reduction of the oxygen-isotope values of precipitation, which was likely caused by lowered air temperatures, possibly coupled with a change in atmospheric circulation. Comparison of records from two of the lakes (Loch Avolla and Loch Gealáin), which have differing bathymetries, further suggests a reduction in evaporative loss of lake water during the cooling episode. Comparison of climate model experiments with lake-sediment isotope data indicates that effective moisture may have increased along this part of the northeast Atlantic seaboard during the 8200-year climatic event, as lower evaporation compensated for reduced precipitation.

  18. Coherent late-Holocene climate-driven shifts in the structure of three Rocky Mountain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jeffery R.; Saros, Jasmine E.; Pederson, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale atmospheric pressure centers, such as the Aleutian and Icelandic Low, have a demonstrated relationship with physical lake characteristics in contemporary monitoring studies, but the responses to these phenomena are rarely observed in lake records. We observe coherent changes in the stratification patterns of three deep (>30 m) lakes inferred from fossil diatom assemblages as a response to shifts in the location and intensity of the Aleutian Low and compare these changes with similar long-term changes observed in the δ18O record from the Yukon. Specifically, these records indicate that between 3.2 and 1.4 ka, the Aleutian Low shifted westward, resulting in an increased frequency of storm tracks across the Pacific Northwest during winter and spring. This change in atmospheric circulation ultimately produced deeper mixing in the upper waters of these three lake systems. Enhanced stratification between 4.5 and 3.3 ka and from 1.3 ka to present suggests a strengthened Aleutian Low and more meridional circulation.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Recent lake sediments—I. Compounds having anthropogenic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Schaffner, Christian; Giger, Walter

    1980-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment cores from Lake Lucerne, Lake Zürich, and Greifensee, Switzerland, and Lake Washington, northwest U.S.A., have been isolated, identified and quantified by glass capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Surface sediment layers are greatly enriched in PAH—up to 40 times—compared to deeper layers. In addition, concentration increases in upper sediments generally correspond to increasing industrialization and urbanization in the catchment basins of the lakes. Few PAH could be detected in pre-industrial revolution sediments, indicating that background levels for most PAH in aquatic sediments are extremely low. These results are consistent with an anthropogenic source for most of the aromatic hydrocarbons present in the modern sediments. A comparison of PAH distributions in the sediments and in possible source materials shows that urban runoff of street dust may be the most important PAH input to these lacustrine sediments. There is evidence that a significant contribution to the PAH content of street dust comes from material associated with asphalt.

  20. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  1. Bathymetric maps of Lake Becharof and the Ugashik Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to understand the production of smolts in a sockeye salmon nursery lake, it is mandatory to produce a bathymetric map. This must be detailed enough so that...

  2. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  3. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report - 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The...

  4. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The...

  5. Annual narrative report 1995: Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake Prairie Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The...

  6. Tracing high time-resolution fluctuations in dissolved organic carbon using satellite and buoy observations: Case study in Lake Taihu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun; Yunmei, Li; Liu, Ge; Guo, Yulong; Yang, Hao; Zhu, A.-xing; Song, Ting; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Mingli; Shi, Kun

    2017-10-01

    Field measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and remote-sensing reflectance were conducted to develop a regional, empirical red-blue algorithm to retrieve surface DOC from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) data for Lake Taihu, China. The auxiliary data (in-situ observations of the optical properties and water quality, buoy measurements of hydrodynamic data and water chemical parameters) were used to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in DOC. GOCI was shown to be capable of successfully obtaining hourly variations in DOC, with a root mean square error percentage (RMSP) of 17.29% (RMSE = 0.69 mg/L) for the match-up data. The GOCI-derived DOC in Lake Taihu confirms that the highest DOC concentration is in northwest Lake Taihu, followed by Meiliang Bay, Gonghu Bay and northeast Lake Taihu. Hourly DOC variation is significant and presents a different trend for each lake segment due to the variety of influencing factors. Discharge of DOC from surrounding rivers is an important factor to the variation of DOC in northeast Lake Taihu. However, organic products of algae will be the primary contributor to DOC when algal bloom occurred. During the period of algal bloom, high DOC levels in Lake Taihu can lead to hypoxia when coupled with high temperatures and low disturbance.

  7. Restoring the Pacific Northwest: the art and science of ecological restoration in Cascadia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apostol, D; Sinclair, M

    2006-01-01

    Restoring the Pacific Northwest is a handbook that brings together in a single volume a vast array of information on the science and practice of restoration in a broadly defined Pacific Northwest region...

  8. 巴丹吉林沙漠湖泊与地下水的补给来源及化学组成%Recharge sources and chemical composition types of groundwater and lake in the Badain Jaran Desert, northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Tianjie; ZHAO Jingbo; ZHOU Qi; DONG Zhibao; MA Yandong

    2012-01-01

    @@%Based on the analysis of ion chemical composition of lake water and shallow groundwater in the Badain Jaran Desert,this paper discussed the characteristics of ion chemical composition,spatial variation of lake water,and possible supply sources of lake water and groundwater in the desert areas.The results show that the pH,salinity,TDS and electrical conductivity of the lake water are greater than those of groundwater.The ion contents of water samples are dominated by Na+ and Cl-.Most of the higher salinity lakes are Na (K)-Cl-(SO4) type,and a few of low salinity lakes belong to the Na-(Mg)-(Ca)-Cl-(SO4)-(HCO3) type.Most of the groundwater is Na-(Ca)-(Mg)-Cl-(SO4)-(HCO3) type,attributed to subsaline lake,and only a few present the Na-Cl-SO4 type,flowing under saline lake.The pH,salinity,TDS and electrical conductivity in the southeastern lakes are relatively low,and there are slightly alkaline lakes.The pH,salinity,TDS and electrical conductivity in the northern lakes are much greater than those of the southeastern lakes,and the northern lakes are moderately alkaline and saline ones.In the southeastern part of the Badain Jaran Desert,the ion chemical characteristics of the lake water from south to north show a changing trend of subsaline →saline→hypersaline.The changing trend of chemical compositions of ions in recent 9 years indicates that most of the ion contents have a shade of reduction in Boritaolegai,Badain,Nuoertu and Huhejilin lakes,which state clearly that the amount of fresh water supply is increasing in the 9-year period.The ion chemical composition of the lake water reveals that the flow direction of lake water is from southeast to northwest in the Badain Jaran Desert.The ion chemical composition,moisture content of sand layer water level height and hierarchical cluster analysis of the lake water and groundwater demonstrate that the lake water is mainly supplied by local rainfall and infiltration of precipitation in Yabulai Mountains and Heishantou

  9. A CHRONOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE HOLOCENE VEGETATIONAL HISTORY OF CENTRAL MINNESOTA: THE STEEL LAKE POLLEN RECORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, H E; Stefanova, I; Tian, J; Brown, T A; Hu, F S

    2003-11-10

    Paleorecords from Minnesota and adjacent areas have often been used to evaluate large-scale climatic processes in the mid-continent of North America. However, most of these records are compromised by chronological flaws, making problematic any comparisons with climatic interpretations based on other records (e.g., GISP2 in Greenland). We report here a high-resolution pollen record with a secure chronology constrained by 26 {sup 14}C dates on terrestrial macrofossils from Steel Lake, central Minnesota. About 11,200 years ago (calibrated yr BP) the late-glacial Picea forest near Steel Lake was succeeded abruptly by Pinus banksiana and/or resinosa. The Pinus forest began to open 9.4 ka cal BP with the expansion of prairie taxa, and a pine parkland or savanna prevailed until about 8 ka cal BP, when Quercus replaced Pinus to become the dominant tree in the prairie areas for 4500 years. The close chronological control permits the correlation of key vegetational changes with those at other reliably dated sites in the eastern Dakotas and in Minnesota, suggesting that the abrupt decline of the spruce forest was time-transgressive from southwest to northeast during 2000 years, and that the development of prairie was time-transgressive in the same direction over 2600 years. Correlation of key pollen horizons at Steel Lake with those in the high-resolution pollen profiles of Elk Lake, ca. 50 km northwest of Steel Lake, suggests that the well-known Elk Lake varve chronology for the early Holocene is about 1000 years too young.

  10. Towards automated mapping of lake ice using RADARSAT-2 and simulated RCM compact polarimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Claude

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces a weekly ice fraction product (a text file with a single lake-wide ice fraction value, in tenth, estimated for about 140 large lakes across Canada and northern United States) created from the visual interpretation of RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR dual-polarization (HH and HV) imagery, complemented by optical satellite imagery (AVHRR, MODIS and VIIRS). The weekly ice product is generated in support of the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) needs for lake ice coverage in their operational numerical weather prediction model. CIS is interested in moving from its current (manual) way of generating the ice fraction product to a largely automated process. With support from the Canadian Space Agency, a project was recently initiated to assess the potential of polarimetric SAR data for lake ice cover mapping in light of the upcoming RADARSAT Constellation Mission (to be launched in 2018). The main objectives of the project are to evaluate: 1) state-of-the-art image segmentation algorithms and 2) RADARSAT-2 polarimetric and simulated RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) compact polarimetric SAR data for ice/open water discrimination. The goal is to identify the best segmentation algorithm and non-polarimetric/polarimetric parameters for automated lake ice monitoring at CIS. In this talk, we will present the background and context of the study as well as initial results from the analysis of RADARSAT-2 Standard Quad-Pol data acquired during the break-up and freeze-up periods of 2015 on Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories.

  11. Restoration in northern Lake Gehu, a eutrophic lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Wenchao; Pan, Jizheng; Ma, Shuzhan; Chen, Bingfa; He, Shangwei

    2017-02-01

    Lake Gehu is a severely eutrophic lake in southeast China. A series of restoration measures have been implemented since 2009 in northern Lake Gehu. This study compared aquatic plants, water quality, sediment, and phytoplankton between restoration and control areas to investigate the effect of restoration measures. The results demonstrated that aquatic macrophyte coverage increased from 0% to 10.6%; mean TP, TN, and CODMn concentrations increased by 50.0%, 42.4%, and 40.8%, respectively, compared with those before the measures were carried out; the mean Secchi depth (SD) increased to 42.5 cm, which is 1.4 times higher than that before restoration; the mean euphotic depth (Zeu) in the summer increased from 91 to 130 cm; the mean chl a concentration decreased from 34.8 to 20.2 μg/L, compared with that before restoration; the Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton increased by 28.7%. The mean TP and TN concentrations in sediments decreased by 63.8% and 52.4%, respectively, compared with that before dredging. These results indicate that the restoration in northern Lake Gehu was effective. To complete the transformation from an algae- to a macrophyte-stable state within the region, further measures must be adopted. This restoration of a eutrophic lake can serve as a reference for similar eutrophic lakes.

  12. Morphological variation of siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, C.R.; Moore, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss protocol) was used to differentiate among siscowets sampled from 23 locations in Lake Superior. We analyzed 31 distance measurements among 14 anatomical landmarks taken from digital images of fish recorded in the field. Cluster analysis of size-corrected data separated fish into three geographic groups: The Isle Royale, eastern (Michigan), and western regions (Michigan). Finer scales of stock structure were also suggested. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that head measurements contributed to most of the observed variation. Cross-validation classification rates indicated that 67–71% of individual fish were correctly classified to their region of capture. This is the first study to present shape differences associated with location within a lake trout morphotype in Lake Superior.

  13. Holocene lake deposits of Bosten Lake, southern Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Wünnemann; CHEN Fahu; F. Riedel; ZHANG Chengjun; S. Mischke; CHEN Guangjie; D. Demske; MING Jin

    2003-01-01

    A 9.25-m-long sediment core from Bosten Lake, Xinjiang, provides detailed information about changes in the water budget and biological acticity over the last 8400 calendar years. The chronology is constructed from six AMS radiocarbon dates on the terrestrial plant remains. Based on analyses of TOC, CO3, detrital compounds and biogenic SiO2, lake level fluctuations and periods of remarkably-negative water budget appeared at 8.4-8.2 cal ka, 7.38-7.25 cal ka, 5.7-5.5 cal ka, 3.7-3.4 cal ka and 3.3-2.9 cal ka, respectively. As they are in-phase with low lake levels at Sumxi Co and Bangong Co in western Tibet Plateau and with paleolakes in Inner Mongolia, a climate-induced change to somewhat drier andwarmer conditions is inferred. A further drop in lake level after 1320 AD of about 200 yr duration may be attributed to a negative water balance prior to the main phase of the Little Ice Age. Deep and stable lake phases of 1500 yr and 1800yr duration at 7.2-5.7 cal ka and 5.5-3.7 cal ka coincide with maximum moisture during the Holocene Megathermal in China. The long term trend towards ariditysince about 4.3 cal ka can clearly be recognised. The reduced water budget of Bosten Lake from 640-1200 AD may be attributed to local effects.

  14. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Wintering River Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake Easement Refuge, Sheyenne Lake Easement Refuge, Lake Otis Easement Refuge : Narrative report : 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge (including Lake Nettie National Wildlife Refuge, Camp Lake Easement Refuge, Cottonwood Lake...

  15. Aquatic macrophyte richness in Danish lakes in relation to alkalinity, transparency, and lake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    alkalinity but 12.3 in lakes of high alkalinity due to a greater occurrence of the species-rich group of elodeids. Mean species richness per lake also increased significantly with increasing Secchi depth. No significant relationship between species richness and lake surface area was observed among the entire...... group of lakes or a subset of eutrophic lakes, as the growth of submerged macrophytes in large lakes may be restricted by wave action in shallow water and light restriction in deep water. In contrast, macrophyte species richness increased with lake surface area in transparent lakes, presumably due...

  16. Palaeoglacial lake and outburst flood reconstructions along the southern late-glacial Cordilleran Ice Sheet margin: implications for ice sheet reconstruction and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Jonathan; Brennand, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Proglacial lakes are crucial in controlling the meltwater and sediment flux from decaying ice margins, affect local ice dynamics, and can influence local and regional weather and climate. They are also potential sources of outburst floods, which can have major impacts on regional geomorphology and drainage networks. As such, proglacial lakes are important components of deglacial environments, and reconstructing proglacial lakes during decay of past ice sheets will improve understanding of their potential influence in the future. The presence of palaeo-ice-dammed lakes in valleys dissecting the southern Interior Plateau of British Columbia (BC), is evident in abundant lake-bottom sediments, deltaic deposits and shorelines. To date, the palaeogeography of these lakes have not been well constrained, and the damming ice margins have been proposed under a paradigm of Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) stagnation - lakes dammed by dead-ice lobes in valleys where ice was thickest; this paradigm has been challenged by recent studies elsewhere on the Interior Plateau that support generally active, systematic retreat of the ice margin to the north and west. This project reinvestigated glacial Lake Nicola (gLN) on the northern Thompson Plateau, the key site for development of the stagnation paradigm, to improve palaeogeographic and palaeohydrological reconstructions of this basin. Five lake stages for gLN have been identified on the basis of shoreline and delta elevations and the extent of lake-bottom sediments. Glacioisostatic tilts were reconstructed for the four most extensive stages of between 1.6 and 1.9 m/km up to the north-northwest. Areal extent and lake volume for each lake were extracted by plotting lake planes onto DEMs adjusted to these reconstructed tilts; maximum volumes for each stage are in the order of 10 km3, with the largest reconstructed at 260km3. These lakes expanded and lowered to the northwest, as progressively lower outlets were opened by ice recession in

  17. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  18. Big Lake Dam Inspection Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes an inspection of the Big Lake Dam that was done in September of 1983. The inspection did not reveal any conditions that constitute and...

  19. Folsom Lake 2005 Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Folsom Lake in the fall of 2005 via an interagency agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps of...

  20. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the Lake...

  1. Bear study, Karluk Lake, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Based on observations, 117 bears were estimated to live in the Karluk Lake area. The estimate was lower than estimates from 1952, and 1954-1955. Annual loss to...

  2. Functional microbiology of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Banciu, Horia L; Muyzer, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, including oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic chemolithotrophs, fermenting and respiring anaerobes. The main conclusion from this work is that the soda lakes are very different from other high-salt systems in respect to microbial richness and activity. The reason for this difference is determined by the major physico-chemical features of two dominant salts - NaCl in neutral saline systems and sodium carbonates in soda lakes, that are influencing the amount of energy required for osmotic adaptation.

  3. Lake Ladora sampling plan, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Task plan from the U.S. Geological Survey for sampling Lake Ladora on the Rocky Mountain National Wildlife Refuge. During the review of the FY93 Surface-Water...

  4. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  5. Management recommendations: Benton Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Benton Lake Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  6. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...

  7. 77 FR 40565 - Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...: Notice of Administrative Meetings for the Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees. SUMMARY... of Decision for Amendments to the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents... administrative meetings will be to inform the current Provincial Advisory Committee membership of the...

  8. Soil and Water Challenges for Pacific Northwest Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and water conservation has been a major concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest since the onset of farming 125 years ago. Some of the highest historic water erosion rates in the USA have occurred on steep slopes in the Palouse region where soil loss averaged 45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and could reach 450 ...

  9. Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brubaker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities.In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects.The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses.The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska.Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate.The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.

  10. Energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.D.; Wensink, R.B.; Wolfe, J.W.; Shearer, M.N.

    1977-09-01

    Irrigation in the Pacific Northwest is an energy-intensive process which represents a major part of the total energy used in farm level food production. Since 1950, several major developments have precipitated pronounced increases in irrigation energy requirements. For example, the invention of efficient high-lift pumps, labor-saving equipment, new uses for irrigation sprinklers, and profitable cropping patterns have substantially escalated irrigation energy consumption in the Pacific Northwest in the past 25 years. Until recently, energy prices have remained relatively low and constant. The next 25 years will continue to experience advanced irrigation technologies. In addition to technological development, however, the cost of energy and water will certainly rise while their availabilities become increasingly constrained. The depletion of ground water in several parts of the United States could also potentially increase the irrigation burden of the Pacific Northwest. Lastly, parts of the Pacific Northwest water supply are directly convertible to energy via hydroelectric generation. This study proposes to make realistic projections relative to present and future interactions of the above components.

  11. Towards Managing Stemphylium Blight of Lentil in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemphylium blight of lentil, caused by the fungus Stemphylium botryosum, has recently emerged as a disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, particularly on the recently released lentil cultivar ‘Morena’. The first step toward managing the disease is to correctly identify early signs of the diseas...

  12. Marbled murrelet effectiveness monitoring plan for the Northwest Forest Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Madsen; Diane Evans; Thomas Hamer; Paul Henson; Sherri Miller; S. Kim Nelson; Daniel Roby; Martin. Stapanian

    1999-01-01

    This report describes options for effectiveness monitoring of long-term status and trends to evaluate the success of the Northwest Forest Plan in maintaining and restoring marbled murrelet nesting habitat and populations on Federal lands. A two-phase approach is described that begins with developing reliable and repeatable processes for identifying nesting habitat and...

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly activities report, April 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-14

    This report discusses research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on topics relating to hanford production reactors. The topic deal with: reactor and material technology; reactor physics and instruments; chemistry; biology and medicine; applied mathematics; radiation protection; and test reactor and engineering services.

  14. 77 FR 48132 - Gas Transmission Northwest, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... July 31, 2012, Gas Transmission Northwest, LLC (GTN), filed in Docket No. CP12-494-000, an application..., located between GTN's Ione Compressor Station and Portland General Electric Company's (PGE) proposed Carty...@transcanada.com . On March 31, 2011, the Commission staff granted GTN's request to use the pre-filing...

  15. Employee Retention at ABC & Co. Northwest Arkansas. Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Timothy; And Others

    A 7-month research project was conducted by graduate students at a garment manufacturing plant in Fayetteville, Arkansas, to gain information about high employee turnover. Information also was gathered about the employment situation in northwest Arkansas in general, union-labor relationships, and how other companies handled turnover. Data were…

  16. Northwest to Accelerate Retirement of Dc10 Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Northwest Airlines announced that it will accelerate the retirement of its remaining 12DC10-30 aircraft in service. The airline said that during the next seven months,it will replace DC10 aircraft with new Airbus A330s and Boeing 747-400aircraft being returned to service.Currently, seven routes are served with the DC10.

  17. The Pacific Northwest region vegetation and monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Max; Hans T. Schreuder; John W. Hazard; Daniel D. Oswald; John Teply; Jim. Alegria

    1996-01-01

    A grid sampling strategy was adopted for broad-scale inventory and monitoring of forest and range vegetation on National Forest System lands in the Pacific North-west Region, USDA Forest Service. This paper documents the technical details of the adopted design and discusses alternative sampling designs that were considered. A less technical description of the selected...

  18. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  19. 2007 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda. Mazza

    2008-01-01

    As I look back at 2007 for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station, I am very gratified at the contributions of our scientists and support staff in producing scientific knowledge and tools. This year has brought unprecedented recognition of the contributions of our scientists. Ralph Alig (research forester), Ron Neilson (bioclimatologist), and David L. Peterson (...

  20. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  1. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  2. Community Service, Educational Performance and Social Responsibility in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Li, Hongbin; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyse the effect of high school scholarships tied to community service on the development of secondary school students in Northwest China. Using data from three rounds of surveys of thousands of students in 298 classes in 75 high schools in Shaanxi province, the paper documents the implementation of the…

  3. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  4. Two new species of Stemphylium from Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys of hyphomycetes from the Northwest of China, two undescribed taxa of Stemphylium were discovered from diseased leaves of Malus sieversii and Pyrus sinkiangensis in Sinkiang Provence, which are described as S. mali and S. pyrinum. The two species differ from similar species morphologi...

  5. Agriculture in the Northwest-European delta metropolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The southern and central regions of The Netherlands are part of the Northwest- European Delta Metropolis. The demands placed by modern, urban society on the agricultural sector are numerous. Not only are the environment, animal welfare, and food hygiene and quality at stake here, but also must these

  6. Sampling methods for amphibians in streams in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Bury; Paul Stephen. Corn

    1991-01-01

    Methods describing how to sample aquatic and semiaquatic amphibians in small streams and headwater habitats in the Pacific Northwest are presented. We developed a technique that samples 10-meter stretches of selected streams, which was adequate to detect presence or absence of amphibian species and provided sample sizes statistically sufficient to compare abundance of...

  7. Potato psyllid vector of zebra chip disease in Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip is a destructive disease of potatoes in the Pacific Northwest and other potato production regions of North America. The pathogen associated with this disease is transmitted by the potato psyllid. A team of researchers which included a scientist at the ARS in Wapato, WA updated an extens...

  8. Leveraging Lighting for Energy Savings: GSA Northwest/Artic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes how the Northwest/Arctic Region branch of the General Services Administration (GSA) improved safety and energy efficiency in its Fairbanks Federal Building parking garage used by federal employees, U.S. Marshals, and the District Court. A 74% savings was realized by replacing 220 high-pressure sodium fixtures with 220 light-emitting diode fixtures.

  9. Secondary Climate Change Education in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. Troy; Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is an important issue students should understand to be productive members of society. The objectives were to evaluate the instruction and teacher perceptions relating to CC in the Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) secondary (7-12) classes across disciplines. The teacher perceptions, instructional frequency, perceived barriers to…

  10. The intertwining paths of the density managment and riparian buffer study and the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Initiated simultaneously, the Density Management and Riparian Buff er Study of western Oregon and the Northwest Forest Plan have had intertwining paths related to federal forest management and policy changes in the Pacifi c Northwest over the last 15 to 20 years. We briefl y discuss the development of the Northwest Forest Plan and how it changed the way forest policy...

  11. 40 CFR 81.140 - Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.140 Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northwest Arkansas Intrastate...

  12. The Northwest Indiana Center for Data and Analysis: A Case Study of Academic Library Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Scott; Morris, Cele; Sutherland, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper details community engagement activity of an academic library coordinated within a broader university strategic plan. The Anderson Library at Indiana University Northwest (IU-Northwest) supports a service called the Northwest Indiana Center for Data and Analysis. Created in 1996 with funding made available from the Indiana University…

  13. The Prodigies of The Albano Lake During Roman Age and Natural Hazard Assessment At Roma, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funiciello, R.; Giordano, G.; de Rita, D.

    Roma is built just 20 km to the northwest of the Pleistocene Colli Albani volcano, but is believed not exposed to relevant natural hazards, except for the Tiber river flood- ings, and local amplification of seismic waves from distal earthquakes. This belief has generally induced modern historians and geologists to discard as SmythologicalT the & cedil;many references to natural prodigies that are reported by many Roman-age historians. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Albano maar, the youngest volcanic cen- tre of the Colli Albani volcano and presently filled by a 175 m deep lake, protracted its activity to the Holocene triggering several catastrophic lahar events, likely related to lake withdrawal, the deposits of which are exposed to the southwest of Roma and reach its periphery. This finding youngs the history of the volcano and makes it rele- vant to pre-historic settlements, which ScarefullyT avoided the Albano maar slopes up & cedil;to the Bronze age. What is still unknown, though, is whether the lake experienced such fluctuations and overspills during historic times. Several Roman authors such as Ti- tus Livius, Dionigi d'Alicarnasso, Plutarco, Germanico, and many others wrote about the then well known 398 BC prodigious event, when, during the war between Roma and the Etruscan city of Veio, the gods anger caused the sudden rise and overspill of the Albano lake, reported as unrelated to climatic events, and the destructive flooding of the countryside. After that event Romans actually built a tunnel-drain which still operates regulating the lake level at 293 m a.s.l., 70 m below the maar rim elevation. Should those chronicles be truthful, we can join the geologic observation of Holocene lahar deposits from lake withdrawal with historical lake withdrawals, reassessing the natural hazard for the city of Roma under a point of view never explored before. This paper carefully explores the historical credibility of the 398 BC lake overspill event and its

  14. Projecting the future levels of Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkelen, Inne; van Lipzig, Nicole; Thiery, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Lake Victoria directly sustains 30 million people living in its basin and 200 000 fishermen operating from its shores. As the one of the two sources of the Nile River, it also supports natural resources that impact the livelihood of over 300 million people living in the Nile basin. The outlet to the Nile is controlled by two hydropower dams. The water balance of Lake Victoria is controlled both by climatic conditions (precipitation and evaporation) and human management (dam outflow). Future climate simulations with a high resolution coupled lake-land-atmosphere model project decreasing mean precipitation and increasing evaporation over Lake Victoria. As these two are important factors in the water balance of Lake Victoria, these projected changes may induce a drop in future levels of Lake Victoria. Moreover, as Lake Victoria is also a relatively shallow lake, lake surface area may decrease as well. Here we present a water balance model for Lake Victoria that provides lake level and extent as output. We first force our model with observational input (new satellite products providing high quality precipitation and evaporation data) and evaluate it using measured lake levels. The skill of the model is subsequently assessed by forcing it with present-day regional climate simulations (CORDEX evaluation simulations). In a third step the future lake levels and surface area changes of Lake Victoria are simulated by forcing the model with CORDEX projections under RCP4.5 and 8.5. Finally, the role of human decisions regarding future dam outflow are investigated.

  15. Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Vincent S.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Anderson, Whit G.; Winton, Michael; Alexander, Michael A.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Rosati, Anthony; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment of projected global and regional ocean temperature change is based on global climate models that have coarse (˜100 km) ocean and atmosphere resolutions. In the Northwest Atlantic, the ensemble of global climate models has a warm bias in sea surface temperature due to a misrepresentation of the Gulf Stream position; thus, existing climate change projections are based on unrealistic regional ocean circulation. Here we compare simulations and an atmospheric CO2 doubling response from four global climate models of varying ocean and atmosphere resolution. We find that the highest resolution climate model (˜10 km ocean, ˜50 km atmosphere) resolves Northwest Atlantic circulation and water mass distribution most accurately. The CO2 doubling response from this model shows that upper-ocean (0-300 m) temperature in the Northwest Atlantic Shelf warms at a rate nearly twice as fast as the coarser models and nearly three times faster than the global average. This enhanced warming is accompanied by an increase in salinity due to a change in water mass distribution that is related to a retreat of the Labrador Current and a northerly shift of the Gulf Stream. Both observations and the climate model demonstrate a robust relationship between a weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and an increase in the proportion of Warm-Temperate Slope Water entering the Northwest Atlantic Shelf. Therefore, prior climate change projections for the Northwest Atlantic may be far too conservative. These results point to the need to improve simulations of basin and regional-scale ocean circulation.

  16. A Combined Molecular and Isotopic Study of Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Meromictic Lakes of the Northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. H., IV; Gilhooly, W., III; Crane, E. J., III; Steinman, B.; Shelton, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionations within the chemocline can be an indication of green and purple sulfur photosynthetic activity. This isotopic signal is, however, small and variable, on the order of +2-6‰ (Zerkle et al. 2009). It is therefore advantageous to investigate the environmental and ecological effects on this signal so that these influences can be taken into account when estimating the contribution of anoxygenic phototrophs to the sulfur cycle in aquatic environments. This project aims to investigate the ways in which anoxygenic phototroph community structure and lake water geochemistry impact the sulfur isotope fractionation expressed during anoxygenic photosynthesis in meromictic lakes. During the summer of 2013, water column profile analysis of six lakes in the Pacific Northwest (located in eastern Washington and western Montana) were conducted to assess photosynthetically available radiation, salinity, pH, temperature, dissolved solids, and specific conductivity. Water column samples were obtained to determine the sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate and sulfide, major ion and sulfide concentrations. Microbial samples were also collected for genetic sequencing. Initial results found green (e.g., Chlorobiaceae sp.) and purple (e.g., Lamprocystis purpurea) bacteria at the same depth in one of the study lakes. These data, in addition to the same suite of samples collected in the summer of 2014, provide insight into relationships between the isotopic composition of sulfur (in H2S, S0, and SO4), lake water chemistry, and the presence or absence of green and purple sulfur bacteria.

  17. Level of Lake Lahontan during deposition of the Trego Hot Springs tephra about 23,400 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan O.

    1983-05-01

    The Trego Hot Springs tephra bed is a silicic tephra about 23,400 yr old, found at several localities in pluvial lake sediments in northern Nevada, southern Oregon, and northeastern California. It has been characterized petrographically, by the major and minor element chemistry of its glass, and by its stratigraphic position with respect to other tephra layers. At a newly described locality on Squaw Creek, northwest of Gerlach, Nevada, at the north end of the Smoke Creek Desert, Trego Hot Springs tephra has been found in sediments of the Sehoo and Indian Lakes formations. The depositional environments of these sediments show that when the tephra fell, pluvial Lake Lahontan stood between 1256 and 1260 m, and that immediately thereafter the lake rose to at least 1275 m. These data corroborate earlier findings by Benson ( Quaternary Research9, 300-318) from radiometric dating of calcareous tufa. However, the Lake Lahontan area has been affected by isostatic subsidence and rebound in response to changing water loads, so that caution is required in the use of lakeshore elevations in correlation.

  18. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  19. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  20. Limnology of selected lakes in Ohio, 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Robert L.; Youger, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Water-quality reconnaissance by the U.S. Geological Survey and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the status of Ohio's lakes and reservoirs was begun in 1975 with studies of 17 lakes. Spring and summer data collections for each lake included: profile measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance; field and laboratory analyses of physical, biological, chemical organic characteristics; (nutrient), and concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents from composites of the water column; and physical and chemical data from major inflows.Light penetration (secchi disk) ranged from 9.4 feet (2.9 meters) in Lake Hope to 0.4 feet (0.1 meter) in Acton Lake. Seasonal thermal stratification or stability is shown for 10 lakes deeper than 15 feet (4.6 meters). Unstable or modified temperature profiles were observed in shallow lakes (depths less than 15 feet) or lakes controlled through subsurface release valves.Dissolved oxygen saturation ranged from 229 percent (20.8 milligrams per liter) in the epilimnion of Paint Creek Lake to zero in the bottom waters of all thermally stabilized lakes. Marked chemical and physical differences and nutrient uptake and recycling developed within different thermal strata. Anaerobic zones were frequently characterized by hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.Calcium was the dominant or codominant cation, and bicarbonate and(or) sulfate were the major anions in all lakes sampled. Only Hope and Vesuvius Lakes had soft water (hardness less than 61 milligrams per liter as CaCO3 ), and both lakes were further characterized by low pH (less than 7.0). Specific conductance ranged from 510 micromhos (Deer Creek and Salt Fork Lakes) to 128 micromhos (Lake Hope). Pesticide residues were detected in Acton Lake, and concentrations of one or more trace metals were at or above Ohio Environmental Protection Agency recommended limits in 11 lakes.Fecal coliform colony counts were below 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in

  1. A census of colonially breeding waterbirds on Lake Louise and Skilak Lake, Alaska, 21-22 July 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents a census of colonial waterbird sites at Lake Louise and Slikak lake on 21 and 22 July 1981 respectively. Both Lake Louise and Skilak Lake are...

  2. Deoxygenation of Lake Ikeda, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, R.; Hasegawa, N.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Ikeda (Kagoshima prefecture, Japan) is a deep lake with a maximum depth of 233 m. Monitoring data of lake Ikeda exist since 1975. We have analyzed the long-term variability in the water conditions of Lake Ikeda. Recently, Lake Ikeda has exhibited the phenomenon of incomplete overturning because of climate warming. The concentrations of DO (dissolved oxygen) in the deepest parts of the lake have reduced. This phenomenon was observed to have started in the 1980s, and gradually, the deepest parts of the lake became anoxic. Later, the anoxic layer became thicker. Currently, winter mixing in Lake Ikeda reaches to depths of only 100 m. According to our simple estimation, the total volume of oxygen in Lake Ikeda will reduce from approximately 70% in the mid-1980s to 40% by the end of 2010. In addition to this phenomenon, the oxygen concentration appears to vary with several years oscillations. The depths to which mixing occurs depends on the severity of the winter, such as the air temperature during the winter season. The mixing period generally occurs in February; hence, the limnological year is considered to start in February. During our analysis period, the total DO mass showed high values in 1996, 2001, and 2003. Air temperature data obtained for regions near Lake Ikeda (the station name is Ibusuki) are used to clarify the cause of the high DO mass values in the three abovementioned years. During the period prior to the occurrence of the high DO mass in February 1996, i.e., in December 1995 and January 1996, the air temperature was low. Similarly, in 2001 and 2003, the air temperature was low in January (one month before the high DO mass was observed). In January 2001 and 2003, the AO (Atlantic Oscillation) index was negative. When the AO index is negative, there tends to be a greater movement of cold polar air into mid-latitudinal regions including Japan (Yamakawa, 2005). This movement induced a low air temperature in Ibusuki, and consequently, a high DO mass

  3. Hutton Lake NWR, Mortenson Lake NWR, and Bamforth Lake NWR : Annual water management plans, 2004 water use report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water use reports for 2004 and annual water management plans for 2005 for Mortenson Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Hutton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and Bamforth...

  4. Eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1965-01-01

    Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior are classified as oligotrophic lakes on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. Lake Ontario, although rich in nutrients, is morphometrically oligotrophic or mesotrophic because of its large area of deep water. Lake Erie, the most productive of the lakes and the shallowest, is eutrophic. Several changes commonly associated with eutrophication in small lakes have been observed in the Great Lakes. These changes apparently reflect accelerated eutrophication in the Great Lakes due to man's activity. Chemical data compiled from a number of sources, dating as early as 1854, indicate a progressive increase in the concentrations of various major ions and total dissolved solids in all of the lakes except Lake Superior. The plankton has changed somewhat in Lake Michigan and the plankton, benthos, and fish populations of Lake Erie are greatly different today from those of the past. An extensive area of hypolimnetic water of Lake Erie has developed low dissolved oxygen concentrations in late summer within recent years.

  5. Brotherswater, English Lake District: a record of organic and inorganic sediment flux over the past two millenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillereff, D.; Chiverrell, R.; Boyle, J.; Macdonald, N.; Hooke, J.

    2012-04-01

    Lake sediments have long been recognised as efficient recorders of geomorphic change through time and they also function as a proportionally large carbon sink within the global C cycle. However, calculating carbon budgets for lake basins can prove challenging due to the spatially variable pattern of sediment accumulation within the basin and the heterogeneous nature of the organic matter accumulating on the lake floor, which can comprise autogenic organic material, eroded soil organic floccules and plant biomass from the catchments. High-resolution (0.5 cm) particle size, geochemical and thermogravimetric data for a series of abyssal lake sediment cores (3 - 5 m length) are used to examine the relationship between hydrological conditioning, sediment dynamics and particulate carbon flux over the past 2000 years for a small upland catchment in the English Lake District (Brotherswater). Core correlation using geochemical and mineral magnetic profiles has facilitated the identification of the spatial pattern of inorganic and organic sediment accumulation within the lake. A well-constrained chronology has been developed, incorporating radionuclide (210Pb, 137Cs and 14C) dating and elemental signatures which reflect the mining history of the catchment (e.g., Pb, Ba and Zn). The role of climatic fluctuations and human activity (e.g., the Little Ice Age, agricultural intensification during Roman and Viking periods) in controlling catchment-to-lake sediment flux is well studied in northwest England, and these phases are reflected in inorganic geochemical markers (e.g., Sr, Zr, K) in the lake sediment cores. Recently accumulated sediments yield geochemical signatures of substantial heavy metal flux (lead, zinc and barium) associated with intensive mining in the catchment, while numerous coarse-grained facies are visible within the silt-dominated lake sediment matrix, which are interpreted as reflecting late-Holocene high-magnitude flood events. Using thermogravimetric (TGA

  6. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; 1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Janelle R.; Scholz, Allan T. (Eastern Washington University, Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Research Center, Cheney, WA)

    1991-09-01

    As partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead incurred by construction of Grand Coulee Dam, the Northwest Power Planning Council directed Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to construct two kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt (NPPC 1987 [Section 903 (g)(l)(C)]). The hatcheries are to produce 8 million kokanee salmon fry or 3.2 million adults for outplanting into Lake Roosevelt as well as 500,000 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Lake Roosevelt net-pen programs. In section 903 (g)(l)(E), the Council also directed BPA to fund a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the kokanee hatcheries. The monitoring program included the following components: (1) conduction of a year-round creel census survey to determine angler pressure, catch rates and composition, growth and condition of fish caught by anglers, and economic value of the fishery. Comparisons will be made before and after hatcheries are on-line to determine hatchery effectiveness; (2) conduct an assessment of kokanee, rainbow trout, and walleye feeding habits, growth rates, and densities of their preferred prey at different locations in the reservoir and how reservoir operations affect population dynamics of preferred prey organisms. This information will be used to determine kokanee and rainbow trout stocking locations, stocking densities and stocking times; (3) conduct a mark-recapture study designed to assess effectiveness of various release times and locations for hatchery-raised kokanee and net-pen raised rainbow so fish-loss over Grand Coulee Dam will be minimized, homing to egg collection sites will be improved and angler harvest will be increased. The above measures were adopted by the Council based on a management plan developed by Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center, Spokane Indian Tribe, Colville Confederated Tribes, Washington Department of Wildlife, and the National Park Service. This plan examined the

  7. A hundred year record of anthropogenic influences on the sedimentary geochemistry from Lake Sayram, Tianshan Mountains in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Shen, B.

    2016-12-01

    Northwestern China has many arid inland lakes and wetlands, and it is characterized with climate variability and human impact. Lake Sayram is a deep, closed lake in the Tianshan Mountains of northwest China. In this study, we explore the trajectory of recent climate and environmental change using a 30-cm sediment record obtained from the center of Lake Sayram. With 210Pb and 137Cs dating and organic-inorganic geochemical methods, including element content, carbonate content, δ13C andδ18O of bulk carbonate, source-specific biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we reconstruct regional environmental change over the past about 100 yrs. High evaporation modifies δ13C andδ18O of the dissolved inorganic carbon in lake water and may be responsible for the covariance between δ13C andδ18O of bulk carbonate. Alkenone unsaturation indices are associated with climatic change, and the PAHs and metal contents reflect the impacts of human activities. Constrained cluster analysis of the multi-proxy indices was used to partition sediment deposition into three periods. Prior to 1960, the climate was dryer with high evaporation, and lake water had higher salinity. The vertical distributions of PAHs had little changed and low molecular weight PAHs were dominated PAHs. In this period, there existed one obvious drier climatic event at about 1920s with the sediment record of aeolian dust transport. From the 1960s to 1990s, high molecular weight PAHs and heavy metal delivery to sediments increased slowly, associated with relatively weak economic development in Xinjiang region. Thereafter, contamination by heavy metals increased markedly, especially after the 1990s, a sharp increase in PAHs level and individuals was observed too. The results clearly demonstrate that the environmental change in Lake Sayram before the 1960s strongly depended on the natural discharge, whereas at later stages, it was significantly influenced by human activities.

  8. Arsenic Speciation in Plankton Organisms from Contaminated Lakes: Transformations at the Base of the Freshwater Food Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caumette, Guilhem; Koch, Iris; Estrada, Esteban; Reimer, Ken J. (Royal)

    2012-02-06

    The two complementary techniques high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis were used to assess arsenic speciation in freshwater phytoplankton and zooplankton collected from arsenic-contaminated lakes in Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada). Arsenic concentrations in lake water ranged from 7 {micro}g L{sup -1} in a noncontaminated lake to 250 {micro}g L{sup -1} in mine-contaminated lakes, which resulted in arsenic concentrations ranging from 7 to 340 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in zooplankton organisms (Cyclops sp.) and from 154 to 894 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in phytoplankton. The main arsenic compounds identified by HPLC-ICP-MS in all plankton were inorganic arsenic (from 38% to 98% of total arsenic). No other arsenic compounds were found in phytoplankton, but zooplankton organisms showed the presence of organoarsenic compounds, the most common being the sulfate arsenosugar, up to 47% of total arsenic, with traces of phosphate sugar, glycerol sugar, methylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). In the uncontaminated Grace Lake, zooplankton also contained arsenobetaine (AB). XANES characterization of arsenic in the whole plankton samples showed AsV-O as the only arsenic compound in phytoplankton, and AsIII-S and AsV-O compounds as the two major inorganic arsenic species in zooplankton. The proportion of organoarsenicals and inorganic arsenic in zooplankton depends upon the arsenic concentration in lakes and shows the impact of arsenic contamination: zooplankton from uncontaminated lake has higher proportions of organoarsenic compounds and contains arsenobetaine, while zooplankton from contaminated area contains mostly inorganic arsenic.

  9. 77 FR 23123 - Special Local Regulation; Smokin The Lake; Gulfport Lake; Gulfport, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Smokin The Lake; Gulfport Lake... persons on navigable waters during the Smokin The Lake high speed boat races on May 5 and 6, 2012. Entry... associated with the Smokin The Lake high speed boat races. Basis and Purpose On February 27, 2012, Smokin...

  10. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  11. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  12. Clearing lakes. An ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosper, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration of the lake ecosystems. Other perturbations, such a

  13. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  14. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  15. Karluk Lake sockeye salmon studies 1984: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on Karluk Lake sockeye salmon. The objectives of the study were to: collect sediment core samples from Karluk Lake and...

  16. Limnological monitoring of Lake Becherof, final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study are to evaluate the major ions of Lake Becharof; to begin to evaluate the trace metals of Lake Becharof; to evaluate the light...

  17. Clarks Hill Lake Water Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXONOMIC LIST CLARKS HILL LAKE 1981 Phylum Platyhelminthes Order Diptera Class Turbellaria Ablabesmyia parajanta unidentified Planariidae A...HILL LAKE 1981 Phylum Platyhelminthes Order Diptera (continued) Planaria sp.,’ Bezzia sp. 2 unidentified Planariidae Chaoborus punctipennis unidentified

  18. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1939. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  19. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1944. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  20. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1946. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  1. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1950. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  2. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1951. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  3. Lake Erie Fish Community Data, 2013 - 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS), located in Sandusky, Ohio, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). LEBS is the primary federal agency...

  4. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  5. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1947. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  6. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1952. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  7. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1948. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  8. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1943. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  9. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1955. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  10. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1949. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  11. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1956. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  12. Togiak National Wildlife Refuge lake surveys, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary review of the data reveals that all lakes surveyed can be classified as having low conductibility, ranging from the low 20's for the Goodnews Lakes to...

  13. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  14. Medicine Lake NWR Water Use Report- 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Medicine Lake NWR for 1945. The document provides tabulated data for each area of Medicine Lake NWR, including the...

  15. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  16. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton communities of two basins of a large lake, Lake Constance, were compared during the years 2002 and 2003. The two basins differ in morphology, physical and chemical conditions. The Upper Lake basin has a surface area of 470 km2, a mean depth of 100 and a maximum depth of 250 m; the Lower Lake basin has a surface area of 62 km2, a mean depth of only 13 and a maximum depth of 40 m. Nutrient, chlorophyll-a concentrations and mean temperatures are somewhat higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of rotifers (number per m2 lake surface was higher and rotifer development started earlier in the year in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of crustaceans was higher in the Upper Lake in the year 2002; in the year 2003 no difference in abundance could be detected between the lake basins, although in summer crustacean abundance was higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Crustacean communities differed significantly between lake basins while there was no apparent difference in rotifer communities. In the Lower Lake small crustaceans, like Bosmina spp., Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Thermocyclops oithonoides prevailed. Abundance (number per m2 lake surface of predatory cladocerans, large daphnids and large copepods was much lower in the Lower than in the Upper Lake, in particular during the summer months. Ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS separated communities of both lakes along gradients that correlated with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. Clutches of copepods were larger in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. No difference could be detected in clutch size of large daphnids between lake basins. Our results show that zooplankton communities in different basins of Lake Constance can be very different. They further suggest that the lack of large crustaceans in particular the lack of large predatory cladocerans in the Lower Lake can have negative effects on growth and

  17. Structural Variation of an Atmospheric Heat Source over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and Its Influence on Precipitation in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Na; GONG Yuanfa; HE Jinhai

    2009-01-01

    NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and a 47-year precipitation dataset are utilized to analyze the relationship between an atmospheric heat source (hereafter called ) over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QXP) and its surrounding area and precipitation in northwest China.Our main conclusions are as follows:(1) The horizontal distribution of and its changing trend are dramatic over QXP in the summer.There are three strong centers of over the south side of QXP with obvious differences in the amount of yearly precipitation and the number of heat sinks predominate in the arid and semi-arid regions of northwest China (NWC),beside the northern QXP with an obvious higher intensity in years with less precipitation.(2) In the summer,the variation of the heat source's vertical structure is obviously different between greater and lesser precipitation years in eastern northwest China (ENWC).The narrow heat sink belt forms between the northeast QXP and the southwestern part of Lake Baikal.In July and August of greater precipitation years,the heating center of the eastern QXP stays nearly over 35°N,and at 400 hPa of the eastern QXP,the strong upward motion of the heating center constructs a closed secondary vertical circulation cell over the northeast QXP (40°-46°N),which is propitious to add precipitation over the ENWC.Otherwise,the heating center shifts to the south of 30°N and disappears in July and August of lesser precipitation years,an opposite secondary circulation cell forms over the northeast QXP,which is a disadvantage for precipitation.Meanwhile,the secondary circulation cell in years with more or less precipitation over the ENWC is also related to the heat source over the Lake Baikal. (3) The vertical structure of the heat source over the western QXP has obvious differences between greater and lesser precipitation years in western northwest China in June and July.The strong/weak heat source over the western QXP produces relatively strong/weak ascending motion and

  18. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  19. Estimating the volume of Alpine glacial lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. J.; Quincey, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Supraglacial, moraine-dammed and ice-dammed lakes represent a potential glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) threat to downstream communities in many mountain regions. This has motivated the development of empirical relationships to predict lake volume given a measurement of lake surface area obtained from satellite imagery. Such relationships are based on the notion that lake depth, area and volume scale predictably. We critically evaluate the performance of these existing empirical relationships by examining a global database of glacial lake depths, areas and volumes. Results show that lake area and depth are not always well correlated (r2 = 0.38) and that although lake volume and area are well correlated (r2 = 0.91), and indeed are auto-correlated, there are distinct outliers in the data set. These outliers represent situations where it may not be appropriate to apply existing empirical relationships to predict lake volume and include growing supraglacial lakes, glaciers that recede into basins with complex overdeepened morphologies or that have been deepened by intense erosion and lakes formed where glaciers advance across and block a main trunk valley. We use the compiled data set to develop a conceptual model of how the volumes of supraglacial ponds and lakes, moraine-dammed lakes and ice-dammed lakes should be expected to evolve with increasing area. Although a large amount of bathymetric data exist for moraine-dammed and ice-dammed lakes, we suggest that further measurements of growing supraglacial ponds and lakes are needed to better understand their development.

  20. The Tomb Statues beside Dongqian Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RaoRao

    2005-01-01

    Located 17 kilometers to the City of Ningbo, Dongqian Lake covers an area of 20 square kilometers, which is four only the biggest freshwater lake in Zhejiang Province but atso renowned for its gorgeous scenery. Recently, this beautiful lake once again caught people's eye because a large number of Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) gravestone statues were discovered among the mountains beside the lake area.