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Sample records for flat riemannian diffusive

  1. Dynamos driven by poloidal flows in untwisted, curved and flat Riemannian diffusive flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, L C Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Recently Vishik anti-fast dynamo theorem, has been tested against non-stretching flux tubes [Phys Plasmas 15 (2008)]. In this paper, another anti-dynamo theorem, called Cowling's theorem, which states that axisymmetric magnetic fields cannot support dynamo action, is carefully tested against thick tubular and curved Riemannian untwisted flows, as well as thin flux tubes in diffusive and diffusionless media. In the non-diffusive media the Cowling's theorem is not violated in thin Riemann-flat untwisted flux tubes, where the Frenet curvature is negative. Nevertheless the diffusion action in the thin flux tube leads to a a dynamo action driven by poloidal flows as shown by Love and Gubbins (Geophysical Res.) in the context of geodynamos. Actually it is shown that a slow dynamo action is obtained. In this case the Frenet and Riemann curvature still vanishes. In the case of magnetic filaments in diffusive media dynamo action is obtained when the Frenet scalar curvature is negative. Since the Riemann curvature tens...

  2. Cohomogeneity Two Actions on Flat Riemannian Manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. MIRZAIE

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study fiat Riemannian manifolds which have codimension two orbits,under the action of a closed and connected Lie group G of isometries. We assume that G has fixedpoints, then characterize M and orbits of M.

  3. Elliptic Equations in Weighted Besov Spaces on Asymptotically Flat Riemannian Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the applications of weighted Besov spaces to elliptic equations on asymptotically flat Riemannian manifolds, and in particular to the solutions of Einstein's constraints equations. We establish existence theorems for the Hamiltonian an momentum constraints with constant mean curvature and with a background metric which satisfies very low regularity assumptions. These results extend the regularity results of Holst, Nagy and Tsogtgerel about the constraint equations on compact manifolds in the Besov space $B_{p,p}^s$, to asymptotically flat manifolds. We also consider the Brill--Cantor criterion in the weighted Besov spaces. Our results improve the regularity assumptions on asymptotically flat manifolds Choquet--Bruhat, Isenberg and Pollack, and Maxwell, as well as they enable us to construct the initial data for the Einstein--Euler system.

  4. 一类对偶平坦的黎曼度量%A Class of Dually Flat Riemannian Metrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳芳; 杨秀文; 林琼; 徐维

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a sufficient condition of locally dual flat in Riemannian space is obtained:an equation that the spray of a Riemannian metric satisfies. At the same time, the theory what this condition is not necessary is pointed out since an example is given to prove. Further research is finished to characterize the quality of this kind of Riemannian metrics. The equivalent condition that this kind of locally dually flat Riemannian metric is Einstein metrics is disussed. The quality of this kind of locally dually flat Riemannian metric is been researched to show that they are Einstein metrics. Here Riemannian curvature is main consideration. A series of computation shows that a locally dually flat Riemannian metric is Einstein metric if and only if it is Euclidian with dimen-sion n≥3 . But this is not suitable for the space with dimension n=2.%给出了黎曼度量局部对偶平坦的一个充分条件:黎曼度量的Spray所满足的方程。同时,指出该条件是非必要的,并给出了相关反例。进一步,对满足条件的这类黎曼度量的性质进行了研究。具体地,讨论了这类度量成为Einstein度量的条件。从黎曼曲率着手,通过计算发现:当空间维数n≥3,这类黎曼度量是Einstein度量,当且仅当它是欧氏度量;但是,这个结论对n=2的情形不适用。

  5. Mean-field cosmological dynamos in Riemannian space with isotropic diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, L Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Mean-field cosmological dynamos in Riemannian space with isotropic diffusion}} Previous attempts for building a cosmic dynamo including preheating in inflationary universes [Bassett et al Phys Rev (2001)] has not included mean field or turbulent dynamos. In this paper a mean field dynamo in cosmic scales on a Riemannian spatial cosmological section background, is set up. When magnetic fields and flow velocities are parallel propagated along the Riemannian space dynamo action is obtained. Turbulent diffusivity ${\\beta}$ is coupled with the Ricci magnetic curvature, as in Marklund and Clarkson [MNRAS (2005)], GR-MHD dynamo equation. Mean electric field possesses an extra term where Ricci tensor couples with magnetic vector potential in Ohm's law. In Goedel universe induces a mean field dynamo growth rate ${\\gamma}=2{\\omega}^{2}{\\beta}$. In this frame kinetic helicity vanishes. In radiation era this yields ${\\gamma}\\approx{2{\\beta}{\\times}10^{-12}s^{-1}}$. In non-comoving the magnetic field is expressed as $B\\ap...

  6. Segmentation of high angular resolution diffusion MRI using sparse riemannian manifold clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetingül, H Ertan; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M; Vidal, René

    2014-02-01

    We address the problem of segmenting high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data into multiple regions (or fiber tracts) with distinct diffusion properties. We use the orientation distribution function (ODF) to model diffusion and cast the ODF segmentation problem as a clustering problem in the space of ODFs. Our approach integrates tools from sparse representation theory and Riemannian geometry into a graph theoretic segmentation framework. By exploiting the Riemannian properties of the space of ODFs, we learn a sparse representation for each ODF and infer the segmentation by applying spectral clustering to a similarity matrix built from these representations. In cases where regions with similar (resp. distinct) diffusion properties belong to different (resp. same) fiber tracts, we obtain the segmentation by incorporating spatial and user-specified pairwise relationships into the formulation. Experiments on synthetic data evaluate the sensitivity of our method to image noise and to the concentration parameters, and show its superior performance compared to alternative methods when analyzing complex fiber configurations. Experiments on phantom and real data demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method in segmenting simulated fibers and white matter fiber tracts of clinical importance.

  7. Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping of High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging based on Riemannian Structure of Orientation Distribution Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Jia; Qiu, Anqi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel large deformation diffeomorphic registration algorithm to align high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI) characterized by orientation distribution functions (ODFs). Our proposed algorithm seeks an optimal diffeomorphism of large deformation between two ODF fields in a spatial volume domain and at the same time, locally reorients an ODF in a manner such that it remains consistent with the surrounding anatomical structure. To this end, we first review the Riemannian manifold of ODFs. We then define the reorientation of an ODF when an affine transformation is applied and subsequently, define the diffeomorphic group action to be applied on the ODF based on this reorientation. We incorporate the Riemannian metric of ODFs for quantifying the similarity of two HARDI images into a variational problem defined under the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) framework. We finally derive the gradient of the cost function in both Riemannian spaces of diffeomorphis...

  8. Entropy production of stationary diffusions on non-compact Riemannian manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚光鲁; 钱敏平

    1997-01-01

    The closed form of the entropy production of stationary diffusion processes with bounded Nelson’s current velocity is given.The limit of the entropy productions of a sequence of reflecting diffusions is also discussed.

  9. Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intended for a one year course, this text serves as a single source, introducing readers to the important techniques and theorems, while also containing enough background on advanced topics to appeal to those students wishing to specialize in Riemannian geometry. This is one of the few Works to combine both the geometric parts of Riemannian geometry and the analytic aspects of the theory. The book will appeal to a readership that have a basic knowledge of standard manifold theory, including tensors, forms, and Lie groups. Important revisions to the third edition include: a substantial addition of unique and enriching exercises scattered throughout the text; inclusion of an increased number of coordinate calculations of connection and curvature; addition of general formulas for curvature on Lie Groups and submersions; integration of variational calculus into the text allowing for an early treatment of the Sphere theorem using a proof by Berger; incorporation of several recent results about manifolds with posit...

  10. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  11. 78 FR 31577 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...)] Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan Determination On the basis of the... reason of imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products, provided... diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan. Accordingly, effective March...

  12. Non-Riemannian geometrical optics in QED

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia de Andrade, L C

    2003-01-01

    A non-minimal photon-torsion axial coupling in the quantum electrodynamics (QED) framework is considered. The geometrical optics in Riemannian-Cartan spacetime is considering and a plane wave expansion of the electromagnetic vector potential is considered leading to a set of the equations for the ray congruence. Since we are interested mainly on the torsion effects in this first report we just consider the Riemann-flat case composed of the Minkowskian spacetime with torsion. It is also shown that in torsionic de Sitter background the vacuum polarisation does alter the propagation of individual photons, an effect which is absent in Riemannian spaces.

  13. Riemannian computing in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours).   ·         Illustrates Riemannian computing theory on applications in computer vision, machine learning, and robotics ·         Emphasis on algorithmic advances that will allow re-application in other...

  14. Fedosov and Riemannian supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Asorey, M

    2008-01-01

    Generalizations of symplectic and metric structures for supermanifolds are analyzed. Two types of structures are possible according to the even/odd character of the corresponding quadratic tensors. In the even case one has a very rich set of geometric structures: even symplectic supermanifolds (or, equivalently, supermanifolds with non-degenerate Poisson structures), even Fedosov supermanifolds and even Riemannian supermanifolds. The existence of relations among those structures is analyzed in some details. In the odd case, we show that odd Riemannian and Fedosov supermanifolds are characterized by a scalar curvature tensor. However, odd Riemannian supermanifolds can only have constant curvature.

  15. Riemannian manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Zha, Hongbin

    2008-05-01

    Recently, manifold learning has been widely exploited in pattern recognition, data analysis, and machine learning. This paper presents a novel framework, called Riemannian manifold learning (RML), based on the assumption that the input high-dimensional data lie on an intrinsically low-dimensional Riemannian manifold. The main idea is to formulate the dimensionality reduction problem as a classical problem in Riemannian geometry, i.e., how to construct coordinate charts for a given Riemannian manifold? We implement the Riemannian normal coordinate chart, which has been the most widely used in Riemannian geometry, for a set of unorganized data points. First, two input parameters (the neighborhood size k and the intrinsic dimension d) are estimated based on an efficient simplicial reconstruction of the underlying manifold. Then, the normal coordinates are computed to map the input high-dimensional data into a low-dimensional space. Experiments on synthetic data as well as real world images demonstrate that our algorithm can learn intrinsic geometric structures of the data, preserve radial geodesic distances, and yield regular embeddings.

  16. Non-Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhart, L P

    1927-01-01

    The use of the differential geometry of a Riemannian space in the mathematical formulation of physical theories led to important developments in the geometry of such spaces. The concept of parallelism of vectors, as introduced by Levi-Civita, gave rise to a theory of the affine properties of a Riemannian space. Covariant differentiation, as developed by Christoffel and Ricci, is a fundamental process in this theory. Various writers, notably Eddington, Einstein and Weyl, in their efforts to formulate a combined theory of gravitation and electromagnetism, proposed a simultaneous generalization o

  17. Learning in Riemannian Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Brijnesh J

    2012-01-01

    Learning in Riemannian orbifolds is motivated by existing machine learning algorithms that directly operate on finite combinatorial structures such as point patterns, trees, and graphs. These methods, however, lack statistical justification. This contribution derives consistency results for learning problems in structured domains and thereby generalizes learning in vector spaces and manifolds.

  18. 78 FR 69371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan...-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products (certain nickel-plated, flat-rolled steel) from Japan..., nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products included in this investigation are flat-rolled,...

  19. 78 FR 50378 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Postponement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan... Department) initiated the antidumping duty investigation of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan. See Diffusion- Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From...

  20. 4-dimensional locally CAT(0)-manifolds with no Riemannian smoothings

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, M; Lafont, J -F

    2010-01-01

    We construct examples of smooth 4-dimensional manifolds M supporting a locally CAT(0)-metric, whose universal cover X satisfy Hruska's isolated flats condition, and contain 2-dimensional flats F with the property that the boundary at infinity of F defines a nontrivial knot in the boundary at infinity of X. As a consequence, we obtain that the fundamental group of M cannot be isomorphic to the fundamental group of any Riemannian manifold of nonpositive sectional curvature. In particular, M is a locally CAT(0)-manifold which does not support any Riemannian metric of nonpositive sectional curvature.

  1. 78 FR 23905 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan...'') petition concerning imports of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan (``certain nickel-plated, flat-rolled steel''), filed in proper form by Thomas Steel Strip...

  2. Brane world in Non-Riemannian Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Rodrigo; 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.064019

    2012-01-01

    We carefully investigate the modified Einstein's field equation in a four dimensional (3-brane) arbitrary manifold embedded in a five dimensional Non-Riemannian bulk spacetime with a noncompact extra dimension. In this context the Israel-Darmois matching conditions are extended assuming that the torsion in the bulk is continuous. The discontinuity in the torsion first derivatives are related to the matter distribution through the field equation. In addition, we develop a model that describes a flat FLRW model embedded in a 5-dimensional de Sitter or Anti de Sitter, where a 5-dimensional cosmological constant emerges from the torsion.

  3. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only...... in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimize a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend...... from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls...

  4. Comparison of flat cleaved and cylindrical diffusing fibers as treatment sources for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, Timothy M., E-mail: timothy.baran@rochester.edu; Foster, Thomas H. [Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: For interstitial photodynamic therapy (iPDT) of bulky tumors, careful treatment planning is required in order to ensure that a therapeutic dose is delivered to the tumor, while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissue. In clinical contexts, iPDT has typically been performed with either flat cleaved or cylindrical diffusing optical fibers as light sources. Here, the authors directly compare these two source geometries in terms of the number of fibers and duration of treatment required to deliver a prescribed light dose to a tumor volume. Methods: Treatment planning software for iPDT was developed based on graphics processing unit enhanced Monte Carlo simulations. This software was used to optimize the number of fibers, total energy delivered by each fiber, and the position of individual fibers in order to deliver a target light dose (D{sub 90}) to 90% of the tumor volume. Treatment plans were developed using both flat cleaved and cylindrical diffusing fibers, based on tissue volumes derived from CT data from a head and neck cancer patient. Plans were created for four cases: fixed energy per fiber, fixed number of fibers, and in cases where both or neither of these factors were fixed. Results: When the number of source fibers was fixed at eight, treatment plans based on flat cleaved fibers required each to deliver 7180–8080 J in order to deposit 90 J/cm{sup 2} in 90% of the tumor volume. For diffusers, each fiber was required to deliver 2270–2350 J (333–1178 J/cm) in order to achieve this same result. For the case of fibers delivering a fixed 900 J, 13 diffusers or 19 flat cleaved fibers at a spacing of 1 cm were required to deliver the desired dose. With energy per fiber fixed at 2400 J and the number of fibers fixed at eight, diffuser fibers delivered the desired dose to 93% of the tumor volume, while flat cleaved fibers delivered this dose to 79%. With both energy and number of fibers allowed to vary, six diffusers delivering 3485–3600 J

  5. Minimal Webs in Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    are of instrumental importance for the applications. We apply these properties to show that minimal webs in ambient Riemannian spaces share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in such spaces. In particular we use appropriate versions of the divergence......)$ into Riemannian manifolds $(N^{n}, h)$. Such immersions we call {\\em{minimal webs}}. They admit a natural 'geometric' extension of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian. The geometric Laplacian on minimal webs enjoys standard properties such as the maximum principle and the divergence theorems, which...... theorems together with the comparison techniques for distance functions in Riemannian geometry and obtain bounds for the first Dirichlet eigenvalues, the exit times and the capacities as well as isoperimetric type inequalities for so-called extrinsic $R-$webs of minimal webs in ambient Riemannian manifolds...

  6. Polynomial Regression on Riemannian Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkle, Jacob; Fletcher, P Thomas; Joshi, Sarang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop the theory of parametric polynomial regression in Riemannian manifolds and Lie groups. We show application of Riemannian polynomial regression to shape analysis in Kendall shape space. Results are presented, showing the power of polynomial regression on the classic rat skull growth data of Bookstein as well as the analysis of the shape changes associated with aging of the corpus callosum from the OASIS Alzheimer's study.

  7. 78 FR 75371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final... of less-than-fair-value imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel- plated flat-rolled steel...; whether or not in coils; either plated or coated with nickel or nickel-based alloys and...

  8. 78 FR 19734 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products From Japan; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products From Japan; Institution of... retarded, by reason of imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated steel flat-rolled...

  9. Comparison theorems in Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeger, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The central theme of this book is the interaction between the curvature of a complete Riemannian manifold and its topology and global geometry. The first five chapters are preparatory in nature. They begin with a very concise introduction to Riemannian geometry, followed by an exposition of Toponogov's theorem-the first such treatment in a book in English. Next comes a detailed presentation of homogeneous spaces in which the main goal is to find formulas for their curvature. A quick chapter of Morse theory is followed by one on the injectivity radius. Chapters 6-9 deal with many of the most re

  10. Natural Connections on Riemannian Product Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Gribacheva, Dobrinka

    2011-01-01

    A Riemannian almost product manifold with integrable almost product structure is called a Riemannian product manifold. In the present paper the natural connections on such manifolds are studied, i.e. the linear connections preserving the almost product structure and the Riemannian metric.

  11. Designing, Modeling, Constructing, and Testing a Flat Panel Speaker and Sound Diffuser for a Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, model, build, and test a flat panel speaker and frame for a spherical dome structure being made into a simulator. The simulator will be a test bed for evaluating an immersive environment for human interfaces. This project focused on the loud speakers and a sound diffuser for the dome. The rest of the team worked on an Ambisonics 3D sound system, video projection system, and multi-direction treadmill to create the most realistic scene possible. The main programs utilized in this project, were Pro-E and COMSOL. Pro-E was used for creating detailed figures for the fabrication of a frame that held a flat panel loud speaker. The loud speaker was made from a thin sheet of Plexiglas and 4 acoustic exciters. COMSOL, a multiphysics finite analysis simulator, was used to model and evaluate all stages of the loud speaker, frame, and sound diffuser. Acoustical testing measurements were utilized to create polar plots from the working prototype which were then compared to the COMSOL simulations to select the optimal design for the dome. The final goal of the project was to install the flat panel loud speaker design in addition to a sound diffuser on to the wall of the dome. After running tests in COMSOL on various speaker configurations, including a warped Plexiglas version, the optimal speaker design included a flat piece of Plexiglas with a rounded frame to match the curvature of the dome. Eight of these loud speakers will be mounted into an inch and a half of high performance acoustic insulation, or Thinsulate, that will cover the inside of the dome. The following technical paper discusses these projects and explains the engineering processes used, knowledge gained, and the projected future goals of this project

  12. Numerical Investigation of Subsonic Flow through an Aggressive Flat Bottom Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mati, Nicholas Alexander

    Airflow through an aggressive, constant pressure gradient, flat-bottomed 2D diffuser is simulated with the compressible version of the stabilized, implicit finite element code PHASTA. The freestream Mach number of fluid entering the diffuser is held at a value of M=0.7 with a PI feedback loop. For a quasi 1D flow, the expansion ratio of AAIP / AInlet = 2.33 produces a Mach number of 0.25 by the end of the diffuser or Aerodynamics Interface Plane (AIP). However, the compact geometry and high targeted pressure gradient of dp/dx=162 kPa/m result in massive asymmetric separation off of the curved ceiling. Wall suction is applied to the ceiling, floor, and corners of the duct as a flow control surrogate while the geometry is iterated to better achieve the targeted pressure gradient. The separation dynamics are then studied in greater detail with both URANS and DDES simulations.

  13. Moduli spaces of riemannian metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Tuschmann, Wilderich

    2015-01-01

    This book studies certain spaces of Riemannian metrics on both compact and non-compact manifolds. These spaces are defined by various sign-based curvature conditions, with special attention paid to positive scalar curvature and non-negative sectional curvature, though we also consider positive Ricci and non-positive sectional curvature. If we form the quotient of such a space of metrics under the action of the diffeomorphism group (or possibly a subgroup) we obtain a moduli space. Understanding the topology of both the original space of metrics and the corresponding moduli space form the central theme of this book. For example, what can be said about the connectedness or the various homotopy groups of such spaces? We explore the major results in the area, but provide sufficient background so that a non-expert with a grounding in Riemannian geometry can access this growing area of research.

  14. The infinity(x-Laplace equation in Riemannian vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bieske

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We employ Riemannian jets which are adapted to the Riemannian geometry to obtain the existence-uniqueness of viscosity solutions to the infinity(x-Laplace equation in Riemannian vector fields. Due to the differences between Euclidean jets and Riemannian jets, the Euclidean method of proof is not valid in this environment.

  15. Degenerate pseudo-Riemannian metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Hervik, Sigbjorn; Yamamoto, Kei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study pseudo-Riemannian spaces with a degenerate curvature structure i.e. there exists a continuous family of metrics having identical polynomial curvature invariants. We approach this problem by utilising an idea coming from invariant theory. This involves the existence of a boost, the existence of this boost is assumed to extend to a neighbourhood. This approach proves to be very fruitful: It produces a class of metrics containing all known examples of degenerate metrics. To date, only Kundt and Walker metrics have been given, however, our study gives a plethora of examples showing that degenerate metrics extend beyond the Kundt and Walker examples. The approach also gives a useful criterion for a metric to be degenerate. Specifically, we use this to study the subclass of VSI and CSI metrics (i.e., spaces where polynomial curvature invariants are all vanishing or constants, respectively).

  16. Radio Interferometric Calibration Using a Riemannian Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2013-01-01

    In order to cope with the increased data volumes generated by modern radio interferometers such as LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) or SKA (Square Kilometre Array), fast and efficient calibration algorithms are essential. Traditional radio interferometric calibration is performed using nonlinear optimization techniques such as the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in Euclidean space. In this paper, we reformulate radio interferometric calibration as a nonlinear optimization problem on a Riemannian manifold. The reformulated calibration problem is solved using the Riemannian trust-region method. We show that calibration on a Riemannian manifold has faster convergence with reduced computational cost compared to conventional calibration in Euclidean space.

  17. On the Mean Curvature of Semi-Riemannian Graphs in Semi-Riemannian Warped Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zonglao Zhang

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the mean curvature of semi-Riemannian graphs in the semi-Riemannian warped product $M× f\\mathbb{R}_$, where is a semi-Riemannian manifold, $\\mathbb{R}_$ is the real line $\\mathbb{R}$ with metric $ dt^2( =± 1)$, and $f:M→ \\mathbb{R}^+$ is the warping function. We obtain an integral formula for mean curvature and some results dealing with estimates of mean curvature, among these results is a Heinz–Chern type inequality.

  18. Resonant oscillations in ${\\alpha}^{2}$-dynamos on a closed, twisted Riemannian 2D flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Chicone et al [CMP (1995)] have shown that, kinematic fast dynamos in diffusive media, could exist only on a closed, 2D Riemannian manifold of constant negative curvature. This report, shows that their result cannot be extended to oscillatory ${\\alpha}^{2}$-dynamos, when there are resonance modes, between toroidal and poloidal frequencies of twisted magnetic flux tubes. Thus, dynamo action can be supported in regions, where Riemannian curvature is positive. For turbulent dynamos, this seems physically reasonable, since recently, [Shukurov et al PRE (2008)] have obtained a Moebius flow strip in sodium liquid, torus Perm dynamo where curvature is also connected to the magnetic fields via diffusion. This could be done, by adjusting the corresponding frequencies till they achieved resonance. Actually 2D torus, is a manifold of zero mean curvature, where regions of positive and negative curvatures exist. It is shown that, Riemannian solitonic surface, endowed with a steady ${\\alpha}^{2}$-dynamo from magnetic filam...

  19. Dissertation: Geodesics of Random Riemannian Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    LaGatta, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We introduce Riemannian First-Passage Percolation (Riemannian FPP) as a new model of random differential geometry, by considering a random, smooth Riemannian metric on $\\mathbb R^d$. We are motivated in our study by the random geometry of first-passage percolation (FPP), a lattice model which was developed to model fluid flow through porous media. By adapting techniques from standard FPP, we prove a shape theorem for our model, which says that large balls under this metric converge to a deterministic shape under rescaling. As a consequence, we show that smooth random Riemannian metrics are geodesically complete with probability one. In differential geometry, geodesics are curves which locally minimize length. They need not do so globally: consider great circles on a sphere. For lattice models of FPP, there are many open questions related to minimizing geodesics; similarly, it is interesting from a geometric perspective when geodesics are globally minimizing. In the present study, we show that for any fixed st...

  20. Dirac structures on generalized Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Vaisman, Izu

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the Dirac structures that are parallel with respect to Gualtieri's canonical connection of a generalized Riemannian metric. On the other hand, we discuss Dirac structures that are images of generalized tangent structures. These structures turn out to be Dirac structures that, if seen as Lie algebroids, have a symplectic structure. Particularly, if compatibility with a generalized Riemannian metric is required, the symplectic structure is of the Kaehler type.

  1. Characterizing humans on Riemannian manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosato, Diego; Spera, Mauro; Cristani, Marco; Murino, Vittorio

    2013-08-01

    In surveillance applications, head and body orientation of people is of primary importance for assessing many behavioral traits. Unfortunately, in this context people are often encoded by a few, noisy pixels so that their characterization is difficult. We face this issue, proposing a computational framework which is based on an expressive descriptor, the covariance of features. Covariances have been employed for pedestrian detection purposes, actually a binary classification problem on Riemannian manifolds. In this paper, we show how to extend to the multiclassification case, presenting a novel descriptor, named weighted array of covariances, especially suited for dealing with tiny image representations. The extension requires a novel differential geometry approach in which covariances are projected on a unique tangent space where standard machine learning techniques can be applied. In particular, we adopt the Campbell-Baker-Hausdorff expansion as a means to approximate on the tangent space the genuine (geodesic) distances on the manifold in a very efficient way. We test our methodology on multiple benchmark datasets, and also propose new testing sets, getting convincing results in all the cases.

  2. Foucault pendulum and sub-Riemannian geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Monroy-Pérez, F.

    2010-08-01

    The well known Foucault nonsymmetrical pendulum is studied as a problem of sub-Riemannian geometry on nilpotent Lie groups. It is shown that in a rotating frame a sub-Riemannian structure can be naturally introduced. For small oscillations, three dimensional horizontal trajectories are computed and displayed in detail. The fiber bundle structure is explicitly shown. The underlying Lie structure is described together with the corresponding holonomy group, which turns out to be given by the center of the Heisenberg group. Other related physical problems that can be treated in a similar way are also mentioned.

  3. Riemannian manifolds as Lie-Rinehart algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessers, Victor; van der Veken, Joeri

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we show how Lie-Rinehart algebras can be applied to unify and generalize the elementary theory of Riemannian geometry. We will first review some necessary theory on a.o. modules, bilinear forms and derivations. We will then translate some classical theory on Riemannian geometry to the setting of Rinehart spaces, a special kind of Lie-Rinehart algebras. Some generalized versions of classical results will be obtained, such as the existence of a unique Levi-Civita connection, inducing a Levi-Civita connection on a submanifold, and the construction of spaces with constant sectional curvature.

  4. Riemannian geometry in an orthogonal frame

    CERN Document Server

    Cartan, Elie Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Foreword by S S Chern. In 1926-27, Cartan gave a series of lectures in which he introduced exterior forms at the very beginning and used extensively orthogonal frames throughout to investigate the geometry of Riemannian manifolds. In this course he solved a series of problems in Euclidean and non-Euclidean spaces, as well as a series of variational problems on geodesics. In 1960, Sergei P Finikov translated from French into Russian his notes of these Cartan's lectures and published them as a book entitled Riemannian Geometry in an Orthogonal Frame. This book has many innovations, such as the n

  5. Contour Propagation With Riemannian Elasticity Regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Sapru, W.;

    2011-01-01

    the planning CT onto the rescans and correcting to reflect actual anatomical changes. For deformable registration, a free-form, multi-level, B-spline deformation model with Riemannian elasticity, penalizing non-rigid local deformations, and volumetric changes, was used. Regularization parameters was defined...

  6. Geometric inequalities in sub-Riemannian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Montefalcone, Francescopaolo

    2012-01-01

    Let G be a sub-Riemannian k-step Carnot group of homogeneous dimension Q. In this paper, we shall prove several geometric inequalities concerning smooth hypersurfaces (i.e. codimension one submanifolds) immersed in G, endowed with the H-perimeter measure.

  7. Absence of embedded eigenvalues for Riemannian Laplacians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Kenichi; Skibsted, Erik

    Schrödinger operators on non-compact connected Riemannian manifolds. A principal example is given by a manifold with an end (possibly more than one) in which geodesic coordinates are naturally defined. In this case one of our geometric conditions is a positive lower bound of the second fundamenta...

  8. Harmonic Riemannian Maps on Locally Conformal Kaehler Manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bayram Sahin

    2008-11-01

    We study harmonic Riemannian maps on locally conformal Kaehler manifolds ($lcK$ manifolds). We show that if a Riemannian holomorphic map between $lcK$ manifolds is harmonic, then the Lee vector field of the domain belongs to the kernel of the Riemannian map under a condition. When the domain is Kaehler, we prove that a Riemannian holomorphic map is harmonic if and only if the $lcK$ manifold is Kaehler. Then we find similar results for Riemannian maps between $lcK$ manifolds and Sasakian manifolds. Finally, we check the constancy of some maps between almost complex (or almost contact) manifolds and almost product manifolds.

  9. Geometric control theory and sub-Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boscain, Ugo; Gauthier, Jean-Paul; Sarychev, Andrey; Sigalotti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in the interaction between Geometric Control Theory and sub-Riemannian geometry. On the one hand, Geometric Control Theory used the differential geometric and Lie algebraic language for studying controllability, motion planning, stabilizability and optimality for control systems. The geometric approach turned out to be fruitful in applications to robotics, vision modeling, mathematical physics etc. On the other hand, Riemannian geometry and its generalizations, such as  sub-Riemannian, Finslerian  geometry etc., have been actively adopting methods developed in the scope of geometric control. Application of these methods  has led to important results regarding geometry of sub-Riemannian spaces, regularity of sub-Riemannian distances, properties of the group  of diffeomorphisms of sub-Riemannian manifolds, local geometry and equivalence of distributions and sub-Riemannian structures, regularity of the Hausdorff volume.

  10. Thermal Diffusivity and Strength of Tidal Flat Sediments During a Tidal Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    energetically dynamic regions on earth. Tidal Hats are repositories of terrigenous and biogenous sediments that are shaped by tides, waves and storms and...and energetically dynamic regions on earth. Tidal flats are repositories of terrigenous and biogenous sediments that are shaped by tides, waves and...strength. Finally, sediment bearing capacity and shear strength increased with packing density with the highest shear strength occurring at depth within the

  11. A Novel Riemannian Metric Based on Riemannian Structure and Scaling Information for Fixed Low-Rank Matrix Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shasha; Xiong, Lin; Jiao, Licheng; Feng, Tian; Yeung, Sai-Kit

    2016-07-26

    Riemannian optimization has been widely used to deal with the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem, and Riemannian metric is a crucial factor of obtaining the search direction in Riemannian optimization. This paper proposes a new Riemannian metric via simultaneously considering the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information, which is smoothly varying and invariant along the equivalence class. The proposed metric can make a tradeoff between the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information effectively. Essentially, it can be viewed as a generalization of some existing metrics. Based on the proposed Riemanian metric, we also design a Riemannian nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, which can efficiently solve the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem. By experimenting on the fixed low-rank matrix completion, collaborative filtering, and image and video recovery, it illustrates that the proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art methods on the convergence efficiency and the numerical performance.

  12. Sub-Riemannian geometry and optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Rifford, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an introduction to sub-Riemannian geometry and optimal transport and presents some of the recent progress in these two fields. The text is completely self-contained: the linear discussion, containing all the proofs of the stated results, leads the reader step by step from the notion of distribution at the very beginning to the existence of optimal transport maps for Lipschitz sub-Riemannian structure. The combination of geometry presented from an analytic point of view and of optimal transport, makes the book interesting for a very large community. This set of notes grew from a series of lectures given by the author during a CIMPA school in Beirut, Lebanon.

  13. Riemannian geometry of fluctuation theory: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luisberis

    2016-05-01

    Fluctuation geometry was recently proposed as a counterpart approach of Riemannian geometry of inference theory (information geometry), which describes the geometric features of the statistical manifold M of random events that are described by a family of continuous distributions dpξ(x|θ). This theory states a connection among geometry notions and statistical properties: separation distance as a measure of relative probabilities, curvature as a measure about the existence of irreducible statistical correlations, among others. In statistical mechanics, fluctuation geometry arises as the mathematical apparatus of a Riemannian extension of Einstein fluctuation theory, which is also closely related to Ruppeiner geometry of thermodynamics. Moreover, the curvature tensor allows to express some asymptotic formulae that account for the system fluctuating behavior beyond the gaussian approximation, while curvature scalar appears as a second-order correction of Legendre transformation between thermodynamic potentials.

  14. Symmetries of sub-Riemannian surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Malakhaltsev, Mikhail Armenovich

    2009-01-01

    Given a contact distribution $(\\Delta, )$ in $\\mathbf{R}^{3}$ the problem to determinate all symmetries of this sub-Riemannian surface with metric $$ was solved by Hughen \\cite{Hughen}, and completely by Montgomery \\cite{Montgomery}. Our goal is to obtain explicit formulae for this solution. We obtain explicit formulae for the functions which define symmetries in terms of a local coordinate system and explicit formulae for the invariants in terms of the dual frame and the structure functions.

  15. The convexity radius of a Riemannian manifold

    OpenAIRE

    Dibble, James

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of convexity radius over injectivity radius may be made arbitrarily small within the class of compact Riemannian manifolds of any fixed dimension at least two. This is proved using Gulliver's method of constructing manifolds with focal points but no conjugate points. The approach is suggested by a characterization of the convexity radius that resembles a classical result of Klingenberg about the injectivity radius.

  16. A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei

    2011-02-01

    Let (M4,g) be a four-dimensional complete noncompact Bach-flat Riemannian manifold with positive Yamabe constant. In this paper, we show that (M4,g) has a constant curvature if it has a nonnegative constant scalar curvature and sufficiently small L2-norm of trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (M4,g) with positive scalar curvature.

  17. Convex functions and optimization methods on Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Udrişte, Constantin

    1994-01-01

    This unique monograph discusses the interaction between Riemannian geometry, convex programming, numerical analysis, dynamical systems and mathematical modelling. The book is the first account of the development of this subject as it emerged at the beginning of the 'seventies. A unified theory of convexity of functions, dynamical systems and optimization methods on Riemannian manifolds is also presented. Topics covered include geodesics and completeness of Riemannian manifolds, variations of the p-energy of a curve and Jacobi fields, convex programs on Riemannian manifolds, geometrical constructions of convex functions, flows and energies, applications of convexity, descent algorithms on Riemannian manifolds, TC and TP programs for calculations and plots, all allowing the user to explore and experiment interactively with real life problems in the language of Riemannian geometry. An appendix is devoted to convexity and completeness in Finsler manifolds. For students and researchers in such diverse fields as pu...

  18. Scale-Up of flat plate photobioreactors considering diffuse and direct light characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jason C; Turner, Chris W; Bradley, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates the scaling of photobioreactor productivity based on the growth of Nannochloropsis salina incorporating the effects of direct and diffuse light. The scaling and optimization of photobioreactor geometry was analyzed by determining the growth response of a small-scale system designed to represent a core sample of a large-scale photobioreactor. The small-scale test apparatus was operated at a variety of light intensities on a batch time scale to generate a photosynthetic irradiance (PI) growth dataset, ultimately used to inform a PI growth model. The validation of the scalability of the PI growth model to predict productivity in large-scale systems was done by comparison with experimental growth data collected from two geometrically different large-scale photobioreactors operated at a variety of light intensities. For direct comparison, the small-scale and large-scale experimental systems presented were operated similarly and in such a way to incorporate cultivation relevant time scales, light intensities, mixing, and nutrient loads. Validation of the scalability of the PI growth model enables the critical evaluation of different photobioreactor geometries and design optimization incorporating growth effects from diffuse and direct light. Discussion focuses on the application of the PI growth model to assess the effect of diffuse light growth compared to direct light growth for the evaluation of photobioreactors followed by the use of the model for photobioreactor geometry optimization on the metric of areal productivity.

  19. Connections in sub-Riemannian geometry of parallelizable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Youssef, Nabil L

    2016-01-01

    The notion of a parallelizable distribution has been introduced and investigated. A non-integrable parallelizable distribution carries a natural sub-Riemannian structure. The geometry of this structure has been studied from the bi-viewpoint of absolute parallelism geometry and sub-Riemannian geometry. Two remarkable linear connections have been constructed on a sub-Riemannian parallelizable distribution, namely, the Weitzenb\\"ock connection and the sub-Riemannian connection. The obtained results have been applied to two concrete examples: the spheres $S^3$ and $S^7$.

  20. The ADM mass of asymptotically flat hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    de Lima, Levi Lopes

    2011-01-01

    We provide integral formulae for the ADM mass of asymptotically flat hypersurfaces in Riemannian manifolds with a certain warped product structure in a neighborhood of infinity, thus extending Lam's recent results on Euclidean graphs to this broader context. As applications we exhibit, in any dimension, new classes of manifolds for which versions of the Positive Mass and Riemannian Penrose inequalities hold and discuss a notion of quasi-local mass in this setting. The proof explores a novel connection between the co-vector defining the ADM mass of a hypersurface as above and the Newton tensor associated to its shape operator, which takes place in the presence of an ambient Killing field.

  1. Near-equality of the Penrose Inequality for rotationally symmetric Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dan A

    2011-01-01

    This article is the sequel to our previous paper [LS] dealing with the near-equality case of the Positive Mass Theorem. We study the near-equality case of the Penrose Inequality for the class of complete asymptotically flat rotationally symmetric Riemannian manifolds with nonnegative scalar curvature whose boundaries are outermost minimal hypersurfaces. Specifically, we prove that if the Penrose Inequality is sufficiently close to being an equality on one of these manifolds, then it must be close to a Schwarzschild space with an appended cylinder, in the sense of Lipschitz Distance. Since the Lipschitz Distance bounds the Intrinsic Flat Distance on compact sets, we also obtain a result for Intrinsic Flat Distance, which is a more appropriate distance for more general near-equality results, as discussed in [LS

  2. Simple Riemannian surfaces are scattering rigid

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Haomin

    2015-01-01

    Scattering rigidity of a Riemannian manifold allows one to tell the metric of a manifold with boundary by looking at the directions of geodesics at the boundary. Lens rigidity allows one to tell the metric of a manifold with boundary from the same information plus the length of geodesics. There are a variety of results about lens rigidity but very little is known for scattering rigidity. We will discuss the subtle difference between these two types of rigidities and prove that they are equiva...

  3. Canonical connection on a class of Riemannian almost product manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Mekerov, Dimitar

    2009-01-01

    The canonical connection on a Riemannian almost product manifolds is an analogue to the Hermitian connection on an almost Hermitian manifold. In this paper we consider the canonical connection on a class of Riemannian almost product manifolds with nonintegrable almost product structure.

  4. Natural connections on conformal Riemannian P-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Gribacheva, Dobrinka

    2011-01-01

    The class of conformal Riemannian P-manifolds is the largest class of Riemannian almost product manifolds, which is closed with respect to the group of the conformal transformations of the Riemannian metric. This class is an analogue of the class of conformal Kaehler manifolds in almost Hermitian geometry. In the present work we study on a conformal Riemannian P-manifold (M, P, g) the natural linear connections, i.e. the linear connections preserving the almost product structure P and the Riemannian metric g. We find necessary and sufficient conditions the curvature tensor of such a connection to have similar properties like the ones of the Kaehler tensor in Hermitian geometry. We determine the type of the manifolds admitting a natural connection with a parallel torsion.

  5. The Superspinorial Field Theory in Riemannian Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Derbenev, Yaroslav

    2016-01-01

    The Superspinorial Dual-covariant Field Theory (SSFT) developed in papers [1, 2] is treated in terms of Riemannian coordinates (RC) [7, 8] in space of the N dimensions unified manifold (UM). Metric tensor of UM (grand metric, GM) is built on the split metric matrices (SM) [1] which are a proportion of the Cartan's affinors (an extended analog of Dirac's matrices) of his Theory of Spinors [3] as explicated in [2]. Transition to RC based on consideration of geodesics is described. A principal property of an orthogonal RC frame (ORC) utilized in the present paper is constancy of the rotation matrix A of the Riemannian space of UM, while transformation matrix B of the dual superspinorial state vector field (DSV) varies together with Cartan's affinors according to the dynamical law of SSFT derived in [2]. The spinorial genesis of notion of the orthogonality as aspect of irreducible SSFT is pointed out in the present paper. The main outcome of resorting to an orthogonal RC frame (ORC) is explication of the conforma...

  6. Stochastic gradient descent on Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnabel, Silvere

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic gradient descent is a simple appproach to find the local minima of a function whose evaluations are corrupted by noise. In this paper, mostly motivated by machine learning applications, we develop a procedure extending stochastic gradient descent algorithms to the case where the function is defined on a Riemannian manifold. We prove that, as in the Euclidian case, the descent algorithm converges to a critical point of the cost function. The algorithm has numerous potential applications, and we show several well-known algorithms can be cast in our versatile geometric framework. We also address the gain tuning issue in connection with the tools of the recent theory of symmetry-preserving observers.

  7. Riemannian Geometry: Definitions, Pictures, and Results

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogical but concise overview of Riemannian geometry is provided, in the context of usage in physics. The emphasis is on defining and visualizing concepts and relationships between them, as well as listing common confusions, alternative notations and jargon, and relevant facts and theorems. Special attention is given to detailed figures and geometric viewpoints, some of which would seem to be novel to the literature. Topics are avoided which are well covered in textbooks, such as historical motivations, proofs and derivations, and tools for practical calculations. As much material as possible is developed for manifolds with connection (omitting a metric) to make clear which aspects can be readily generalized to gauge theories. The presentation in most cases does not assume a coordinate frame or zero torsion, and the coordinate-free, tensor, and Cartan formalisms are developed in parallel.

  8. Roughly isometric minimal immersions into Riemannian manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    A given metric (length-) space $X$ (whether compact or not) is roughly isometric to any one of its Kanai graphs $G$, which in turn can be {\\em{geometrized}} by considering each edge of $G$ as a 1-dimensional manifold with an associated metric $g$ giving the 'correct' length of the edge. In this t......A given metric (length-) space $X$ (whether compact or not) is roughly isometric to any one of its Kanai graphs $G$, which in turn can be {\\em{geometrized}} by considering each edge of $G$ as a 1-dimensional manifold with an associated metric $g$ giving the 'correct' length of the edge....... In this talk we will mainly be concerned with {\\em{minimal}} isometric immersions of such geometrized approximations $(G, g)$ of $X$ into Riemannian manifolds $N$ with bounded curvature. When such an immersion exists, we will call it an $X$-web in $N$. Such webs admit a natural 'geometric' extension...

  9. Riemannian means on special euclidean group and unipotent matrices group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaomin; Sun, Huafei; Peng, Linyu

    2013-01-01

    Among the noncompact matrix Lie groups, the special Euclidean group and the unipotent matrix group play important roles in both theoretic and applied studies. The Riemannian means of a finite set of the given points on the two matrix groups are investigated, respectively. Based on the left invariant metric on the matrix Lie groups, the geodesic between any two points is gotten. And the sum of the geodesic distances is taken as the cost function, whose minimizer is the Riemannian mean. Moreover, a Riemannian gradient algorithm for computing the Riemannian mean on the special Euclidean group and an iterative formula for that on the unipotent matrix group are proposed, respectively. Finally, several numerical simulations in the 3-dimensional case are given to illustrate our results.

  10. DYNAMICS IN NEWTONIAN-RIEMANNIAN SPACE-TIME(Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣业

    2001-01-01

    Lagrangian mechanics in Newtonian-Riemannian space-time and relationship between Lagrangian mechanics and Newtonian mechanics, and between Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics in N-R space-time are discussed.

  11. Medians and means in Riemannian geometry: existence, uniqueness and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, Marc; Yang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short summary of our recent work on the medians and means of probability measures in Riemannian manifolds. Firstly, the existence and uniqueness results of local medians are given. In order to compute medians in practical cases, we propose a subgradient algorithm and prove its convergence. After that, Fr\\'echet medians are considered. We prove their statistical consistency and give some quantitative estimations of their robustness with the aid of upper curvature bounds. We also show that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr\\'echet medians of generic data points are always unique. Stochastic and deterministic algorithms are proposed for computing Riemannian p-means. The rate of convergence and error estimates of these algorithms are also obtained. Finally, we apply the medians and the Riemannian geometry of Toeplitz covariance matrices to radar target detection.

  12. P-connection on Riemannian almost product manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Mekerov, Dimitar

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we introduce a linear connection (preserving the almost product structure and the Riemannian metric) on Riemannian almost product manifolds. This connection, called P-connection, is an analogue of the first canonical connection of Lichnerowicz in the Hermitian geometry and the B-connection in the geometry of the almost complex manifolds with Norden metric. Particularly, we consider the P-connection on a the class of manifolds with nonintegrable almost product structure.

  13. The Identification of Convex Function on Riemannian Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessary and sufficient condition of convex function is significant in nonlinear convex programming. This paper presents the identification of convex function on Riemannian manifold by use of Penot generalized directional derivative and the Clarke generalized gradient. This paper also presents a method for judging whether a point is the global minimum point in the inequality constraints. Our objective here is to extend the content and proof the necessary and sufficient condition of convex function to Riemannian manifolds.

  14. Some properties of Fr\\'echet medians in Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Le

    2011-01-01

    The consistency of Fr\\'echet medians is proved for probability measures in proper metric spaces. In the context of Riemannian manifolds, assuming that the probability measure has more than a half mass lying in a convex ball and verifies some concentration conditions, the positions of its Fr\\'echet medians are estimated. It is also shown that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr\\'echet sample medians of generic data points are always unique.

  15. Eigenvalues of Killing Tensors and Separable Webs on Riemannian and Pseudo-Riemannian Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rastelli

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Given a $n$-dimensional Riemannian manifold of arbitrary signature, we illustrate an algebraic method for constructing the coordinate webs separating the geodesic Hamilton-Jacobi equation by means of the eigenvalues of $m leq n$ Killing two-tensors. Moreover, from the analysis of the eigenvalues, information about the possible symmetries of the web foliations arises. Three cases are examined: the orthogonal separation, the general separation, including non-orthogonal and isotropic coordinates, and the conformal separation, where Killing tensors are replaced by conformal Killing tensors. The method is illustrated by several examples and an application to the L-systems is provided.

  16. Willmore Spheres in Compact Riemannian Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Mondino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the variational analysis of the Willmore, and other L^2 curvature functionals, among immersions of 2-dimensional surfaces into a compact riemannian m-manifold (M^m,h) with m>2. The goal of the paper is twofold, on one hand, we give the right setting for doing the calculus of variations (including min max methods) of such functionals for immersions into manifolds and, on the other hand, we prove existence results for possibly branched Willmore spheres under various constraints (prescribed homotopy class, prescribed area) or under curvature assumptions for M^m. To this aim, using the integrability by compensation, we develop first the regularity theory for the critical points of such functionals. We then prove a rigidity theorem concerning the relation between CMC and Willmore spheres. Then we prove that, for every non null 2-homotopy class, there exists a representative given by a Lipschitz map from the 2-sphere into M^m realizing a connected family of conformal smooth (possibly branche...

  17. Invariant tensors related with natural connections for a class Riemannian product manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Gribacheva, Dobrinka

    2012-01-01

    Some invariant tensors in two Naveira classes of Riemannian product manifolds are considered. These tensors are related with natural connections, i.e. linear connections preserving the Riemannian metric and the product structure.

  18. Renormalization Proof for Massive $\\vp_4^4$ Theory on Riemannian Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kopper, C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present an inductive renormalizability proof for massive $\\vp_4^4$ theory on Riemannian manifolds, based on the Wegner-Wilson flow equations of the Wilson renormalization group, adapted to perturbation theory. The proof goes in hand with bounds on the perturbative Schwinger functions which imply tree decay between their position arguments. An essential prerequisite are precise bounds on the short and long distance behaviour of the heat kernel on the manifold. With the aid of a regularity assumption (often taken for granted) we also show, that for suitable renormalization conditions the bare action takes the minimal form, that is to say, there appear the same counter terms as in flat space, apart from a logarithmically divergent one which is proportional to the scalar curvature.

  19. Extended Riemannian Geometry I: Local Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present an extended version of Riemannian geometry suitable for the description of current formulations of double field theory (DFT). This framework is based on graded manifolds and it yields extended notions of symmetries, dynamical data and constraints. In special cases, we recover general relativity with and without 1-, 2- and 3-form gauge potentials as well as DFT. We believe that our extended Riemannian geometry helps to clarify the role of various constructions in DFT. For example, it leads to a covariant form of the strong section condition. Furthermore, it should provide a useful step towards global and coordinate invariant descriptions of T- and U-duality invariant field theories.

  20. Scalar Curvature and Intrinsic Flat Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present open problems and survey examples and theorems concerning sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature and their limit spaces. Examples of Gromov and of Ilmanen which naturally ought to have certain limit spaces do not converge with respect to smooth or Gromov-Hausdorff convergence. Thus we focus here on the notion of Intrinsic Flat convergence, developed jointly with Wenger. This notion has been applied successfully to study sequences that arise in General Relativity. Gromov has suggested it should be applied in other settings as well. We first review intrinsic flat convergence, its properties, and its compactness theorems, before presenting the applications and the open problems.

  1. Almost conformal transformation in a class of Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhelepov, Georgi; Dokuzova, Iva

    2010-01-01

    We consider a 3-dimensional Riemannian manifold V with a metric g and an affinor structure q. The local coordinates of these tensors are circulant matrices. In V we define an almost conformal transformation. Using that definition we construct an infinite series of circulant metrics which are successively almost conformaly related. In this case we get some properties.

  2. Tensors and Riemannian geometry with applications to differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ibragimov, Nail H

    2015-01-01

    This graduate textbook begins by introducing Tensors and Riemannian Spaces, and then elaborates their application in solving second-order differential equations, and ends with introducing theory of relativity and de Sitter space. Based on 40 years of teaching experience, the author compiles a well-developed collection of examples and exercises to facilitate the reader’s learning.

  3. Dynamical systems on a Riemannian manifold that admit normal shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldin, A.Yu.; Dmitrieva, V.V.; Safin, S.S.; Sharipov, R.A. [Bashkir State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    Newtonian dynamical systems that admit normal shift on an arbitrary Riemannian manifold are considered. The determining equations for these systems, which constitute the condition of weak normality, are derived. The extension of the algebra of tensor fields to manifolds is considered.

  4. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective slip flow along a radiating moving vertical flat plate with convective boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammad M; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, [Formula: see text], local Nusselt number, [Formula: see text], and local Sherwood number [Formula: see text] are shown and explained through tables.

  5. Double Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Mixed Convective Slip Flow along a Radiating Moving Vertical Flat Plate with Convective Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammad M.; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J.; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, , local Nusselt number, , and local Sherwood number are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360

  6. Classification of Flat Lagrangian Surfaces in Complex Lorentzian Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang-Yen CHEN; Johan FASTENAKELS

    2007-01-01

    One of the most fundamental problems in the study of Lagrangian submanifolds fromRiemannian geometric point of view is to classify Lagrangian immersions of real space forms intocomplex space forms. The main purpose of this paper is thus to classify flat Lagrangian surfaces inthe Lorentzian complex plane C12. Our main result states that there are thirty-eight families of flatLagrangian surfaces in C12. Conversely, every flat Lagrangian surface in C12 is locally congruent to oneof the thirty-eight families.

  7. Progress in the Theory of Singular Riemannian Foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrino, Marcos M; Toeben, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    A singular foliation is called a singular Riemannian foliation (SRF) if every geodesic that is perpendicular to one leaf is perpendicular to every leaf it meets. A typical example is the partition of a complete Riemannian manifold into orbits of an isometric action. In this survey, we provide an introduction to the theory of SRFs, leading from the foundations to recent developments in research on this subject. Sketches of proofs are included and useful techniques are emphasized. We study the local structure of SRFs in general and under curvature conditions. We review the solution of the Palais-Terng problem on integrability of the horizontal distribution. Important special classes of SRFs, like polar and variationally complete foliations and their connections, are treated. A characterisation of SRFs whose leaf space is an orbifold is given. Moreover, desingularizations of SRFs are studied and applications, e.g., to Molino's conjecture, are presented.

  8. Wind Turbine Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Riemannian Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As multivariate time series problems widely exist in social production and life, fault diagnosis method has provided people with a lot of valuable information in the finance, hydrology, meteorology, earthquake, video surveillance, medical science, and other fields. In order to find faults in time sequence quickly and efficiently, this paper presents a multivariate time series processing method based on Riemannian manifold. This method is based on the sliding window and uses the covariance matrix as a descriptor of the time sequence. Riemannian distance is used as the similarity measure and the statistical process control diagram is applied to detect the abnormity of multivariate time series. And the visualization of the covariance matrix distribution is used to detect the abnormity of mechanical equipment, leading to realize the fault diagnosis. With wind turbine gearbox faults as the experiment object, the fault diagnosis method is verified and the results show that the method is reasonable and effective.

  9. Wind Turbine Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Riemannian Manifold

    OpenAIRE

    Shoubin Wang; Xiaogang Sun; Chengwei Li

    2014-01-01

    As multivariate time series problems widely exist in social production and life, fault diagnosis method has provided people with a lot of valuable information in the finance, hydrology, meteorology, earthquake, video surveillance, medical science, and other fields. In order to find faults in time sequence quickly and efficiently, this paper presents a multivariate time series processing method based on Riemannian manifold. This method is based on the sliding window and uses the covariance mat...

  10. Stochastic Properties of the Laplacian on Riemannian Submersions

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão, M Cristiane

    2011-01-01

    Based on ideas of Pigolla and Setti \\cite{PS} we prove that immersed submanifolds with bounded mean curvature of Cartan-Hadamard manifolds are Feller. We also consider Riemannian submersions $\\pi \\colon M \\to N$ with compact minimal fibers, and based on various criteria for parabolicity and stochastic completeness, see \\cite{Grygor'yan}, we prove that $M$ is Feller, parabolic or stochastically complete if and only if the base $N$ is Feller, parabolic or stochastically complete respectively.

  11. Riemannian geometrical constraints on magnetic vortex filaments in plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, L. C. Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Two theorems on the Riemannian geometrical constraints on vortex magnetic filaments acting as dynamos in (MHD) flows are presented. The use of Gauss-Mainard-Codazzi equations allows us to investigate in detail the influence of curvature and torsion of vortex filaments in the MHD dynamos. This application follows closely previous applications to Heisenberg spin equation to the investigations in magnetohydrostatics given by Schief (Plasma Physics J. 10, 7, 2677 (2003)). The Lorentz force on vor...

  12. Flat semimodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Mohammed J. Al-Thani

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and investigate flat semimodules and k-flat semimodules .We hope these concepts will have the same importance in semimodule theory as in the theory of rings and modules.

  13. Intraparenchymal Hyperattenuations on Flat-Panel CT Directly After Mechanical Thrombectomy are Restricted to the Initial Infarct Core on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tanja; Mahraun, Tobias; Schroeder, Julian; Frölich, Andreas; Hoelter, Philip; Wagner, Marlies; Darcourt, Jean; Cognard, Christophe; Bonafé, Alain; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik

    2016-09-16

    The presence of intraparenchymal hyperattenuations (IPH) on flat-panel computed tomography (FP-CT) after endovascular recanalization in stroke patients is a common phenomenon. They are thought to occur in ischemic areas with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but previous studies that investigated a mutual interaction are scarce. We aimed to assess the relationship of IPH localization with prethrombectomy diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions. This retrospective multicenter study included 27 acute stroke patients who underwent DWI prior to FP-CT following mechanical thrombectomy. After software-based coregistration of DWI and FP-CT, lesion volumetry was conducted and overlapping was analyzed. Two different patterns were observed: IPH corresponding to the DWI lesion and IPH exceeding the DWI lesion. The latter showed demarcated infarction of DWI exceeding IPH at 24 h. No major hemorrhage following IPH was observed. Most IPH were manifested within the basal ganglia and insular cortex. The IPH primarily appeared within the initial ischemic core and secondarily within the penumbral tissue that progressed to infarction. The IPH represent the minimum final infarct volume, which may help in periinterventional decision making.

  14. Characterizing the Depolarizing Quantum Channel in Terms of Riemannian Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We explore the conceptual usefulness of Riemannian geometric tools induced by the statistical concept of distinguishability in quantifying the effect of a depolarizing channel on quantum states. Specifically, we compare the geometries of the interior of undeformed and deformed Bloch spheres related to density operators on a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We show that randomization emerges geometrically through a smaller infinitesimal quantum line element on the deformed Bloch sphere while the uniform contraction manifests itself via a deformed set of geodesics where the spacial components of the deformed four-Bloch vector are simply the contracted versions of the undeformed Bloch vector components.

  15. DELAUNAY TRIANGULATION METHOD OF CURVED SURFACES BASED ON RIEMANNIAN METRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A method for quality mesh generation of parametric curved surfaces is proposed. It is shown that the main difference between the proposed method and previous ones is that our meshing process is done completely in the parametric domains with the guarantee of mesh quality. To obtain this aim, the Delaunay method is extended to anisotropic context of 2D domains, and a Riemannian metric map is introduced to remedy the mapping distortion from object space to parametric domain. Compared with previous algorithms, the approach is much simpler, more robust and speedy. The algorithm is implemented and examples for several geometries are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the method.

  16. Riemannian-geometric entropy for measuring network complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzosi, Roberto; Felice, Domenico; Mancini, Stefano; Pettini, Marco

    2016-06-01

    A central issue in the science of complex systems is the quantitative characterization of complexity. In the present work we address this issue by resorting to information geometry. Actually we propose a constructive way to associate with a—in principle, any—network a differentiable object (a Riemannian manifold) whose volume is used to define the entropy. The effectiveness of the latter in measuring network complexity is successfully proved through its capability of detecting a classical phase transition occurring in both random graphs and scale-free networks, as well as of characterizing small exponential random graphs, configuration models, and real networks.

  17. A New Family of Curvature Homogeneous Pseudo-Riemannian Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Corey

    2009-01-01

    We construct a new family of curvature homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian manifolds modeled on $\\mathbb{R}^{3k+2}$ for integers $k \\geq 1$. In contrast to previously known examples, the signature may be chosen to be $(k+1+a, k+1+b)$ where $a,b \\in \\mathbb{N} \\bigcup \\{0\\}$ and $a+b = k$. The structure group of the 0-model of this family is studied, and is shown to be indecomposable. Several invariants that are not of Weyl type are found which will show that, in general, the members of this family ...

  18. On Infinitesimal Conformal Transformations of the Tangent Bundles with the Synectic Lift of a Riemannian Metric

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aydin Gezer

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the present article is to investigate some relations between the Lie algebra of the infinitesimal fibre-preserving conformal transformations of the tangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold with respect to the synectic lift of the metric tensor and the Lie algebra of infinitesimal projective transformations of the Riemannian manifold itself.

  19. Symmetry and Transitive Properties of Monohedral f-triangulations of the Riemannian Sphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana M. BREDA; J. M. SIGARRETA

    2009-01-01

    Here we give the complete description of the symmetry group and transitive properties of the set of all of monohedral triangulations of the Riemannian sphere by f-tilings. We shall also show that each monohedral f-tiling of the Riemannian sphere can be seen, up to a spherical isometry, as the singular set of a spherical isometric folding.

  20. Examples of Sol-Solitons in the Pseudo-Riemannian case

    CERN Document Server

    Onda, Kensuke

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a study of sol-solitons in the pseudo-Riemannian case. In the Riemannian case, all nontrivial homogeneous sol-soliton are expanding sol-solitons. In this paper, we obtain steady sol-solitons and shrinking sol-solitons in the Lorentzian setting.

  1. On the de Rham-Wu decomposition for Riemannian and Lorentzian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Galaev, Anton S

    2016-01-01

    It is explained how to find the de~Rham decomposition of a Riemannian manifold and the Wu decomposition of a Lorentzian manifold. For that it is enough to find parallel symmetric bilinear forms on the manifold, and do some linear algebra. This result will allow to compute the connected holonomy group of an arbitrary Riemannian or Lorentzian manifold.

  2. Riemannian geometric approach to human arm dynamics, movement optimization, and invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, Armin; Flash, Tamar; Liebermann, Dario G

    2011-03-01

    We present a generally covariant formulation of human arm dynamics and optimization principles in Riemannian configuration space. We extend the one-parameter family of mean-squared-derivative (MSD) cost functionals from Euclidean to Riemannian space, and we show that they are mathematically identical to the corresponding dynamic costs when formulated in a Riemannian space equipped with the kinetic energy metric. In particular, we derive the equivalence of the minimum-jerk and minimum-torque change models in this metric space. Solutions of the one-parameter family of MSD variational problems in Riemannian space are given by (reparameterized) geodesic paths, which correspond to movements with least muscular effort. Finally, movement invariants are derived from symmetries of the Riemannian manifold. We argue that the geometrical structure imposed on the arm's configuration space may provide insights into the emerging properties of the movements generated by the motor system.

  3. Quantum Riemannian geometry of phase space and nonassociativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beggs Edwin J.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Noncommutative or ‘quantum’ differential geometry has emerged in recent years as a process for quantizing not only a classical space into a noncommutative algebra (as familiar in quantum mechanics but also differential forms, bundles and Riemannian structures at this level. The data for the algebra quantisation is a classical Poisson bracket while the data for quantum differential forms is a Poisson-compatible connection. We give an introduction to our recent result whereby further classical data such as classical bundles, metrics etc. all become quantised in a canonical ‘functorial’ way at least to 1st order in deformation theory. The theory imposes compatibility conditions between the classical Riemannian and Poisson structures as well as new physics such as typical nonassociativity of the differential structure at 2nd order. We develop in detail the case of ℂℙn where the commutation relations have the canonical form [wi, w̄j] = iλδij similar to the proposal of Penrose for quantum twistor space. Our work provides a canonical but ultimately nonassociative differential calculus on this algebra and quantises the metric and Levi-Civita connection at lowest order in λ.

  4. Stretch fast dynamo mechanism via conformal mapping in Riemannian manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    2007-10-01

    Two new analytical solutions of the self-induction equation in Riemannian manifolds are presented. The first represents a twisted magnetic flux tube or flux rope in plasma astrophysics, where the rotation of the flow implies that the poloidal field is amplified from toroidal field, in the spirit of dynamo theory. The value of the amplification depends on the Frenet torsion of the magnetic axis of the tube. Actually this result illustrates the Zeldovich stretch, twist, and fold method to generate dynamos from straight and untwisted ropes. Based on the fact that this problem was previously handled, using a Riemannian geometry of twisted magnetic flux ropes [Phys Plasmas 13, 022309 (2006)], investigation of a second dynamo solution, conformally related to the Arnold kinematic fast dynamo, is obtained. In this solution, it is shown that the conformal effect on the fast dynamo metric enhances the Zeldovich stretch, and therefore a new dynamo solution is obtained. When a conformal mapping is performed in an Arnold fast dynamo line element, a uniform stretch is obtained in the original line element.

  5. Semiquantisation Functor and Poisson-Riemannian Geometry, I

    CERN Document Server

    Beggs, Edwin J

    2014-01-01

    We study noncommutative bundles and Riemannian geometry at the semiclassical level of first order in a deformation parameter $\\lambda$, using a functorial approach. The data for quantisation of the cotangent bundle is known to be a Poisson structure and Poisson preconnection and we now show that this data defines to a functor $Q$ from the monoidal category of classical vector bundles equipped with connections to the monodial category of bimodules equipped with bimodule connections over the quantised algebra. We adapt this functor to quantise the wedge product of the exterior algebra and in the Riemannian case, the metric and the Levi-Civita connection. Full metric compatibility requires vanishing of an obstruction in the classical data, expressed in terms of a generalised Ricci 2-form, without which our quantum Levi-Civita connection is still the best possible. We apply the theory to the Schwarzschild black-hole and to Riemann surfaces as examples, as well as verifying our results on the 2D bicrossproduct mod...

  6. Estimation of Radio Interferometer Beam Shapes Using Riemannian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of receiver beam shapes is essential for accurate radio interferometric imaging. Traditionally, this information is obtained by holographic techniques or by numerical simulation. However, such methods are not feasible for an observation with time varying beams, such as the beams produced by a phased array radio interferometer. We propose the use of the observed data itself for the estimation of the beam shapes. We use the directional gains obtained along multiple sources across the sky for the construction of a time varying beam model. The construction of this model is an ill posed non linear optimization problem. Therefore, we propose to use Riemannian optimization, where we consider the constraints imposed as a manifold. We compare the performance of the proposed approach with traditional unconstrained optimization and give results to show the superiority of the proposed approach.

  7. Poincare duality angles for Riemannian manifolds with boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Shonkwiler, Clayton

    2009-01-01

    On a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary, the absolute and relative cohomology groups appear as certain subspaces of harmonic forms. DeTurck and Gluck showed that these concrete realizations of the cohomology groups decompose into orthogonal subspaces corresponding to cohomology coming from the interior and boundary of the manifold. The principal angles between these interior subspaces are all acute and are called Poincare duality angles. This paper determines the Poincare duality angles of a collection of interesting manifolds with boundary derived from complex projective spaces and from Grassmannians, providing evidence that the Poincare duality angles measure, in some sense, how "close" a manifold is to being closed. This paper also elucidates a connection between the Poincare duality angles and the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator for differential forms, which generalizes the classical Dirichlet-to-Neumann map arising in the problem of Electrical Impedance Tomography. Specifically, the Poincare duality...

  8. Non-Riemannian Cosmic Walls as Boundaries of Spinning Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia de Andrade, L C

    1998-01-01

    An example is given of a plane topological defect solution of linearized Einstein-Cartan (EC) field equation representing a cosmic wall boundary of spinning matter. The source of Cartan torsion is composed of two orthogonal lines of static polarized spins bounded by the cosmic plane wall. The Kopczy\\'{n}ski- Obukhov - Tresguerres (KOT) spin fluid stress-energy current coincides with thin planar matter current in the static case. Our solution is similar to Letelier solution of Einstein equation for multiple cosmic strings. Due to this fact we suggest that the lines of spinning matter could be analogous to multiple cosmic spinning string solution in EC theory of gravity. When torsion is turned off a pure Riemannian cosmic wall is obtained.

  9. Nonlinear damped oscillators on Riemannian manifolds: Numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simone

    2017-06-01

    Nonlinear oscillators are ubiquitous in sciences, being able to model the behavior of complex nonlinear phenomena, as well as in engineering, being able to generate repeating (i.e., periodic) or non-repeating (i.e., chaotic) reference signals. The state of the classical oscillators known from the literature evolves in the space Rn , typically with n = 1 (e.g., the famous van der Pol vacuum-tube model), n = 2 (e.g., the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of spiking neurons) or n = 3 (e.g., the Lorenz simplified model of turbulence). The aim of the current paper is to present a general scheme for the numerical differential-geometry-based integration of a general second-order, nonlinear oscillator model on Riemannian manifolds and to present several instances of such model on manifolds of interest in sciences and engineering, such as the Stiefel manifold and the space of symmetric, positive-definite matrices.

  10. Riemannian theory of Hamiltonian chaos and Lyapunov exponents

    CERN Document Server

    Casetti, L; Pettini, M; Casetti, Lapo; Clementi, Cecilia; Pettini, Marco

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of analytically computing the largest Lyapunov exponent for many degrees of freedom Hamiltonian systems. This aim is succesfully reached within a theoretical framework that makes use of a geometrization of newtonian dynamics in the language of Riemannian geometry. A new point of view about the origin of chaos in these systems is obtained independently of homoclinic intersections. Chaos is here related to curvature fluctuations of the manifolds whose geodesics are natural motions and is described by means of Jacobi equation for geodesic spread. Under general conditions ane effective stability equation is derived; an analytic formula for the growth-rate of its solutions is worked out and applied to the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta model and to a chain of coupled rotators. An excellent agreement is found the theoretical prediction and the values of the Lyapunov exponent obtained by numerical simulations for both models.

  11. Gauss-Bonnet theorem in sub-Riemannian Heisenberg space $H^1$

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We prove a version of Gauss-Bonnet theorem in sub-Riemannian Heisenberg space $H^1$. The sub-Riemannian distance makes $H^1$ a metric space and consenquently with a spherical Hausdorff measure. Using this measure, we define a Gaussian curvature at points of a surface S where the sub-Riemannian distribution is transverse to the tangent space of S. If all points of S have this property, we prove a Gauss-Bonnet formula and for compact surfaces (which are topologically a torus) we obtain $\\int_S ...

  12. Generalization of geometrical flux maximizing flow on Riemannian manifolds for improved volumetric blood vessel segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooya, Ali; Liao, Hongen; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2012-09-01

    Geometric flux maximizing flow (FLUX) is an active contour based method which evolves an initial surface to maximize the flux of a vector field on the surface. For blood vessel segmentation, the vector field is defined as the vectors specified by vascular edge strengths and orientations. Hence, the segmentation performance depends on the quality of the detected edge vector field. In this paper, we propose a new method for level set based segmentation of blood vessels by generalizing the FLUX on a Riemannian manifold (R-FLUX). We consider a 3D scalar image I(x) as a manifold embedded in the 4D space (x, I(x)) and compute the image metric by pullback from the 4D space, whose metric tensor depends on the vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) tensor. This allows us to devise a non-linear filter which both projects and normalizes the original image gradient vectors under the inverse of local VED tensors. The filtered gradient vectors pertaining to the vessels are less sensitive to the local image contrast and more coherent with the local vessel orientation. The method has been applied to both synthetic and real TOF MRA data sets. Comparisons are made with the FLUX and vesselsness response based segmentations, indicating that the R-FLUX outperforms both methods in terms of leakage minimization and thiner vessel delineation.

  13. Absolute Monotonicity of Functions Related To Estimates of First Eigenvalue of Laplace Operator on Riemannian Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors find the absolute monotonicity and complete monotonicity of some functions involving trigonometric functions and related to estimates the lower bounds of the first eigenvalue of Laplace operator on Riemannian manifolds.

  14. Non-Riemannian effective spacetime effects on Hawking radiation in superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia de Andrade, L C

    2005-01-01

    Riemannian effective spacetime description of Hawking radiation in $^{3}He-A$ superfluids is extended to non-Riemannian effective spacetime. An example is given of non-Riemannian effective geometry of the rotational motion of the superfluid vacuum around the vortex where the effective spacetime Cartan torsion can be associated to the Hawking giving rise to a physical interpretation of effective torsion recently introduced in the literature in the form of an acoustic torsion in superfluid $^{4}He$ (PRD-70(2004),064004). Curvature and torsion singularities of this $^{3}He-A$ fermionic superfluid are investigated. This Lense-Thirring effective metric, representing the superfluid vacuum in rotational motion, is shown not support Hawking radiation when the isotropic $^{4}He$ is restored at far distances from the vortex axis. Hawking radiation can be expressed also in topological solitons (moving domain walls) in fermionic superfluids in non-Riemannian (teleparallel) $(1+1)$ dimensional effective spacetime. A telep...

  15. Complete stable CMC surfaces with empty singular set in Sasakian sub-Riemannian 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, César

    2010-01-01

    For constant mean curvature surfaces of class $C^2$ immersed inside Sasakian sub-Riemannian $3$-manifolds we obtain a formula for the second derivative of the area which involves horizontal analytical terms, the Webster scalar curvature of the ambient manifold, and the extrinsic shape of the surface. Then we prove classification results for complete surfaces with empty singular set which are stable, i.e., second order minima of the area under a volume constraint, inside the $3$-dimensional sub-Riemannian space forms. In the first Heisenberg group we show that such a surface is a vertical plane. In the sub-Riemannian hyperbolic $3$-space we give an upper bound for the mean curvature of such surfaces, and we characterize the horocylinders as the only ones with squared mean curvature $1$. Finally we deduce that any complete surface with empty singular set in the sub-Riemannian $3$-sphere is unstable.

  16. On the Stability of the $L^p$-Norm of the Riemannian Curvature Tensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soma Maity

    2014-08-01

    We consider the Riemannian functional $\\mathcal{R}_p(g)=\\int_M|R(g)|^p dv_g$ defined on the space of Riemannian metrics with unit volume on a closed smooth manifold where $R(g)$ and $dv_g$ denote the corresponding Riemannian curvature tensor and volume form and $p\\in (0,∞)$. First we prove that the Riemannian metrics with non-zero constant sectional curvature are strictly stable for $\\mathcal{R}_p$ for certain values of . Then we conclude that they are strict local minimizers for $\\mathcal{R}_p$ for those values of . Finally generalizing this result we prove that product of space forms of same type and dimension are strict local minimizer for $\\mathcal{R}_p$ for certain values of .

  17. Natural Diagonal Riemannian Almost Product and Para-Hermitian Cotangent Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Druta-Romaniuc, Simona-Luiza

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the natural diagonal almost product and locally product structures on the total space of the cotangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold. We find the Riemannian almost product (locally product) and the (almost) para-Hermitian cotangent bundles of natural diagonal lift type. We prove the characterization theorem for the natural diagonal (almost) para-K\\"ahlerian structures on the total spaces of the cotangent bundle.

  18. Focal rigidity of flat tori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Kwakkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g, i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ∪iΣi called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets Σi are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g, i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ∪iΣi chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos Σi estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g, isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

  19. Rigid supersymmetry on 5-dimensional Riemannian manifolds and contact geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yiwen [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics,Stony Brook, NY, 11790 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    In this note we generalize the methods of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP08(2012)141, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2013)072 and http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2013)017 to 5-dimensional Riemannian manifolds M. We study the relations between the geometry of M and the number of solutions to a generalized Killing spinor equation obtained from a 5-dimensional supergravity. The existence of 1 pair of solutions is related to almost contact metric structures. We also discuss special cases related to M=S{sup 1}×M{sub 4}, which leads to M being foliated by submanifolds with special properties, such as Quaternion-Kähler. When there are 2 pairs of solutions, the closure of the isometry sub-algebra generated by the solutions requires M to be S{sup 3} or T{sup 3}-fibration over a Riemann surface. 4 pairs of solutions pin down the geometry of M to very few possibilities. Finally, we propose a new supersymmetric theory for N=1 vector multiplet on K-contact manifold admitting solutions to the Killing spinor equation.

  20. Dynamics of Plant Growth; A Theory Based on Riemannian Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pulwicki, Julia

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new model for macroscopic plant tissue growth based on dynamical Riemannian geometry is presented. We treat 1D and 2D tissues as continuous, deformable, growing geometries for sizes larger than 1mm. The dynamics of the growing tissue are described by a set of coupled tensor equations in non-Euclidean (curved) space. These coupled equations represent a novel feedback mechanism between growth and curvature dynamics. For 1D growth, numerical simulations are compared to two measures of root growth. First, modular growth along the simulated root shows an elongation zone common to many species of plant roots. Second, the relative elemental growth rate (REGR) calculated in silico exhibits temporal dynamics recently characterized in high-resolution root growth studies but which thus far lack a biological hypothesis to explain them. Namely, the REGR can evolve from a single peak localized near the root tip to a double-peak structure. In our model, this is a direct consequence of considering growth as b...

  1. Metric measure spaces with Riemannian Ricci curvature bounded from below

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, Luigi; Savaré, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a synthetic notion of Riemannian Ricci bounds from below for metric measure spaces (X,d,m) which is stable under measured Gromov-Hausdorff convergence and rules out Finsler geometries. It can be given in terms of an enforcement of the Lott, Sturm and Villani geodesic convexity condition for the entropy coupled with the linearity of the heat flow. Besides stability, it enjoys the same tensorization, global-to-local and local-to-global properties. In these spaces, that we call RCD(K,\\infty) spaces, we prove that the heat flow (which can be equivalently characterized either as the flow associated to the Dirichlet form, or as the Wasserstein gradient flow of the entropy) satisfies Wasserstein contraction estimates and several regularity properties, in particular Bakry-Emery estimates and the L^\\infty-Lip Feller regularization. We also prove that the distance induced by the Dirichlet form coincides with d, that the local energy measure has density given by the square of Cheeger's relaxed...

  2. Lattice Dirac Fermions on a Simplicial Riemannian Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Richard C; Gasbarro, Andrew D; Raben, Timothy G; Tan, Chung-I; Weinberg, Evan S

    2016-01-01

    The lattice Dirac equation is formulated on a simplicial complex which approximates a smooth Riemann manifold by introducing a lattice vierbein on each site and a lattice spin connection on each link. Care is taken so the construction applies to any smooth D-dimensional Riemannian manifold that permits a spin connection. It is tested numerically in 2D for the projective sphere ${\\mathbb S}^2$ in the limit of an increasingly refined sequence of triangles. The eigenspectrum and eigenvectors are shown to converge rapidly to the exact result in the continuum limit. In addition comparison is made with the continuum Ising conformal field theory on ${\\mathbb S}^2$. Convergence is tested for the two point, $\\langle \\epsilon(x_1) \\epsilon(x_2) \\rangle$, and the four point, $\\langle \\sigma(x_1) \\epsilon(x_2) \\epsilon(x_3 )\\sigma(x_4) \\rangle $, correlators for the energy, $\\epsilon(x) = i \\bar \\psi(x)\\psi(x)$, and twist operators, $\\sigma(x)$, respectively.

  3. Weyl-Euler-Lagrange Equations of Motion on Flat Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Kasap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Weyl-Euler-Lagrange equations of motion on flat manifold. It is well known that a Riemannian manifold is said to be flat if its curvature is everywhere zero. Furthermore, a flat manifold is one Euclidean space in terms of distances. Weyl introduced a metric with a conformal transformation for unified theory in 1918. Classical mechanics is one of the major subfields of mechanics. Also, one way of solving problems in classical mechanics occurs with the help of the Euler-Lagrange equations. In this study, partial differential equations have been obtained for movement of objects in space and solutions of these equations have been generated by using the symbolic Algebra software. Additionally, the improvements, obtained in this study, will be presented.

  4. Rigidity of complete noncompact bach-flat n-manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Feng, Pinghua

    2012-11-01

    Let (Mn,g) be a complete noncompact Bach-flat n-manifold with the positive Yamabe constant and constant scalar curvature. Assume that the L2-norm of the trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor R∘m is finite. In this paper, we prove that (Mn,g) is a constant curvature space if the L-norm of R∘m is sufficiently small. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (Mn,g) with positive scalar curvature. This can be viewed as a generalization of our earlier results of 4-dimensional Bach-flat manifolds with constant scalar curvature R≥0 [Y.W. Chu, A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 61 (2011) 516-521]. Furthermore, when n>9, we derive a rigidity result for R<0.

  5. Flat pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Kevin Andrew

    2017-01-01

    'Flat pyramid' is a multi-channel video installation. The project employs appropriated promotional and instructional video from a defunct pyramid scheme as the source material for fictionalized reenactment. The footage primarily consists of presentation documentation, testimonial interviews, and product photography—throughout all of which cutting rarely occurs between takes. Perpetrators and victims are seen moving in and out of their promotional personas, inadvertently making their disquieti...

  6. Radioecology of natural systems in Colordao. Fourteenth annual progress report, May 1, 1975--July 31, 1976. [Pu diffusion in terrestrial ecosystems at Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1976-08-01

    This report summarizes project activities during the period May 1, 1975 through July 31, 1976. The major study on the distribution and levels of Pu in major components of the terrestrial ecosystem at Rocky Flats was completed. Supportive studies on the ecology and pathology of small mammals and their role in Pu transport were essentially completed as well. Detailed studies on mule deer food habits, population dynamics, and movements at Rocky Flats are progressing. These studies are designed to measure the potential of mule deer in transporting Pu to uncontrolled areas. Alpha autoradiographic studies designed to measure Pu particle size and distribution and spatial patterns in soil were initiated. Field and greenhouse transport pathways from soil to vegetation are in progress and some early results reported. The status of studies on seasonal kinetics of Cs in a montane lake and stable lead geochemistry in an alpine lake watershed are also reported.

  7. Information-Geometric Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Using Diffusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Livingstone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent work incorporating geometric ideas in Markov chain Monte Carlo is reviewed in order to highlight these advances and their possible application in a range of domains beyond statistics. A full exposition of Markov chains and their use in Monte Carlo simulation for statistical inference and molecular dynamics is provided, with particular emphasis on methods based on Langevin diffusions. After this, geometric concepts in Markov chain Monte Carlo are introduced. A full derivation of the Langevin diffusion on a Riemannian manifold is given, together with a discussion of the appropriate Riemannian metric choice for different problems. A survey of applications is provided, and some open questions are discussed.

  8. Modified Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity: Riemann-Cartan and Pseudo-Riemannian cases

    CERN Document Server

    Özer, Hatice; Delice, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    A modified Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in four dimensions where the quadratic Gauss-Bonnet term is coupled to a scalar field is considered. The field equations of the model are obtained by variational methods by making use of the constrained-first order formalism covering both pseudo-Riemannian and non-Riemannian cases. In the pseudo-Riemannian case, the Lagrange multiplier forms, which impose the vanishing torsion constraint, are eliminated in favor of the remaining fields and the resulting metric field equations are expressed in terms of the double-dual curvature 2-form. In the non-Riemannian case with torsion, the field equations are expressed in terms of the pseudo-Riemannian quantities by a perturbative scheme valid for a weak coupling constant. It is shown that, for both cases, the model admits a maximally symmetric de-Sitter solution with nontrivial scalar field. Minimal coupling of a Dirac spinor to the Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity is also discussed briefly.

  9. A Double Diffusive Unsteady MHD Convective Flow Past a Flat Porous Plate Moving through a Binary Mixture with Suction or Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. V. S. R. K. Sastry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of unsteady magnetohydrodynamic convective flow with radiation and chemical reaction past a flat porous plate moving through a binary mixture in an optically thin environment is considered. The governing boundary layer equations are converted to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation and then solved numerically by MATLAB “bvp4c” routine. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are presented graphically for various values of the material parameters. Also a numerical data for the local skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number is presented in tabular forms.

  10. Jacobi Equations and Comparison Theorems for Corank 1 sub-Riemannian Structures with Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengbo

    2009-01-01

    The Jacobi curve of an extremal of optimal control problem is a curve in a Lagrangian Grassmannian defined up to a symplectic transformation and containing all information about the solutions of the Jacobi equations along this extremal. In our previous works we constructed the canonical bundle of moving frames and the complete system of symplectic invariants, called curvature maps, for parametrized curves in Lagrange Grassmannians satisfying very general assumptions. The structural equation for a canonical moving frame of the Jacobi curve of an extremal can be interpreted as the normal form for the Jacobi equation along this extremal and the curvature maps can be seen as the "coefficients" of this normal form. In the case of a Riemannian metric there is only one curvature map and it is naturally related to the Riemannian sectional curvature. In the present paper we study the curvature maps for a sub-Riemannian structure on a corank 1 distribution having an additional transversal infinitesimal symmetry. After ...

  11. On the Existence of a Codimension 1 Completely Integrable Totally Geodesic Distribution on a Pseudo-Riemannian Heisenberg Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Batat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we prove that the Heisenberg group with a left-invariant pseudo-Riemannian metric admits a completely integrable totally geodesic distribution of codimension 1. This is on the contrary to the Riemannian case, as it was proved by T. Hangan.

  12. Lightlike Hypersurfaces of a Semi-Riemannian Product Manifold and Quarter-Symmetric Nonmetric Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kılıç

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study lightlike hypersurfaces of a semi-Riemannian product manifold. We introduce a class of lightlike hypersurfaces called screen semi-invariant lightlike hypersurfaces and radical anti-invariant lightlike hypersurfaces. We consider lightlike hypersurfaces with respect to a quarter-symmetric nonmetric connection which is determined by the product structure. We give some equivalent conditions for integrability of distributions with respect to the Levi-Civita connection of semi-Riemannian manifolds and the quarter-symmetric nonmetric connection, and we obtain some results.

  13. Non-Riemannian geometry: towards new avenues for the physics of modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2015-01-01

    Less explored than their metric (Riemannian) counterparts, metric-affine (or Palatini) theories bring an unexpected phenomenology for gravitational physics beyond General Relativity. Lessons of crystalline structures, where the presence of defects in their microstructure requires the use of non-Riemannian geometry for the proper description of their properties in the macroscopic continuum level, are discussed. In this analogy, concepts such as wormholes and geons play a fundamental role. Applications of the metric-affine formalism developed by the authors in the last three years are reviewed.

  14. Extremal functions for the Moser-Trudinger inequalities on compact Riemannian manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuxiang

    2005-01-01

    Let (M, g) be a compact Riemannian manifold without boundary, and (N, g) a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary. We will prove in this paper that the ∫MudVg=o,sup∫M|(△↓)u|ndVg=1∫Meαn|u|n/n-1dVg,∫M(|(△↓)|n+|u|n)dVg=1∫Meαn|u|n/n-1dVg,and u|(e)N=0,∫Msup|(△↓)u|dVgN=1∫Neαn|u|n/n-1dVgn can be attained. Our proof uses the blow-up analysis.

  15. Post-Riemannian approach for the symplectic and elliptic geometries of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, R; Solano-Altamirano, J M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado postal J-48 72570 Puebla Pue. (Mexico); Enriquez-Silverio, P, E-mail: rcartas@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado postal 1152, 72001 Puebla Pue. (Mexico)

    2011-05-13

    Considering a post-Riemannian approach for manifolds where metric and connection are not necessarily compatible, the symplectic geometry of the covariant phase space of gravity is considered; the symplectic structure associated allows us to study the Poincare charges and the weak-field approach at the asymptotic region, specifically the effects of torsional contributions through metric deformations. Additionally, the elliptic geometry of the moduli space of gravitational instantons is considered along the same lines, which provides the grounds for the construction of the partition function of the theory and new invariants for smooth four-manifolds from a post-Riemannian theoretic point of view.

  16. Flows Associated to Cameron-martin Type Vector Fields on Path Spaces Over a Riemannian Manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-xiao ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The flow on the Wiener space associated to a tangent process constructed by Cipriano and Cruzeiro,as well as by Gong and Zhang does not allow to recover Driver's Cameron-Martin theorem on Riemannian path space.The purpose of this work is to refine the method of the modified Picard iteration used in the previous work by Gong and Zhang and to try to recapture and extend the result of Driver.In this paper,we establish the existence and uniqueness of a flow associated to a Cameron-Martin type vector held on the path space over a Riemannian manifold.

  17. On f-Eikonal Helices And f-Eikonal Slant Helices In Riemannian Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Şenol, Ali; Ziplar, Evren; Yayli, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we define f-eikonal helix curves and f-eikonal V_{n}-slant helix curves in a n-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Also, we give the definition of harmonic curvature functions related to f-eikonal helix curves and f-eikonal V_{n}-slant helix curves in a n-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Moreover, we give characterizations for f-eikonal helix curves and f-eikonal V_{n}-slant helix curves by making use of the harmonic curvature functions.

  18. A dense G-delta set of Riemannian metrics without the finite blocking property

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Marlies

    2010-01-01

    A pair of points (x,y) in a Riemannian manifold (M,g) is said to have the finite blocking property if there is a finite set P contained in M\\{x,y} such that every geodesic segment from x to y passes through a point of P. We show that for every closed C-infinity manifold M of dimension at least two and every pair (x,y) in M x M, there exists a dense G-delta set of C-infinity Riemannian metrics on M such that (x,y) fails to have the finite blocking property for every g in that set.

  19. Higher spin approaches to quantum field theory and (psuedo)-Riemannian geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Karl Evan

    In this thesis, we study a number of higher spin quantum field theories and some of their algebraic and geometric consequences. These theories apply mostly either over constant curvature or more generally symmetric pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. The first part of this dissertation covers a superalgebra coming from a family of particle models over symmetric spaces. These theories are novel in that the symmetries of the (super)algebra osp( Q|2p) are larger and more elaborate than traditional symmetries. We construct useful (super)algebras related to and generalizing old work by Lichnerowicz and describe their role in developing the geometry of massless models with osp(Q|2 p) symmetry. The result is two practical applications of these (super)algebras: (1) a lunch more concise description of a family of higher spin quantum field theories; and (2) an interesting algebraic probe of underlying background geometries. We also consider massive models over constant curvature spaces. We use a radial dimensional reduction process which converts massless models into massive ones over a lower dimensional space. In our case, we take from the family of theories above the particular free, massless model over flat space associated with sp(2, R ) and derive a massive model. In the process, we develop a novel associative algebra, which is a deformation of the original differential operator algebra associated with the sp(2, R ) model. This algebra is interesting in its own right since its operators realize the representation structure of the sp(2, R ) group. The massive model also has implications for a sequence of unusual, "partially massless" theories. The derivation illuminates how reduced degrees of freedom become manifest in these particular models. Finally, we study a Yang-Mills model using an on-shell Poincare Yang-Mills twist of the Maxwell complex along with a non-minimal coupling. This is a special, higher spin case of a quantum field theory called a Yang-Mills detour complex

  20. Evaluation of Cesium, Strontium, and Lead Sorption, Desorption, and Diffusion in Volcanic Tuffs from Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site: Macroscopic and Spectroscopic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambos Papelis; Wooyong Um

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of radionuclides and other contaminants with minerals and other aquifer materials controls the rate of migration of these contaminants in groundwater. The stronger these interactions, the more a radionuclide will be retarded. Processes such as sorption and diffusion often control the migration of inorganic compounds in aquifers. In addition, these processes are often controlled by the nature of ions of interest, the nature of the aquifer materials, and the specific geochemical conditions. Parameters describing sorption and diffusion of radionuclides and other inorganic ions on aquifer materials are used in transport codes to predict the potential for migration of these contaminants into the accessible environment. Sorption and diffusion studies can help reduce the uncertainty of radionuclide transport modeling on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other nuclear testing areas. For example, reliable sorption equilibrium constants, obtained under a variety of conditions, can be used to suggest a plausible sorption mechanism and to provide retardation parameters that can be used in transport models. In addition, these experiments, performed under a variety of conditions, can lead to models that can accommodate changing geochemical conditions. Desorption studies can probe the reversibility of reactions and test whether the reversibility assumed by equilibrium models is justified. Kinetic studies can be used to probe the time-dependent limitations of reactions and suggest whether an equilibrium or kinetic model may be more appropriate. Finally, spectroscopic studies can be used to distinguish between different sorption mechanisms, and provide further guidance with respect to model selection.

  1. Complete Formulas for the Volumes of Tubes about Curves in a Riemannian Manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa En WU

    2001-01-01

    By using the Taylor expansions of the solutions of Jacobi equations, we obtain the completeformulas for the volumes of tubes about curves in a Riemannian manifold. This unifies the known resultsand simplifies the computations involved in this direction. In the special case of surfaces, we also obtainthe corresponding complete formulas which generalize the known results.

  2. A Note on the Foucault Pendulum and the Sub-Riemannian Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Monroy-Pérez, F.

    The well known Foucault pendulum is studied within the formalism of sub-Riemannian geometry on a step-2 nilpotent Lie group. For small oscillations, trajectories are explicitly calculated, they turn out to be hypotrochöids obtained by rolling without slipping a circle onto another circle.

  3. General formula for lower bound of the first eigenvalue on Riemannian manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈木法; 王凤雨

    1997-01-01

    A general formula for the lower bound of the first eigenvalue on compact Riemannian manifolds is presented. The formula improves the main known sharp estimates including Lichnerowicz’s estimate and Zhong-Yang’s estimate. Moreover, the results are extended to the noncompact manifolds. The study is based on the probabilistic approach (i.e. the coupling method).

  4. Statistics on Lie groups: A need to go beyond the pseudo-Riemannian framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miolane, Nina; Pennec, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lie groups appear in many fields from Medical Imaging to Robotics. In Medical Imaging and particularly in Computational Anatomy, an organ's shape is often modeled as the deformation of a reference shape, in other words: as an element of a Lie group. In this framework, if one wants to model the variability of the human anatomy, e.g. in order to help diagnosis of diseases, one needs to perform statistics on Lie groups. A Lie group G is a manifold that carries an additional group structure. Statistics on Riemannian manifolds have been well studied with the pioneer work of Fréchet, Karcher and Kendall [1, 2, 3, 4] followed by others [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. In order to use such a Riemannian structure for statistics on Lie groups, one needs to define a Riemannian metric that is compatible with the group structure, i.e a bi-invariant metric. However, it is well known that general Lie groups which cannot be decomposed into the direct product of compact and abelian groups do not admit a bi-invariant metric. One may wonder if removing the positivity of the metric, thus asking only for a bi-invariant pseudo-Riemannian metric, would be sufficient for most of the groups used in Computational Anatomy. In this paper, we provide an algorithmic procedure that constructs bi-invariant pseudo-metrics on a given Lie group G. The procedure relies on a classification theorem of Medina and Revoy. However in doing so, we prove that most Lie groups do not admit any bi-invariant (pseudo-) metric. We conclude that the (pseudo-) Riemannian setting is not the richest setting if one wants to perform statistics on Lie groups. One may have to rely on another framework, such as affine connection space.

  5. Dark Energy and Dark Matter From Hidden Symmetry of Gravity Model with a Non-Riemannian Volume Form

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    We show that dark energy and dark matter can be described simultaneously by ordinary Einstein gravity interacting with a single scalar field provided the scalar field Lagrangian couples in a symmetric fashion to two different spacetime volume-forms (covariant integration measure densities) on the spacetime manifold - one standard Riemannian given by the square-root of the determinant of the pertinent Riemannian metric and another non-Riemannian volume-form independent of the Riemannian metric, defined in terms of an auxiliary antisymmetric tensor gauge field of maximal rank. Integration of the equations of motion of the latter auxiliary gauge field produce an a priori arbitrary integration constant that plays the role of a dynamically generated cosmological constant or dark energy. Moreover, the above modified scalar field action turns out to possess a hidden Noether symmetry whose associated conserved current describes a pressureless "dust" fluid which we can identify with the dark matter completely decouple...

  6. Conformal invariance of massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory in Riemannian spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, R [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lunardi, J T [Grupo de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Av. Gal. Carlos Cavalcanti 4748, 84032-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Pimentel, B M [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, R G [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do EspIrito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari s/n, Goiabeiras, CEP 29060-900, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2005-07-21

    We investigate the conformal invariance of massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory coupled to Riemannian spacetimes. We show that, as usual, in the minimal coupling procedure only the spin 1 sector of the theory-which corresponds to the electromagnetic field-is conformally invariant. We also show that the conformal invariance of the spin 0 sector can be naturally achieved by introducing a compensating term in the Lagrangian. Such a procedure-besides not modifying the spin 1 sector-leads to the well-known conformal coupling between the scalar curvature and the massless Klein-Gordon-Fock field. Going beyond the Riemannian spacetimes, we briefly discuss the effects of a nonvanishing torsion in the scalar case.

  7. Conformal invariance of massless Duffin Kemmer Petiau theory in Riemannian spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; Lunardi, J. T.; Pimentel, B. M.; Teixeira, R. G.

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the conformal invariance of massless Duffin Kemmer Petiau theory coupled to Riemannian spacetimes. We show that, as usual, in the minimal coupling procedure only the spin 1 sector of the theory—which corresponds to the electromagnetic field—is conformally invariant. We also show that the conformal invariance of the spin 0 sector can be naturally achieved by introducing a compensating term in the Lagrangian. Such a procedure—besides not modifying the spin 1 sector—leads to the well-known conformal coupling between the scalar curvature and the massless Klein Gordon Fock field. Going beyond the Riemannian spacetimes, we briefly discuss the effects of a nonvanishing torsion in the scalar case.

  8. Convergence of inexact descent methods for nonconvex optimization on Riemannian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bento, G C; Oliveira, P R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an abstract convergence analysis of inexact descent methods in Riemannian context for functions satisfying Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz inequality. In particular, without any restrictive assumption about the sign of the sectional curvature of the manifold, we obtain full convergence of a bounded sequence generated by the proximal point method, in the case that the objective function is nonsmooth and nonconvex, and the subproblems are determined by a quasi distance which does not necessarily coincide with the Riemannian distance. Moreover, if the objective function is $C^1$ with $L$-Lipschitz gradient, not necessarily convex, but satisfying Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz inequality, full convergence of a bounded sequence generated by the steepest descent method is obtained.

  9. Instability of elliptic equations on compact Riemannian manifolds with non-negative Ricci curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo S. Nascimento

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We prove the nonexistence of nonconstant local minimizers for a class of functionals, which typically appear in scalar two-phase field models, over smooth N-dimensional Riemannian manifolds without boundary and non-negative Ricci curvature. Conversely, for a class of surfaces possessing a simple closed geodesic along which the Gauss curvature is negative, we prove the existence of nonconstant local minimizers for the same class of functionals.

  10. Spatially varying Riemannian elasticity regularization: Application to thoracic CT registration in image-guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Aznar, M.;

    2012-01-01

    For deformable registration of computed tomography (CT) scans in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) we apply Riemannian elasticity regularization. We explore the use of spatially varying elasticity parameters to encourage bone rigidity and local tissue volume change only in the gross tumor......-model we achieved a total mean target registration error (TRE) of 0.92 ± 0.49 mm. Using spatially varying regularization for the HL case, deformation was limited to the GTV and lungs....

  11. Differential rotation of stretched and twisted thick magnetic flux tube dynamos in Riemannian spaces

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2007-01-01

    The topological mapping between a torus of big radius and a sphere is applied to the Riemannian geometry of a stretched and twisted very thick magnetic flux tube, to obtain spherical dynamos solving the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) self-induction equation for the magnetic flux tubes undergoing differential (non-uniform) rotation along the tube magnetic axis. Constraints on the shear is also computed. It is shown that when the hypothesis of the convective cyclonic dynamo is used the rotation is ...

  12. Multi-Frequency Polarimetric SAR Classification Based on Riemannian Manifold and Simultaneous Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally, polarimetric SAR classification is a high-dimensional nonlinear mapping problem. In the realm of pattern recognition, sparse representation is a very efficacious and powerful approach. As classical descriptors of polarimetric SAR, covariance and coherency matrices are Hermitian semidefinite and form a Riemannian manifold. Conventional Euclidean metrics are not suitable for a Riemannian manifold, and hence, normal sparse representation classification cannot be applied to polarimetric SAR directly. This paper proposes a new land cover classification approach for polarimetric SAR. There are two principal novelties in this paper. First, a Stein kernel on a Riemannian manifold instead of Euclidean metrics, combined with sparse representation, is employed for polarimetric SAR land cover classification. This approach is named Stein-sparse representation-based classification (SRC. Second, using simultaneous sparse representation and reasonable assumptions of the correlation of representation among different frequency bands, Stein-SRC is generalized to simultaneous Stein-SRC for multi-frequency polarimetric SAR classification. These classifiers are assessed using polarimetric SAR images from the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR sensor of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and the Electromagnetics Institute Synthetic Aperture Radar (EMISAR sensor of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU. Experiments on single-band and multi-band data both show that these approaches acquire more accurate classification results in comparison to many conventional and advanced classifiers.

  13. A natural connection on a basic class of Riemannian product manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Gribacheva, Dobrinka

    2011-01-01

    A Riemannian manifold M with an integrable almost product structure P is called a Riemannian product manifold. Our investigations are on the manifolds (M; P; g) of the largest class of Riemannian product manifolds, which is closed with respect to the group of conformal transformations of the metric g. This class is an analogue of the class of locally conformal Kahler manifolds in almost Hermitian geometry. In the present paper we study a natural connection D on (M; P; g) (i.e. DP = Dg = 0). We find necessary and suffcient conditions the curvature tensor of D to have properties similar to the Kahler tensor in Hermitian geometry. We pay attention to the case when D has a parallel torsion.We establish that the Weyl tensors for the connection D and the Levi-Civita connection coincide as well as the invariance of the curvature tensor of D with respect to the usual conformal transformation. We consider the case when D is a at connection. We construct an example of the considered manifold by a Lie group where D is a...

  14. Connection with Totally Skew-Symmetric Torsion on Riemannian Almost Product Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Mekerov, Dimitar

    2010-01-01

    On Riemannian almost product manifolds (M,P,g) with trP=0 we consider a linear connection nabla' preserving the almost product structure P and the metric g and having a totally skew-symmetric torsion tensor. We prove that if (M,P,g) admits such a connection then (M,P,g) belongs to the basic class W3 from the classification in [M.Staikova, K.Gribachev. Canonical connections and their conformal invariants on Riemannian P-manifolds, Serdica Math. J. 18 (1992), 150-161]. We consider the case when the curvature tensor of nabla' on (M,P,g) in W3 has the same properties like the ones of the curvature tensor of the Levi-Civita connection nabla on (M,P,g) with nabla(P)=0. We construct a 4-parametric family of 4-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of the class W3 by a Lie group and consider the connection nabla' on an arbitrary manifold of this family.

  15. On the convergence of diffusion Monte Carlo in non-Euclidean spaces. I. Free diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto, E.; Mella, Massimo

    2015-03-01

    We develop a set of diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms for general compactly supported Riemannian manifolds that converge weakly to second order with respect to the time step. The approaches are designed to work for cases that include non-orthogonal coordinate systems, nonuniform metric tensors, manifold boundaries, and multiply connected spaces. The methods do not require specially designed coordinate charts and can in principle work with atlases of charts. Several numerical tests for free diffusion in compactly supported Riemannian manifolds are carried out for spaces relevant to the chemical physics community. These include the circle, the 2-sphere, and the ellipsoid of inertia mapped with traditional angles. In all cases, we observe second order convergence, and in the case of the sphere, we gain insight into the function of the advection term that is generated by the curved nature of the space.

  16. Flat for Free Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ Just as Thomas Fried man's famous book,The World Is Flat,if not completely flat,it is anyway tending to be shaped flat.January 1,2010 saw the formation of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement(CAFTA),which was another historical event flattening majority of Asia continent for international trade.

  17. Uniqueness of Gibbs state and exponential L~2-convergence for infinite-dimensional reflecting diffusion processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤雨

    1995-01-01

    Let (M, g) be a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary M. By using Dobrushin’suniqueness condition and estimates of the first Neumann eigenvalue, some uniqueness conditions of Gibbs statefor stochastic Ising models with spin space MZd are obtained. Moreover, the L2-convergence of diffusion stochastic Ising models is also studied.

  18. Self-adjoint Extensions of Schrödinger Operators with ?-magnetic Fields on Riemannian Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the magnetic Schr¨odinger operator on a Riemannian manifold M. We assume the magnetic field is given by the sum of a regular field and the Dirac δ measures supported on a discrete set Γ in M. We give a complete characterization of the self-adjoint extensions of the minimal operator, in terms of the boundary conditions. The result is an extension of the former results by Dabrowski-Šťoviček and Exner-Šťoviček-Vytřas.

  19. On affine connections in a Riemannian manifold with a circulant metric and two circulant affinor structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuzova, Iva

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper it is considered a class V of 3-dimensional Riemannian manifolds M with a metric g and two affinor tensors q and S. It is defined another metric \\bar{g} in M. The local coordinates of all these tensors are circulant matrices. It is found: 1)\\ a relation between curvature tensors R and \\bar{R} of g and \\bar{g}, respectively; 2)\\ an identity of the curvature tensor R of g in the case when the curvature tensor \\bar{R} vanishes; 3)\\ a relation between the sectional curvature of a 2-section of the type \\{x, qx\\} and the scalar curvature of M.

  20. Control of nonholonomic systems from sub-Riemannian geometry to motion planning

    CERN Document Server

    Jean, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Nonholonomic systems are control systems which depend linearly on the control. Their underlying geometry is the sub-Riemannian geometry, which plays for these systems the same role as Euclidean geometry does for linear systems. In particular the usual notions of approximations at the first order, that are essential for control purposes, have to be defined in terms of this geometry. The aim of these notes is to present these notions of approximation and their application to the motion planning problem for nonholonomic systems.

  1. Eikonal slant helices and eikonal Darboux helices in 3-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Önder, Mehmet; Ziplar, Evren

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we give definitions and characterizations of eikonal slant helices, eikonal Darboux helices and non-normed eikonal Darboux helices in 3-dimensional pseudo- Riemannian manifold M . We show that every eikonal slant helix is also an eikonal Darboux helix for timelike and spacelike curves. Furthermore, we obtain that if the non-null curve a is a non-normed eikonal Darboux helix, then a is an eikonal slant helix if and only if 2 2 e 3k +e1t = constant, where k and t are curvature an...

  2. Eikonal Slant Helices and Eikonal Darboux Helices In 3-Dimensional Riemannian Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Önder, Mehmet; Ziplar, Evren; Kaya, Onur

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we give definitions and characterizations of eikonal slant helix curves, eikonal Darboux helices and non-normed eikonal Darboux helices in three dimensional Riemannian manifold 3 M . We show that every eikonal slant helix is also an eikonal Darboux helix. Furthermore, we obtain that if the curve a is a non-normed eikonal Darboux helix, then a is an eikonal slant helix if and only if k 2 +t 2 = constant, where k and t are curvature and torsion of a, respectively.

  3. Sobolev, Poincare and isoperimetric inequalities for subelliptic diffusion operators satisfying a generalized curvature dimension inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Baudoin, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    By adapting some ideas of M. Ledoux \\cite{ledoux2}, \\cite{ledoux-stflour} and \\cite{Led} to a sub-Riemannian framework we study Sobolev, Poincar\\'e and isoperimetric inequalities associated to subelliptic diffusion operators that satisfy the generalized curvature dimension inequality that was introduced by F. Baudoin and N. Garofalo in \\cite{Bau2}. Our results apply in particular on all CR Sasakian manifolds whose horizontal Webster-Tanaka-Ricci curvature is non negative, all Carnot groups with step two, and wide subclasses of principal bundles over Riemannian manifolds whose Ricci curvature is non negative.

  4. Spacelike Graphs with Parallel Mean Curvature in Pseudo-Riemannian Product Manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zicheng ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    The author introduces the w-function defined on the considered spacelike graph M.Under the growth conditions w =o(log z) and w =o(r),two Bernstein type theorems for M in Rmn+m are got,where z and r are the pseudo-Euclidean distance and the distance function on M to some fixed point respectively.As the ambient space is a curved pseudoRiemannian product of two Riemannian manifolds (∑1,g1) and (∑2,g2) of dimensions n and m,a Bernstein type result for n =2 under some curvature conditions on ∑1 and ∑2 and the growth condition w =o(r) is also got.As more general cases,under some curvature conditions on the ambient space and the growth condition w =o(Υ) or w =o(√Υ),the author concludes that if M has parallel mean curvature,then M is maximal.

  5. Spinor formalism and the geometry of six-dimensional Riemannian spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, K V

    2012-01-01

    The article consists of the Russian and English variants of Ph.D. Thesis in which the answers is given on the following questions: 1. how to construct the spinor formalism for n=6; 2. how to construct the spinor formalism for n=8; 3. how to prolong the Riemannian connection from the tangent bundle into the spinor one with the base: a complex analytical 6-dimensional Riemannian space; 4. how to construct the real and complex representations of this bundles; 5. how to construct the curvature spinors and to investigate its properties; 6. how to obtain the canonical form of a bilinear form for the 6-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space with the even index of the metric; 7. how to construct the geometric interpretation of isotropic twistors on the isotropic cone of the 6-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space with the index equal to 4; 8. how to construct the generalization of the Cartan triality principle to the Klein correspondence; 9. how to construct the structural constants of the octonion algebra for the initial i...

  6. Almost conformal transformation in a four dimensional Riemannian manifold with an additional structure

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuzova, Iva

    2011-01-01

    We consider a four dimensional Riemannian manifold M with a metric g and affinor structure q. The local coordinates of these tensors are circulant matrices. Their first orders are (A, B, C, B), A, B, C\\in FM and (0, 1, 0, 0), respectively. We construct another metric \\tilde{g} on M. We find the conditions for \\tilde{g} to be a positively defined metric, and for q to be a parallel structure with respect to the Riemannian connection of g. Further, let x be an arbitrary vector in T_{p}M, where p is a point on M. Let \\phi and \\phi be the angles between x and qx, x and q^{2}x with respect to g. We express the angles between x and qx, x and q^{2}x with respect to $\\tilde{g}$ with the help of the angles $\\phi$ and \\phi. Also,we construct two series {\\phi_{n}}and {\\phi_{n}}. We prove that every of it is an increasing one and it is converge.

  7. Relatively Flat Envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁南庆

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate relatively flat envelopes. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for a relatively-finitely presented module to have a (mono-morphic or epic) relatively flat envelope. Then those rings are characterized whose every relatively-finitely presented module has a relatively flat envelope which coincides with its in-jective envelope. Some known results are obtained as corollaries.

  8. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  9. Strongly Gorenstein Flat Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xia ZHANG; Li Min WANG

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of modules and rings.We show this dimension has nice properties when the ring is coherent,and extend the well-known Hilbert's syzygy theorem to the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of rings.Also,we investigate the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of direct products of rings and (almost)excellent extensions of rings.

  10. Fiber Tracking Technology Based on Riemannian Manifold Inverse Distance Interpolation%基于黎曼流形反距离插值的纤维追踪技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宏; 邹翎; 王凯; 李柏林; 高业文

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To improve the precision of fiber tracking andto better understandthe normal brain function. Materials andMethods Based on the streamline tracking technology, this algorithm introduced Riemannian metrics and inverse distance weights tointerpolatethe diffusion tensor of current points. Results Using this new method, the fibers tracked from in vivo data were smoother and longer than those obtained using the conventional interpolation methods. Conclusion Riemannian manifold inverse distance interpolation is an effective fiber tracking technology.%目的 提高纤维追踪的精度,有助于理解正常脑功能.材料与方法在流线追踪的基础上,引入黎曼测度和反距离权重,从而完成对当前点的张量值插值.结果 新插值方法追踪出的纤维比传统插值方法的更长,更平滑.结论 该算法是一种有效的纤维追踪技术.

  11. Dynamics in Newtonian-Riemannian Space-Time(%Newton-Riemann时空中的动力学(Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣业

    2001-01-01

    Lagrangian mechanics in Newtonian-Riemannian space-time andrelationship between Lagrangian mechanics and Newtonian mechanics, and between Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics in N-R space-time are discussed.%讨论了Newton-Riemann时空中的Lagrange力学及其与N-R时空中的Newton力学及Hamilton力学的关系.

  12. Dark energy and dark matter from hidden symmetry of gravity model with a non-Riemannian volume form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guendelman, Eduardo [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel); Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-15

    We show that dark energy and dark matter can be described simultaneously by ordinary Einstein gravity interacting with a single scalar field provided the scalar field Lagrangian couples in a symmetric fashion to two different spacetime volume forms (covariant integration measure densities) on the spacetime manifold - one standard Riemannian given by √(-g) (square root of the determinant of the pertinent Riemannian metric) and another non-Riemannian volume form independent of the Riemannian metric, defined in terms of an auxiliary antisymmetric tensor gauge field of maximal rank. Integration of the equations of motion of the latter auxiliary gauge field produce an a priori arbitrary integration constant that plays the role of a dynamically generated cosmological constant or dark energy. Moreover, the above modified scalar field action turns out to possess a hidden Noether symmetry whose associated conserved current describes a pressureless ''dust'' fluid which we can identify with the dark matter completely decoupled from the dark energy. The form of both the dark energy and dark matter that results from the above class of models is insensitive to the specific form of the scalar field Lagrangian. By adding an appropriate perturbation, which breaks the above hidden symmetry and along with this couples dark matter and dark energy, we also suggest a way to obtain growing dark energy in the present universe's epoch without evolution pathologies. (orig.)

  13. A matrix-algebraic algorithm for the Riemannian logarithm on the Stiefel manifold under the canonical metric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    We derive a numerical algorithm for evaluating the Riemannian logarithm on the Stiefel manifold with respect to the canonical metric. In contrast to the optimization-based approach known from the literature, we work from a purely matrix-algebraic perspective. Moreover, we prove that the algorithm...... converges locally and exhibits a linear rate of convergence....

  14. Existence of orthogonal geodesic chords on Riemannian manifolds with concave boundary and homeomorphic to the N-dimensional disk

    CERN Document Server

    Giambo', R; Piccione, P

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we give a proof of the existence of an orthogonal geodesic chord on a Riemannian manifold homeomorphic to a closed disk and with concave boundary. This kind of study is motivated by the link of the multiplicity problem with the famous Seifert conjecture (formulated in 1948) about multiple brake orbits for a class of Hamiltonian systems at a fixed energy level.

  15. A matrix-algebraic algorithm for the Riemannian logarithm on the Stiefel manifold under the canonical metric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    We derive a numerical algorithm for evaluating the Riemannian logarithm on the Stiefel manifold with respect to the canonical metric. In contrast to the optimization-based approach known from the literature, we work from a purely matrix-algebraic perspective. Moreover, we prove that the algorithm...... converges locally and exhibits a linear rate of convergence....

  16. Geodesic B-Preinvex Functions and Multiobjective Optimization Problems on Riemannian Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-lan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a class of functions called geodesic B-preinvex and geodesic B-invex functions on Riemannian manifolds and generalize the notions to the so-called geodesic quasi/pseudo B-preinvex and geodesic quasi/pseudo B-invex functions. We discuss the links among these functions under appropriate conditions and obtain results concerning extremum points of a nonsmooth geodesic B-preinvex function by using the proximal subdifferential. Moreover, we study a differentiable multiobjective optimization problem involving new classes of generalized geodesic B-invex functions and derive Kuhn-Tucker-type sufficient conditions for a feasible point to be an efficient or properly efficient solution. Finally, a Mond-Weir type duality is formulated and some duality results are given for the pair of primal and dual programming.

  17. Riesz-Martin representation for positive super-polyharmonic functions in A Riemannian manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anandam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Let u be a super-biharmonic function, that is, Δ2u≥0, on the unit disc D in the complex plane, satisfying certain conditions. Then it has been shown that u has a representation analogous to the Poisson-Jensen representation for subharmonic functions on D. In the same vein, it is shown here that a function u on any Green domain Ω in a Riemannian manifold satisfying the conditions (−Δiu≥0 for 0≤i≤m has a representation analogous to the Riesz-Martin representation for positive superharmonic functions on Ω.

  18. Helical ${\\alpha}$-dynamos as twisted magnetic flux tubes in Riemannian space

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Analytical solution of ${\\alpha}$-dynamo equation representing strongly torsioned helical dynamo is obtained in the thin twisted Riemannian flux tubes approximation. The $\\alpha$ factor possesses a fundamental contribution from torsion which is however weaken in the thin tubes approximation. It is shown that assuming that the poloidal component of the magnetic field is in principle time-independent, the toroidal magnetic field component grows very fast in time, actually it possesses a linear time dependence, while the poloidal component grows under the influence of torsion or twist of the flux tube. The toroidal component decays spatially with as $r^{-2}$ while vorticity may decay as $r^{-5}$ (poloidal component) where r represents the radial distance from the magnetic axis of flux tube. Toroidal component of vorticity decays as $r^{-1}$. In turbulent dynamos unbounded magnetic fields may decay at least as $r^{-3}$.

  19. Turbulent ${\\alpha}$-effect in twisted magnetic flux tubes dynamos in Riemannian space

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Analytical solution of first order torsion ${\\alpha}$-effect in twisted magnetic flux tubes representing a flux tube dynamo in Riemannian space is presented. Toroidal and poloidal component of the magnetic field decays as $r^{-1}$, while grow exponentially in time. The rate of speed of the helical dynamo depends upon the value of Frenet curvature of the tube. The $\\alpha$ factor possesses a fundamental contribution from constant torsion tube approximation. It is also assumed that the curvature of the magnetic axis of the tube is constant. Though ${\\alpha}$-effect dynamo equations are rather more complex in Riemann flux tube coordinates, a simple solution assuming force-free magnetic fields is shown to be possible. Dynamo solutions are possible if the dynamo action is able to change the signs of torsion and curvature of the dynamo flux tube simultaneously.

  20. Superintegrable models on Riemannian surfaces of revolution with integrals of any integer degree (I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Galliano

    2017-07-01

    We present a family of superintegrable (SI) systems which live on a Riemannian surface of revolution and which exhibit one linear integral and two integrals of any integer degree larger or equal to 2 in the momenta. When this degree is 2, one recovers a metric due to Koenigs. The local structure of these systems is under control of a linear ordinary differential equation of order n which is homogeneous for even integrals and weakly inhomogeneous for odd integrals. The form of the integrals is explicitly given in the so-called "simple" case (see Definition 2). Some globally defined examples are worked out which live either in H2 or in R2.

  1. Non-Riemannian Cosmic Walls as Boundaries of Spinning Matter with Torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    An example of a plane topological defect solution of linearized Einstein-Cartan (EC) field equation representing a cosmic wall boundary of spinning matter is given. The source of Cartan torsion is composed of two orthogonal lines of static polarized spins bounded by the cosmic plane wall. The Kopczyński-Obukhov-Tresguerres (KOT) spin fluid stress-energy current coincides with thin planar matter current in the static case. Our solution is similar to the Letelier solution of Einstein equation for multiple cosmic strings. Due to this fact we suggest that the lines of spinning matter could be analogous to multiple cosmic spinning string solution in EC theory of gravity. When torsion is turned off, a pure Riemannian cosmic wall is obtained.

  2. The geometric median on Riemannian manifolds with application to robust atlas estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, P Thomas; Venkatasubramanian, Suresh; Joshi, Sarang

    2009-03-01

    One of the primary goals of computational anatomy is the statistical analysis of anatomical variability in large populations of images. The study of anatomical shape is inherently related to the construction of transformations of the underlying coordinate space, which map one anatomy to another. It is now well established that representing the geometry of shapes or images in Euclidian spaces undermines our ability to represent natural variability in populations. In our previous work we have extended classical statistical analysis techniques, such as averaging, principal components analysis, and regression, to Riemannian manifolds, which are more appropriate representations for describing anatomical variability. In this paper we extend the notion of robust estimation, a well established and powerful tool in traditional statistical analysis of Euclidian data, to manifold-valued representations of anatomical variability. In particular, we extend the geometric median, a classic robust estimator of centrality for data in Euclidean spaces. We formulate the geometric median of data on a Riemannian manifold as the minimizer of the sum of geodesic distances to the data points. We prove existence and uniqueness of the geometric median on manifolds with non-positive sectional curvature and give sufficient conditions for uniqueness on positively curved manifolds. Generalizing the Weiszfeld procedure for finding the geometric median of Euclidean data, we present an algorithm for computing the geometric median on an arbitrary manifold. We show that this algorithm converges to the unique solution when it exists. In this paper we exemplify the robustness of the estimation technique by applying the procedure to various manifolds commonly used in the analysis of medical images. Using this approach, we also present a robust brain atlas estimation technique based on the geometric median in the space of deformable images.

  3. Adaptive Error Detection Method for P300-based Spelling Using Riemannian Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaullah Sahito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems have be-come one of the valuable research area of ML (Machine Learning and AI based techniques have brought significant change in traditional diagnostic systems of medical diagnosis. Specially; Electroencephalogram (EEG, which is measured electrical ac-tivity of the brain and ionic current in neurons is result of these activities. A brain-computer interface (BCI system uses these EEG signals to facilitate humans in different ways. P300 signal is one of the most important and vastly studied EEG phenomenon that has been studied in Brain Computer Interface domain. For instance, P300 signal can be used in BCI to translate the subject’s intention from mere thoughts using brain waves into actual commands, which can eventually be used to control different electro mechanical devices and artificial human body parts. Since low Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR in P300 is one of the major challenge because concurrently ongoing heterogeneous activities and artifacts of brain creates lots of challenges for doctors to understand the human intentions. In order to address above stated challenge this research proposes a system so called Adaptive Error Detection method for P300-Based Spelling using Riemannian Geometry, the system comprises of three main steps, in first step raw signal is cleaned by preprocessing. In second step most relevant features are extracted using xDAWN spatial filtering along with covariance matrices for handling high dimensional data and in final step elastic net classification algorithm is applied after converting from Riemannian manifold to Euclidean space using tangent space mapping. Results obtained by proposed method are comparable to state-of-the-art methods, as they decrease time drastically; as results suggest six times decrease in time and perform better during the inter-session and inter-subject variability.

  4. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2017-05-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for connectors used with electronic devices, such as input and/or output ports to connect peripheral equipment or accessories. More specifically, various flat-port are provided that can be used in place of standard connectors including, but not limited to, audio jacks and Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports. The flat-port connectors are an alternate connection design to replace the traditional receptacle port (female-port), making the device more sealed creation more dust and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot of space and contribute to the increase thickness of the device. The flat-port receptacle improves the overall appearance of the device and makes it more resistant to dust and water.

  5. Isometry group and geodesics of the Wagner lift of a riemannian metric on two-dimensional manifold

    CERN Document Server

    B., José Ricardo Arteaga

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct a functor from the category of two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds to the category of three-dimensional manifolds with generalized metric tensors. For each two-dimensional oriented Riemannian manifold $(M,g)$ we construct a metric tensor $\\hat g$ (in general, with singularities) on the total space $SO(M,g)$ of the principal bundle of the positively oriented orthonormal frames on $M$. We call the metric $\\hat g$ the Wagner lift of $g$. We study the relation between the isometry groups of $(M,g)$ and $(SO(M,g),\\hat g)$. We prove that the projections of the geodesics of $(SO(M,g),\\hat g)$ onto $M$ are the curves which satisfy the equation \\begin{equation*} \

  6. On a two-point boundary value problem for second-order differential inclusions on Riemannian manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Obukhovskiĭ

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider second-order differential inclusions on a Riemannian manifold with lower semicontinuous right-hand sides. Several existence theorems for solutions of two-point boundary value problem are proved to be interpreted as controllability of special mechanical systems with control on nonlinear configuration spaces. As an application, a statement of controllability under extreme values of controlling force is obtained.

  7. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  8. Acoustic black hole evaporation as plasma diffusion phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic analogues of Kerr black hole in plasmas are considered, by taking for granted the existence of acoustic ion waves in plasmas. An effective black holes (BH) in curved Riemannian spacetime in a random walk plasmas is endowed with a naked singularity, when plasmas are in the lowest diffusion mode. The plasma particle diffusion is encoded in the effective metric. The diffusive solution has a horizon when the plasma flow reaches the sound velocity in the medium and a shock wave is obtained inside the slab. The sonic black hole curved Riemannian metric is also found in terms of particle number density in plasmas. The sonic BH singularity is found at the center of the plasma diffusive slab from the study of the Ricci curvature scalar for constant diffusion coefficient. It is suggested and shown that the Hawking temperature is proportional to the plasma Kelvin temperature through diffusion coefficient dependence to this temperature. Therefore Unruh sonic or dumb BH is shown to have a relation between Hawking...

  9. Thinking Outside the Euclidean Box: Riemannian Geometry and Inter-Temporal Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Himanshu; Mishra, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Inter-temporal decisions involves assigning values to various payoffs occurring at different temporal distances. Past research has used different approaches to study these decisions made by humans and animals. For instance, considering that people discount future payoffs at a constant rate (e.g., exponential discounting) or at variable rate (e.g., hyperbolic discounting). In this research, we question the widely assumed, but seldom questioned, notion across many of the existing approaches that the decision space, where the decision-maker perceives time and monetary payoffs, is a Euclidean space. By relaxing the rigid assumption of Euclidean space, we propose that the decision space is a more flexible Riemannian space of Constant Negative Curvature. We test our proposal by deriving a discount function, which uses the distance in the Negative Curvature space instead of Euclidean temporal distance. The distance function includes both perceived values of time as well as money, unlike past work which has considered just time. By doing so we are able to explain many of the empirical findings in inter-temporal decision-making literature. We provide converging evidence for our proposal by estimating the curvature of the decision space utilizing manifold learning algorithm and showing that the characteristics (i.e., metric properties) of the decision space resembles those of the Negative Curvature space rather than the Euclidean space. We conclude by presenting new theoretical predictions derived from our proposal and implications for how non-normative behavior is defined.

  10. Pachner moves in a 4d Riemannian holomorphic Spin Foam model

    CERN Document Server

    Banburski, Andrzej; Freidel, Laurent; Hnybida, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study a Spin Foam model for 4d Riemannian gravity, and propose a new way of imposing the simplicity constraints that uses the recently developed holomorphic representation. Using the power of the holomorphic integration techniques, and with the introduction of two new tools: the homogeneity map and the loop identity, for the first time we give the analytic expressions for the behaviour of the Spin Foam amplitudes under 4-dimensional Pachner moves. It turns out that this behaviour is controlled by an insertion of nonlocal mixing operators. In the case of the 5-1 move, the expression governing the change of the amplitude can be interpreted as a vertex renormalisation equation. We find a natural truncation scheme that allows us to get an invariance up to an overall factor for the 4-2 and 5-1 moves, but not for the 3-3 move. The study of the divergences shows that there is a range of parameter space for which the 4-2 move is finite while the 5-1 move diverges. This opens up the possibility to reco...

  11. Riemannian geometry of thermodynamics and systems with repulsive power-law interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppeiner, George

    2005-07-01

    A Riemannian geometric theory of thermodynamics based on the postulate that the curvature scalar R is proportional to the inverse free energy density is used to investigate three-dimensional fluid systems of identical classical point particles interacting with each other via a power-law potential energy γr-α . Such systems are useful in modeling melting transitions. The limit α→∞ corresponds to the hard sphere gas. A thermodynamic limit exists only for short-range (α>3) and repulsive (γ>0) interactions. The geometric theory solutions for given α>3 , γ>0 , and any constant temperature T have the following properties: (1) the thermodynamics follows from a single function b(ρT-3/α) , where ρ is the density; (2) all solutions are equivalent up to a single scaling constant for ρT-3/α , related to γ via the virial theorem; (3) at low density, solutions correspond to the ideal gas; (4) at high density there are solutions with pressure and energy depending on density as expected from solid state physics, though not with a Dulong-Petit heat capacity limit; (5) for 33.7913 a phase transition is required to go between these regimes; (7) for any α>3 we may include a first-order phase transition, which is expected from computer simulations; and (8) if α→∞ , the density approaches a finite value as the pressure increases to infinity, with the pressure diverging logarithmically in the density difference.

  12. Dynamos and anti-dynamos as thin magnetic flux ropes in Riemannian spaces

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, L Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Two examples of magnetic anti-dynamos in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are given. The first is a 3D metric conformally related to Arnold cat fast dynamo metric: ${ds_{A}}^{2}=e^{-{\\lambda}z}dp^{2}+e^{{\\lambda}z}dq^{2}+dz^{2}$ is shown to present a behaviour of non-dynamos where the magnetic field exponentially decay in time. The curvature decay as z-coordinates increases without bounds. Some of the Riemann curvature components such as $R_{pzpz}$ also undergoes dissipation while component $R_{qzqz}$ increases without bounds. The remaining curvature component $R_{pqpq}$ is constant on the torus surface. The other anti-dynamo which may be useful in plasma astrophysics is the thin magnetic flux rope or twisted magnetic thin flux tube which also behaves as anti-dynamo since it also decays with time. This model is based on the Riemannian metric of the magnetic twisted flux tube where the axis possesses Frenet curvature and torsion. Since in this last example the Frenet torsion of the axis of the rope is almost zero, o...

  13. Improved Critical Eigenfunction Restriction Estimates on Riemannian Surfaces with Nonpositive Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yakun; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    We show that one can obtain improved L 4 geodesic restriction estimates for eigenfunctions on compact Riemannian surfaces with nonpositive curvature. We achieve this by adapting Sogge's strategy in (Improved critical eigenfunction estimates on manifolds of nonpositive curvature, Preprint). We first combine the improved L 2 restriction estimate of Blair and Sogge (Concerning Toponogov's Theorem and logarithmic improvement of estimates of eigenfunctions, Preprint) and the classical improved {L^∞} estimate of Bérard to obtain an improved weak-type L 4 restriction estimate. We then upgrade this weak estimate to a strong one by using the improved Lorentz space estimate of Bak and Seeger (Math Res Lett 18(4):767-781, 2011). This estimate improves the L 4 restriction estimate of Burq et al. (Duke Math J 138:445-486, 2007) and Hu (Forum Math 6:1021-1052, 2009) by a power of {(log logλ)^{-1}} . Moreover, in the case of compact hyperbolic surfaces, we obtain further improvements in terms of {(logλ)^{-1}} by applying the ideas from (Chen and Sogge, Commun Math Phys 329(3):435-459, 2014) and (Blair and Sogge, Concerning Toponogov's Theorem and logarithmic improvement of estimates of eigenfunctions, Preprint). We are able to compute various constants that appeared in (Chen and Sogge, Commun Math Phys 329(3):435-459, 2014) explicitly, by proving detailed oscillatory integral estimates and lifting calculations to the universal cover H^2.

  14. Thinking Outside the Euclidean Box: Riemannian Geometry and Inter-Temporal Decision-Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Mishra

    Full Text Available Inter-temporal decisions involves assigning values to various payoffs occurring at different temporal distances. Past research has used different approaches to study these decisions made by humans and animals. For instance, considering that people discount future payoffs at a constant rate (e.g., exponential discounting or at variable rate (e.g., hyperbolic discounting. In this research, we question the widely assumed, but seldom questioned, notion across many of the existing approaches that the decision space, where the decision-maker perceives time and monetary payoffs, is a Euclidean space. By relaxing the rigid assumption of Euclidean space, we propose that the decision space is a more flexible Riemannian space of Constant Negative Curvature. We test our proposal by deriving a discount function, which uses the distance in the Negative Curvature space instead of Euclidean temporal distance. The distance function includes both perceived values of time as well as money, unlike past work which has considered just time. By doing so we are able to explain many of the empirical findings in inter-temporal decision-making literature. We provide converging evidence for our proposal by estimating the curvature of the decision space utilizing manifold learning algorithm and showing that the characteristics (i.e., metric properties of the decision space resembles those of the Negative Curvature space rather than the Euclidean space. We conclude by presenting new theoretical predictions derived from our proposal and implications for how non-normative behavior is defined.

  15. A Riemannian framework for matching point clouds represented by the Schrödinger distance transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Rangarajan, Anand; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Vemuri, Baba C

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we cast the problem of point cloud matching as a shape matching problem by transforming each of the given point clouds into a shape representation called the Schrödinger distance transform (SDT) representation. This is achieved by solving a static Schrödinger equation instead of the corresponding static Hamilton-Jacobi equation in this setting. The SDT representation is an analytic expression and following the theoretical physics literature, can be normalized to have unit L2 norm-making it a square-root density, which is identified with a point on a unit Hilbert sphere, whose intrinsic geometry is fully known. The Fisher-Rao metric, a natural metric for the space of densities leads to analytic expressions for the geodesic distance between points on this sphere. In this paper, we use the well known Riemannian framework never before used for point cloud matching, and present a novel matching algorithm. We pose point set matching under rigid and non-rigid transformations in this framework and solve for the transformations using standard nonlinear optimization techniques. Finally, to evaluate the performance of our algorithm-dubbed SDTM-we present several synthetic and real data examples along with extensive comparisons to state-of-the-art techniques. The experiments show that our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art point set registration algorithms on many quantitative metrics.

  16. Riemannian geometry of thermodynamics and systems with repulsive power-law interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppeiner, George

    2005-07-01

    A Riemannian geometric theory of thermodynamics based on the postulate that the curvature scalar R is proportional to the inverse free energy density is used to investigate three-dimensional fluid systems of identical classical point particles interacting with each other via a power-law potential energy gamma r(-alpha) . Such systems are useful in modeling melting transitions. The limit alpha-->infinity corresponds to the hard sphere gas. A thermodynamic limit exists only for short-range (alpha>3) and repulsive (gamma>0) interactions. The geometric theory solutions for given alpha>3 , gamma>0 , and any constant temperature T have the following properties: (1) the thermodynamics follows from a single function b (rho T(-3/alpha) ) , where rho is the density; (2) all solutions are equivalent up to a single scaling constant for rho T(-3/alpha) , related to gamma via the virial theorem; (3) at low density, solutions correspond to the ideal gas; (4) at high density there are solutions with pressure and energy depending on density as expected from solid state physics, though not with a Dulong-Petit heat capacity limit; (5) for 33.7913 a phase transition is required to go between these regimes; (7) for any alpha>3 we may include a first-order phase transition, which is expected from computer simulations; and (8) if alpha-->infinity, the density approaches a finite value as the pressure increases to infinity, with the pressure diverging logarithmically in the density difference.

  17. Cross-Modal Perception in the Framework of Non-Riemannian Sensory Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shimbo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Though human sensations, such as the senses of hearing, sight, etc., are independent each other, the interference between two of them is sometimes observed, and is called cross-modal perception[1]. Hitherto we studied unimodal perception of visual sensation[2] and auditory sensation[3] respectively by differential geometry[4]. We interpreted the parallel alley and the distance alley as two geodesics under different conditions in a visual space, and depicted the trace of continuous vowel speech as the geodesics through phonemes on a vowel plane. In this work, cross-modal perception is similarly treated from the standpoint of non-Riemannian geometry, where each axis of a cross-modal sensory space represents unimodal sensation. The geometry allows us to treat asymmetric metric tensor and hence a non-Euclidean concept of anholonomic objects, representing unidirectional property of cross-modal perception. The McGurk effect in audiovisual perception[5] and ‘rubber hand’ illusion in visual tactile perception[6] can afford experimental evidence of torsion tensor. The origin of ‘bouncing balls’ illusion[7] is discussed from the standpoint of an audiovisual cross-modal sensory space in a qualitative manner.

  18. Individual energy savings for individual flats in blocks of flats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that similar flats in a block do not have the same energy demand. Part of the explanation for this is the location of the flat in the building, e.g. on the top floor, at the house end or in the middle of the building. It is possible to take this into account when the heating bill...... is distributed on the individual flats. Today, most blocks of flats have individual heat meters to save energy and to ensure a fair distribution of the cost. If all flats have the same indoor temperature, the distribution is correct. In practice, the inhabitants of the different flats maintain different indoor...

  19. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  20. Flat Earth图片

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    欢迎来到这期的光盘介绍。本月的附刊光盘中,除了每月的精彩教程外,您可在光盘中找到15张由Flat Earth友情提供的库存图片。当然还有Twixtor和最新的Acrobat Reader 7。

  1. Metric Relativity and the Dynamical Bridge: highlights of Riemannian geometry in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, Mario [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (ICRA/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade e Astrofisica; Bittencourt, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.bittencourt@icranet.org [Physics Department, La Sapienza University of Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We present an overview of recent developments concerning modifications of the geometry of space-time to describe various physical processes of interactions among classical and quantum configurations. We concentrate in two main lines of research: the Metric Relativity and the Dynamical Bridge. We describe the notion of equivalent (dragged) metric ĝ μ υ which is responsible to map the path of any accelerated body in Minkowski space-time onto a geodesic motion in such associatedĝ geometry. Only recently, the method introduced by Einstein in general relativity was used beyond the domain of gravitational forces to map arbitrary accelerated bodies submitted to non-Newtonian attractions onto geodesics of a modified geometry. This process has its roots in the very ancient idea to treat any dynamical problem in Classical Mechanics as nothing but a problem of static where all forces acting on a body annihilates themselves including the inertial ones. This general procedure, that concerns arbitrary forces - beyond the uses of General Relativity that is limited only to gravitational processes - is nothing but the relativistic version of the d'Alembert method in classical mechanics and consists in the principle of Metric Relativity. The main difference between gravitational interaction and all other forces concerns the universality of gravity which added to the interpretation of the equivalence principle allows all associated geometries-one for each different body in the case of non-gravitational forces-to be unified into a unique Riemannian space-time structure. The same geometrical description appears for electromagnetic waves in the optical limit within the context of nonlinear theories or material medium. Once it is largely discussed in the literature, the so-called analogue models of gravity, we will dedicate few sections on this emphasizing their relation with the new concepts introduced here. Then, we pass to the description of the Dynamical Bridge formalism

  2. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén, E-mail: rmohedano@lpi-europe.com; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Campus de Montegancedo, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-28

    The so-called CCS{sup 4}FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  3. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi

    2015-09-01

    The so-called CCS4FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  4. Seiberg-Witten Like Equations on Pseudo-Riemannian Spinc Manifolds with G2(2∗ Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülifer Özdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider 7-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian spinc manifolds with structure group G2(2∗. On such manifolds, the space of 2-forms splits orthogonally into components Λ2M=Λ72⊕Λ142. We define self-duality of a 2-form by considering the part Λ72 as the bundle of self-dual 2-forms. We express the spinor bundle and the Dirac operator and write down Seiberg-Witten like equations on such manifolds. Finally we get explicit forms of these equations on R4,3 and give some solutions.

  5. A special form of SPD covariance matrix for interpretation and visualization of data manipulated with Riemannian geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congedo, Marco; Barachant, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Currently the Riemannian geometry of symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices is gaining momentum as a powerful tool in a wide range of engineering applications such as image, radar and biomedical data signal processing. If the data is not natively represented in the form of SPD matrices, typically we may summarize them in such form by estimating covariance matrices of the data. However once we manipulate such covariance matrices on the Riemannian manifold we lose the representation in the original data space. For instance, we can evaluate the geometric mean of a set of covariance matrices, but not the geometric mean of the data generating the covariance matrices, the space of interest in which the geometric mean can be interpreted. As a consequence, Riemannian information geometry is often perceived by non-experts as a "black-box" tool and this perception prevents a wider adoption in the scientific community. Hereby we show that we can overcome this limitation by constructing a special form of SPD matrix embedding both the covariance structure of the data and the data itself. Incidentally, whenever the original data can be represented in the form of a generic data matrix (not even square), this special SPD matrix enables an exhaustive and unique description of the data up to second-order statistics. This is achieved embedding the covariance structure of both the rows and columns of the data matrix, allowing naturally a wide range of possible applications and bringing us over and above just an interpretability issue. We demonstrate the method by manipulating satellite images (pansharpening) and event-related potentials (ERPs) of an electroencephalography brain-computer interface (BCI) study. The first example illustrates the effect of moving along geodesics in the original data space and the second provides a novel estimation of ERP average (geometric mean), showing that, in contrast to the usual arithmetic mean, this estimation is robust to outliers. In

  6. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  7. The construction of periodic unfolding operators on some compact Riemannian manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobberschütz, Sören; Böhm, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The notion of periodic unfolding has become a standard tool in the theory of periodic homogenization. However, all the results obtained so far are only applicable to the "flat" Euclidean space R n. In this paper, we present a generalization of the method of periodic unfolding applicable to struct...

  8. Piecewise flat gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Meent, Maarten, E-mail: M.vandeMeent@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-04-07

    We examine the continuum limit of the piecewise flat locally finite gravity model introduced by 't Hooft. In the linear weak field limit, we find the energy-momentum tensor and metric perturbation of an arbitrary configuration of defects. The energy-momentum turns out to be restricted to satisfy certain conditions. The metric perturbation is mostly fixed by the energy-momentum except for its lightlike modes which reproduce linear gravitational waves, despite no such waves being present at the microscopic level.

  9. Flat feet in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe flatfoot, as one of very frequent deformities in everyday medical practice. A special condition of the deformity associated with a calcaneal valgus position and complicated by a knee valgus position (as a consequence of non-treatment is described. Also, the precise anatomy of the longitudinal foot arches (medial and lateral, definition and classification of the deformity, clinical findings and therapeutic protocols are proposed. The authors especially emphasise that the need for having extensive knowledge on the differences between a flexible and rigid flatfoot, having in mind that the treatment of flexible flat foot is usually not necessary, while the treatment of rigid flatfoot is usually unavoidable.

  10. Extremal functions for the Moser-Trudinger inequalities on compact Riemannian manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [1]Trudinger, N. S., On embedding into Orlicz space and some applications, J. Math. Mech., 1967, 17: 473-484.[2]Moser, J., A sharp form of an Inequality by N.Trudinger, Ind. Univ. Math. J., 1971, 20: 1077-1091.[3]Adams, D. R., A sharp inequality of J. Moser for higher order derivatives, Anna. Math., 1988, 128: 385-398.[4]Fontana, L., Sharp borderline Sobolev inequalities on compact Riemannian manifolds. Comm. Math. Helv.,1993, 68: 415- 454.[5]Lin, K.C., Extremal functions for Moser's inequality, Trans. Amer.Math. Sco., 1996, 348: 2663-2671.[6]Carleson, L., Chang, S. Y. A., On the existence of an extremal function for an inequality of J.Moser, Bull. Sc.Math., 1986, 110: 113-127.[7]Flucher, M., Extremal functions for Trudinger-Moser inequality in 2 dimensions, Comment. Math. Helv., 1992,67: 471-497.[8]Adimurth, Struwe, M., Global compactness properties of semilinear elliptic equations with critical exponential growth, J. Funct. Anal., 2000, 175(1): 125-167.[9]Li,Y., Moser-Trudinger inequality on manifold of dimesion two, J. Partial Differential Equations, 2001, 14(2):163-192.[10]Kichenassamy, S., Veron, L., Singular solutions of the p-laplace equation, Math. Ann., 1986, 275: 599-615.[11]Ding, W. Y., Jost, J., Li, J. et al, The differential equation -△u = 8π - 8πheu on a compact Riemann Surface,Asia. J. Math., 1997, 1(2): 230-248.[12]Tolksdorf, P., Regularity for a more general class of qusilinear elliptic equations, J. D. E., 1984, 51:126-150.[13]Serrin, J., Local behavior of solutions of qusai-linear equations, Acta. Math., 1964, 111: 248-302.[14]Struwe, M., Positive solution of critical semilinear elliptic equations on non-contractible planar domain, J. Eur.Math. Soc., 2000, 2(4): 329-388.[15]Serrin, J., Isoled singularities of solutions of quasilinear equations, Acta. Math., 1965, 113: 219-240.[16]Struwe, M., Critical points of embedding of H01,n into Orlicz space, Ann. Inst. Henri., 1988, 5(5): 425-464.[17]Chen, W. X., Li, C., Classification of solutions of

  11. IS THE WORLD FLAT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Încalţărău

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization became more and more prominent during the last decades. There is no way to argue that globalization led to more interconnected economies, facilitating the communication and the collaboration around the world. But where is this going? Doesglobalization mean uniformity or diversity? As the world begins to resemble more, the people are trying to distinguish between them more, which can exacerbate nationalistic feeling. Friedman argues that globalization made the world smaller and flatter, allowing all countries to take chance of the available opportunities equally. But is this really true? Although politic and cultural factors can stand in front of a really flat world, what is the key for Chinese and Indian success and which are theirs perspectives?

  12. Flat Helical Nanosieves

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Shengtao; Hussain, Sajid; Huang, Kun; Ling, Xiaohui; Siew, Shawn Yohanes; Liu, Hong; Teng, Jinghua; Danner, Aaron; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Compact and miniaturized devices with flexible functionalities are always highly demanded in optical integrated systems. Plasmonic nanosieve has been successfully harnessed as an ultrathin flat platform for complex manipulation of light, including holography, vortex generation and non-linear processes. Compared with most of reported single-functional devices, multi-functional nanosieves might find more complex and novel applications across nano-photonics, optics and nanotechnology. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a promising roadmap for nanosieve-based helical devices, which achieves full manipulations of optical vortices, including its generation, hybridization, spatial multiplexing, focusing and non-diffraction propagation etc., by controlling the geometric phase of spin light via over 121 thousands of spatially-rotated nano-sieves. Thanks to such spin-conversion nanosieve helical elements, it is no longer necessary to employ the conventional two-beam interferometric measurement to characterize optical ...

  13. More Ricci-flat branes

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J M

    1999-01-01

    Certain supergravity solutions (including domain walls and the magnetic fivebrane) have recently been generalised by Brecher and Perry by relaxing the condition that the brane worldvolume be flat. In this way they obtain examples in which the brane worldvolume is a static spacetime admitting parallel spinors. In this note we simply point out that the restriction to static spacetimes is unnecessary, and in this way exhibit solutions where the brane worldvolume is an indecomposable Ricci-flat lorentzian manifold admitting parallel spinors. We discuss more Ricci-flat fivebranes and domain walls, as well as new Ricci-flat D3-branes.

  14. Scaling laws for non-Euclidean plates and the $W^{2,2}$ isometric immersions of Riemannian metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewicka, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the elastic structures which exhibit non-zero strain at free equilibria. Many growing tissues (leaves, flowers or marine invertebrates) attain complicated configurations during their free growth. Our study departs from the 3d incompatible elasticity theory, conjectured to explain the mechanism for the spontaneous formation of non-Euclidean metrics. Recall that a smooth Riemannian metric on a simply connected domain can be realized as the pull-back metric of an orientation preserving deformation if and only if the associated Riemann curvature tensor vanishes identically. When this condition fails, one seeks a deformation yielding the closest metric realization. We set up a variational formulation of this problem by introducing the non-Euclidean version of the nonlinear elasticity functional, and establish its $\\Gamma$-convergence under the proper scaling. As a corollary, we obtain new necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a $W^{2,2}$ isometric immersion of a given 2d metric i...

  15. Irritated Method for Flat warts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiBingxu

    2004-01-01

    Summary Background The relation between spontaneous regression of Flat warts and T cells depended immunity was confirmed. Cells immunity against HPV was induced by presenting of HPV related antigens, and thrived by cytokine and some chemistry agent. So how to make HPV which incubated in keratinocyte to present PHV antigens and keratinocyte to secret cytokine or chemistry agents should be a pursuance for dermatologist who are looking for a efficient method to deal with flat warts. Present research had exhibited inflammable agents can induce dermatitis when apply to the skin surface, so it might bring flat warts to spontaneous regression. Objective To observe the effectiveness of irritant drugs on flat warts, and at same time to understand more on the mechanism of the regression. Methods Compared with Control we treat 88 case of flat warts with retinoid gel or 3% hydrogen peroxide solution plus 5 % salicylic acid cream (HPSC). Results Both retinoid gel and HPSC reveal significant effect on flat warts. Conclusion Retinoid gel or SPHC was effective on the treatment of flat warts. The possible explanation for this is the drugs when put on the skin will induce dermatitis and dissolve or denude keratin.

  16. Flats: Preliminary WFC Data and Plans for Flight Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Hartig, G.; Tsvetanov, Z.

    2000-10-01

    The ACS WFC pixel-to-pixel P-flats with the build-3 detector repeat over a three month time span to a precision of better than 0.1% rms. The shape of the low frequency Lflat field varies with wavelength, where the ratio of the F435W/F814W L-flats differs from unity by - 10% in two patches near opposite corners of the field of view. At ~0.5%, the high frequency pixel-to-pixel structure in the WFC P-flats is about half that of the HRC build-2 and does not increase as much toward shorter wavelengths as the HRC build-2 with the Lesser coating. The amplitude of the fringes for continuum illumination is less than 1%, even in the narrow band ramp filters, while the fringing in monochromatic light is - 10% at 9300 Å. The goals of the laboratory WFC and HRC flat field program are to obtain the set of external flats that fully populates the pipeline database and to archive a baseline of high S/N internal flats for tracking post-launch changes.

  17. Is classical flat Kasner spacetime flat in quantum gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Parampreet

    2016-01-01

    Quantum nature of classical flat Kasner spacetime is studied using effective spacetime description in loop quantum cosmology. We find that even though the spacetime curvature vanishes at the classical level, non-trivial quantum gravitational effects can arise. For the standard loop quantization of Bianchi-I spacetime, which uniquely yields universal bounds on expansion and shear scalars and results in a generic resolution of strong singularities, we find that a flat Kasner metric is not a physical solution of the effective spacetime description, except in a limit. The lack of a flat Kasner metric at the quantum level results from a novel feature of the loop quantum Bianchi-I spacetime: quantum geometry induces non-vanishing spacetime curvature components, making it not Ricci flat even when no matter is present. The non-curvature singularity of the classical flat Kasner spacetime is avoided, and the effective spacetime transits from a flat Kasner spacetime in asymptotic future, to a Minkowski spacetime in asym...

  18. Ronchi test for flat mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Engelfried, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: jurgen@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Morelos, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2005-11-11

    One of the RICHes in the velocity spectrometers of the proposed CKM experiment requires a flat mirror, situated in the high intensity kaon beam. To reduce the interaction background for the experiment, this mirror has to be as thin as possible. First glass prototypes were produced in Mexico. To test the surface quality of these prototypes, we extended the Ronchi method so flat mirrors can also be tested. We present the methods and report on results of our measurements.

  19. Log-Euclidean metrics for fast and simple calculus on diffusion tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsigny, Vincent; Fillard, Pierre; Pennec, Xavier; Ayache, Nicholas

    2006-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DT-MRI or DTI) is an emerging imaging modality whose importance has been growing considerably. However, the processing of this type of data (i.e., symmetric positive-definite matrices), called "tensors" here, has proved difficult in recent years. Usual Euclidean operations on matrices suffer from many defects on tensors, which have led to the use of many ad hoc methods. Recently, affine-invariant Riemannian metrics have been proposed as a rigorous and general framework in which these defects are corrected. These metrics have excellent theoretical properties and provide powerful processing tools, but also lead in practice to complex and slow algorithms. To remedy this limitation, a new family of Riemannian metrics called Log-Euclidean is proposed in this article. They also have excellent theoretical properties and yield similar results in practice, but with much simpler and faster computations. This new approach is based on a novel vector space structure for tensors. In this framework, Riemannian computations can be converted into Euclidean ones once tensors have been transformed into their matrix logarithms. Theoretical aspects are presented and the Euclidean, affine-invariant, and Log-Euclidean frameworks are compared experimentally. The comparison is carried out on interpolation and regularization tasks on synthetic and clinical 3D DTI data.

  20. Differential-geometrical approach to the dynamics of dissipationless incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics: II. Geodesic formulation and Riemannian curvature analysis of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic stabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Araki, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the dynamics of a dissipationless incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD) medium are formulated as geodesics on a direct product of two volume-preserving diffeomorphism groups. Examinations of the stabilities of the hydrodynamic (HD, $\\alpha=0$) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD, $\\alpha\\to0$) motions and the $O(\\alpha)$ Hall-term effect in terms of the Jacobi equation and the Riemannian sectional curvature tensor are presented, where {\\alpha} represents the Hall-term strength parameter. Formulations are given for the geodesic and Jacobi equations based on a linear connection with physically desirable properties, which agrees with the Levi-Civita connection. Derivations of the explicit normal-mode expressions for the Riemannian metric, Levi-Civita connection, and related formulae and equations are also provided using the generalized Els\\"asser variables (GEVs). It is very interesting that the sectional curvatures of the MHD and HMHD systems between two GEV modes were found to take both the po...

  1. A Simplified Algorithm for Inverting Higher Order Diffusion Tensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Riemannian geometry, a distance function is determined by an inner product on the tangent space. In Riemann–Finsler geometry, this distance function can be determined by a norm. This gives more freedom on the form of the so-called indicatrix or the set of unit vectors. This has some interesting applications, e.g., in medical image analysis, especially in diffusion weighted imaging (DWI. An important application of DWI is in the inference of the local architecture of the tissue, typically consisting of thin elongated structures, such as axons or muscle fibers, by measuring the constrained diffusion of water within the tissue. From high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI data, one can estimate the diffusion orientation distribution function (dODF, which indicates the relative diffusivity in all directions and can be represented by a spherical polynomial. We express this dODF as an equivalent spherical monomial (higher order tensor to directly generalize the (second order diffusion tensor approach. To enable efficient computation of Riemann–Finslerian quantities on diffusion weighted (DW-images, such as the metric/norm tensor, we present a simple and efficient algorithm to invert even order spherical monomials, which extends the familiar inversion of diffusion tensors, i.e., symmetric matrices.

  2. Chemically induced electric field: flat band potential engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, T.; Guo, Z.; Li, W.; Atanacio, A. J.; Nowotny, J.

    2012-10-01

    The present work considers engineering of the flat band potential, FBP, of metal oxides in a controlled manner. The aim is to minimise the energy losses related to recombination. The related experimental approaches include imposition of a chemically-induced electric field using the phenomena of segregation, diffusion and the formation of multilayer systems. This paper considers several basic phenomena that allow the modification of the surface charge and the space charge at the gas/solid and solid/liquid interfaces.

  3. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  4. Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato

    2016-01-01

    The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity in two-dimensional spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein's field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of nonlocal gravity.

  5. Riemannian geometry study of vapor-liquid phase equilibria and supercritical behavior of the Lennard-Jones fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Helge-Otmar; Mausbach, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The behavior of thermodynamic response functions and the thermodynamic scalar curvature in the supercritical region have been studied for a Lennard-Jones fluid based on a revised modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state. Response function extrema are sometimes used to estimate the Widom line, which is characterized by the maxima of the correlation lengths. We calculated the Widom line for the Lennard-Jones fluid without using any response function extrema. Since the volume of the correlation length is proportional to the Riemannian thermodynamic scalar curvature, the locus of the Widom line follows the slope of maximum curvature. We show that the slope of the Widom line follows the slope of the isobaric heat capacity maximum only in the close vicinity of the critical point and that, therefore, the use of response function extrema in this context is problematic. Furthermore, we constructed the vapor-liquid coexistence line for the Lennard-Jones fluid using the fact that the correlation length, and therefore the thermodynamic scalar curvature, must be equal in the two coexisting phases. We compared the resulting phase envelope with those from simulation data where multiple histogram reweighting was used and found striking agreement between the two methods.

  6. Flat space physics from holography

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, R

    2004-01-01

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by - and in this sense, predicts - the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

  7. The complexity of flat origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, M. [Xerox, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hayes, B. [ParcPlace-Digitalk, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study a basic problem in mathematical origami: determine if a given crease pattern can be folded to a flat origami. We show that assigning mountain and valley folds is NP-hard. We also show that determining a suitable overlap order for flaps is NP-hard, even assuming a valid mountain and valley assignment.

  8. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS; GEORG SCHUMACHER

    2017-06-01

    We prove that there are cocompact lattices $\\Gamma$ in $\\rm SL(2,\\mathbb C)$ with the property that there are holomorphic line bundles $L$ on $\\rm SL(2,\\mathbb C)/ \\Gamma$ with $c_{1}(L) = 0$ such that $L$ does not admit any unitary flat connection.

  9. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  10. Flat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    菲亚特选在柏林举行的“面包与黄油(Bread&Butter)”青年时尚秀中发布了500柴油版车型。这款车型首先推出的是黑色和绿色车身颜色,共限量1万辆,目前已有6000辆被售出。现在,它又追加了1款车身颜色“午夜蓝”,菲亚特选择这款颜色,是因为它很接近牛仔裤的颜色,更容易吸引年轻的消费者。

  11. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  12. Parallel spinors on flat manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michał

    2006-05-01

    Let p(M) be the dimension of the vector space of parallel spinors on a closed spin manifold M. We prove that every finite group G is the holonomy group of a closed flat spin manifold M(G) such that p(M(G))>0. If the holonomy group Hol(M) of M is cyclic, then we give an explicit formula for p(M) another than that given in [R.J. Miatello, R.A. Podesta, The spectrum of twisted Dirac operators on compact flat manifolds, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., in press]. We answer the question when p(M)>0 if Hol(M) is a cyclic group of prime order or dim⁡M≤4.

  13. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong, E-mail: cke@binghamton.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57 eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  14. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  15. Half-flat Quantum Hair

    CERN Document Server

    García-Compeán, Hugo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a Half-flat manifold we construct an effective supersymmetric Black Hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four-dimensions. Specifically we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric NS flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the black hole physics as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair, and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanishes. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the lost of the quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomalies and the assumption of self-duality for the five-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we c...

  16. Flat colon polyps: what should radiologists know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignjatovic, A. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Burling, D., E-mail: burlingdavid@yahoo.co.u [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Ilangovan, R.; Clark, S.K.; Taylor, S.A.; East, J.E.; Saunders, B.P. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    With the recent publication of international computed tomography (CT) colonography standards, which aim to improve quality of examinations, this review informs radiologists about the significance of flat polyps (adenomas and hyperplastic polyps) in colorectal cancer pathways. We describe flat polyp classification systems and propose how flat polyps should be reported to ensure patient management strategies are based on polyp morphology as well as size. Indeed, consistency when describing flat polyps is of increasing importance given the strengthening links between CT colonography and endoscopy.

  17. Diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  18. Differential-geometrical approach to the dynamics of dissipationless incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics: II. Geodesic formulation and Riemannian curvature analysis of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic stabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Keisuke

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the dynamics of a dissipationless incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD) medium are formulated as geodesics on a direct product of two volume-preserving diffeomorphism groups. Formulations are given for the geodesic and Jacobi equations based on a linear connection with physically desirable properties, which agrees with the Levi-Civita connection. Derivations of the explicit normal-mode expressions for the Riemannian metric, Levi-Civita connection, and related formulae and equations are also provided using the generalized Elsässer variables (GEVs). Examinations of the stabilities of the hydrodynamic (HD, α=0 ) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD, α\\to0 ) motions and the O(α) Hall-term effect in terms of the Jacobi equation and the Riemannian sectional curvature tensor are presented, where α represents the Hall-term strength parameter. It is very interesting that the sectional curvatures of the MHD and HMHD systems between two GEV modes were found to take both the positive (stable) and negative (unstable) values, while that of the HD system between two complex helical waves was observed to be negative definite. Moreover, for the MHD case, negative sectional curvatures were found to occur only when mode interaction was ‘local’, i.e. the wavenumber moduli of the main flow (say p) and perturbation (say k) were relatively close to each other. However, in the nonlocal limit (k\\ll p or k\\gg p ), the sectional curvatures were always positive. This result leads to the conjecture that the MHD interactions mainly excite wavy or non-growing motions; however, some local interactions cause dynamical instability that leads to chaotic or turbulent plasma motions. Additionally, it was found that the tendencies of the O(α) effects are opposite between the ion cyclotron and whistler modes. Comparison with the energy-Casimir method is also discussed using a remarkable constant of motion which relates the Riemannian curvature to the second variation of the

  19. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  20. An extension to flat band ferromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacsi, M.; Kovacs, G.; Gulacsi, Z.

    2014-11-01

    From flat band ferromagnetism, we learned that the lowest energy half-filled flat band gives always ferromagnetism if the localized Wannier states on the flat band satisfy the connectivity condition. If the connectivity conditions are not satisfied, ferromagnetism does not appear. We show that this is not always the case namely, we show that ferromagnetism due to flat bands can appear even if the connectivity condition does not hold due to a peculiar behavior of the band situated just above the flat band.

  1. Length spectra and degeneration of flat metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Duchin, Moon; Rafi, Kasra

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider flat metrics (semi-translation structures) on surfaces of finite type. There are two main results. The first is a complete description of when a set of simple closed curves is spectrally rigid, that is, when the length vector determines a metric among the class of flat metrics. Secondly, we give an embedding into the space of geodesic currents and use this to get a boundary for the space of flat metrics. The geometric interpretation is that flat metrics degenerate to "mixed structures" on the surface: part flat metric and part measured foliation.

  2. Non-Perturbative Flat Direction Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Basboll, A; Riva, F; West, S M; Basboll, Anders; Maybury, David; Riva, Francesco; West, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    We argue that supersymmetric flat direction vevs can decay non-perturbatively via preheating. Considering the case of a single flat direction, we explicitly calculate the scalar potential in the unitary gauge for a U(1) theory and show that the mass matrix for excitations around the flat direction has non-diagonal entries which vary with the phase of the flat direction vev. Furthermore, this mass matrix has 2 zero eigenvalues (associated with the excitations along the flat direction) whose eigenstates change with time. We show that these 2 light degrees of freedom are produced copiously in the non-perturbative decay of the flat direction vev. We also comment on the application of these results to the MSSM flat direction H_uL.

  3. Flat lens for seismic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Brule, Stephane; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    A prerequisite for achieving seismic invisibility is to demonstrate the ability of civil engineers to control seismic waves with artificially structured soils. We carry out large-scale field tests with a structured soil made of a grid consisting of cylindrical and vertical holes in the ground and a low frequency artificial source (< 10 Hz). This allows the identification of a distribution of energy inside the grid, which can be interpreted as the consequence of an effective negative refraction index. Such a flat lens reminiscent of what Veselago and Pendry envisioned for light opens avenues in seismic metamaterials to counteract the most devastating components of seismic signals.

  4. The Flat Tax in Central Europe: Slovakia and the Czech Republic in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michael Ellis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Why and how have Slovakia and the Czech Republic adopted flat tax policies? That is what this paper answers. This is a curious development given that flat tax policies were noticeably absent from the landscape of most of the world, including Eastern Europe. I argue that two simultaneous processes occur that make adoption viable.  First, at the domestic level, the idea of the flat tax is held in esteem by a number of actors, specifically: elite carriers, tax and financial ministers, think tanks and right-wing political parties. They champion this idea to its adoption, or at the least, introduce the flat tax into the policy-making apparatus. Second, at the international level, policy diffusion of the flat tax takes place. In other words, the experience of previous adopters impacts the decisions of future adopters. Examining both cognitive heuristics theory and rational learning I argue that there are “varieties of diffusion” during the diffusion of the flat tax.

  5. Flat coalgebraic fixed point logics

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Fixed point logics have a wide range of applications in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the mu-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the mu-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard mu-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded mu-calculus and the alternating-time mu-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches EXPTIME upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic mu-calculus but avo...

  6. Polyurethane adhesives in flat roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogárová Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to stabilize individual layers of flat roofs, mainly because of wind suction. Apart from anchoring and surcharge, these layers can be secured by bonding. At present gluing is an indispensable and widely used stabilization method. On our market we can found many types of adhesives, most widely used are based on polyurethane. This paper focuses on problematic about stabilization thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene to vapor barrier from bitumen. One of the main issues is to calculate the exact amount of adhesive, which is required to guarantee the resistance against wind suction. In this problematic we can not find help neither in technical data sheets provided by the manufactures. Some of these data sheets contain at least information about amount of adhesive depending on location in roof plane and building height, but they do not specify the strength of such connection. It was therefore resorted to select several representatives polyurethane adhesives and their subsequent testing on specimens simulating the flat roof segment. The paper described the test methodology and results for two types of polyurethane adhesives.

  7. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  8. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  9. Representability of Hom Implies Flatness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin Nitsure

    2004-02-01

    Let be a projective scheme over a noetherian base scheme , and let $\\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent sheaf on . For any coherent sheaf $\\mathcal{E}$ on , consider the set-valued contravariant functor $\\hom_{(\\mathcal{E},\\mathcal{F})}$ on -schemes, defined by $\\hom_{(\\mathcal{E},\\mathcal{F})}(T)=\\mathrm{Hom}(\\mathcal{E}_T,\\mathcal{F}_T)$ where $\\mathcal{E}_T$ and $\\mathcal{F}_T$ are the pull-backs of $\\mathcal{E}$ and $\\mathcal{F}$ to $X_T=X×_s T$. A basic result of Grothendieck ([EGA], III 7.7.9) says that if $\\mathcal{F}$ is flat over then $\\hom_{(\\mathcal{E},\\mathcal{F})}$ is representable for all $\\mathcal{E}$. We prove the converse of the above, in fact, we show that if is a relatively ample line bundle on over such that the functor $\\hom_{(L^{-n},\\mathcal{F})}$ is representable for infinitely many positive integers , then $\\mathcal{F}$ is flat over . As a corollary, taking $X=S$, it follows that if $\\mathcal{F}$ is a coherent sheaf on then the functor $T\\mapsto H^0(T,\\mathcal{F}_T)$ on the category of -schemes is representable if and only if $\\mathcal{F}$ is locally free on . This answers a question posed by Angelo Vistoli. The techniques we use involve the proof of flattening stratification, together with the methods used in proving the author's earlier result (see [N1]) that the automorphism group functor of a coherent sheaf on is representable if and only if the sheaf is locally free.

  10. Ex vivo laser lipolysis assisted with radially diffusing optical applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jieun; Hau, Nguyen Trung; Park, Sung Yeon; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    Laser-assisted lipolysis has been implemented to reduce body fat in light of thermal interactions with adipose tissue. However, using a flat fiber with high irradiance often needs rapid cannula movements and even undesirable thermal injury due to direct tissue contact. The aim of the current study was to explore the feasibility of a radially diffusing optical applicator to liquefy the adipose tissue for effective laser lipolysis. The proposed diffuser was evaluated with a flat fiber in terms of temperature elevation and tissue liquefaction after laser lipolysis with a 980-nm wavelength. Given the same power (20 W), the diffusing applicator generated a 30% slower temperature increase with a 25% lower maximum temperature (84±3.2°C in 1 min ptissue, compared with the flat fiber. Under the equivalent temperature development, the diffuser induced up to fivefold larger area of the adipose liquefaction due to radial light emission than the flat fiber. Ex vivo tissue tests for 5-min irradiation demonstrated that the diffuser (1.24±0.15 g) liquefied 66% more adipose tissue than the flat fiber (0.75±0.05 g). The proposed diffusing applicator can be a feasible therapeutic device for laser lipolysis due to low temperature development and wide coverage of thermal treatment.

  11. Vaneless diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  12. Influence of Diffusivity in Room on its Acoustic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Šumarac Pavlović

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Diffusivity is a geometrical feature of the room which is proportional to the dimension of relief on its interior surfaces. This paper presents the results of analysis which investigates the correlation between diffusivity in a room and parameters calculated from a recorded impulse response. The analysis was performed using a specially prepared physical model of a parallelepipedic room with different combinations of flat and diffusive interior surfaces.

  13. Flat hat glass diffractive optical beam shaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Steffen; Petzold, Uwe; Biertuempfel, Ralf; Vogt, Helge

    2009-02-01

    Many laser applications need a homogeneous - so called flat hat - light distribution in the application area. However, many laser emit Gaussian shaped light. The technology of diffractive optical elements (DOE) can be used to shape the Gaussian beam into a flat hat beam at a compact length. SCHOTT presents a DOE design of a flat hat DOE beam shaper made out of optical glass. Here the material glass has the significant advantage of high laser durability, low scattering losses, high resistance to temperature, moisture, and chemicals compared to polymer DOEs. Simulations and measurements on different DOEs for different wavelength, laser beam width, and laser divergence are presented. Surprisingly the flat hat DOE beam shaper depends only weakly on wavelength and beam width but strongly on laser divergence. Based on the good agreement between simulation and measurement an improved flat hat DOE beam shaper is also presented.

  14. Three lectures on global boundary conditions and the theory of self--adjoint extensions of the covariant Laplace--Beltrami and Dirac operators on Riemannian manifolds with boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Ibort, A

    2012-01-01

    In these three lectures we will discuss some fundamental aspects of the theory of self-adjoint extensions of the covariant Laplace-Beltrami and Dirac operators on compact Riemannian manifolds with smooth boundary emphasizing the relation with the theory of global boundary conditions. Self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators, specially of the Laplace-Beltrami and Dirac operators, are fundamental in Quantum Physics as they determine either the energy of quantum systems and/or their unitary evolution. The well-known von Neumann's theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators is not always easily applicable to differential operators, while the description of extensions in terms of boundary conditions constitutes a more natural approach. Thus an effort is done in offering a description of self-adjoint extensions in terms of global boundary conditions showing how an important family of self-adjoint extensions for the Laplace-Beltrami and Dirac operators are easily describable in this way. Moreover ...

  15. On the class of pseudo-Riemannian geometries which can not be locally described using curvature scalars solely: a necessity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Georgios O

    2014-01-01

    A classic, double problem with intriguing implications at the level of both applied differential geometry and theoretical physics is dealt with in this short work: Is there any criterion in order to decide whether a pseudo-Riemannian space can be locally described using curvature scalars solely? Also: In the case where such a description is impossible, does the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm constitute the only refuge? Surprisingly enough, the first question is susceptible of a very simple and elegant answer, while a naive scheme carries the ambition of providing (modulo specific restrictions) a negative answer to the second question. In order to avoid unnecessary complexity, the analysis is restricted to local rather than global considerations, without any loss of not only the generality but also the insights to the initial problem.

  16. Cosmology in Conformally Flat Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endean, Geoffrey

    1997-04-01

    A possible solution to cosmological age and redshift-distance difficulties has recently been proposed by applying the appropriate conformally flat spacetime (CFS) coordinates to the standard solution of the field equations in a standard dust model closed universe. Here it is shown that CFS time correctly measures the true age of the universe, thus answering a major theoretical objection to the proposal. It is also shown that the CFS interpretation leads to a strong Copernican principle and is in all other respects wholly self-consistent. The deceleration parameter q0 is related to t0, the present age of the universe divided by L, the scale length of its curvature (an absolute constant). The values of q0 and L are approximately 5/6 and 9.2 × 109 yr, respectively. It is shown that the universe started everywhere simultaneously, with no recession velocity until the effects of its closed topology became significant. Conclusions to the contrary in standard theory (the big bang) stem from a different definition of recession velocity. The theoretical present cosmological mass density is quantified as 4.4 × 10-27 kg m-3 approximately, thus greatly reducing, in a closed universe, the observational requirement to find hidden mass. It is also shown that the prediction of standard theory, for a closed universe, of collapse toward a big crunch termination, will not in fact take place.

  17. Study on characteristics of double surface VOC emissions from dry flat-plate building materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinke; ZHANG Yinping; ZHAO Rongyi

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets up an analytic model of double surface emission of volatile organic compound (VOC) from dry, flat-plate building materials. Based on it, the influence of factors including air change rate, loading factor of materials in the room, mass diffusion coefficient, partition coefficient, convective mass transfer coefficient, thickness of materials, asymmetric convective flow and initial VOC concentration distribution in the building material on emission is discussed. The conditions for simplifying double surface emission into single surface emission are also discussed. The model is helpful to assess the double surface VOC emission from flat-plate building materials used in indoor furniture and space partition.

  18. SBC Internal Lamp P-flat Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R. J.; Chiaberge, M.; Bohlin, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a Cycle 23 calibration program to monitor the status of the SBC P-flat. We find random pixel to pixel changes to be small, with only 2% of pixels having changed by more than 3. There are coherent changes that we measure to be above the poisson errors, in some regions as high as 4% peak to peak. We recommend that the ACS team obtain new observations in order to create a new P-flat. We also measured the degradation of the deuterium lamp used to create internal flats. The brightness of the lamp is currently 65% of its initial level, the degradation being dependent on lifetime usage.

  19. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  20. Flatness Control Using Roll Coolant Based on Predicted Flatness Variation in Cold Rolling Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmae, Yukihiro; Okamura, Yoshihide

    Flatness control for cold rolling mills is one of the important technologies for improving of product quality and productivity. In particular, poor flatness leads to strip tearing in the extreme case and, moreover, it significantly reduces productivity. Therefore, various flatness control system has been developed. The main actuators for flatness control are classified into two types; one is mechanical equipment such as roll bender, the other is roll coolant, which controls thermal expansion of roll. Flatness variation such as center buckle or edge wave is mainly controlled by mechanical actuator which has high response characteristics. On another front, flatness variation of local zone can be controlled by roll coolant although one's response is lower than the response of mechanical actuator. For accomplishing good flatness accuracy in cold rolling mills, it is important to improve the performance of coolant control moreover. In this paper, a new coolant control method based on flatness variation model is described. In proposed method, the state of coolant spray on or off is selected to minimize the flatness deviation by using predicted flatness variation. The effectiveness of developed system has been demonstrated by application in actual plant.

  1. B^F Theory and Flat Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Waelbroeck, Henri

    2009-01-01

    We propose a reduced constrained Hamiltonian formalism for the exactly soluble $B \\wedge F$ theory of flat connections and closed two-forms over manifolds with topology $\\Sigma^3 \\times (0,1)$. The reduced phase space variables are the holonomies of a flat connection for loops which form a basis of the first homotopy group $\\pi_1(\\Sigma^3)$, and elements of the second cohomology group of $\\Sigma^3$ with value in the Lie algebra $L(G)$. When $G=SO(3,1)$, and if the two-form can be expressed as $B= e\\wedge e$, for some vierbein field $e$, then the variables represent a flat spacetime. This is not always possible: We show that the solutions of the theory generally represent spacetimes with ``global torsion''. We describe the dynamical evolution of spacetimes with and without global torsion, and classify the flat spacetimes which admit a locally homogeneous foliation, following Thurston's classification of geometric structures.

  2. On certain geodesic conjugacies of flat cylinders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S ARAVINDA; H A GURURAJA

    2017-06-01

    We prove $C^0$-conjugacy rigidity of any flat cylinder among two different classes of metrics on the cylinder, namely among the class of rotationally symmetric metrics and among the class of metrics without conjugate points.

  3. Fuzzy Neural Model for Flatness Pattern Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-yu; SHAN Xiu-ying; LIU Hong-min; NIU Zhao-ping

    2008-01-01

    For the problems occurring in a least square method model,a fuzzy model,and a neural network model for flatness pattern recognition,a fuzzy neural network model for flatness pattern recognition with only three-input and three-output signals was proposed with Legendre orthodoxy polynomial as basic pattern,based on fuzzy logic expert experiential knowledge and genetic-BP hybrid optimization algorithm.The model not only had definite physical meanings in its inner nodes,but also had strong self-adaptability,anti-interference ability,high recognition precision,and high velocity,thereby meeting the demand of high-precision flatness control for cold strip mill and providing a convenient,practical,and novel method for flatness pattern recognition.

  4. Improved ferrous shielding for flat cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    To improve shielding of flat multicore cables, a thin, seamless ferrous shield around all cores optimizes low frequency magnetic shielding. Such shielding is covered with an ultrathin seamless coat of highly conductive nonferrous material.

  5. Relativistic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  6. High performance flat plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  7. Topological properties of flat electroencephalography's state space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken, Tan Lit; Ahmad, Tahir bin; Mohd, Mohd Sham bin; Ngien, Su Kong; Suwa, Tohru; Meng, Ong Sie

    2016-02-01

    Neuroinverse problem are often associated with complex neuronal activity. It involves locating problematic cell which is highly challenging. While epileptic foci localization is possible with the aid of EEG signals, it relies greatly on the ability to extract hidden information or pattern within EEG signals. Flat EEG being an enhancement of EEG is a way of viewing electroencephalograph on the real plane. In the perspective of dynamical systems, Flat EEG is equivalent to epileptic seizure hence, making it a great platform to study epileptic seizure. Throughout the years, various mathematical tools have been applied on Flat EEG to extract hidden information that is hardly noticeable by traditional visual inspection. While these tools have given worthy results, the journey towards understanding seizure process completely is yet to be succeeded. Since the underlying structure of Flat EEG is dynamic and is deemed to contain wealthy information regarding brainstorm, it would certainly be appealing to explore in depth its structures. To better understand the complex seizure process, this paper studies the event of epileptic seizure via Flat EEG in a more general framework by means of topology, particularly, on the state space where the event of Flat EEG lies.

  8. Flat H Frangible Joint Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelman, Thomas E.; Hinkel, Todd J.; Benjamin, Andrew; Rochon, Brian V.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Space vehicle staging and separation events require pyrotechnic devices. They are single-use mechanisms that cannot be tested, nor can failure-tolerant performance be demonstrated in actual flight articles prior to flight use. This necessitates the implementation of a robust design and test approach coupled with a fully redundant, failure-tolerant explosive mechanism to ensure that the system functions even in the event of a single failure. Historically, NASA has followed the single failure-tolerant (SFT) design philosophy for all human-rated spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle Program. Following the end of this program, aerospace companies proposed building the next generation human-rated vehicles with off-the-shelf, non-redundant, zero-failure-tolerant (ZFT) separation systems. Currently, spacecraft and launch vehicle providers for both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs (CCPs) plan to deviate from the heritage safety approach and NASA's SFT human rating requirements. Both programs' partners have base-lined ZFT frangible joints for vehicle staging and fairing separation. These joints are commercially available from pyrotechnic vendors. Non-human-rated missions have flown them numerous times. The joints are relatively easy to integrate structurally within the spacecraft. In addition, the separation event is debris free, and the resultant pyro shock is lower than that of other design solutions. It is, however, a serious deficiency to lack failure tolerance. When used for critical applications on human-rated vehicles, a single failure could potentially lead to loss of crew (LOC) or loss of mission (LOM)). The Engineering and Safety & Mission Assurance directorates within the NASA Johnson Space Center took action to address this safety issue by initiating a project to develop a fully redundant, SFT frangible joint design, known as the Flat H. Critical to the ability to retrofit on launch vehicles being developed, the SFT mechanisms must fit within the same

  9. Systematic effects induced by a flat isotropic dielectric slab

    CERN Document Server

    Macculi, C; Cortiglioni, S; Peverini, O A; Tascone, R; Zannoni, M; Carretti, Ettore; Cortiglioni, Stefano; Macculi, Claudio; Peverini, Oscar Antonio; Tascone, Riccardo; Zannoni, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The instrumental polarization induced by a flat isotropic dielectric slab in microwave frequencies is faced. We find that, in spite of its isotropic nature, such a dielectric can produce spurious polarization either by transmitting incoming anisotropic diffuse radiation or emitting when it is thermally inhomogeneous. We present evaluations of instrumental polarization generated by materials usually adopted in Radioastronomy, by using the Mueller matrix formalism. As an application, results for different slabs in front of a 32 GHz receiver are discussed. Such results are based on measurements of their complex dielectric constant. We evaluate that a 0.33 cm thick Teflon slab introduces negligible spurious polarization ($< 2.6 \\times 10^{-5}$ in transmission and $< 6 \\times 10^{-7}$ in emission), even minimizing the leakage ($< 10^{-8}$ from $Q$ to $U$ Stokes parameters, and viceversa) and the depolarization ($\\sim 1.3 \\times 10^{-3}$).

  10. Solute or Heat Transport in a Flat Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady state solute and heat transfer for laminar flow in a flat duct has been widely studied[1-4]. The same problem in a circular tube is called the Graetz Problem[5,6]. The transfer rate of solute and heat from fluids is of importance in a number of processes, such as diffusion of drugs in the blood stream and the uptake of environmental contaminants by animals in aquatic media[7]. In this study the rate of solute or heat transfer from fluids was determined by solving the associated differential equation. Solution by the series approach in the complex plane was used with a series that had a gaussian factor. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues involved were examined for two different sets of boundary conditions.

  11. 基于 Log-Gabor 滤波与黎曼流形学习的图像识别算法%Image Recognition Algorithm Based on Log-Gabor Wavelet and Riemannian Manifold Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元; 吴小俊

    2015-01-01

    In image recognition applications, Riemannian manifold learning algorithms can not eliminate the redundant information in images effectively. Therefore, an image recognition algorithm based on Log-Gabor wavelet and Riemannian manifold learning is presented. Firstly, images are processed by the Log-Gabor filter to obtain high-dimensional Log-Gabor image features. Then, the Riemannian manifold learning algorithm is used to reduce the dimensionality of the image features. Research shows that the integration of Log-Gabor wavelet and Riemannian manifold learning is in accord with the process of human visual perception. The proposed algorithm has better robustness to illumination and angle variation of the image. Experimental results on several standard databases indicate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.%在图像识别的研究中,黎曼流形学习不能有效消除图像中的冗余信息。基于上述原因,文中提出基于 Log-Gabor 滤波与黎曼流形学习的图像识别算法。首先使用 Log-Gabor 滤波器处理图像,获得维数较高的 Log-Gabor 图像特征,然后使用黎曼流形学习降维图像特征。研究表明,Log-Gabor 滤波与黎曼流形学习的融合算法符合人类视觉感知的过程。文中算法对于光照、角度变化具有较好的鲁棒性,在多个标准数据库上的仿真实验验证文中算法的有效性。

  12. Using Perturbation theory to reduce noise in diffusion tensor fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Staib, Lawrence H; Xu, Dongrong; Laine, Andrew F; Liu, Jun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2009-08-01

    We propose the use of Perturbation theory to reduce noise in Diffusion Tensor (DT) fields. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) encodes the diffusion of water molecules along different spatial directions in a positive definite, 3 x 3 symmetric tensor. Eigenvectors and eigenvalues of DTs allow the in vivo visualization and quantitative analysis of white matter fiber bundles across the brain. The validity and reliability of these analyses are limited, however, by the low spatial resolution and low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in DTI datasets. Our procedures can be applied to improve the validity and reliability of these quantitative analyses by reducing noise in the tensor fields. We model a tensor field as a three-dimensional Markov Random Field and then compute the likelihood and the prior terms of this model using Perturbation theory. The prior term constrains the tensor field to be smooth, whereas the likelihood term constrains the smoothed tensor field to be similar to the original field. Thus, the proposed method generates a smoothed field that is close in structure to the original tensor field. We evaluate the performance of our method both visually and quantitatively using synthetic and real-world datasets. We quantitatively assess the performance of our method by computing the SNR for eigenvalues and the coherence measures for eigenvectors of DTs across tensor fields. In addition, we quantitatively compare the performance of our procedures with the performance of one method that uses a Riemannian distance to compute the similarity between two tensors, and with another method that reduces noise in tensor fields by anisotropically filtering the diffusion weighted images that are used to estimate diffusion tensors. These experiments demonstrate that our method significantly increases the coherence of the eigenvectors and the SNR of the eigenvalues, while simultaneously preserving the fine structure and boundaries between homogeneous regions, in the smoothed tensor

  13. WFC3 UVIS Detector: Improved Flat Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Mack, J.; Sabbi, E.; WFC3 Team

    2012-01-01

    We describe the improved flat field calibration for a set of UVIS broad-band filters that were delivered to MAST in August 2011. The total change peak-to-peak with respect to the previous pipeline flats ranges from 3.6% to 5.6%, increasing with wavelength. The flat-fields previously used in the pipeline were obtained during ground testing and contained a large reflection ghost (or flare) that affected 40% of the field. A simplified geometric model of the internal light reflections has been used to remove the flare from the ground flats. Residual low-frequency structures caused by differences in the ground-based and in-flight optical paths were then computed using photometry of Omega Centauri, observed at various roll angles and with large dithered steps. Furthermore, photometry in a range of apertures has been used to study the UVIS PSF in detail. For radii smaller than 0.4" (10 pixels) the PSF is strongly dependent on both the detector position and on the telescope focus at the time of observation. Therefore, the new pipeline flat fields have been normalized to "infinite" aperture by applying local aperture corrections to 10 pixels, making them more generally applicable.

  14. Historical Transition of Eco-Structure in a Tidal Flat Caused by Expansion of Sewerage Treatment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Tatsumoto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An artificial tidal flat was prepared for the mitigation tool on coastal environment. However, it is considered that most of the flat was not restored to the sufficient amenities for aquatic living things, migratory birds, etc. because none of the ecological mechanisms were understood or planned for. It is therefore investigated in this paper that historical transition factors in ecosystem structure are selected and traced with the diffusion of a public sewerage system, and with environmental factors such as water quality, sediment condition, and aquatic producers in the Yatsu Tidal Flat. As a result, it can be defined that the tidal flat, just like a lagoon, was formed artificially with reclamation and development of its circumference at the first step of transition; the water quality and sediment condition gradually became brackish water and muddy sediment conditions, interactively. The ecosystem pyramid forming orderly layers according to trophic level appeared as a high-bio-production potential in its tidal flat. In the second step, i.e., in recent years, the characteristics of water quality and sediment conditions evolved into a foreshore tidal flat, namely, conditions in the flat observed were that the progression of water included a high concentration of chloride ion as seawater and sediment conditions became sandy. Because of that, the inflowing fresh water and organic mater from the land area decreased with the improvement of the public sewerage system. The ecosystem pyramid was distorted into a chaos pyramid, with inversion of Ulva spp.

  15. Diffusion Harmonics and Dual Geometry on Carnot Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Sarah

    The "curse of dimensionality" motivates the importance of techniques for computing low-dimensional approximations of high-dimensional data. It is often necessary to use nonlinear techniques to recover a low-dimensional manifold embedded via a nonlinear map in a high-dimensional space; this family of techniques is referred to as "manifold learning." The accuracy of manifold-learning-based approximations is founded on asymptotic results that assume the data is drawn from a low-dimensional Riemannian manifold. However, in natural datasets, this assumption is often overly restrictive. In the first part of this thesis we examine a more general class of manifolds known as Carnot manifolds, a type of sub-Riemannian manifold that governs natural phenomena such as chemical kinetics and configuration spaces of jointed objects. We find that diffusion maps can be generalized to Carnot manifolds and that the projection onto diffusion harmonics gives an almost isometric embedding; as a side effect, the diffusion distance is a computationally fast estimate for the shortest distance between two points on a Carnot manifold. We apply this theory to biochemical network data and observe that the chemical kinetics of the EGFR network are governed by a Carnot, but not Riemannian, manifold. In the second part of this thesis we examine the Heisenberg group, a classical example of a Carnot manifold. We obtain a representation-theoretic proof that the eigenfunctions of the sub-Laplacian on SU(2) approach the eigenfunctions of the sub-Laplacian on the Heisenberg group, in the limit as the radius of the sphere becomes large, in analogy with the limiting relationship between the Fourier series on the circle and the Fourier transform on the line. This result also illustrates how projecting onto the sub-Laplacian eigenfunctions of a non-compact Carnot manifold can be locally approximated by projecting onto the sub-Laplacian eigenfunctions of a tangent compact Carnot manifold. In the third part

  16. Magnetized and Flat Beam Experiment at FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Fermilab; Hyun, J. [Sokendai, Tsukuba; Mihalcea, D. [NIU, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Sen, T. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, C. [Fermilab

    2017-05-22

    A photocathode, immersed in solenoidal magnetic field, can produce canonical-angular-momentum (CAM) dominated or “magnetized” electron beams. Such beams have an application in electron cooling of hadron beams and can also be uncoupled to yield asymmetric-emittance (“flat”) beams. In the present paper we explore the possibilities of the flat beam generation at Fermilab’s Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. We present optimization of the beam flatness and four-dimensional transverse emittance and investigate the mapping and its limitations of the produced eigen-emittances to conventional emittances using a skew-quadrupole channel. Possible application of flat beams at the FAST facility are also discussed.

  17. Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B

    2011-01-01

    The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner--Nordstr\\"om and Brill--Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface...

  18. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  19. Taming Past LTL and Flat Counter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demri, Stéphane; sangnier, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Reachability and LTL model-checking problems for flat counter systems are known to be decidable but whereas the reachability problem can be shown in NP, the best known complexity upper bound for the latter problem is made of a tower of several exponentials. Herein, we show that the problem is only NP-complete even if LTL admits past-time operators and arithmetical constraints on counters. Actually, the NP upper bound is shown by adequately combining a new stuttering theorem for Past LTL and the property of small integer solutions for quantifier-free Presburger formulae. Other complexity results are proved, for instance for restricted classes of flat counter systems.

  20. Static cylindrical symmetry and conformal flatness

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, L; Marcilhacy, G; Santos, N O

    2004-01-01

    We present the whole set of equations with regularity and matching conditions required for the description of physically meaningful static cylindrically symmmetric distributions of matter, smoothly matched to Levi-Civita vacuum spacetime. It is shown that the conformally flat solution with equal principal stresses represents an incompressible fluid. It is also proved that any conformally flat cylindrically symmetric static source cannot be matched through Darmois conditions to the Levi-Civita spacetime. Further evidence is given that when the Newtonian mass per unit length reaches 1/2 the spacetime has plane symmetry.

  1. The flat phase of quantum polymerized membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Coquand, O

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the flat phase of quantum polymerized phantom membranes by means of a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We first implement this formalism for general quantum polymerized membranes and derive the flow equations that encompass both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We then deduce and analyze the flow equations relevant to study the flat phase and discuss their salient features : quantum to classical crossover and, in each of these regimes, strong to weak coupling crossover. We finally illustrate these features in the context of free standing graphene physics.

  2. Ultimate resolution of indefinite metamaterial flat lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Bénédicto, Jessica; Pollès, Rémi; Moreau, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    We show that any metallo-dielectric multilayer with a hyperbolic dispersion relation can actually be characterized by a complex effective index. This refractive index, extracted from the complex Bloch band diagram, can be directly linked to the super-resolution of a flat lens made of this so- called indefinite metamaterials. This allows for a systematic optimization of the lens design, leading to structures that are outperforming state-of-art flat lenses. We show that, even when fully taking absorption into account, our design provides super-resolved images for visible light up to a distance of one wavelength from the lens edge.

  3. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  4. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  5. Noncommutative Topological Half-flat Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C

    2004-01-01

    We formulate a noncommutative description of topological half-flat gravity in four dimensions. BRST symmetry of this topological gravity is deformed through a twisting of the usual BRST quantization of noncommutative gauge theories. Finally it is argued that resulting moduli space of instantons is characterized by the solutions of a noncommutative version of the Plebanski's heavenly equation.

  6. Affleck Dine leptogenesis via multiple flat directions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, Kohei

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the Affleck-Dine mechanism when multiple flat directions have large values simultaneously. We consider in detail the case when both $LH_u$ and $H_uH_d$ flat directions are operative with a non-renormalizable superpotential. In case Hubble induced A-terms are present for these two flat directions, their initial values are determined completely by the potential and there are no ambiguities how they are mixed. Moreover, CP is violated even when the Hubble parameter is large due to the Hubble induced A-term and cross coupling in F-term, so that the lepton asymmetry is generated just after the end of inflation. As a result, compared with the case of single flat direction, the resultant lepton-to-entropy ratio is enhanced by a factor of $H_{osc}/m_{3/2}$, where $H_{osc}$ is the Hubble parameter at the onset of oscillation and $m_{3/2}$ is the gravitino mass. However, when Hubble induced A-terms do not exist, there remains indefiniteness of initial phases and CP is violated spontaneously by the phase ...

  7. η-Invariant and Flat Vector Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We present an alternate definition of the mod Z component of the AtiyahPatodi-Singer η invariant associated to (not necessary unitary) fiat vector bundles, which identifies explicitly its real and imaginary parts. This is done by combining a deformation of flat connections introduced in a previous paper with the analytic continuation procedure appearing in the original article of Atiyah, Parodi and Singer.

  8. Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, Ruben B.A.; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-01-01

    Locally oxidized patterns on flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps for microcontact printing were used as a platform for the transfer of a hydrophilic fluorescent ink to a glass substrate. The contrast was found to be limited. These locally oxidized patterns were conversely used as barriers for the tra

  9. Minimal Flat Resolutions of Artinian Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sh. Payrovi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish connection between the minimal flat resolutions of Artinian modules and the concept of cosequences in commutative algebra.The main result of this paper leads to a characterization of local Cohen-Macaulay rings in terms of vanishing property of the dual Bass numbers of certain Artinian modules.

  10. Wideband Flat Radomes Using Inhomogeneous Planar Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalaj-Amirhosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneous planar layers (IPLs are optimally designed as flat radomes in a desired frequency range. First, the electric permittivity function of the IPL is expanded in a truncated Fourier series. Then, the optimum values of the coefficients of the series are obtained through an optimization approach. The performance of the proposed structure is verified using some examples.

  11. Design scenarios for flat panel photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel

  12. Holography of 3d Flat Cosmological Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Arjun; Fareghbal, Reza; Simon, Joan

    2013-01-01

    We provide a first derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of 3d flat cosmological horizons in terms of the counting of states in a dual field theory. These horizons appear in the shifted-boost orbifold of R^{1,2}, the flat limit of non-extremal rotating BTZ black holes. These 3d geometries carry non-zero charges under the asymptotic symmetry algebra of R^{1,2}, the 3d Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS3) algebra. The dual theory has the symmetries of the 2d Galilean Conformal Algebra, a contraction of two copies of the Virasoro algebra, which is isomorphic to BMS3. We study flat holography as a limit of AdS3/CFT2 to semi-classically compute the density of states in the dual, exactly reproducing the bulk entropy in the limit of large charges. Our flat horizons, remnants of the BTZ inner horizons also satisfy a first law of thermodynamics. We comment on how the dual theory reproduces the bulk first law and how cosmological bulk excitations are matched with boundary quantum numbers.

  13. Shear Stress, Turbulence Production and Dissipation in Small Tidal Channels Intersecting a Tidal Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, A.; Puleo, J. A.; McKenna, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    A 16-day field experiment was conducted in March and April 2013 in a tidal wetland in Kent County, Delaware. The study area was a tidal flat fed by a second-order channel that flows into the Brockonbridge Gut, a small tributary of Delaware Bay. The goal of the field study was to investigate spatio-temporal variability in the hydrodynamics of the tidal flat and the small channels that intersect it, over the period of one spring-neap tidal cycle. The experiment combined remotely-sensed imagery with high-frequency in-situ measurements. A tower with imagers (RGB, NIR, TIR) was deployed to quantify the spatial variations of inundation of the channels, flat and marsh. In-situ sensors that measure flow velocity, sediment concentration and water depth were deployed at six locations on the tidal flat and in the channels. At three locations, a Nortek Vectrino II - profiling velocimeter was deployed that measures a 30 mm velocity profile at 1 mm vertical increments at 100 Hz. These velocity profiles are used to compute turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation and stress profiles close to the bed. Results show that peak velocities in the channels occur at the beginning and end of ebbing tide, when the water level is below the tidal flat level. At these instances, peaks in turbulence and bed stress also occur. The flow velocity and turbulence peaks are smaller when the water level does not fall below the tidal flat level. On the tidal flat, the flow velocities and turbulence are generally small compared to the intersecting tidal channel. Maximum flow velocities in the channels are around 0.4 m/s, while on the flat maximum velocities are under 0.1 m/s. A comparison is made between turbulence production and dissipation in both the channel and on the tidal flat to determine if advection and diffusion are important in this environment. In addition, the hydrodynamics at several locations in the channel are compared to investigate changes throughout the study area.

  14. Sliding drops in the diffuse interface model coupled to hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, U; Velarde, M G; Neuffer, K; Bestehorn, M; Pomeau, Y

    2001-12-01

    Using a film thickness evolution equation derived recently combining long-wave approximation and diffuse interface theory [L. M. Pismen and Y. Pomeau, Phys. Rev. E 62, 2480 (2000)] we study one-dimensional surface profiles for a thin film on an inclined plane. We discuss stationary flat film and periodic solutions including their linear stability. Flat sliding drops are identified as universal profiles, whose main properties do not depend on mean film thickness. The flat drops are analyzed in detail, especially how their velocity, advancing and receding dynamic contact angles and plateau thicknesses depend on the inclination of the plane. A study of nonuniversal drops shows the existence of a dynamical wetting transition with hysteresis between droplike solutions and a flat film with small amplitude nonlinear waves.

  15. Sentinel-2 diffuser on-ground calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazy, E.; Camus, F.; Chorvalli, V.; Domken, I.; Laborie, A.; Marcotte, S.; Stockman, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument (MSI) will provide Earth imagery in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative which is a joint undertaking of the European Commission and the Agency. MSI instrument, under Astrium SAS responsibility, is a push-broom spectro imager in 13 spectral channels in VNIR and SWIR. The instrument radiometric calibration is based on in-flight calibration with sunlight through a quasi Lambertian diffuser. The diffuser covers the full pupil and the full field of view of the instrument. The on-ground calibration of the diffuser BRDF is mandatory to fulfil the in-flight performances. The diffuser is a 779 x 278 mm2 rectangular flat area in Zenith-A material. It is mounted on a motorised door in front of the instrument optical system entrance. The diffuser manufacturing and calibration is under the Centre Spatial of Liege (CSL) responsibility. The CSL has designed and built a completely remote controlled BRDF test bench able to handle large diffusers in their mount. As the diffuser is calibrated directly in its mount with respect to a reference cube, the error budget is significantly improved. The BRDF calibration is performed directly in MSI instrument spectral bands by using dedicated band-pass filters (VNIR and SWIR up to 2200 nm). Absolute accuracy is better than 0.5% in VNIR spectral bands and 1% in SWIR spectral bands. Performances were cross checked with other laboratories. The first MSI diffuser for flight model was calibrated mid 2013 on CSL BRDF measurement bench. The calibration of the diffuser consists mainly in thermal vacuum cycles, BRDF uniformity characterisation and BRDF angular characterisation. The total amount of measurement for the first flight model diffuser corresponds to more than 17500 BRDF acquisitions. Performance results are discussed in comparison with requirements.

  16. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  17. Gorenstein flatness and injectivity over Gorenstein rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let R be a Gorenstein ring.We prove that if I is an ideal of R such that R/I is a semi-simple ring,then the Gorenstein flat dimension of R/I as a right R-module and the Gorenstein injective dimension of R/I as a left R-module are identical.In addition,we prove that if R→S is a homomorphism of rings and SE is an injective cogenerator for the category of left S-modules,then the Gorenstein flat dimension of S as a right R-module and the Gorenstein injective dimension of E as a left R-module are identical.We also give some applications of these results.

  18. Perturbations of spiky strings in flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Soumya; Panigrahi, Kamal L

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations of a class of semiclassical strings known today as spiky strings, are studied using the well-known Jacobi equations for small normal deformations of an embedded timelike surface. It is shown that there exists finite normal perturbations of the spiky string worldsheets embedded in a $2+1$ dimensional flat spacetime. Such perturbations lead to a rounding off the spikes, which, in a way, demonstrates the stable nature of the unperturbed worldsheet. The same features appear for the dual spiky string solution and in the spiky as well as their dual solutions in $3+1$ dimensional flat spacetime. Our results are based on exact solutions of the corresponding Jacobi equations which we obtain and use while constructing the profiles of the perturbed configurations.

  19. Improving the durability of flat roof constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    Flat roof constructions are mainly used on commercial, institutional and industrial buildings, where insulation is placed on top of the load-bearing deck and then covered with a roof membrane. Through time, there is a risk that the membrane will allow water passage as holes might form due...... as there is no easy method of drying it. To be able to dry the insulation, and thereby regain the functional requirements of the roofing system, two new solutions for insulating flat roofs with existing materials are proposed for high density mineral wool and expanded polystyrene. Monitoring equipment are part...... to weathering effects or physical loads. Water will then enter the insulation, and as a vapor retarder is normally found below the insulation thus trapping the water in the insulation, the leak can remain undetected for a long period. When the leak is finally discovered, the insulation has to be discharged...

  20. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  1. A Flat World with Deep Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Constantinescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet manages to connect different parts of the world, defies geographical distances and gives the impression that our planet is flat, but the Internet is there only for the ones who have the possibility and the ability to use it. Our contemporary flat world has deep transversal fractures which, like in many geological structures, make a direct connection between layers with different characteristics. The elites are moving across information avenues with targets set in the future; at the same time, in many parts of our planet, there are people organizing their lives in pre-modern agrarian cycles. Diversity in ways of living and in social organization is a sign of human freedom, not a sign of error, so, having different alternatives to achieving prosperity and happiness should be good news. Holding dear to a society’s lifestyle should not push for the destruction of societies with different sets of values.

  2. Flat roof integration. CPT solar (AET IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D.; Pola, I.; Bernasconi, A.; Bura, E.; Cereghetti, N.; Realini, A.; Pasinelli, P.; Rioggi, S.

    2007-11-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a 15.4 kWp solar power installation in Trevano, Switzerland, that features flexible amorphous silicon triple-junction modules, mounted nearly horizontally and directly laminated to flexible polyolefin membranes that form the covering of a flat roof. The main objective of this study was to verify in which order of magnitude the better thermal behaviour of amorphous silicon cells can compensate for losses due to the quasi-horizontal roof integration (lower irradiation and higher reflection), and thus be competitive in the flat roof construction and refurbishment markets. The modules used and their characteristics are described. Performance, temperature levels and energy-production are reviewed for the panels of the installation. The performance of the inverter used is also reviewed. Data on temperatures and production are presented in graphical form and optical losses are examined.

  3. Emergent universe in spatially flat cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kaituo; Yu, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    The scenario of an emergent universe provides a promising resolution to the big bang singularity in universes with positive or negative spatial curvature. It however remains unclear whether the scenario can be successfully implemented in a spatially flat universe which seems to be favored by present cosmological observations. In this paper, we study the stability of Einstein static state solutions in a spatially flat Shtanov-Sahni braneworld scenario. With a negative dark radiation term included and assuming a scalar field as the only matter energy component, we find that the universe can stay at an Einstein static state past eternally and then evolve to an inflation phase naturally as the scalar field climbs up its potential slowly. In addition, we also propose a concrete potential of the scalar field that realizes this scenario.

  4. Efficient defrosting of an inclined flat surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrata Roy; Haribalan Kumar; Anderson, R. [Kettering University, Flint, MI (United States). Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory

    2005-06-01

    We present a deicing simulation for a practical three-dimensional geometry inside which hot air jets impinge upon a flat inclined glass surface with a layer of ice on the outside. The main goal is to study the unsteady two-phase melting process over the inclined flat surface, and to identify the traditional control parameters such as jet impingement angles for minimization of the defrosting time for given ice and glass thicknesses. A correlation for defrosting as functions of time, heat transfer parameters and impingement angles has been found. Also, in this study, the first Joule heating defroster using transparent electrodes are proposed and numerically simulated as a viable alternative. A correlation between the electrical Joule power requirement and the defrosting time is given. It is demonstrated that substantial improvements (roughly 70% reduction) in defrosting time may be achieved using Joule heating compared to the traditional jet impingement HVAC technology. (author)

  5. Wash Flats Management Plan Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wash Flats impoundments comprise an area of approximately 1,200 acres. Prior to 1963, the Wash Flats was subject to periodic wash-over during extremely high...

  6. Shrinkage and trajectory of the flat jet with inclination angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufeng Ye; Yusheng Xie; Hongzhi Guo; Ye Huang; Shantong Jin

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the flat jet with an inclination angle was investigated by a water model. A mathematical model for theshrinkage and the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle was derived theoretically and verified by experimental data of thewater model. The experimental results indicate that the inclination angle (α) has no influence on the shrinkage of the flat jet, theshrinkage of the flat jet along the width direction decreases with the increasing of the initial velocity at the exit (u0) and the initialthickness of the flat jet (t0). Enough bigger initial exit velocity (u0) and initial thickness can suppress the shrinkage of the flat jetalong the width direction and keep the flat jet stabilized. In addition, the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle is parabolicand must be taking into consideration when to determine the striking distance.

  7. Superheater Tube Flat Wall Stationary Temperature Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parpiev A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BKZ-220-100-9 steam generator platen superheater tube flat wall stationary temperature fields analysis have been made. The six steel grades, using in boiler fabrication, namely, St. 10, St. 20, 12H1MF, 15HM, 1H18N9T and 12H18N12T, have been used. The temperature curves calculation has been made by using outer and inner surface heat-transfer coefficients nine different combinations.

  8. EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE FOAM IN FLAT ROOFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In our article we prove the necessity of applying thermal insulation with low water absorption and resistance and preserving mechanical and thermophysical properties in corrosive environment in flat roofs, where there is always a danger of penetrating condensed moisture into the structure. As such material we offered extruded polystyrene foam - heat-insulating polymer material with uniformly distributed closed cells. The products are used in the form of slab insulation and special items - for forming slopes and venting.

  9. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  10. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-11-20

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.

  11. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  12. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rynes, N.J. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States)); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rynes, N.J. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Present state and future of flat panel detector in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    In our country, the introduction of flat panel detector is carried out in the diagnosis region since before several years. In flat panel detector with the high image characteristic, large expectation is being placed. In this paper, image characteristic of flat panel detector and effectiveness of clinical application were reviewed. It is anticipated that flat panel detector with the excellent image characteristic gives large effect in the radiological diagnosis.

  15. 伪黎曼流形中类空超曲面上Killing向量场的存在性定理%Existence theorem for Killing vector field on spacelike hypersurfaces of semi-Riemannian manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建成; 柴瑞娟

    2013-01-01

    设(M,g)是一个具有Killing向量场ε的伪黎曼流形.本文讨论M的紧致类空超曲面M上Killing向量场的存在性问题,给出了M上存在Killing向量场的一个充分条件.%Let((M),g)be a semi-Riemannian manifold with a Killing vector field ε.In this paper,the existence problems of Killing vector fields on compact spacelike hypersurface M of M are studied,and a sufficient condition for the existence of Killing vector fields is obtained.

  16. Forced convective heat transfer in curved diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the velocity characteristics of the flows in two curved diffusers of rectangular cross section with C and S-shaped centerlines are presented and related to measurements of wall heat transfer coefficients along the heated flat walls of the ducts. The velocity results were obtained by laser-Doppler anemometry in a water tunnel and the heat transfer results by liquid crystal thermography in a wind tunnel. The thermographic technique allowed the rapid and inexpensive measurement of wall heat transfer coefficients along flat walls of arbitrary boundary shapes with an accuracy of about 5 percent. The results show that an increase in secondary flow velocities near the heated wall causes an increase in the local wall heat transfer coefficient, and quantify the variation for maximum secondary-flow velocities in a range from 1.5 to 17 percent of the bulk flow velocity.

  17. L1TV Computes the Flat Norm for Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Morgan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the recently introduced L1TV functional can be used to explicitly compute the flat norm for codimension one boundaries. Furthermore, using L1TV, we also obtain the flat norm decomposition. Conversely, using the flat norm as the precise generalization of L1TV functional, we obtain a method for denoising nonboundary or higher codimension sets. The flat norm decomposition of differences can made to depend on scale using the flat norm with scale which we define in direct analogy to the L1TV functional. We illustrate the results and implications with examples and figures.

  18. Absolute flatness testing of skip-flat interferometry by matrix analysis in polar coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Lu; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2016-03-20

    A new method utilizing matrix analysis in polar coordinates has been presented for absolute testing of skip-flat interferometry. The retrieval of the absolute profile mainly includes three steps: (1) transform the wavefront maps of the two cavity measurements into data in polar coordinates; (2) retrieve the profile of the reflective flat in polar coordinates by matrix analysis; and (3) transform the profile of the reflective flat back into data in Cartesian coordinates and retrieve the profile of the sample. Simulation of synthetic surface data has been provided, showing the capability of the approach to achieve an accuracy of the order of 0.01 nm RMS. The absolute profile can be retrieved by a set of closed mathematical formulas without polynomial fitting of wavefront maps or the iterative evaluation of an error function, making the new method more efficient for absolute testing.

  19. REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS ISI FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR WITH MODIFIED FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR.Y.Y.NANDURKAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar water heater of natural circulation type (thermo-siphon is fast growing in India. Initial cost of the solar water heater system at present is high because of store type design. It is necessary to make the product more popular by reducing the cost. This is possible by reducing area of liquid flat plate collector by increasing tube diameter and reducing riser length. Hence it is essential to make solar water heater in affordable range of the general public class. Present work is based on review of comparative performance and analysis of ISI flat plate collector with modified flat plat collector. The paper will be helpful for those who are working in the area of solar water heating system and their use in domestic areas.

  20. Measurements of Flat-Plate Milk Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Nejtek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring in laboratory conditions was performed with the aim to collect a sufficient quantity of measured data for the qualified application of flat-plate coolers in measuring under real operating conditions. The cooling water tank was filled with tap water; the second tank was filled with water at a temperature equivalent to freshly milked milk. At the same time, pumps were activated that delivered the liquids into the flat-plate cooler where heat energy was exchanged between the two media. Two containers for receiving the run-out liquid were placed on the outputs from the cooler; here, temperature was measured with electronic thermometer and volume was measured with calibrated graduated cylinder. Flow rate was regulated both on the side of the cooling fluid and on the side of the cooled liquid by means of a throttle valve. The measurements of regulated flow-rates were repeated several times and the final values were calculated using arithmetic average. To calculate the temperature coefficient and the amount of brought-in and let-out heat, the volume measured in litres was converted to weight unit. The measured values show that the volume of exchanged heat per weight unit increases with the decreasing flow-rate. With the increasing flow-rate on the throttled side, the flow-rate increases on the side without the throttle valve. This phenomenon is caused by pressure increase during throttling and by the consequent increase of the diameter of channels in the cooler at the expense of the opposite channels of the non-throttled part of the circuit. If the pressure is reduced, there is a pressure decrease on the external walls of opposite channels and the flow-rate increases again. This feature could be utilised in practice: a pressure regulator on one side could regulate the flow-rate on the other side. The operating measurement was carried out on the basis of the results of laboratory measurements. The objective was to determine to what extent the

  1. Jet screech reduction with perforated flat reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Tawhidul Islam; Teramoto, Kenbu; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    2008-09-01

    In the present experimental study, investigations have been carried out to evaluate the performance of the new control technique of jet screech with different perforated flat reflectors. Mainly two types of porous flat reflectors had been used in the experiment. One reflector (reflector-V) designed for placing the reflector surface vertical to the jet axis, when, another type of reflector (reflector-H) designed for placing the reflecting surface horizontal to the jet axis. In both cases the reflectors had been placed at the nozzle (base tube with uniform cross-sectional area) exit. The diameter of the reflector-V was 15D when the diameter of the reflector-H was 10D. The porous area of the reflector-V was 6D and 4.5D for reflector-H where D indicated the diameter of the nozzle exit. The placement of the reflector at the exit of the nozzle reduces the sound pressure at the nozzle exit. Thus the muted sound can not excite the unstable disturbance at the nozzle exit and the loop of the feedback mechanism disappeared, finally, the generation of jet screech be cancelled. The suction space located at the back side of the porous surface of the reflector-V improves the efficiency of the screech control technique. However, in the case of reflector-H, the receptivity process of feedback loop had been controlled by reducing the disturbances at the effective shock fronts as well as at the nozzle exit. The performance of the proposed method was verified with a flat reflector concept and good performance in jet screech suppression has been confirmed in the case of porous reflector.

  2. Jet Screech Reduction with Perforated Flat Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the present experimental study, investigations have been carried out to evaluate the performance of the new control technique of jet screech with different perforated flat reflectors. Mainly two types of porous flat reflectors had been used in the experiment. One reflector (reflector-V) designed for placing the reflector surface vertical to the jet axis, when, another type of reflector (reflector-H) designed for placing the reflecting surface horizontal to the jet axis. In both cases the reflectors had been placed at the nozzle (base tube with uniform cross-sectional area)exit. The diameter of the reflector-V was 15D when the diameter of the reflector-H was 10D. The porous area of the reflector-V was 6D and 4.5D for reflector-H where D indicated the diameter of the nozzle exit. The placement of the reflector at the exit of the nozzle reduces the sound pressure at the nozzle exit. Thus the muted sound can not excite the unstable disturbance at the nozzle exit and the loop of the feedback mechanism disappeared, finally,the generation of jet screech be cancelled. The suction space located at the back side of the porous surface of the reflector-V improves the efficiency of the screech control technique. However, in the case of reflector-H, the receptivity process of feedback loop had been controlled by reducing the disturbances at the effective shock fronts as well as at the nozzle exit. The performance of the proposed method was verified with a flat reflector concept and good performance in jet screech suppression has been confirmed in the case of porous reflector.

  3. How flat is our Universe really?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okouma, P.M., E-mail: okouma@saao.ac.za [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); Fantaye, Y. [Astrophysics Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315, Oslo (Norway); Bassett, B.A. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-02-12

    Distance measurement provides no constraints on curvature independent of assumptions about the dark energy, raising the question, how flat is our Universe if we make no such assumptions? Allowing for general evolution of the dark energy equation of state with 20 free parameters that are allowed to cross the phantom divide, w(z)=−1, we show that while it is indeed possible to match the first peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background with non-flat models and arbitrary Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, the full WMAP7 and supernova data alone imply −0.12<Ω{sub k}<0.01 (2σ). If we add an H{sub 0} prior, this tightens significantly to Ω{sub k}=0.002±0.009. These constitute the most conservative and model-independent constraints on curvature available today, and illustrate that the curvature-dynamics degeneracy is broken by current data, with a key role played by the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect rather than the distance to the surface of last scattering. If one imposes a quintessence prior on the dark energy (−1⩽w(z)⩽1) then just the WMAP7 and supernova data alone force the Universe to near flatness: Ω{sub k}=0.013±0.012. Finally, allowing for curvature, we find that all datasets are consistent with a Harrison–Zel'dovich spectral index, n{sub s}=1, at 2σ, illustrating the interplay between early and late Universe constraints.

  4. New asymptotically flat phantom wormhole solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, Francisco S N; Riazi, Nematollah

    2012-01-01

    A possible cause of the late-time cosmic acceleration is an exotic fluid with an equation of state lying within the phantom regime, i.e., $w=p/\\rho 0. Thus, there is no need to surgically paste the interior wormhole geometry to an exterior vacuum spacetime. We also consider the "volume integral quantifier", which provides useful information regarding the total amount of energy condition violating matter, and show that, in principle, it is possible to construct asymptotically flat wormhole solutions with an arbitrary small amount of energy condition violating matter.

  5. Maintaining collections with a flat budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Morris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the various processes, methods and tough decisions made by the University of Kansas Libraries to provide library materials while maintaining a flat collections budget for over eight years. During this period, those responsible for the Libraries’ collections have implemented quick stop- gap measures, picked all the ‘low-hanging fruit’, and eventually canceled a large journal package. This case study will help other librarians facing the reality of maintaining collections at a time when budgets, changing formats and publication practices are all obstacles to providing patrons with what they need.

  6. Atomically flat ultrathin cobalt ferrite islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-García, Laura; Quesada, Adrián; Munuera, Carmen; Fernández, Jose F; García-Hernández, Mar; Foerster, Michael; Aballe, Lucía; de la Figuera, Juan

    2015-10-21

    A route for fabricating structurally perfect cobalt ferrite magnetic nanostructures is demonstrated. Ultrathin islands of up to 100 μm(2) with atomically flat surfaces and free from antiphase boundaries are developed. The extremely low defect concentration leads to a robust magnetic order, even for thicknesses below 1 nm, and exceptionally large magnetic domains. This approach allows the evaluation of the influence of specific extrinsic effects on domain wall pinning. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Atomically flat single terminated oxide substrate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Yang, Chan-Ho; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Jeong, Yoon H.

    2017-05-01

    Scientific interest in atomically controlled layer-by-layer fabrication of transition metal oxide thin films and heterostructures has increased intensely in recent decades for basic physics reasons as well as for technological applications. This trend has to do, in part, with the coming post-Moore era, and functional oxide electronics could be regarded as a viable alternative for the current semiconductor electronics. Furthermore, the interface of transition metal oxides is exposing many new emergent phenomena and is increasingly becoming a playground for testing new ideas in condensed matter physics. To achieve high quality epitaxial thin films and heterostructures of transition metal oxides with atomically controlled interfaces, one critical requirement is the use of atomically flat single terminated oxide substrates since the atomic arrangements and the reaction chemistry of the topmost surface layer of substrates determine the growth and consequent properties of the overlying films. Achieving the atomically flat and chemically single terminated surface state of commercially available substrates, however, requires judicious efforts because the surface of as-received substrates is of chemically mixed nature and also often polar. In this review, we summarize the surface treatment procedures to accomplish atomically flat surfaces with single terminating layer for various metal oxide substrates. We particularly focus on the substrates with lattice constant ranging from 4.00 Å to 3.70 Å, as the lattice constant of most perovskite materials falls into this range. For materials outside the range, one can utilize the substrates to induce compressive or tensile strain on the films and explore new states not available in bulk. The substrates covered in this review, which have been chosen with commercial availability and, most importantly, experimental practicality as a criterion, are KTaO3, REScO3 (RE = Rare-earth elements), SrTiO3, La0.18Sr0.82Al0.59Ta0.41O3 (LSAT), Nd

  8. Geotechnical risk analysis by flat dilatometer (DMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades we have assisted at a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing, to the point that, today, in situ testing is often the major part of a geotechnical investigation. The State of the Art indicates that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT), are fast and convenient in situ tests for routine site investigation. In most cases the DMT estimated parameters, in particular the undrained shear strength su and the constrained modulus M, are used with the common design methods of Geotechnical Engineering for evaluating bearing capacity, settlements etc. The paper focuses on the prediction of settlements of shallow foundations, that is probably the No. 1 application of the DMT, especially in sands, where undisturbed samples cannot be retrieved, and on the risk associated with their design. A compilation of documented case histories that compare DMT-predicted vs observed settlements, was collected by Monaco et al. (2006), indicating that, in general, the constrained modulus M can be considered a reasonable "operative modulus" (relevant to foundations in "working conditions") for settlement predictions based on the traditional linear elastic approach. Indeed, the use of a site investigation method, such as DMT, that improve the accuracy of design parameters, reduces risk, and the design can then center on the site's true soil variability without parasitic test variability. In this respect, Failmezger et al. (1999, 2015) suggested to introduce Beta probability distribution, that provides a realistic and useful description of variability for geotechnical design problems. The paper estimates Beta probability distribution in research sites where DMT tests and observed settlements are available. References Failmezger, R.A., Rom, D., Ziegler, S.R. (1999). "SPT? A better approach of characterizing residual soils using other in-situ tests", Behavioral Characterics of Residual Soils, B

  9. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.

  10. High Performance Atomically Thin Flat Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Han; Qiu, Chengwei; Jia, Baohua; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate ultrathin flat lenses with a thickness of 7 {\\AA}, which corresponds to the fundamental physical limit of the thickness of the material, is fabricated in a large area, monolayer, CVD-prepared tungsten chalcogenides single crystals using the low-cost flexible laser writing method. The lenses apply the ultra-high refractive index to introduce abrupt amplitude modulation of the incident light to achieve three-dimensional (3D) focusing diffraction-limited resolution (0.5{\\lambda}) and a focusing efficiency as high as 31%. An analytical physical model based diffraction theory is derived to simulate the focusing process, which shows excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  11. High temperature flat plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, S.; Aso, S.; Ebisu, K.; Uchino, H.

    1981-04-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of collectors are of great importance for extending the utilization of solar energy for heating and cooling in homes. A highly efficient collector makes the system size small and decreases the system cost effectively. From the view of the amount of energy collected, the efficient collector has a multiple effect, not only because of the high increase in instantaneous efficiency, but also because of the large usable intensity range of the insolation. On the basis of a functional analysis for a flat collector, the materials and parameters were selected and optimized, and a new high temperature flat collector was designed. The collector has 2 panes. The first pane is low iron glass and the second pane is a thin film of fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer. The overall solar transmittance for the two panes is 0.89. The collecting panel and its water paths were formed by means of welding and hydraulic expansion. The selective absorbing surface consists of colored stainless steel whose absorption characteristic is 0.89 and emission characteristic is 0.16. The thermal insulator preventing backward heatloss consists of double layers of urethane foam and glass wool. Furthermore, the sustained method for the second pane is contrived so as to prevent water condensation on the panes and excessive elevation of the absorber temperature during no load heating.

  12. Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric flat directions

    CERN Document Server

    Riva, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Giudice, Gian

    In this work we analyze various implications of the presence of large field vacum expectation values (VEVs) along supersymmetric flat direct ions during the early universe. First, we discuss supersymmetric leptogenesis and the grav itino bound. Supersym- metric thermal leptogenesis with a hierarchical right-han ded neutrino mass spectrum normally requires the mass of the lightest right-handed neu trino to be heavier than about 10 9 GeV. This is in conflict with the upper bound on the reheating t empera- ture which is found by imposing that the gravitinos generate d during the reheating stage after inflation do not jeopardize successful nucleosy nthesis. We show that a solution to this tension is actually already incorporated i n the framework, because of the presence of flat directions in the supersymmetric scalar potential. Massive right- handed neutrinos are efficiently produced non-thermally and the observed baryon asymmetry can be explained even for a reheating temperature respecting the grav- itino bound...

  13. Asymptotically flat space-times: an enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2016-07-01

    We begin by emphasizing that we are dealing with standard Einstein or Einstein-Maxwell theory—absolutely no new physics has been inserted. The fresh item is that the well-known asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell theory are transformed to a new coordinate system with surprising and (seemingly) inexplicable results. We begin with the standard description of (Null) asymptotically flat space-times described in conventional Bondi-coordinates. After transforming the variables (mainly the asymptotic Weyl tensor components) to a very special set of Newman-Unti (NU) coordinates, we find a series of relations totally mimicking standard Newtonian classical mechanics and Maxwell theory. The surprising and troubling aspect of these relations is that the associated motion and radiation does not take place in physical space-time. Instead these relations takes place in an unusual inherited complex four-dimensional manifold referred to as H-space that has no immediate relationship with space-time. In fact these relations appear in two such spaces, H-space and its dual space \\bar{H}.

  14. Effect of row-to-row shading on the output of flat-plate south-facing photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Hassan, A.Y.; Collis, J. (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (USA)); Stefanakos, E.K. (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (USA))

    1989-08-01

    When solar arrays (photovoltaic, thermal, etc.) are arranged in multiple rows of modules, all but the first row suffer reduction in (power) output, even when sufficient spacing between rows is provided. The reduction in output power occurs because the first row prevents some of the diffuse and reflected radiation from reaching the row directly behind it. This work presents estimates of the effect of shading on the amounts of solar radiation received by consecutive rows of flat-plate arrays.

  15. Flatness and Profile Integration Control Model for Tandem Cold Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Using the effective matrix methods of flatness and profile control synthetically, the flatness and profile in- tegration control scheme for tandem cold mills is built in order to increase flatness and profile control precision of tan- dem cold mills. Corresponding control strategies are adopted for various control objectives of different stands and the coordination control strategies of various stands are given, which makes the on-line flatness control cooperate with on-line profile control and implements the parallel control of different stands. According to the measured flatness and profile data of some 1550 mm tandem cold mills, the control scheme is verified and the result indicates that the scheme has high flatness and profile control precision with steady and reliable control process. A new way and method is supplied for researching shade control of tandem cold mills.

  16. Holography of 3D Asymptotically Flat Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Fareghbal, Reza

    2014-01-01

    We study the asymptotically flat rotating hairy black hole solution of a three-dimensional gravity theory which is given by taking flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of New Massive Gravity (NMG). We propose that the dual field theory of the flat-space limit of NMG can be described by a Contracted Conformal Field Theory (CCFT). Using Flat/CCFT correspondence we construct a stress tensor which yields the conserved charges of the asymptotically flat black hole solution. Furthermore, by taking appropriate limit of the Cardy formula in the parent CFT, we find a Cardy-like formula which reproduces the Wald's entropy of the 3D asymptotically flat black hole.

  17. Holography of 3D asymptotically flat black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareghbal, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Morteza

    2015-04-01

    We study the asymptotically flat rotating hairy black hole solution of a three-dimensional gravity theory which is given by taking the flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of new massive gravity. We propose that the dual field theory of the flat-space limit of new massive gravity can be described by a contracted conformal field theory which is invariant under the action of the BMS3 group. Using the flat/contracted conformal field theory correspondence, we construct a stress tensor which yields the conserved charges of the asymptotically flat black hole solution. We check that our expressions of the mass and angular momentum fit with the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Furthermore, by taking the appropriate limit of the Cardy formula in the parent conformal field theory, we find a Cardy-like formula which reproduces the Wald's entropy of the 3D asymptotically flat black hole.

  18. TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).

  19. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin; Kotz, Rainer; Ledl, Thomas; Hauser, Gertrude; Sluga, Maria

    2006-08-01

    Our aim with this study was to establish the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 3- to 6-year-old children to evaluate cofactors such as age, weight, and gender and to estimate the number of unnecessary treatments performed. A total of 835 children (411 girls and 424 boys) were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis of flat foot was based on a valgus position of the heel and a poor formation of the arch. Feet of the children were scanned (while they were in a standing position) by using a laser surface scanner, and rearfoot angle was measured. Rearfoot angle was defined as the angle of the upper Achilles tendon and the distal extension of the rearfoot. Prevalence of flexible flat foot in the group of 3- to 6-year-old children was 44%. Prevalence of pathological flat foot was flat foot decreases significantly with age: in the group of 3-year-old children 54% showed a flat foot, whereas in the group of 6-year-old children only 24% had a flat foot. Average rearfoot angle was 5.5 degrees of valgus. Boys had a significant greater tendency for flat foot than girls: the prevalence of flat foot in boys was 52% and 36% in girls. Thirteen percent of the children were overweight or obese. Significant differences in prevalence of flat foot between overweight, obese, and normal-weight children were observed. This study is the first to use a three-dimensional laser surface scanner to measure the rearfoot valgus in preschool-aged children. The data demonstrate that the prevalence of flat foot is influenced by 3 factors: age, gender, and weight. In overweight children and in boys, a highly significant prevalence of flat foot was observed; in addition, a retarded development of the medial arch in the boys was discovered. At the time of the study, > 90% of the treatments were unnecessary.

  20. Development of Partial Tubular Flat Knitting Fabric Composite Preform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After building some structures of partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform, the influencing factor on tubular section was analyzed and the fabric was knitted selectively. The partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform were Knitted by changing different yarn, row number and two-sided partial tubular flat knitting fabric. Multilayer sheet would be got after hot pressing and it has big market prospects and good application value.

  1. Subduction system and flat slab beneath the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabba, Claudio; De Gori, Pasquale; Faccenna, Claudio; Speranza, Fabio; Seccia, Danilo; Dionicio, Viviana; Prieto, Germán. A.

    2016-01-01

    Seismicity at the northern terminus of the Nazca subduction is diffused over a wide area containing the puzzling seismic feature known as the Bucaramanga nest. We relocate about 5000 earthquakes recorded by the Colombian national seismic network and produce the first 3-D velocity model of the area to define the geometry of the lithosphere subducting below the Colombian Andes. We found lateral velocity heterogeneities and an abrupt offset of the Wadati-Benioff zone at 5°N indicating that the Nazca plate is segmented by an E-W slab tear, that separates a steeper Nazca segment to the south from a flat subduction to the north. The flat Nazca slab extends eastward for about 400 km, before dip increases to ˜50° beneath the Eastern Cordillera, where it yields the Bucaramanga nest. We explain this puzzling locus of intermediate-depth seismicity located beneath the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia as due to a massive dehydration and eclogitization of a thickened oceanic crust. We relate the flat subducting geometry to the entrance at the trench at ca. 10 Ma of a thick - buoyant oceanic crust, likely a volcanic ridge, producing a high coupling with the overriding plate. Sub-horizontal plate subduction is consistent with the abrupt disappearance of volcanism in the Andes of South America at latitudes > 5°N.

  2. Improving the durability of flat roof constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    Flat roof constructions are mainly used on commercial, institutional and industrial buildings, where insulation is placed on top of the load-bearing deck and then covered with a roof membrane. Through time, there is a risk that the membrane will allow water passage as holes might form due...... to weathering effects or physical loads. Water will then enter the insulation, and as a vapor retarder is normally found below the insulation thus trapping the water in the insulation, the leak can remain undetected for a long period. When the leak is finally discovered, the insulation has to be discharged...... of the system, thereby making it easier to detect leaks faster. When a leak is detected, the membrane is repaired locally. In order to remove water which has already entered the insulation, an air gap or a system of air channels between the deck and the insulation is subjected to forced ventilation with outdoor...

  3. Knitting Force Measurement on Flat Knitting Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knittability can be defined as the ability of yarns to run on knitting machines without problems. Knittability can be achieved when less stress is applied on the knitting machine parts by the knitting yarns. This paper presents a novel measuring system for the knitting force needed to perform knitting yarns on flat knitting machine based on data acquisition system (DAS. The proposed system is used to measure the knitting force at different machine settings and different properties of the knitting yarns to determine the optimal production conditions. For this reason, three types of knitted fabric structures (single jersey, Rib 1 × 1, and full cardigan with three different loop lengths and five different twists of ply yarn were produced. The obtained results showed the optimal yarn ply twist factor (αe which gave minimum knitting force (less stress on needles or knitting yarns at different loop lengths for each structure.

  4. Perfect Multi-Channel Flat Reflectors

    CERN Document Server

    Asadchy, V S; Elsakka, A; Albooyeh, M; Tretyakov, S A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in engineered gradient metasurfaces have enabled unprecedented opportunities for light manipulation using optically thin sheets, such as anomalous refraction, reflection, or focusing of an incident beam. Here we introduce a concept of multi-channel functional metasurfaces, which are able to control incoming and outgoing waves in a number of propagation directions or polarization states simultaneously and independently. In particular, we reveal a possibility to create perfect multi-channel reflectors. Under the assumption of reciprocity and energy conservation, we find that there exist three fundamental classes of multi-channel mirrors. Together they form a basis of all possible reflection functionalities achievable with flat periodically modulated reflectors. To demonstrate the potential of the introduced concept, we design and experimentally test one of the basis multi-channel reflectors, confirming the desired multi-channel response. Furthermore, by extending the concept to reflectors suppor...

  5. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.

  6. Topological flat bands from dipolar spin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N Y; Laumann, C R; Gorshkov, A V; Bennett, S D; Demler, E; Zoller, P; Lukin, M D

    2012-12-28

    We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S=1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hard-core bosons, namely, the dressed spin flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose band gap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultracold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered.

  7. Rocky Flats experience with SDM/70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    SDM/70 is a comprehensive system for developing systems. It employs a series of phases designed for consistent, orderly progress through the entire system development life cycle, with heavy emphasis on interaction with the users in the early phases and straightforward, but thorough, documentation throughout. The overall package includes a standard structure of tasks and steps for each phase, methods guidelines, many good forms and tutorials on state-of-the-art techniques. It has guidelines for estimating costs and schedules, approaches for improving project management, and ways to match the effort to the size and type of project (even for small applications or maintenance and enhancement of existing systems). Reasons for adoption of a new methodology by the Computing and Information Systems Department at Rocky Flats are reviewed. The choice of SDM/70 is described, and the status after about a year's experience, including the benefits perceived during that time, is discussed. (RWR)

  8. On asymptotic flatness and Lorentz charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, Geoffrey [KdV Institute for Mathematics, Universiteit van Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dehouck, Francois; Virmani, Amitabh, E-mail: gcompere@uva.nl, E-mail: fdehouck@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: avirmani@ulb.ac.be [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-07-21

    In this paper we establish two results concerning four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes at spatial infinity. First, we show that the six conserved Lorentz charges are encoded in two unique, distinct, but mutually dual symmetric divergence-free tensors that we construct from the equations of motion. Second, we show that the integrability of Einstein's equations in the asymptotic expansion is sufficient to establish the equivalence between counter-term charges defined from the variational principle and charges defined by Ashtekar and Hansen. These results clarify earlier constructions of conserved charges in the hyperboloid representation of spatial infinity. In showing this, the parity condition on the mass aspect is not needed. Along the way in establishing these results, we prove two lemmas on tensor fields on three-dimensional de Sitter spacetime stated by Ashtekar-Hansen and Beig-Schmidt and state and prove three additional lemmas.

  9. Holographic Renormalization of Asymptotically Flat Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Miok

    2012-01-01

    We compute the boundary stress tensor associated with Mann-Marolf counterterm in asymptotic flat and static spacetime for cylindrical boundary surface as $r \\rightarrow \\infty$, and find that the form of the boundary stress tensor is the same as the hyperbolic boundary case in 4 dimensions, but has additional terms in higher than 4 dimensions. We find that these additional terms are impotent and do not contribute to conserved charges. We also check the conservation of the boundary stress tensor in a sense that $\\mathcal{D}^a T_{ab} = 0$, and apply our result to the ($n+3$)-dimensional static black hole solution. As a result, we show that the stress boundary tensor with Mann-Marolf counterterm works well in standard boundary surfaces.

  10. Flat foot: a comparison of surgical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, C; Chiozzi, F; Persiani, P; Costantini, A

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a comparative review of cases concerning the results obtained in the treatment of idiopathic flat foot: the methods compared were Castaman exosinotarsal arthrorisis and Giannini endosinotarsal arthrorisis. Between 1990 and 1198 a total of 80 patients, of which 40 with calcaneo-stop, and 40 with Giannini screws, were submitted to surgery at the Orthopaedic and Traumatology Department of the University of Rome "La Sapienza". The clinical, radiographic and functional results were classified as good, fair and poor. The authors agree on the effectiveness of both methods based on the results obtained and the facility of implantation techniques, however emphasizing the minor injury of the anatomical structures of the subtalar joint when the calcaneo-stop method with Castaman conical screws was used.

  11. FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF FLAT THIN MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. HARSHA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the vibration analysis for predicating the behavior of flat thin inflatable membrane structure. This is having rectangular shaped with a thickness in millimeter fabricated using the various smart materials. Within structural member, it is subjected to pre-stress rather than bending or moments. The deployable structure has the low weight (minimal mass to achieve high acceleration; large area & durable (easily withstand the temperature changes, micrometeoroid hazards in outer space. The objective of this paper is to optimize the smart material for the space satellite technology so that the light weight inflatable structure attracts in satellite application. The observations show the good agreement between finite element and analytical results.

  12. Pulsar Magnetospheres: Beyond the Flat Spacetime Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Samuel E; Philippov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of the pulsar magnetosphere have assumed a pure magnetic dipole in flat spacetime. However, recent work suggests that the effects of general relativity are in fact of vital importance and that realistic pulsar magnetic fields may have a significant nondipolar component. We introduce a general analytical method for studying the axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of a slowly-rotating star of arbitrary magnetic field, mass, radius and moment of inertia, including all the effects of general relativity. We confirm that spacelike current is generically present in the polar caps (suggesting a pair production region), irrespective of the stellar magnetic field. We show that general relativity introduces a ~60% correction to the formula for the dipolar component of the surface magnetic field inferred from spindown. Finally, we show that the location and size of the polar caps can be modified dramatically by even modestly strong higher moments. This can affect emission processes occurring near the star ...

  13. Piecewise flat embeddings for hyperspectral image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyler L.; Meinhold, Renee T.; Hamilton, John F.; Cahill, Nathan D.

    2017-05-01

    Graph-based dimensionality reduction techniques such as Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE), Local Linear Embedding (LLE), Isometric Feature Mapping (ISOMAP), and Kernel Principal Components Analysis (KPCA) have been used in a variety of hyperspectral image analysis applications for generating smooth data embeddings. Recently, Piecewise Flat Embeddings (PFE) were introduced in the computer vision community as a technique for generating piecewise constant embeddings that make data clustering / image segmentation a straightforward process. In this paper, we show how PFE arises by modifying LE, yielding a constrained ℓ1-minimization problem that can be solved iteratively. Using publicly available data, we carry out experiments to illustrate the implications of applying PFE to pixel-based hyperspectral image clustering and classification.

  14. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing.

  15. Diffusion on spatial network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zi; Tang, Xiaoyue; Li, Wei; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we study the problem of diffusing a product (idea, opinion, disease etc.) among agents on spatial network. The network is constructed by random addition of nodes on the planar. The probability for a previous node to be connected to the new one is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of α. The diffusion rate between two connected nodes is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of β as well. Inspired from the Fick's first law, we introduce the diffusion coefficient to measure the diffusion ability of the spatial network. Using both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, we get the fact that the diffusion coefficient always decreases with the increasing of parameter α and β, and the diffusion sub-coefficient follows the power-law of the spatial distance with exponent equals to -α-β+2. Since both short-range diffusion and long-range diffusion exist, we use anomalous diffusion method in diffusion process. We get the fact that the slope index δ in anomalous diffusion is always smaller that 1. The diffusion process in our model is sub-diffusion.

  16. Turbulent mass transfer through a flat shear-free surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnaudet, Jacques; Calmet, Isabelle

    2006-04-01

    Mass transfer through the flat shear-free surface of a turbulent open-channel flow is investigated over a wide range of Schmidt number (1 ≤ Sc ≤ 200) by means of large-eddy simulations using a dynamic subgrid-scale model. In contrast with situations previously analysed using direct numerical simulation, the turbulent Reynolds number Re is high enough for the near-surface turbulence to be fairly close to isotropy and almost independent of the structure of the flow in the bottom region (the statistics of the velocity field are identical to those described by I. Calmet & J. Magnaudet J. Fluid Mech. vol. 474, 2003, p. 355). The main statistical features of the concentration field are analysed in connection with the structure of the turbulent motion below the free surface, characterized by a velocity macroscale u and an integral length scale L. All near-surface statistical profiles are found to be Sc-independent when plotted vs. the dimensionless coordinate Sc({1) / 2}yu/nu (y is the distance to the surface and nu is the kinematic viscosity). Mean concentration profiles are observed to be linear throughout an inner diffusive sublayer whose thickness is about one Batchelor microscale, i.e. LSc({) - 1 / 2 }Re({) - 3 / 4}. In contrast, the concentration fluctuations are found to reach their maximum near the edge of the outer diffusive layer which scales as LSc({) - 1 / 2}Re({) - 1 / 2}. Instantaneous views of the near-surface isovalues of the concentration and vertical velocity are used to reveal the influence of the Schmidt number. In particular, it is observed that at high Schmidt number, the tiny concentration fluctuations that subsist in the diffusive sublayer just mirror the divergence of the two-component surface velocity field. Co-spectra of concentration and vertical velocity fluctuations indicate that the main contribution to the turbulent mass flux is provided by eddies whose horizontal size is close to L, which strongly supports the view that the mass

  17. Robust Estimation of Diffusion-Optimized Ensembles for Enhanced Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Pengfei; Jónsson, Sigurdur Æ.; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The multicanonical, or flat-histogram, method is a common technique to improve the sampling efficiency of molecular simulations. The idea is that free-energy barriers in a simulation can be removed by simulating from a distribution where all values of a reaction coordinate are equally likely......, and subsequently reweight the obtained statistics to recover the Boltzmann distribution at the temperature of interest. While this method has been successful in practice, the choice of a flat distribution is not necessarily optimal. Recently, it was proposed that additional performance gains could be obtained...... by taking the position-dependent diffusion coefficient into account, thus placing greater emphasis on regions diffusing slowly. Although some promising examples of applications of this approach exist, the practical usefulness of the method has been hindered by the difficulty in obtaining sufficiently...

  18. Flat bones and sutures formation in the human cranial vault during prenatal development and infancy: A computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Flórez, F J; Gavilán-Alfonso, M E; Garzón-Alvarado, D A

    2016-03-21

    The processes of flat bones growth, sutures formation and interdigitation in the human calvaria are controlled by a complex interaction between genetic, biochemical and environmental factors that regulate bone formation and resorption during prenatal development and infancy. Despite previous experimental evidence accounting for the role of the main biochemical factors acting on these processes, the underlying mechanisms controlling them are still unknown. Therefore, we propose a mathematical model of the processes of flat bone and suture formation, taking into account several biological events. First, we model the growth of the flat bones and the formation of sutures and fontanels as a reaction diffusion system between two proteins: TGF-β2 and TGF-β3. The former is expressed by osteoblasts and allows adjacent mesenchymal cells differentiation on the bone fronts of each flat bone. The latter is expressed by mesenchymal cells at the sutures and inhibits their differentiation into osteoblasts at the bone fronts. Suture interdigitation is modelled using a system of reaction diffusion equations that develops spatio-temporal patterns of bone formation and resorption by means of two molecules (Wnt and Sclerostin) which control mesenchymal cells differentiation into osteoblasts at these sites. The results of the computer simulations predict flat bone growth from ossification centers, sutures and fontanels formation as well as bone formation and resorption events along the sutures, giving rise to interdigitated patterns. These stages were modelled and solved by the finite elements method. The simulation results agree with the morphological characteristics of calvarial bones and sutures throughout human prenatal development and infancy.

  19. A Student Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Pearson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion is a truly interdisciplinary topic bridging all areas of STEM education. When biomolecules are not being moved through the body by fluid flow through the circulatory system or by molecular motors, diffusion is the primary mode of transport over short distances. The direction of the diffusive flow of particles is from high concentration…

  20. Acoustic diffusers III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, Alejandro

    2002-11-01

    This acoustic diffusion research presents a pragmatic view, based more on effects than causes and 15 very useful in the project advance control process, where the sound field's diffusion coefficient, sound field diffusivity (SFD), for its evaluation. Further research suggestions are presented to obtain an octave frequency resolution of the SFD for precise design or acoustical corrections.

  1. A Student Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Pearson, Bryan

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion is a truly interdisciplinary topic bridging all areas of STEM education. When biomolecules are not being moved through the body by fluid flow through the circulatory system or by molecular motors, diffusion is the primary mode of transport over short distances. The direction of the diffusive flow of particles is from high concentration toward low concentration.

  2. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kim

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD. However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up.

  3. The World Is Not Flat: Can People Reorient Using Slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of spatial representation generally focus on flat environments and visual input. However, the world is not flat, and slopes are part of most natural environments. In a series of 4 experiments, we examined whether humans can use a slope as a source of allocentric, directional information for reorientation. A target was hidden in a corner of…

  4. Evaluation of photomask flatness compensation for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Katherine; Lee, Christopher; Zimmerman, John; Dunn, Thomas; Bean, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to strive towards high volume manufacturing for EUV, flatness specifications for photomasks have decreased to below 10nm for 2018 production, however the current champion masks being produced report P-V flatness values of roughly 50nm. Write compensation presents the promising opportunity to mitigate pattern placement errors through the use of geometrically adjusted target patterns which counteract the reticle's flatness induced distortions and address the differences in chucking mechanisms between e-beam write and electrostatic clamping during scan. Compensation relies on high accuracy flatness data which provides the critical topographical components of the reticle to the write tool. Any errors included in the flatness data file are translated to the pattern during the write process, which has now driven flatness measurement tools to target a 6σ reproducibility write compensation is validated against printed wafer results. Topographic features which lack compensation capability must then be held to stringent specifications in order to limit their contributions to the final image placement error (IPE) at wafer. By understanding the capabilities and limitations of write compensation, it is then possible to shift flatness requirements towards the "non-correctable" portion of the reticle's profile, potentially relieving polishers from having to adhere to the current single digit flatness specifications.

  5. Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ... Data file File name: jsnp_flat_files File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archiv...his Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive ...

  6. The Discourses of OERs: How "Flat" Is This World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Andreia Inamorato

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2000) as a tool for identifying the various discourses that can be found in the provision of open educational resources. The argument will be built upon the concept of a "flat world", a powerful metaphor used by Friedman in his famous book "The World is Flat" (2005). The discussion will…

  7. The Flat Tax: Implications for Financing Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Richard A.

    The campaign for the 1996 Republican presidential election focused attention on proposals to replace the current federal income tax system with a flat tax. This booklet examines the ramifications of a flat tax for local school funding. Section 1 outlines the criteria for evaluating proposed taxes and the purposes of tax systems. The second section…

  8. On the Picard group of a compact flat projective variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelacakis, NJ

    1996-01-01

    In this note, we describe the Picard group of the class of compact, smooth, flat, projective varieties. In view of Charlap's work and Johnson's characterization, we construct line bundles over such manifolds as the holonomy-invariant elements of the Neron-Severi group of a projective flat torus cove

  9. Free energy of topologically massive gravity and flat space holography

    CERN Document Server

    Grumiller, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the free energy from the on-shell action for topologically massive gravity with negative and vanishing cosmological constant, thereby providing a first principles derivation of the free energy of BTZ black holes and flat space cosmologies. We summarize related recent checks of flat space holography.

  10. New face-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    We report two new classes of face-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands which we call the Lieb-I and the Lieb-II lattices. There are 5 and 7 sites in the corresponding unit cells of the simplest Lieb-I and Lieb-II lattices, respectively. The number of flat bands $m$ in the new Lieb lattices is related to the number of sites $N$ in the unit cell by $m=(N-1)/2$. Physical properties of the lattices with even and odd number of flat bands are different. We also consider localization of light in such Lieb lattices. If the input beam excites the flat-band mode, it will not diffract during propagation, owing to the strong localization in the flat-band mode. For the Lieb-II lattice, we also find that the beam will oscillate and still not diffract during propagation, because of the intrinsic oscillating properties of certain flat-band modes. The period of oscillation is determined by the energy difference between the two flat bands. This study provides a new platform for the investigation of flat-band modes...

  11. Tom Friedman on Education in the "Flat World"

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Administrator, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In his best-selling book, "The World Is Flat," Thomas Friedman describes that the real world is becoming "flat." He describes how 10 forces are "flattening" the 21st century--making it easier for people in India, China and around the world to compete with Americans and others who had triumphed the century before. This article presents an interview…

  12. Some peculiarities of Ti in-diffusion in lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirlin, M.; Dariel, M. [CeLight Israel, Rotem Industrial Park, D.N.Arava, 86800 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    The process of one- and two-dimensional Ti in-diffusion in lithium niobate, LiNbO{sub 3} (LN), single crystals of left angle x right angle and left angle z right angle orientations at 950-1060 C in oxygen/water vapor medium had been studied. In the case of one-dimensional diffusion, a flat diffusion front consisting of Ti solid solution in LN is formed. The process kinetics is described by Fick's equation for the case of a permanent source. In the case of two-dimensional Ti diffusion, the diffusion zone contour acquires the shape close to elliptical. The diffusion rate in the tangential direction is about an order of magnitude higher than in the normal direction. A model qualitatively describing such nontrivial character of the diffusion process is suggested. The model is based on: a) incongruent lithium evaporation out of LN at high temperatures; b) low thermodynamic activity of Li in LiTiO{sub 3} - product of Ti interaction with LN. These factors produce a significant nonlinearity of the process, since a strong chemical bond between Li and Ti in this phase leads to a mutual increase in their diffusive mobility. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dan [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-03

    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the

  14. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.

  15. Pulsar Magnetospheres: Beyond the Flat Spacetime Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Philippov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Most studies of the pulsar magnetosphere have assumed a pure magnetic dipole in flat spacetime. However, recent work suggests that the effects of general relativity are in fact of vital importance and that realistic pulsar magnetic fields will have a significant nondipolar component. We introduce a general analytical method for studying the axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of a slowly rotating star of arbitrary magnetic field, mass, radius, and moment of inertia, including all the effects of general relativity. We confirm that spacelike current is generically present in the polar caps (suggesting a pair production region), irrespective of the stellar magnetic field. We show that general relativity introduces a ∼ 60 % correction to the formula for the dipolar component of the surface magnetic field inferred from spindown. Finally, we show that the location and shape of the polar caps can be modified dramatically by even modestly strong higher moments. This can affect emission processes occurring near the star and may help explain the modified beam characteristics of millisecond pulsars.

  16. Design of flat pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirekoh, Jackson; Park, Yong-Lae

    2017-03-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) have gained wide use in the field of robotics due to their ability to generate linear forces and motions with a simple mechanism, while remaining lightweight and compact. However, PAMs are limited by their traditional cylindrical form factors, which must increase radially to improve contraction force generation. Additionally, this form factor results in overly complicated fabrication processes when embedded fibers and sensor elements are required to provide efficient actuation and control of the PAMs while minimizing the bulkiness of the overall robotic system. In order to overcome these limitations, a flat two-dimensional PAM capable of being fabricated using a simple layered manufacturing process was created. Furthermore, a theoretical model was developed using Von Karman’s formulation for large deformations and the energy methods. Experimental characterizations of two different types of PAMs, a single-cell unit and a multi-cell unit, were performed to measure the maximum contraction lengths and forces at input pressures ranging from 0 to 150 kPa. Experimental data were then used to verify the fidelity of the theoretical model.

  17. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  18. Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ruben B A; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Reinhoudt, David N; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-07-27

    Locally oxidized patterns on flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps for microcontact printing were used as a platform for the transfer of a hydrophilic fluorescent ink to a glass substrate. The contrast was found to be limited. These locally oxidized patterns were conversely used as barriers for the transfer of hydrophobic n-octadecanethiol. In this case a good contrast was obtained, but the pattern was found to be susceptible to defects (cracks) in the barrier layer. Local stamp surface oxidation and subsequent modification with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane, for use as a barrier in the transfer of n-octadecanethiol, 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, and octanethiol, resulted in remarkably good contrast and stable patterns. The improved ink transfer control is ascribed to the reduction of undesired surface spreading and a superior mechanical stability of the stamp pattern. This new approach substantially expands the applicability of microcontact printing and provides a tool for the faithful reproduction of even extremely low filling ratio patterns.

  19. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  20. Military market for flat panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of primary military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, color capability and night vision imaging system capability. A select grouping of funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted cockpit kits, and form-fit-function upgrades are taken into account. It is the intent of this paper to provide an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a timely reference to insure meeting DoD requirements for flat-panel displays on schedule and in a cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct view displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 157,000. Helmet/head mounted displays will add substantially to this total. The vanishing vendor syndrome for older display technologies is becoming a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently just leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil-commercial markets.

  1. Solving the Flatness and Quasi-flatness Problems in Brans-Dicke Cosmologies with a Varying Light Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Barrow, John D.; Magueijo, Joao

    1999-01-01

    We define the flatness and quasi-flatness problems in cosmological models. We seek solutions to both problems in homogeneous and isotropic Brans-Dicke cosmologies with varying speed of light. We formulate this theory and find perturbative, non-perturbative, and asymptotic solutions using both numerical and analytical methods. For a particular range of variations of the speed of light the flatness problem can be solved. Under other conditions there exists a late-time attractor with a constant value of Ømega that is smaller than, but of order, unity. Thus these theories may solve the quasi-flatness problem, a considerably more challenging problem than the flatness problem. We also discuss the related \\Lambda and quasi-\\Lambda problem in these theories. We conclude with an appraisal of the difficulties these theories may face.

  2. Evaluation of Interaction Between Flat Car and Container at Dynamic Coupling of Flat Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitchenko Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative materials and structures are analyzed in this paper. To calculate the strength of the collision of flat wagons for the transport of large containers, there is no clear methodology for determining effort interaction between the container and the platform. At high longitudinal acceleration of the container, it is set in motion, and the consideration of this problem in a static setting impossible. The relevance of this work is to develop a methodology that is based on the equations of motion and considers dynamic interaction between container and platform.

  3. The Modelling of Flat Fluidised Photoreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatridis, D.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The present research constitutes a systematic study towards the modelling and design of flat plate fluidised photoreactors. Light transmitted through a fluidised photoreactor (transmittance) and light reflected from the reactor (reflectance) have been measured by new optical techniques. These two important design variables were correlated with relevant fluidisation parameters. The average light transmittance was found to increase with bed expansion, the square root of particle diameter and inversely with bed thickness. On the other hand, the average light reflectance was found to decrease with bed height and particle diameter. The correlations found for light transmittance and reflectance with the fluidised parameters were tested with experimental data using two types of particles of different optical characteristics. The form of these correlations was not affected by the type of particles used. The light energy retained within a fluidised photoreactor, "light absorption", was evaluated by an energy balance from the measured values of light transmittance and reflectance. The light absorption data obtained were regressed for two different types of particles. For 13X zeolites the average light absorption by the bed was found to increase with the second power of bed height and the square root of particle diameter and reactor thickness. For Co-Mo-Al_2O _3 the average light absorption by the bed was found to increase with particle diameter and inversely with bed height. A theoretical study was made using the light energy retained within the reactor to promote a photochemical reaction of first order with respect to reactant concentration and to light absorption. The fluidised bed was treated as a single phase continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The conversion of the reactant was found to increase with the light absorption and decrease with flow rate. This modelling approach may be extended to more complex

  4. Flat norm decomposition of integral currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currents represent generalized surfaces studied in geometric measure theory. They range from relatively tame integral currents representing oriented compact manifolds with boundary and integer multiplicities, to arbitrary elements of the dual space of differential forms. The flat norm provides a natural distance in the space of currents, and works by decomposing a $d$-dimensional current into $d$- and (the boundary of $(d+1$-dimensional pieces in an optimal way.Given an integral current, can we expect its at norm decomposition to be integral as well? This is not known in general, except in the case of $d$-currents that are boundaries of $(d+1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$ (following results from a corresponding problem on the $L^1$ total variation ($L^1$TV of functionals. On the other hand, for a discretized at norm on a finite simplicial complex, the analogous statement holds even when the inputs are not boundaries. This simplicial version relies on the total unimodularity of the boundary matrix of the simplicial complex; a result distinct from the $L^1$TV approach.We develop an analysis framework that extends the result in the simplicial setting to one for $d$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$, provided a suitable triangulation result holds. In $\\mathbb{R}^2$, we use a triangulation result of Shewchuk (bounding both the size and location of small angles, and apply the framework to show that the discrete result implies the continuous result for $1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ .

  5. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a/λ  =  0.280 and a/λ  =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25λ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  6. Novel method for high accuracy figure measurement of optical flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Kewei; Li, Dahai; Yang, Lijie; Guo, Guangrao; Li, Mengyang; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Tao; Xiong, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Phase Measuring Deflectometry (PMD) is a non-contact, high dynamic-range and full-field metrology which becomes a serious competitor to interferometry. However, the accuracy of deflectometry metrology is strongly influenced by the level of the calibrations, including test geometry, imaging pin-hole camera and digital display. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can measure optical flat surface figure to a high accuracy. We first calibrate the camera using a checker pattern shown on a LCD display at six different orientations, and the last orientation is aligned at the same position as the test optical flat. By using this method, lens distortions and the mapping relationship between the CCD pixels and the subaperture coordinates on the test optical flat can be determined at the same time. To further reduce the influence of the calibration errors on measurements, a reference optical flat with a high quality surface is measured, and then the system errors in our PMD setup can be eliminated by subtracting the figure of the reference flat from the figure of the test flat. Although any expensive coordinates measuring machine, such as laser tracker and coordinates measuring machine are not applied in our measurement, our experimental results of optical flat figure from low to high order aberrations still show a good agreement with that from the Fizeau interferometer.

  7. Metric diffusion along foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Szymon M

    2017-01-01

    Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.

  8. Flat structures on the deformations of Gepner chiral rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belavin, Alexander [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics,Akademika Semenova av., 1-A, Chernogolovka, 142432 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belavin, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky av., 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-24

    We propose a simple method for the computation of the flat coordinates and Saito primitive forms on Frobenius manifolds of the deformations of Jacobi rings associated with isolated singularities. The method is based on using a conjecture about integral representations for the flat coordinates and on the Saito cohomology theory. This reduces the computation to a simple linear problem. We consider the case of the deformed Gepner chiral rings. The knowledge of the flat structures of Frobenius manifolds can be used for exact solution of the models of the topological conformal field theories corresponding to these chiral rings.

  9. A New Triangular Flat Shell Element With Drilling Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2008-01-01

    A new flat triangular shell element has been developed based on a newly developed triangular plate bending element by the author and a new triangular membrane element with drilling degrees of freedom. The advantage of the drilling degree of freedom is that no special precautions have to be made...... in connecting with assembly of elements. Due to the drilling rotations all nodal degrees of freedom have stiffness, and therefore no artificial suppression of degrees of freedom are needed for flat or almost flat parts of the shell structure....

  10. A novel simple and accurate flatness measurement method

    CERN Document Server

    Thang, H L

    2011-01-01

    Flatness measurement of a surface plate is an intensive and old research topic. However ISO definition related and other measurement methods seem uneasy in measuring and/ or complicated in data analysis. Especially in reality, the mentioned methods don't take a clear and straightforward care on the inclining angle which is always included in any given flatness measurement. In this report a novel simple and accurate flatness measurement method was introduced to overcome this prevailing feature in the available methods. The mathematical modeling for this method was also presented making the underlying nature of the method transparent. The applying examples show consistent results.

  11. Observations of ebb flows on tidal flats: Evidence of dewatering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehimer, J. P.; Thomson, J. M.; Chickadel, C.

    2010-12-01

    Incised channels are a common morphological feature of tidal flats. When the flats are inundated, flows are generally forced by the tidally varying sea surface height. During low tide, however, these channels continue to drain throughout flat exposure even without an upstream source of water. While the role of porewater is generally overlooked due to the low permeability of marine muds, it remains the only potential source of flows through the channels during low tide. In situ and remotely sensed observations (Figure 1) at an incised channel on a tidal flat in Willapa Bay from Spring 2010 indicate that dewatering of the flats may be driving these low tide flows. High resolution Aquadopp ADCP velocity profiles are combined with observations from tower-based infrared (IR) video to produce a complete time series of surface velocity measurements throughout low tide. The IR video observations provide a measurement of surface currents even when the channel depth is below the blanking distance of the ADCP (10 cm). As the depth within the channel drops from 50 cm to 10 cm surface velocities increase from 10 cm/s to 60 cm/s even as the tide level drops below the channel flanks and the flats are dry. As the drainage continues, the temperature of the flow rises throughout low tide, mirroring temperatures within the sediment bed on the tidal flat. Drainage salinity falls despite the lack of any freshwater input to the flat indicating that less saline porewater may be the source. The likely source of the drainage water is from the channel flanks where time-lapse video shows slumping and compaction of channel sediments. Velocity profiles, in situ temperatures, and IR observations also are consistent with the presence of fluid muds and a hyperpycnal, density driven outflow at the channel mouth highlighting a possible pathway for sediment delivery from the flats to the main distributary channels of the bay. Figure 1: Time series of tidal flat channel velocities and temperatures

  12. Is there a flatness problem in classical cosmology?

    CERN Document Server

    Helbig, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    I briefly review the flatness problem within the context of classical cosmology and examine some of the debate in the literature with regard to its definition and even the question whether it exists. I then present some new calculations for cosmological models which will collapse in the future; together with previous work by others for models which will expand forever, this allows one to examine the flatness problem quantitatively for all cosmological models. This leads to the conclusion that the flatness problem does not exist, not only for the cosmological models corresponding to the currently popular values of lambda_0 and Omega_0 but indeed for all Friedmann-Lema\\^itre models.

  13. Diffusion formalism and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2013-01-01

    Within a unifying framework, Diffusion: Formalism and Applications covers both classical and quantum domains, along with numerous applications. The author explores the more than two centuries-old history of diffusion, expertly weaving together a variety of topics from physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology. The book examines the two distinct paradigms of diffusion-physical and stochastic-introduced by Fourier and Laplace and later unified by Einstein in his groundbreaking work on Brownian motion. The author describes the role of diffusion in probability theory and stochastic calculus and

  14. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  15. Software Simulates Sight: Flat Panel Mura Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In the increasingly sophisticated world of high-definition flat screen monitors and television screens, image clarity and the elimination of distortion are paramount concerns. As the devices that reproduce images become more and more sophisticated, so do the technologies that verify their accuracy. By simulating the manner in which a human eye perceives and interprets a visual stimulus, NASA scientists have found ways to automatically and accurately test new monitors and displays. The Spatial Standard Observer (SSO) software metric, developed by Dr. Andrew B. Watson at Ames Research Center, measures visibility and defects in screens, displays, and interfaces. In the design of such a software tool, a central challenge is determining which aspects of visual function to include while accuracy and generality are important, relative simplicity of the software module is also a key virtue. Based on data collected in ModelFest, a large cooperative multi-lab project hosted by the Optical Society of America, the SSO simulates a simplified model of human spatial vision, operating on a pair of images that are viewed at a specific viewing distance with pixels having a known relation to luminance. The SSO measures the visibility of foveal spatial patterns, or the discriminability of two patterns, by incorporating only a few essential components of vision. These components include local contrast transformation, a contrast sensitivity function, local masking, and local pooling. By this construction, the SSO provides output in units of "just noticeable differences" (JND) a unit of measure based on the assumed smallest difference of sensory input detectable by a human being. Herein is the truly amazing ability of the SSO, while conventional methods can manipulate images, the SSO models human perception. This set of equations actually defines a mathematical way of working with an image that accurately reflects the way in which the human eye and mind behold a stimulus. The SSO is

  16. Observations of the diffuse UV radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, R. C.; Feldman, P. D.; Tennyson, P. D.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra are presented for the diffuse UV radiation field between 1250 to 3100 A from eight different regions of the sky, which were obtained with the Johns Hopkins UVX experiment. UVX flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-61C) in January 1986 as part of the Get-Away Special project. The experiment consisted of two 1/4 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometers, covering the spectral range 1250 to 1700 A at 17 A resolution and 1600 to 3100 A at 27 A resolution, respectively, with a field of view of 4 x .25 deg, sufficiently small to pick out regions of the sky with no stars in the line of sight. Values were found for the diffuse cosmic background ranging in intensity from 300 to 900 photons/sq cm/sec/sr/A. The cosmic background is spectrally flat from 1250 to 3100 A, within the uncertainties of each spectrometer. The zodiacal light begins to play a significant role in the diffuse radiation field above 2000 A, and its brightness was determined relative to the solar emission. Observed brightnesses of the zodiacal light in the UV remain almost constant with ecliptic latitude, unlike the declining visible brightnesses, possibly indicating that those (smaller) grains responsible for the UV scattering have a much more uniform distribution with distance from the ecliptic plane than do those grains responsible for the visible scattering.

  17. Streak instability induced by bedload diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramian, Anaïs; Seizilles, Grégoire; Devauchelle, Olivier; Lajeunesse, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The bed of an alluvial river is made of the sediment it transports. Its shape and size are controlled mostly by bedload transport which, at first order, entrains sediment grains along the flow. Gravity also pulls the moving grains towards the center of the channel, thus eroding the banks continually (Parker 1978). However, laboratory observations show that, due to the bed roughness, the trajectory of a transported grain fluctuates in the transverse direction (Seizilles et al. 2014). The bedload layer is therefore a collection of random walkers which diffuse towards the less active areas of the bed. In a river at equilibrium, bedload diffusion counteracts gravity to maintain the banks. If an initially flat bed of sediment is perturbed with longitudinal streaks, the flow-induced shear stress is weaker where the flow is shallower. Therefore, we expect bedload diffusion to induce a flux of sediment towards the crests of the perturbation. This positive feedback induces an instability which can generate new channels. We suggest that this mechanism could explain the transition from a single-thread river to a braided one.

  18. Modelling of sand transport under wave-generated sheet flows with a RANS diffusion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Wael; Ribberink, Jan S.

    2010-01-01

    A 1DV-RANS diffusion model is used to study sand transport processes in oscillatory flat-bed/sheet flow conditions. The central aim is the verification of the model with laboratory data and to identify processes controlling the magnitude and direction (‘onshore’/‘offshore’) of the net time-averaged

  19. Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1979: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  20. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge Fishery. Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge Fishery Management Plan (Fishery Plan) provides comprehensive management direction to insure that fish species and habitats...

  1. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  2. PUFFER (Pop-Up Flat Folding Explorer Robots)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, J.; Carpenter, K.; Fuller, C.; Parcheta, C.

    2016-10-01

    PUFFER (Pop-Up Flat Folding Explorer Robots) are origami-inspired folding robots with extreme terrain mobility. PUFFERs are low-volume, low-mass, and low-cost robots for high-reward extreme terrain science.

  3. Summary of Comprehensive Conservation Plan : Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document offers a summary of Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge's 2005 Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan. In addition to offering a brief discussion of...

  4. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  5. Non-conformally flat initial data for binary compact objects

    CERN Document Server

    Uryu, Koji; Friedman, John L; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    A new method is described for constructing initial data for a binary neutron-star (BNS) system in quasi-equilibrium circular orbit. Two formulations for non-conformally flat data, waveless (WL) and near-zone helically symmetric (NHS), are introduced; in each formulation, the Einstein-Euler system, written in 3+1 form on an asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface, is exactly solved for all the metric components including the spatially non-conformally flat part, and for irrotational flow. A numerical method applicable to both formulations is explained with an emphasis on the imposition of a spatial gauge condition. Results are shown for solution sequences of irrotational BNSs with matter approximated by a parametrized equations of state that uses a few segments of polytropic equations of state. WL/NHS formulations correct the results from the conformally flat -- Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews (IWM) -- formulation. Binding energy or total angular momentum of solution sequences computed within the IWM formulation are...

  6. Higher-spin algebras, holography and flat space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, C.; Taronna, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this article we study the higher-spin algebra behind the type-A cubic couplings recently extracted from the free O( N ) model in generic dimensions, demonstrating that they coincide with the known structure constants for the unique higher-spin algebra in generic dimensions. This provides an explicit check of the holographic reconstruction and of the duality between higher-spin theories and the free O( N ) model in generic dimensions, generalising the result of Giombi and Yin in AdS4. For completeness, we also address the same problem in the flat space for the cubic couplings derived by Metsaev in 1991, which are recovered from the flat limit of the AdS type-A cubic couplings. We observe that both flat and AdS4 higher-spin Lorentz subalgebras coincide, hinting towards the existence of a full higher-spin symmetry behind the flat-space cubic couplings of Metsaev.

  7. The Ricci Curvature of Half-flat Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, T; Ali, Tibra; Cleaver, Gerald B.

    2007-01-01

    We derive expressions for the Ricci curvature tensor and scalar in terms of intrinsic torsion classes of half-flat manifolds by exploiting the relationship between half-flat manifolds and non-compact $G_2$ holonomy manifolds. Our expressions are tested for Iwasawa and more general nilpotent manifolds. We also derive expressions, in the language of Calabi-Yau moduli spaces, for the torsion classes and the Ricci curvature of the \\emph{particular} half-flat manifolds that arise naturally via mirror symmetry in flux compactifications. Using these expressions we then derive a constraint on the K\\"ahler moduli space of type II string theory on these half-flat manifolds.

  8. Modified Ricci flow and asymptotically non-flat spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Shubhayu

    2013-01-01

    The present work extends the application of a modified Ricci flow equation to an asymptotically non flat space, namely Marder's cylindrially symmetric space. It is found that the flow equation has a solution at least in a particular case.

  9. Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Simon P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vixie, Kevin R [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Clawson, Keth [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Asaki, Thomas J [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Price, Brandon [WALLA WALLA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

  10. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  11. Flexural Behavior of Posttensioned Flat Plates Depending on Tendon Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental results on the flexural behavior and deflections of posttensioned concrete flat plates depending on tendon layout. One reinforced concrete flat plate and two posttensioned concrete flat plates were manufactured and tested. One-way posttensioning layout and two-way posttensioning layout were considered in this paper. The load-deflection behavior and modes of crack are presented from the test results. Posttension systems effectively controlled crack and deflection. One-way and two-way posttensioning layouts both showed similar maximum load. However, serviceability improved with two-way posttensioning layout compared to one-way posttensioning layout. Also, the yield-line theory was applied to predict the ultimate load for the posttensioned flat plates. The comparison between the test results and estimation by yield-line analysis generally showed good agreement.

  12. Landau-Zener Bloch Oscillations with Perturbed Flat Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomeriki, Ramaz; Flach, Sergej

    2016-06-17

    Sinusoidal Bloch oscillations appear in band structures exposed to external fields. Landau-Zener (LZ) tunneling between different bands is usually a counteracting effect limiting Bloch oscillations. Here we consider a flat band network with two dispersive and one flat band, e.g., for ultracold atoms and optical waveguide networks. Using external synthetic gauge and gravitational fields we obtain a perturbed yet gapless band structure with almost flat parts. The resulting Bloch oscillations consist of two parts-a fast scan through the nonflat part of the dispersion structure, and an almost complete halt for substantial time when the atomic or photonic wave packet is trapped in the original flat band part of the unperturbed spectrum, made possible due to LZ tunneling.

  13. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  14. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  16. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  20. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  1. Interacting tachyon dark energy in non-flat universe

    OpenAIRE

    Setare, M.R.; Sadeghi, J.; Amani, A R

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the tachyon cosmology in non-interacting and interacting cases in non-flat FRW universe. Then we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the tachyon field which describe tachyon cosmology.

  2. BTZ extensions of globally hyperbolic singular flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Brunswic, Léo

    2016-01-01

    Minkowski space is the local model of 3 dimensionnal flat spacetimes. Recent progress in the description of globally hyperbolic flat spacetimes showed strong link between Lorentzian geometry and Teichm{\\"u}ller space. We notice that Lorentzian generalisations of conical singularities are useful for the endeavours of descripting flat spacetimes, creating stronger links with hyperbolic geometry and compactifying spacetimes. In particular massive particles and extreme BTZ singular lines arise naturally. This paper is three-fold. First, prove background local properties which will be useful for future work. Second, generalise fundamental theorems of the theory of globally hyperbolic flat spacetimes. Third, defining BTZ-extension and proving it preserves Cauchy-maximality and Cauchy-completeness.

  3. Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat, Op. 15... Stavanger Symphony Orchestra / Grant Llewellyn. Chatsworth CD FCM 1002; Symphony No. 2 - selected comparisons: Gothenburg SO, Järvi (11/87)(BIS) CD 347

  4. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  5. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  7. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  8. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  9. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  10. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  11. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This IMP prioritizes and describes the inventory, monitoring, and research surveys to be conducted on the Yukon Flats NWR over the next 10 years, based on guidance...

  12. Material Flow Modification in a FSW Through Introduction of Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Judy; Brooke, Shane; Nunes, Arthur C.

    2016-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state process in which a non-consumable weld tool is used to stir metal together to obtain a fully consolidated weld seam. There is controversy regarding the contributions of various attributes of the pin design, especially with regards to flats and flutes. In this study, similar FSWs made with threaded cylindrical pin-tools having 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 flats were compared. Slight increases in torque were noted with increasing flats. Significant changes in the FSW structure with varying numbers of flats were observed, but without significant changes in tensile strength. Changes in the textural banding shape, the addition of sub-bands, and a new set of bands from coalescence of band kinks constitute the structural changes observed. Explanations of these structural changes in terms of tool interactions with the FSW metal are offered.

  13. Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat, Op. 15... Stavanger Symphony Orchestra / Grant Llewellyn. Chatsworth CD FCM 1002; Symphony No. 2 - selected comparisons: Gothenburg SO, Järvi (11/87)(BIS) CD 347

  14. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Quaternary geology of Fish Springs flat, Juab county, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish Springs Flat is a sediment-filled valley between two tilted mountain blocks, the Thomas Range and the Fish Springs Range, in the Basin and Range physiographic...

  16. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Analysis of flat slab building with and without shear wall

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanaji R. Chavan; Mohite D. D.; Dr. C. P. Pise; Pawar Y. P; Kadam S.S.; Deshmukh C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical research carried out to study the behaviour flat slab building with and without shear wall reported in the present work. For analysis 15 storied flat slab building is analyzed for seismic behaviour. Response spectrum method is used for analysis considering different shear wall positions using ETABS software. Five different positions of shear wall were studied for analysis. From this analysis shear wall at core having square shape is most suitable case for construction of shear ...

  18. Deformation analysis of optical flat surface with finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pengqiang; Ren, Boyuan; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Dewei; Zhang, Longjiang; Su, Xing

    2016-10-01

    Proposing a new method for testing the ultra-precision aerostatic spindle motion accuracy based on analyzing the online real-time dynamic interference image. Optical flat crystal as the testing standard will be installed at the end of the ultra precision aerostatic spindle and will motion along with the spindle. On the other end of the spindle, the tool will be installed for online processing. The image data of optical flat crystal collected by the high-precision dynamic interferometer will be processed for analyzing the spindle error. For collecting higher accuracy image data, the installation way of optical flat crystal is one of the key technologies. Base on this, the effects of the clamping means on the surface accuracy of optical flat crystal is studied. At first, the finite element model of the optical flat crystal`s clamping structure were established. Secondly, the influence of the material of the supporting annulus, preload lateral clamping and spindle speed on the surface accuracy of optical flat crystal had been analyzed. At last, the improved and optimized structure of the optical flat crystal has been presented. As the analysis results shown, the RMS value of reference surface is 9.47nm and the deformation values of the central region is 0.17nm which satisfies the requirement of surface accuracy and installation of optical flat crystal. It has a very important theoretical and practical significance to establish spindle online testing system and research rotary error generating mechanism of ultra-precision spindle to improve surface accuracy of ultra-precision machining.

  19. Trajectory tracking for robot manipulators using differential flatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Veslin Diaz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  This paper proposes applying differential flatness to robot manipulator trajectory tracking. The trajectories for each generalised coordinate are proposed as a function and the corresponding input must be found to guarantee tracking. It is shown that the position in the generalised coordinates and their derivatives are flat inputs which, together with a PD controller, could determine (with some restrictions manipulator movement having minimal deviation throughout its trajectory in both plane movements and in space. 

  20. Analysis of flat slab building with and without shear wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanaji R. Chavan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical research carried out to study the behaviour flat slab building with and without shear wall reported in the present work. For analysis 15 storied flat slab building is analyzed for seismic behaviour. Response spectrum method is used for analysis considering different shear wall positions using ETABS software. Five different positions of shear wall were studied for analysis. From this analysis shear wall at core having square shape is most suitable case for construction of shear wall.

  1. Analysis of Flat-Plate Solar Array and Solar Lantern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A very detailed theortical analysis of a solar array has been carried out based on established values of solar radiation data to predict the performance of solar lamp . The analysis is based on established theory about flat-plate collectors. Top heat loss coefficient (Ut, Bottom heat loss coefficient (Ub, Overall heat loss coefficient (Ul, Useful energy (Qu, efficiency (hp of the flat-plate solar array and efficiency (hl of the solar lantern has been calculated.

  2. Flat rotation curves using scalar-tensor theories

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Rodriguez-Meza, M. A.; Nunez, Dario

    2007-01-01

    We computed flat rotation curves from scalar-tensor theories in their weak field limit. Our model, by construction, fits a flat rotation profile for velocities of stars. As a result, the form of the scalar field potential and DM distribution in a galaxy are determined. By taking into account the constraints for the fundamental parameters of the theory $(\\lambda, \\alpha)$, it is possible to obtain analytical results for the density profiles. For positive and negative values of $\\alpha$, the DM...

  3. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  4. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  5. Bronnen van diffuse bodembelasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijzen JPA; Ekelenkamp A; LBG; DGM/BO

    1995-01-01

    Ten behoeve van het preventieve bodembeleid was onvoldoende duidelijk welke bijdrage diverse bronnen leveren aan diffuse bodembelasting. Doel van deze inventarisatie was beschikbare kennis over diffuse bodembelasting te bundelen en kennis-lacunes aan te geven. Nevendoel is het beschrijven van de

  6. Distributed Control Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    , self-reconfigurable robots, we present the concept of distributed control diffusion: distributed queries are used to identify modules that play a specific role in the robot, and behaviors that implement specific control strategies are diffused throughout the robot based on these role assignments...... perform simple obstacle avoidance in a wide range of different car-like robots constructed using ATRON modules...

  7. How to produce flat slabs: insights from numeric modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Manea, Marina

    2010-05-01

    Flat slab subduction occurs at ~10% of the active convergent margins and it is assumed that subduction of oceanic aseismic ridges or seamount chains is the main mechanism to produce very low angle subduction slabs. However, recent numeric and analog modeling showed that ridges alone of moderate dimensions subducted perpendicular to the trench are not sufficient to produce flat-slab geometries. Therefore an alternative mechanism able to produce flat-slabs is required. In this paper we present dynamic numeric modeling results of subduction in the vicinity of thick continental lithosphere, as a craton for example. We tailored our modeling setup for the Chilean margins at ~31° and our models are integrated back in time 30 Myr. Modeling results show that a craton thickness of 200 km or more when approaching the trench is capable of blocking the asthenospheric flow in the mantle wedge and increasing considerably the suction force. We were able to produce a flat slab that fits well the flat slab geometry in Chile (based on seismicity) and stress distribution. We conclude that thick cratons located in the vicinity of subduction zones, are capable to produce very low angle slabs, and probable a combination of buoyant ridge subduction with a neighbor thick craton represent a better mechanism to produce flat slabs.

  8. Flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, technology, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Cheung, Arnold C; Bartling, Soenke H; Lisauskas, Jennifer; Grasruck, Michael; Leidecker, Christianne; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas; Brady, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Flat-panel volume computed tomography (CT) systems have an innovative design that allows coverage of a large volume per rotation, fluoroscopic and dynamic imaging, and high spatial resolution that permits visualization of complex human anatomy such as fine temporal bone structures and trabecular bone architecture. In simple terms, flat-panel volume CT scanners can be thought of as conventional multidetector CT scanners in which the detector rows have been replaced by an area detector. The flat-panel detector has wide z-axis coverage that enables imaging of entire organs in one axial acquisition. Its fluoroscopic and angiographic capabilities are useful for intraoperative and vascular applications. Furthermore, the high-volume coverage and continuous rotation of the detector may enable depiction of dynamic processes such as coronary blood flow and whole-brain perfusion. Other applications in which flat-panel volume CT may play a role include small-animal imaging, nondestructive testing in animal survival surgeries, and tissue-engineering experiments. Such versatility has led some to predict that flat-panel volume CT will gain importance in interventional and intraoperative applications, especially in specialties such as cardiac imaging, interventional neuroradiology, orthopedics, and otolaryngology. However, the contrast resolution of flat-panel volume CT is slightly inferior to that of multidetector CT, a higher radiation dose is needed to achieve a comparable signal-to-noise ratio, and a slower scintillator results in a longer scanning time.

  9. [Flat-panel detectors in X-ray systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, M; Heer, V; Freytag, R

    2003-05-01

    For all application segments X-ray systems with flat-panel detectors increasingly enter the market. In digital radiography,mammography and cardiologic angiography flat-panel detectors are already well established while they are made ready for market introduction in general angiography and fluoroscopy. Two flat-panel detector technologies are available. One technology is based on an indirect conversion process of X-rays while the other one uses a direct conversion method. For radiography and dynamic applications the indirect method provides substantial advantages, while the direct method has some benefits for mammography. In radiography and mammography flat-panel detectors lead to clear improvements with respect to workflow, image quality and dose reduction potentials. These improvements are fostered by the immediate availability of the image, the large dynamic range and the high sensitivity to X-rays. New applications and the use of complex image processing algorithms have the potential to enlarge the present diagnostic range of applications. Up to now, image intensifiers are still the well-established technology for angiography and fluoroscopy. Nevertheless flat-panel detectors begin to enter this field, especially in cardiologic angiography. Characteristics of flat-panel detectors such as the availability of distortion-free images, the excellent contrast resolution, the large dynamic range, the high sensitivity to X-rays and the usability in magnetic fields provide the basis for improved and new diagnostic and interventional methods.

  10. Flatness-based pre-compensation of laser diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Rouchon, A Abichou S Elasmi P

    2007-01-01

    A physical nonlinear dynamical model of a laser diode is considered. We propose a feed-forward control scheme based on differential flatness for the design of input-current modulations to compensate diode distortions. The goal is to transform without distortion a radio-frequency current modulation into a light modulation leaving the laser-diode and entering an optic fiber. We prove that standard physical dynamical models based on dynamical electron and photons balance are flat systems when the current is considered as control input, the flat output being the photon number (proportional to the light power). We prove that input-current is an affine map of the flat output, its logarithm and their time-derivatives up to order two. When the flat output is an almost harmonic signal with slowly varying amplitude and phase, these derivatives admit precise analytic approximations. It is then possible to design simple analogue electronic circuits to code approximations of the nonlinear computations required by our flat...

  11. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  12. p16 Expression and Biological Behavior of Flat Vulvar Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LSIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Natasha; Blanco, Luis Z; Maniar, Kruti P

    2017-09-01

    Flat low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of the vulva [vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) 1, flat condyloma] is an uncommon entity with poorly understood biological behavior. We aimed to determine the risk of subsequent vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or carcinoma following a diagnosis of vulvar LSIL/VIN 1, as well as the frequency and predictive value of p16 immunohistochemical expression in this setting. Of the 51 included cases, p16 positivity (diffuse block staining) was identified in 2 (4%). Follow-up data were available in 34 cases, of which 2 (5.9%) developed subsequent vulvar HSIL, including 1/2 p16-positive cases and 1/32 p16-negative cases. The difference in HSIL frequency between p16-positive and p16-negative cases was not statistically significant (P=0.116 for VIN 2+, P=0.061 for VIN 3). For the 18 patients with treatment information available, 10 (56%) received medical or surgical treatment after biopsy. Our results indicate that flat vulvar LSIL is infrequently p16 positive, and that few patients with vulvar LSIL develop subsequent vulvar HSIL. Despite the use of destructive treatment in some cases, the data provide support for the nonpreneoplastic nature of the entity. Immunohistochemical expression of p16 may not be a predictor of HSIL risk in vulvar LSIL, although this result may also be related to the very low rates of both p16 positivity and subsequent vulvar HSIL in our sample. It is clear that vulvar LSIL is distinct from LSIL in other lower anogenital sites in terms of its behavior and p16 expression frequency.

  13. THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double

  14. Flat-plate techniques for measuring reflectance of macro-algae (Ulva curvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Schwarzschild, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We tested the consistency and accuracy of flat-plate spectral measurements (400–1000 nm) of the marine macrophyte Ulva curvata. With sequential addition of Ulva thallus layers, the reflectance progressively increased from 6% to 9% with six thalli in the visible (VIS) and from 5% to 19% with ten thalli in the near infrared (NIR). This progressive increase was simulated by a mathematical calculation based on an Ulva thallus diffuse reflectance weighted by a transmittance power series. Experimental and simulated reflectance differences that were particularly high in the NIR most likely resulted from residual water and layering structure unevenness in the experimental progression. High spectral overlap existed between fouled and non-fouled Ulva mats and the coexistent lagoon mud in the VIS, whereas in the NIR, spectral contrast was retained but substantially dampened by fouling.

  15. MHD Natural Convection with Convective Surface Boundary Condition over a Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Rashidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply the one parameter continuous group method to investigate similarity solutions of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD heat and mass transfer flow of a steady viscous incompressible fluid over a flat plate. By using the one parameter group method, similarity transformations and corresponding similarity representations are presented. A convective boundary condition is applied instead of the usual boundary conditions of constant surface temperature or constant heat flux. In addition it is assumed that viscosity, thermal conductivity, and concentration diffusivity vary linearly. Our study indicates that a similarity solution is possible if the convective heat transfer related to the hot fluid on the lower surface of the plate is directly proportional to (x--1/2 where x- is the distance from the leading edge of the solid surface. Numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations are obtained by the Keller Box method for different values of the controlling parameters associated with the problem.

  16. Effect of Fuel Composition on the Response of an Acoustically Forced Flat Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Jan

    Interest in alternative fuels for power generation is growing, yet these fuels bring new challenges to gas turbine design and operation. Among these challenges are combustor operability issues, highlighted by problems with combustion instabilities. For this thesis, a fundamental study of the effects of fuel composition on combustion dynamics was undertaken. An acoustically forced flat flame burner was constructed, allowing measurement of the flame transfer function (FTF) relating acoustic perturbations to heat release rate fluctuations in the flame. Tests were done using methane, along with simulated syngas and biogas fuel mixtures over a variety of operating conditions. Large variations in methane concentration had a significant impact on the FTF, while variations in the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio did not impact the FTF in fuel mixtures of equal parts methane and syngas. The Strouhal number was found to be an important parameter in predicting phase response independent of the fuel type. Flame liftoff distance and fuel composition were the key parameters determining the peak FTF magnitude. A hypothesis on the role of the non-adiabatic nature of the flat flame and thermal-diffusive effects on the trends in peak FTF magnitude is presented and discussed.

  17. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  18. Helium diffusion in carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, W. H.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Hobbs, D.

    2013-12-01

    The abundance and large grain size of carbonate minerals make them a potentially attractive target for 4He thermochronology and 3He cosmogenic dating, although the diffusive properties of helium in carbonates remain poorly understood. This work characterizes helium diffusion in calcite and dolomite to better understand the crystal-chemical factors controlling He transport and retentivity. Slabs of cleaved natural calcite and dolomite, and polished sections of calcite cut parallel or normal to c, were implanted with 3He at 3 MeV with a dose of 5x1015/cm2. Implanted carbonates were heated in 1-atm furnaces, and 3He distributions following diffusion anneals were profiled with Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the reaction 3He(d,p)4He. For 3He transport normal to cleavage surfaces in calcite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation over the temperature range 78-300°C: Dcalcite = 9.0x10-9exp(-55 × 6 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1. Diffusion in calcite exhibits marked anisotropy, with diffusion parallel to c about two orders of magnitude slower than diffusion normal to cleavage faces. He diffusivities for transport normal to the c-axis are similar in value to those normal to cleavage surfaces. Our findings are broadly consistent with helium diffusivities from step-heating measurements of calcite by Copeland et al. (2007); these bulk degassing data may reflect varying effects of diffusional anisotropy. Helium diffusion normal to cleavage surfaces in dolomite is significantly slower than diffusion in calcite, and has a much higher activation energy for diffusion. For dolomite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation for He diffusion over the temperature range 150-400°C: Ddolomite = 9.0x10-8exp(-92 × 9 kJ mol-1/RT) m2sec-1. The role of crystallographic structure in influencing these differences among diffusivities was evaluated using the maximum aperture approach of Cherniak and Watson (2011), in which crystallographic structures are sectioned along possible diffusion

  19. Tungsten diffusion in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Van Orman, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion of tungsten has been characterized in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine (Fo90) under dry conditions. The source of diffusant was a mixture of magnesium tungstate and olivine powders. Experiments were prepared by sealing the source material and polished olivine under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers to buffer at NNO or IW. Prepared capsules were annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 45 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1050 to 1450 °C. Tungsten distributions in the olivine were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for W diffusion in forsterite: D=1.0×10-8exp(-365±28 kJ mol/RT) m s Diffusivities for the synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-bearing olivine are similar, and tungsten diffusion in olivine shows little dependence on crystallographic orientation or oxygen fugacity. The slow diffusivities measured for W in olivine indicate that Hf-W ages in olivine-metal systems will close to diffusive exchange at higher temperatures than other chronometers commonly used in cosmochronology, and that tungsten isotopic signatures will be less likely to be reset by subsequent thermal events.

  20. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Calogero, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field $\\phi$ which we identify with the dark energy component of the Universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter $\\sigma$. The standard $\\Lambda$CDM model can be recovered by setting $\\sigma=0$. If diffusion takes place ($\\sigma >0$) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the Universe can serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the Universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integr...

  1. On the averaging of cardiac diffusion tensor MRI data: the effect of distance function selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakidis, Archontis; Melkus, Gerd; Yang, Guang; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) allows a unique insight into the microstructure of highly-directional tissues. The selection of the most proper distance function for the space of diffusion tensors is crucial in enhancing the clinical application of this imaging modality. Both linear and nonlinear metrics have been proposed in the literature over the years. The debate on the most appropriate DT-MRI distance function is still ongoing. In this paper, we presented a framework to compare the Euclidean, affine-invariant Riemannian and log-Euclidean metrics using actual high-resolution DT-MRI rat heart data. We employed temporal averaging at the diffusion tensor level of three consecutive and identically-acquired DT-MRI datasets from each of five rat hearts as a means to rectify the background noise-induced loss of myocyte directional regularity. This procedure is applied here for the first time in the context of tensor distance function selection. When compared with previous studies that used a different concrete application to juxtapose the various DT-MRI distance functions, this work is unique in that it combined the following: (i) metrics were judged by quantitative—rather than qualitative—criteria, (ii) the comparison tools were non-biased, (iii) a longitudinal comparison operation was used on a same-voxel basis. The statistical analyses of the comparison showed that the three DT-MRI distance functions tend to provide equivalent results. Hence, we came to the conclusion that the tensor manifold for cardiac DT-MRI studies is a curved space of almost zero curvature. The signal to noise ratio dependence of the operations was investigated through simulations. Finally, the ‘swelling effect’ occurrence following Euclidean averaging was found to be too unimportant to be worth consideration.

  2. Theories on diffusion of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    Tracing the body of the diffusion proces by analysing the diffusion process from historical, sociological, economic and technical approaches. Discussing central characteristics of the proces of diffusion og CAD/CAM in Denmark.......Tracing the body of the diffusion proces by analysing the diffusion process from historical, sociological, economic and technical approaches. Discussing central characteristics of the proces of diffusion og CAD/CAM in Denmark....

  3. Flexible flat feet in children: a real problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, A; Martín-Jiménez, F; Carnero-Varo, M; Gómez-Gracia, E; Gómez-Aracena, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J

    1999-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of flexible flat feet in the provincial population of 4- to 13-year-old schoolchildren and the incidence of treatments considered unnecessary. Province of Málaga, Spain. We examined and graded by severity a sample of 1181 pupils taken from a total population of 198 858 primary schoolchildren (CI: 95%; margin of error: 5%). The sample group was separated into three 2-year age groups: 4 and 5 years, 8 and 9 years, and 12 and 13 years. The plantar footprint was classified according to Denis1 into three grades of flat feet: grade 1 in which support of the lateral edge of the foot is half that of the metatarsal support; grade 2 in which the support of the central zone and forefoot are equal; and grade 3 in which the support in the central zone of the foot is greater than the width of the metatarsal support. The statistical analysis for the evaluation of the differences between the groups was performed with Student's t and chi2 tests as appropriate. The prevalence of flat feet was 2.7%. Of the 1181 children sampled, 168 children (14.2%) were receiving orthopedic treatment, but only 2.7% had diagnostic criteria of flat feet. When we inspected the sample, we found that a number of children were being treated for flat feet with boots and arch supports. Most of them did not have a flat plantar footprint according to the criteria that we used for this work. Furthermore, in the group of children that we diagnosed as having flat feet, only 28.1% were being treated. We found no significant differences between the number of children receiving orthopedic treatments and the presence or absence of a flat plantar footprint. Children who were overweight in the 4- and 5-year-old group showed an increased prevalence for flat feet as diagnosed by us. The data suggest that an excessive number of orthopedic treatments had been prescribed in the province. When extrapolated to the 1997 population of schoolchildren within the age groups studied the figures

  4. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    -cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...... is not well structured with this system. These become the motivations in developing the design guide. This design guide aims to establish a systematic understanding of diffuse ceiling ventilation and provide assistance in designing of such a system. The guide is targeted at design engineers, architects...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...

  5. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    with conventional ventilation systems (mixing or displacement ventilation), diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk in the occupied zone. Moreover, this ventilation system presents a promising opportunity for energy saving, because of the low pressure loss, extended free......Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as an air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Due to the large opening area, air is delivered to the room with very low velocity and no fixed direction, therefore the name ‘diffuse’. Compared......-cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...

  6. Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavialle, Olivier; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  7. Seismic fault preserving diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavialle, Olivier; Pop, Sorin; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-02-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non-linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non-linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  8. Isomorphism, Diffusion and Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Jonsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of the core theoretical constructs of isomorphism, decoupling and diffusion in organizational institutionalism. We first review the original theoretical formulations of these constructs and then examine their evolution in empirical research conducted over the past...

  9. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...... resulting from the design were two-day training workshops conceptually anchored to TBP. The design theory was evaluated through execution of eight diffusion workshops involving three different groups in the same company. The findings indicate that the match between the practice and the context materialized...... that the behavior will be effective). These two factors were especially critical if the source context of the best practice is qualitatively different from the target context into which the organization is seeking to diffuse the best practice....

  10. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion and permeation are discussed within the context of irreversible thermodynamics. A new expression for the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is obtained which links the permeability to the diffusivity of a two-component solution and contains the poroelastic Biot-Willis coefficient. The theory is illustrated by predicting the concentration and pressure profiles during the filtration of a protein solution. At low concentrations the proteins diffuse independently while at higher concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. © 2009 Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.

  11. Diffusion of Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Brzoska, A M; Negele, J W; Thies, M

    2004-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the distribution of Wilson loops in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is presented in which Wilson loop distributions are described as the result of a diffusion process on the group manifold. It is shown that, in the absence of forces, diffusion implies Casimir scaling and, conversely, exact Casimir scaling implies free diffusion. Screening processes occur if diffusion takes place in a potential. The crucial distinction between screening of fundamental and adjoint loops is formulated as a symmetry property related to the center symmetry of the underlying gauge theory. The results are expressed in terms of an effective Wilson loop action and compared with various limits of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.

  12. Relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León Samper, M C; Herrera Ortiz, G; Castellanos Mendoza, C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possible relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia in children between six and 15 years of age. Cross-sectional study including 65 patients that had undergone surgery due to residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation and compared against 75 healthy patients. Flexible flat foot prevalence was measured in each group, with the results showing that 61% of the group with residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation had this condition, vs. 12% in the healthy group. The statistical analysis shows that the chances of suffering from flexible flat foot, are five times greater in the hip dysplasia or hip dislocation group, than in the healthy group. There is no evidence in the literature showing a relationship between these two conditions, even though they have a common etiology. This study shows a potential measurable relation between this two conditions. Patients with hip dysplasia or dislocation may have a higher chance of presenting flexible flat foot during late childhood, adolescence and adulthood, a fact that suggests a relationship between these two pathologies. Also, patients who seek assistance for the first time because of a flexible flat foot condition without having been evaluated during the first year of life for hip dysplasia, would be better off if evaluated for residual hip dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-05-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches over the vast sediment flats during low tide. However, the abundance and function of the diatom film is not homogenously distributed. Recently, we have realized the importance of bivalve reefs for structuring intertidal ecosystems; by creating structures on the intertidal flats they provide habitat, reduce hydrodynamic stress and modify the surrounding sediment conditions, which promote the abundance of associated organisms. Accordingly, field studies show that high chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment co-vary with the presence of mussel beds. Here we present conclusive evidence by a manipulative experiment that mussels increase the local biomass of benthic microalgae; and relate this to increasing biomass of microalgae as well as productivity of the biofilm across a nearby mussel bed. Our results show that the ecosystem engineering properties of mussel beds transform them into hot spots for primary production on tidal flats, highlighting the importance of biological control of sedimentary systems.

  14. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Southern Yucca Flat, Profile 4, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  15. Magnetotelluric Data, Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Central Yucca Flat, Profile 1, as shown in figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  16. Magnetotelluric Data, Northern Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T. H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Frenchman Flat Profile 3, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  17. Phase I Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John McCord

    2007-09-01

    This report documents transport data and data analyses for Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97. The purpose of the data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support parameterization of the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU transport model. Specific task objectives were as follows: • Identify and compile currently available transport parameter data and supporting information that may be relevant to the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU. • Assess the level of quality of the data and associated documentation. • Analyze the data to derive expected values and estimates of the associated uncertainty and variability. The scope of this document includes the compilation and assessment of data and information relevant to transport parameters for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU subsurface within the context of unclassified source-term contamination. Data types of interest include mineralogy, aqueous chemistry, matrix and effective porosity, dispersivity, matrix diffusion, matrix and fracture sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport parameters.

  18. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo

    1998-01-01

    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  19. CO diffusion capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, U.

    1979-01-01

    We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.

  20. Diffusion in nanocrystalline solids

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Alan V.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced atomic migration was an early observation from experimental studies into nanocrystalline solids. This contribution presents an overview of the available diffusion data for simple metals and ionic materials in nanocrystalline form. It will be shown that enhanced diffusion can be interpreted in terms of atomic transport along the interfaces, which are comparable to grain boundaries in coarse-grained analogues. However, the method of sample preparation is seen to play a major role in...

  1. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  2. Diffusion in natural ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Iona; O'Neill, Hugh; Lister, Gordon

    2010-05-01

    Diffusion rates in natural ilmenite of composition Fe0.842+ Fe0.163+Mn0.07Mg0.01Ti 0.92O3 from the Vishnevye Mountains (Urals, Russia) have been measured at 1000° C. Experiments were carried out in a one atmosphere furnace with oxygen fugacity controlled by flow of a CO-CO2 gas mixture, over a period of four hours. The diffusant source was a synthetic ilmenite (FeTiO3) powder doped with trace amounts of Mg, Co, Ni, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Al, Cr, Ga and Y. Since, the natural ilmenite crystal contained Mn it was also possible to study diffusion of Mn from the ilmenite crystal. The experiments were analysed using the electron microprobe and scanning laser ablation ICP-MS. Diffusion profiles were measured for Al, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, and Y. Diffusion of Cr, Hf, Zr, V, Nb and Ta was too slow to allow diffusion profiles to be accurately measured for the times and temperatures studied so far. The preliminary results show that diffusion in ilmenite is fast, with the diffusivity determined in this study on the order of 10-13 to 10-16 m2s-1. For comparison, Chakraborty (1997) found interdiffusion of Fe and Mg in olivine at 1000° C on the order of 10-17 to 10-18m2s-1 and Dieckmann (1998) found diffusivity of Fe, Mg, Co in magnetite at 1200° C to be on the order of 10-13 to 10-14 m2s-1. The order in which the diffusivity of the elements decreases is Mn > Co > Mg ≥ Ni > Al ≥ Y ≥ Ga, that is to say that Mn diffuses the fastest and Ga the slowest. Overall, this study intends to determine diffusion parameters such as frequency factor, activation energy and activation volume as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity. This research is taking place in the context of a larger study focusing on the use of the garnet-ilmenite system as a geospeedometer. Examination of the consequences of simultaneous diffusion of multiple elements is a necessity if we are to develop an understanding of the crystal-chemical controls on diffusion (cf Spandler & O'Neill, in press). Chakraborty

  3. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying, E-mail: ying.wu@kaust.edu.sa

    2014-10-03

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry–Perot resonance. - Highlights: • Expression of transmission coefficient of an acoustic grating with curled slits. • Non-dispersive and tunable effective medium parameters for the acoustic grating. • A flat acoustic focusing lens with gradient index by using the acoustic grating.

  4. Plutonium and americium contamination in Rocky Flats soil, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, P.; Hardy, E.; Volchok, H.; Toonkel, L.; Knuth, R.; Coppes, M.; Tamura, T.

    1976-03-01

    The plutonium mass isotopic analysis and the Am-241 analysis of soil samples from Rocky Flats identify the contamination as Pu which was processed in 1958. The Am-241 activity in the soil will reach its maximum in 2033 and represent 18 percent of the Pu-239-240 activity. Nuclide ratios indicate that current operations at Rocky Flats contribute little to the airborne Pu concentrations which are due to resuspension of the contaminated soil. Root uptake of Pu or Am by vegetation is slight or shows no discrimination among the isotopes and nuclides studied. The relationship between Pu deposition contour and the area enclosed by that contour has been verified for contour values extending over 7 orders of magnitude. This gives confidence to our calculations of the quantities of Pu released on and off the Rocky Flats plant site. (auth)

  5. Method of Analytic Evolution of Flat Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Tandogan, Asli

    2011-01-01

    A new analytical method of performing ERBL evolution is described. The main goal is to develop an approach that works for distribution amplitudes that do not vanish at the end points, for which the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials is inefficient. Two cases of the initial DA are considered: a purely flat DA, given by the same constant for all x, and an antisymmetric DA given by opposite constants for x 1/2. For a purely flat DA, the evolution is governed by an overall (x (1-x))^t dependence on the evolution parameter t times a factor that was calculated as an expansion in t. For an antisymmetric flat DA, an extra overall factor |1-2x|^{2t} appears due to a jump at x=1/2. A good convergence was observed in the t < 1/2 region. For larger t, one can use the standard method of the Gegenbauer expansion.

  6. ACS/SBC Internal Lamp P-flat Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Roberto J.; Chiaberge, Marco; Bohlin, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    We report on a Cycle 23 calibration program to monitor the status of the SBC P-flat. We find random pixel to pixel changes to be small, with only ˜2% of pixels having changed by more than 3σ. There are coherent changes that we measure to be above the poisson errors, in some regions as high as 4% peak to peak. We therefore recommend that the ACS team obtain new observations in order to create a new P-flat. We also measured the degradation of the deuterium lamp used to create internal flats. The brightness of the lamp is currently ˜65% of its initial level, the degradation being dependent on lifetime usage.

  7. Laminar film boiling on inclined isothermal flat plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    Laminar film boiling from an inclined flat plate has been investigated analytically. Using the singular perturbation scheme, the complete set of Navier-Stokes equations is solved. The zeroth-order perturbation coinciding with the boundary-layer equations for vertical flat plates governs the problem. The higher-order perturbations become important near the leading edge and for large values of the inclination angle from the vertical. The assumption of zero interfacial velocity shows that, except for fluids having large (rho x mu) ratios, the results can be predicted using the vertical flat plate results by defining a modified Grashof parameter containing a cos phi term. When the interfacial shear is considered, the solutions indicate that for fluids having large (rho x mu) ratios, the heat transfer rates will be larger (approximately 15% maximum) than those predicted by the simplified model using zero interfacial velocity. In general, the inclination decreases the rate of heat transfer as well as the rate of evaporation.

  8. Higher-spin flat space cosmologies with soft hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, Martin; Grumiller, Daniel; Prohazka, Stefan; Riegler, Max; Wutte, Raphaela

    2017-05-01

    We present and discuss near horizon boundary conditions for flat space higher-spin gravity in three dimensions. As in related work our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the solutions independently of the charges. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is given by a set of \\widehat{u}(1) current algebras. The associated charges generate higher-spin soft hair. We derive the entropy for solutions that are continuously connected to flat space cosmologies and find the same result as in the spin-2 case: the entropy is linear in the spin-2 zero-mode charges and independent from the spin-3 charges. Using twisted Sugawara-like constructions of higher-spin currents we show that our simple result for entropy of higherspin flat space cosmologies coincides precisely with the complicated earlier results expressed in terms of higher-spin zero mode charges.

  9. Electroluminescent Polymers and Carbon Nanotubes for Flat Panel Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming Dai; Limin Dong; Mei Gao; Shaoming Huang; Oddvar Johansen; Albert W.H.Mau,Zoran Vasic; Berthold Winkler; Yongyuang Yang

    2000-01-01

    polymeric light-emitting diodes(LEDs) with sufficient brightness. efficiencies, low driving voltages, and various interesting features have been reported. The relatively short device lifetime, however, still remains as a major problem to be solved before any commercial applications will be realized. In this regard,carbon nanotubes have recently been proposed as more robust electron field emitters for flat panel displays. We have synthesised large arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, from which micropatterns of the aligned nanotubes suitable for flat panel displays were fabricated on various substrates. In this paper, we summarise our work on the synthesis and microfabrication of electroluminescent polymers and carbon nanotubes for flat panel displays with reference to other complementary work as appropriate.

  10. Static shape control of a flat shell structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The eight-node and forty-DOF piezoelectric shell element were applied to shape control of a flat shell structure. By the direct and converse effects, a distributed piezoelectric sensor layer was used to monitor the shape deformation and a distributed actuator layer was used to suppresse the deflection. A finite element model was for static response of laminated shell with piezoelectric sensors/actuators was derived. The model was verified by calculating piezoelectric polymeric PVDF bimorph beam. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by theoretical analysis of Tzou[1] and Hwang[2]. A case study of the static shape control of a flat shell structure is presented.

  11. MD2013: Tune shift along the batch at flat top

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Buffat, Xavier; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A series of tests were performed that led to a measurement of the tune shift along a 96 bunch batch with 25ns spacing at flat top. The measurements demonstrated the ability of the transverse damper (ADT) to excite single bunches with minimal pulse leakage to neighbouring bunches (with 25ns bunch spacing). The processes were tested and refined with tests at injection and end of fill (EOF) before carrying out the excitation at flat top before a physics fill. The tune shift along the batch was shown to be less than ≈4x10-4 for both beams, both planes.

  12. Chern-Simons functional under gauge transformations on flat bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Yanghyun; Kim, Joohee

    2017-01-01

    We describe the effect of a gauge transformation on the Chern-Simons functional in a thorough and unifying manner. We use the assumptions that the structure group is compact and connected and, in particular, that the principal bundle is flat. The Chern-Simons functional we consider is the one defined by choosing a flat reference connection. The most critical step in arriving at the main result is to show both the existence and the uniqueness of a cohomology class on the adjoint bundle such that it is the class of the so-called Maurer-Cartan 3-form when restricted to each fiber.

  13. "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber was a very special one for the ISR beam intersection I-4, inside the Split-Field Magnet. Technical descriptions are given with pictures 7802042 and 7712182. There were several generations of this chamber. This picture was taken during the last year of ISR operation. See also 7510230X, 7511123X, 7802039, 7802041. A flat-fish type vacuum chamber was also used at I-8, inside the Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM, experiment 807 on large transverse momentum collision products), see 7901358.

  14. Shear flow past a flat plate in hydromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. N. Sastry

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of simple shear flow past a flat plate has been extended to the hydromagnetic case in which a viscous, electrically conducting, incompressible fluid flows past an electrically insulated flat plate with a magnetic field parallel to the plate. For simplicity all physical parameters are assumed constant. A series solution for the velocity field has been developed for small values of a magnetic parameter. The equations governing this flow field were integrated numerically It is found that the effect of the magnetic field is to diminish and increase respectively, the first and second order contributions for the skin friction.

  15. Damage Function Rating Procedure for Flat Slab Basement Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    with solid heads at the columns . These types of slabs are 33 I r~ Omm- D6U0St - m . -I ig. "-.TyiaaFalSasontucin 34 -4 called ribbed, or " waffle ", slabs ...and for design purposes are considered flat slabs with the solid heads at the columns performing the same function as the drop panels. Waffle flat...she:.ers, an upgrading method must be developed and verified by test for these critical stress areas adjacent to the column supports. Waffle Slabs

  16. Vacuum energy in asymptotically flat 2+1 gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Miskovic, Olivera; Roy, Debraj

    2016-01-01

    We compute the vacuum energy of three-dimensional asymptotically flat space based on a Chern-Simons formulation for the Poincare group. The equivalent action is nothing but the Einstein-Hilbert term in the bulk plus half of the Gibbons-Hawking term at the boundary. The derivation is based on the evaluation of the Noether charges in the vacuum. We obtain that the vacuum energy of this space has the same value as the one of the asymptotically flat limit of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  17. Classification of flat slant surfaces in complex Euclidean plane

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bang-Yen

    2002-01-01

    It is well-known that the classification of flat surfaces in Euclidean 3space is one of the most basic results in differential geometry. For surfaces in the complex Euclidean plane $C^{2}$ endowed with almost complex structure $J$ , flat surfaces are the simplest ones from intrinsic point of views. On the other hand, from $J$ -action point of views, the most natural surfaces in $C^{2}$ are slant surfaces, i.e., surfaces with constant Wintinger angle. In this paper the author completely classi...

  18. Flat rotation curves using scalar-tensor theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L [Depto de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 D.F. (Mexico); RodrIguez-Meza, M A [Depto de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 D.F. (Mexico); Nunez, Dario [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We computed flat rotation curves from scalar-tensor theories in their weak field limit. Our model, by construction, fits a flat rotation profile for velocities of stars. As a result, the form of the scalar field potential and DM distribution in a galaxy are determined. By taking into account the constraints for the fundamental parameters of the theory ({lambda}, {alpha}), it is possible to obtain analytical results for the density profiles. For positive and negative values of {alpha}, the DM matter profile is as cuspy as NFW's.

  19. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States)], Doyle, D. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)], Featherman, W.D. [Project Performance Corp., Sterline, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  20. Vacuum energy in asymptotically flat 2 + 1 gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo; Roy, Debraj

    2017-04-01

    We compute the vacuum energy of three-dimensional asymptotically flat space based on a Chern-Simons formulation for the Poincaré group. The equivalent action is nothing but the Einstein-Hilbert term in the bulk plus half of the Gibbons-Hawking term at the boundary. The derivation is based on the evaluation of the Noether charges in the vacuum. We obtain that the vacuum energy of this space has the same value as the one of the asymptotically flat limit of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.